Published: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 11:11:47 +0000
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe difference between being an atheist and being an agnostic should be pretty clear. Learn more about the differences and similarities.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMany think agnosticism is more 'reasonable' than atheism and thus reject the label of atheist. The idea that atheism is dogmatic is incorrect.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZArguments can be deductive or inductive and you need to know the difference in order to properly create or evaluate an argument. Learn more.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMarx is well known for saying that religion is the opiate of the masses, but his perspective on religion is more complex and nuanced than many realize
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZChristmas can be a difficult time of the year for atheists. Are there some alternative, more inclusive celebrations that atheists can participate in?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAn argument might fail on its premises or its inferences. Because of this, it is necessary to distinguish between valid arguments and sound arguments.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZDeontological morality is defined by obedience to a set of independent moral rules. The most common are systems where the rules are established by some god.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZIdentifying basic characteristics common to religions, which taken together make religion distinct from other belief systems.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAccording to Karl Marx, religion is like other social institutions in that it is dependent upon the material and economic realities in a given society. It has no independent history; instead it is the creature of productive forces. As Marx wrote, ‘The religious world is but the reflex of the real world.‘. Page 4.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe legality of abortion is debated more than the morality of abortion, so fundamental ethical questions aren't given the attention they deserve. Some believe that the law shouldn't legislate morality, but all good law is based upon moral values. A failure to openly discuss those values can obscure important discussions.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZDefining what religion is and what is not isn't easy and has long been debated, but it is possible to construct a useful, strong definition of religion.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAbortion is the focus of some of the most intense social, cultural, political, religious, and ethical debates in modern American society.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZVirtue ethics focuses on the development of sound moral character rather than moral rules. It's believed that having a virtuous character leads to virtuous decisions.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAn American philosophy developed during the early and mid twentieth century. Pragmatists identified the nature of truth with the principle of action.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZEpistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge and how we acquire it. Most debates between atheists and theists are ultimately epistemological disagreements.
2017-02-19T11:11:47Z'Existence precedes essence' has come to be a classic, even defining, formulation of the heart of existentialist philosophy.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZYou need to know what an argument is in order to construct a sound, valid argument or to evaluate another person's argument.
2017-02-19T11:11:47Z'Microevolution' and 'macroevolution' are often used by creationists who don't understand what they are. There is no real difference between them.
2017-02-19T11:11:47Zclass="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >God and Spousal
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAlthough Christmas has largely been a faith-based holiday, there are nonreligious ways to celebrate the occasion. Find out how with these tips.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZYou can't debate the nature of morality or even specific moral issues unless you understand what sorts of disagreements can exist and how to address them.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe primary architect of liberation theology in the Latin-American and Catholic context is Gustavo Gutierrez. A Catholic priest who grew up in grinding poverty in Peru, Gutierrez employed Marxs critiques of ideology, class, and capitalism as part of his theological analysis of how Christianity should be used to make peoples lives better here and now rather than simply offer them hope of rewards in heaven.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZPhilosophy addresses issues from all facets of life - an expert on all of philosophy would have to be an expert on all of life's most fundamental questions.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZSome argue that the only rights we have are those spelled out explicitly in the Constitution, but that's nonsense. It's not how the Constitution works
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe most common and popular arguments against gay marriage, mostly religious in nature, are easy to refute because they're based on serious errors.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZCS Lewis and JRR Tolkien were close friends who also had serious disagreements over theology, apologetics, and the quality of Lewis' Narnia books.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZIdealism is a category of philosophical systems which argue that reality is somehow dependent upon the mind rather than independent of the mind.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAgnostic theism is explored, as well as its relation to agnosticism, and how these two views differ in terms of spiritual belief and doubt in god(s).
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZIf you want to better evaluate the claims, ideas, and arguments you encounter, you need a better understanding of basic logic and critical thinking.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe idea of objective truth is the idea that no matter what we believe to be true, some things will always be true and other things will always be false. Beliefs have no bearing on the facts of the world around us. That which is true is always true - even if we stop believing it and even if we stop existing at all.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZObama has been accused of being a Muslim and an atheist; the truth is that his background is more secular and diverse than has been traditional.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMany conservative evangelical Christians at this time of year want to 'put Christ back in Christmas' and insist that 'Jesus is the Reason for the Season.' Unfortunately, they don't have much of a case.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe most common, popular, and recognized symbol for Christmas today isn't an infant Jesus or even a manger scene, but Santa Claus. It's Santa who graces all the ads and decorations, not Jesus. Santa Claus is not, however, a religious figure or symbol.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMany ex-Catholics are technically Catholic, at least according to the Catholic Church. Permanently changing that requires getting excommunicated. But how?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe general attitude is that any religious morality is preferable to a secular morality; there are many reasons to think that this viewpoint is false.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZHumanism as a philosophy today can be as little as an perspective on life or as much as an entire way of life; the common feature is that it is always focused primarily on human needs and interests. Philosophic Humanism can be distinguished form other forms of humanism precisely by the fact that it constitutes some sort of philosophy, whether minimalist or far-reaching, that helps define how a person lives and how a person interacts with other humans.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAtheists are often asked 'why don't you believe in God?' Here are some of the most common reasons why atheists don't believe in any gods.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMany Christians insist that Christmas is a Christian religious holiday which belongs exclusively to them. While there are many ways to celebrate Christmas in a Christian manner, the simple fact is that there are many important elements to popular Christmas celebrations which have nothing whatsoever to do with religion or Christianity. These secular elements of Christmas are at least as important as the religious ones. So if you want to celebrate Christmas, you can do so without religion.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAtheists are frequently challenged to explain why they are so critical of religious and theistic beliefs. Why do we care what others believe? Why don't we just leave people alone to believe what they want? Why do we try to
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMost histories of the Crusades tend to focus on the Crusaders themselves and the perspectives of European Christians seeking conquest and plunder in the Holy Land. But what about the Muslims whose lands were invaded and cities sacked? What did they think about these religious armies marching out of Europe? Page 2.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZJean-Paul Sartre was a French novelist and philosopher who is perhaps most famous for his development and defense of atheistic existential philosophy.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZNietzsche wrote a great deal about nihilism, but that was due to his concern about its effects on society and culture, not because he advocated nihilism.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZWho were the Israelites and where did they come from? The Pentateuch and Deuteronomist give explanations, but extra-biblical sources and archaeology produce different conclusions.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAtheists spend quite a lot of time discussing religion and deeper questions of whether or not there is any rational justification for believing in gods. However, there are also much more practical issues which merit close discussion. One issue which affects pretty much all atheists is how, or even if, they might celebrate local religious holidays (or secular holidays with an important religious component).
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZGender Selection - ethical considerations for new technologies
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe field of ethics is usually broken down into three different ways of thinking about ethics: descriptive, normative and analytic.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThere are a lot of resources here about agnosticism for beginners: what agnosticism is, what it isn't, and refutations of many popular myths about agnosticism. I've discovered, though, that it isn't always easy to direct people to all of the information they need. That's why I've collected here some of the basics about atheism for beginners that I find myself linking to most often.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZWhat is monotheism? Learn about the belief in the existence of a single god and how it differs from polytheism and atheism.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZShould Christmas be treated like a secular holiday or is it a religious holiday? As the traditional birthday of Jesus, why is it a national holiday?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThere have been as many theories as theorists and all offer important insights on the nature of religion and possible reasons why religion has persisted through human history.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAlthough the connections may not be obvious, there are significant ties between efforts to ban the burning or desecration of the American flag and Christian Nationalism. Nothing profane can be desecrated, thus the very idea that the flag can be desecrated is derived from the belief that the flag is sacred in some fashion. This belief is most actively promoted by Christian Nationalists, for whom true patriotism and true religion have been fused into an anti-democratic political movement.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe Coherence Theory of Truth, developed by Hegel and Spinoza, often seems to be an accurate description of how our conception of truth actually works. The Coherence Theory of Truth says: a belief is true when we are able to incorporate it in an orderly and logical manner into a larger and complex system of beliefs.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe Canaanites play an important role in the story of the Israelites' conquest of their 'Promised Land,' especially in the Book of Joshua, but the ancient Jewish scriptures contain almost no substantive information about them. The Canaanites are the villains of the story because they are living on land promised to the Israelites by Yahweh.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZPostulating too few causes results in oversimplification; too many causes is exaggeration. These fallacies mask the true causes of an event.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZBeing objective is being free of personal bias; being subjective is being influence by personal bias. Is one better than the other, though?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThere are many forms of theism, from believing in one god to believing in many gods. They aren't all the same, and can't be critiqued in the same way.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZDebates about whether some particular right is in the Constitution or not are really debates about how to read and interpret the Constitution. Those who claim that the Constitution doesn't say 'right to privacy' or 'separation of church and state' are relying upon the assumption that unless a particular phrase or specific words actually appears in the document, then the right doesn't exist.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZHillary Clinton grew up in a Methodist household, she taught Methodist Sunday school like her mother, is a member of a Senate prayer group, and regularly attends the Foundry United Methodist Church in Washington. Hillary Clinton can be placed in the moderate to liberal wing of American Christianity, but she appears to share a number of attitudes with more conservative American Christians. Clinton's liberalism is a relative matter
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZSecularism is largely responsible for defining the modern West, for good or for ill. Understanding secularism is thus critical for understanding the West today.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZIt is a historical irony that the Reformation created a political and religious culture in northern Europe that was especially hostile to the spirit of free inquiry and scholarship that characterized Humanism. Why? Because the Protestant Reformation owed so much to the developments of Humanism and the work done by humanists to change how people thought.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAh Puch was the Mayan god of death, disaster, and destruction. He ruled Mitnal, the lowest level of the Mayan underworld. Learn about this god.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZDefinitions of religion tend to suffer from one of two problems: they are either too narrow or they are too vague and ambiguous.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMetaphysics is looked down upon by some atheists, but as the study of the nature of reality it is probably the best subject for atheists to focus upon
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMany scholarly and academic attempts to define or describe religion can be classified into one of two types: functional or substantive. Each represents a very distinct perspective on the nature of function of religion. Although it is possible for a person to accept both types as valid, in reality most people will tend to focus on one type to the exclusion of the other.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZBiogeography not only provides significant inferential evidence for evolution and common descent, but it also provides testable predictions. Learn more.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe term nihilism comes from the Latin word 'nihil' which literally means 'nothing.' A brief look at its origins, history, books and philosophy
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZMictlantecuhtli was the Aztec god of death and the underworld. To honor Mictlantecuhtli, Aztec sacrificed an impersonator of Mictlantecuhtli at night and at a temple named Tlalxicco, which means 'navel of the world.' When Hernan Cortes landed, Aztec ruler Moctezuma II thought that it was the arrival of Quetzalcoatl, signalling the end of the world, so he stepped up human sacrifices to offer the skins of victims to Mictlantecuhtli in order to placate him.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZCelebrity scientist Carl Sagan was born a Jew, but his quotes reveal he didn't believe in God. Learn about Sagan's atheism in his own words.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe nature of religious humanism and the relationship between humanism and religion is of profound importance for humanists of all types. According to some secular humanists, religious humanism is a contradiction in terms. According to some religious humanists, all humanism is religious - even secular humanism, in its own way. Who is right?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe realm of private property and conduct facilitates the moral, personal, and intellectual development of individuals, without which democracy isn't possible.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe fossil record has an important, unique characteristic: it is our only actual glimpse into the past where common descent is proposed to have taken place.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZWhat authority does the government have over religious rituals like prayer? Can the government write specific prayers for public school students to recite every day?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAccording to Pragmatism, the truth or meaning of an idea or a proposition lies in its observable practical consequences rather than anything metaphysical.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZShould 'god be capitalized or not? Many atheists use a lowercase 'g' while Jews, Christians, and Muslims, always capitalize the G. Who is right?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZScientific theories all have common characteristics which differentiate them from unscientific ideas like faith and pseudoscience.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAn overview with links to lots of resources about atheism, including refutations of many popular myths about atheism.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZBecause atheists are so often seen critiquing religion, it's common for religious theists to wonder what atheists really think about religion and why. The truth is complex, however, because there is no single atheistic opinion about religion. Atheists' critical stance with regards to religion is more a product of cultural trends in the West than of anything internal to atheism itself, which is only the absence of belief in gods. Atheists have a wide variety of opinions about religion.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThere is a strong correlation between being an atheist and being irreligious, but there is no necessary and inherent connection between the two.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZIt is strange that atheism would be so difficult to understand, but it must be - otherwise, there wouldn't be so many arguments over what it means, what it entails, and what significance it has for society. The same questions and same arguments keep coming up over and over again: what is atheism? What is theism? What is the difference between belief and disbelief? Is atheism anti-religion? Who has the burden of proof in debates? Is atheism morally and intellectually significant?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAs a general principle, existentialist philosophers have emphasized the importance of psychologically critical moments where basic truths about human nature and existence come crashing down upon us, upsetting our preconceptions and shocking us into a new awareness about life. These 'existential moments' of crisis then lead to more generalized feelings of dread, anxiety, or fear.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZLaunched in 1189, the Third Crusade was called because of the Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 and the defeat of Palestinian knights at Hattin. It was ultimately unsuccessful.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZWhat is religion? What are some varieties of religions? What is theism, and what are some of the varieties of that? Atheists aren't theists, but they can be religious - understanding what theism and religion are is key to understanding why that is true.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZA timeline of the First Crusade, 1095 - 1100 : Christianity vs. Islam. Launched by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095, the First Crusade was the most successful.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZToday the pope is regarded generally as the supreme head of the Catholic Church and, among Catholics, as the head of the universal Christian Church. Although principally the bishop of Rome, he is much more than just 'first among equals,' he is also the living symbol of the unity of Christianity. Where does this doctrine come from and how justified is it?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAlthough there is no denying that many Christian and even some Jewish theologians have made use of existentialist themes in their writings, it remains a fact that existentialism is much more readily and commonly associated with atheism than with any sort of theism, Christian or otherwise. Not all atheists are existentialists, but an existentialist is probably more likely to be an atheist than a theist - and there are good reasons for this.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZTheists offer all sorts of reasons for why they believe in a god but the only respectable reason is one which, if proven false, would at the very least cause them to seriously reconsider their belief and perhaps drop it entirely.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZCourt scenes in American movies, television, and books typically show people swearing an oath to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Usually they swear an oath 'to God' and with a hand on the Bible. Such scenes are so common that most people seem to assume that it's required, but it's not.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThe quotes of Thomas Paine reveal him not only to be a political revolutionary but also a man who advocated for free thought over religion.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZBelief in the supernatural, especially gods, is one of the most obvious characteristics of religion. Some people mistake mere theism for religion itself.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZAttempts to ban flag desecration, either through statute or through constitutional amendment, would ban much more than most people seem to realize. Usually people only think about trying to stop burning the American flag, but the truth is that past and current laws against flag desecration cover far more than just burning the flag. Perhaps if people thought more about just what they are outlawing, they wouldn't be so quick to support flag desecration bans.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZThis claim is common, but it rests on a misunderstanding of what real freedom of religion entails. The most important thing to remember is that freedom of religion, if it is going to apply to everyone, also requires freedom from religion. Why is that? You do not truly have the freedom to practice your religious beliefs if you are also required to adhere to any of the religious beliefs or rules of other religions.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZLaunched in response to the capture of Edessa by Muslims in 1144, the Second Crusade was accepted by European leaders due to St. Bernard of Clairvaux who was determined to reassert Christian domination in the Holy Land.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZHere is a list of all of the popes who reigned during the fifth century. The first number is which pope they were. This is followed by their chosen name, the starting and ending dates of their reigns, and finally the number of years they were pope. Follow the links to read short biographies of each pope and learn about what they did, what they believed, and what impact they had on the course of the Roman Catholic Church.
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZWhy do some state laws ban publicly desecrating the flag instead of banning it in private as well? Why do some specify that it doesn't matter if you deface your privately owned flag? What does it mean to make it a crime to 'cast contempt' upon or 'speak evilly' about the American flag? Why do some state that a crime occurs only when an act outrages the 'sensibilities' of those watching? Why do some states make it a crime to deface or cast contempt upon the Confederate flag?
2017-02-19T11:11:47ZPeople think they know the Ten Commandments, but not only can't people even list them, but most can't explain what they mean or how they should be applied.