Subscribe: Feed
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
architecture  bridge  building  city  construction  design  ldquo  museum  new  projects  rdquo  school lecture  school  year 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: Feed

Archinect - News

Updated: 2017-08-18T04:58:54-04:00


Every City Needs a Crank; A conversation with architecture critic Inga Saffron



This week we're joined by Inga Saffron, the Pulitzer Prize-winning architecture critic for the Philadelphia Inquirer. If you haven't read her latest piece on Henry Wilcots, the relatively unknown architect responsible for finishing Louis Kahn's masterpiece in Dhaka, go read it now. We talk with Inga about her experience meeting with Wilcots, architecture criticism pre and post-internet, Philadelphia and more.


Photo from 1970 of Wilcots and Kahn discussing the roof structure of the National Assembly building in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Listen to "Every City Needs a Crank":

Where should Confederate monuments go when, and if, they are taken down?



“You can argue that any sculpture is art in some way, but it’s a loose argument,” Schoonmaker said Tuesday. “I don’t know that these statues are worthy of preservation as art objects so much as historical objects – made to preserve a lost cause, a lost war. They weren’t made with great artistic intent, but with political intent. And intent matters in this case.”

With the tragic events occurring in Charlottesville, much ink has been spilled over the topic of Confederate memorials: Should we keep them? Should we take them down? Is keeping them up a celebration of slavery and is taking them down erasing an important part of our past that we must face?

With so much attention given to the particular statue of Robert E. Lee that caused the alt-right to riot in Virginia, it might be a surprise that a number of confederate monuments have been taken down in recent years with much less bloodshed. In May, another statue of the Confederate general was hoisted away in New Orleans amongst a cheering crowd of onlookers and a number of cities across the country have had plans in the works to take down monuments commemorating leaders of the Confederacy. With the events that occurred over the weekend, many of these cities are looking to expedite the process—the Mayor of Baltimore even had all Confederate statues in his city dismantled overnight. 

This begs t...

Considering the downsides of Smart Home technologies



Essey is an engineer at Uber and an early adopter of the Internet of things. He can control his lights with his Amazon Echo or an array of touchpad sensors he has installed throughout the home. Sensors tell him when there's water in the basement or a leak under the sink. While Essey's setup might sound a little like science fiction, it's a prototype of the future. Some critics are worried these devices won't be secure and that companies will use them to spy on us to make money.

As the Internet of things becomes more ingrained in our daily lives, some people are turning ordinary homes into smart homes. One way of doing that is by integrating smart appliances (dishwasher, fridges, microwaves, toasters, etc). That strategy, however, can be expensive and not very efficient, since most of the devices are costly and often are not smart enough to communicate with each other, especially if produced by different manufacturers.

The other way is to get sensors, and put them on everything you want to monitor. "But then those get really unwieldy and you've got all these things sticking around and they look ugly and socially obtrusive," Gierad Laput, a Ph.D. student at Carnegie Mellon University says. Laput and his team, in fact, built such a sensor. When plugged into the wall, the 2-inch-square circuit board senses about a dozen different facets of its environment: vibrations, sounds, light color and so on. The sensor communicates wirelessly with a computer, which inte...

Seventeen semi-finalists for 2017 Fuller Challenge announced



The competition pool is narrowing down for the 2017 Fuller Challenge, which is now in its 10th year. Today, the Buckminster Fuller Institute announced 17 semi-finalist projects who still have a chance to win the grand prize to support their mission. The renowned competition seeks the most innovative “whole systems” design projects that simultaneously address dire issues in a broad range of domains, including architecture, community planning, education, public health, economic development, environmental and social justice, and more. Last week, the first Catalyst Program project selections were revealed.

Chosen out of more than 460 submissions from around the world, the semi-finalist projects went through a rigorous four-month evaluation period by the Challenge Review Committee. 

“These Semifinalists were drawn from a truly exceptional pool of initiatives,” Fuller Challenge Founding Director Elizabeth Thompson said in a statement. “We were very gratified — having been at this for ten ye...

Construction on first major phase of Freshkills Park to begin soon



"The effort to turn Fresh Kills Landfill into a verdant and vibrant destination for wildlife and outdoor recreation received a huge boost on Monday as the city awarded a $22.9 million contract for the construction of the first major section of Freshkills Park."

Lomma Construction Corp. will lead works on the first 21 acres of the North Park. The area will be kept largely natural with simple additions including a seven-acre seed farm, an observation tower for birdwatching, a picnic lawn, composting restrooms, a waterfront overlook deck, a bicycle repair station, a forested plateau, bike/pedestrian pathways, and limited parking for visitors. James Corner Field Operations is responsible for the master plan of the park.

Plans for DC's Frederick Douglass Memorial Bridge upgrade are revealed



The Frederick Douglass Memorial Bridge sits across the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. Named after the prominent American abolitionist, the bridge was built in 1950 and today, makes crossing the river possible for 77,000 daily commuters. 

Over the decades, the bridge has deteriorated faster than maintenance can keep up with, as is quite common among America's aging infrastructure. Despite a $27 million renovation in 2007, large corrosion holes in the structural beams necessitated its complete replacement and in 2012, city officials announced plans to replace and realign the bridge. 

After initial bridge designs were rejected by the National Capitol Planning Commission and the United States Commission of Fine Arts for being "uninspired," DDOT has now revealed a much bolder look for the suspension bridge. 


Mayor Muriel E. Bowser on Thursday unveiled the design of the new Frederick Douglass Memorial Bridge. (DDOT)

Consisting of three sets of parallel white arches, the 1,600 foot lo...

Watch the Shed slide along the High Line



In its scale, this faintly quaint, eloquently designed contraption aspires to conjure up the spirit of those 19th-century exemplars of elegant engineering like the Brooklyn Bridge or the Eiffel Tower: industrial-era monuments of structural form, both necessary and sufficient, ingenious but not space age, encapsulating the aspirations of a city.

While the Shed, an art and performance space designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in collaboration with Rockwell Group will be in construction for at least another year, the structure is already capable of conducting its five minute moving act along the High Line. Weighing in at 8 million pounds, it glides on a half-dozen exposed steel “bogies,” or wheels, six-feet in diameter, 'with tapered bearings so meticulously engineered that the system requires just six 15-horsepower motors'.

When opened, the shell will drape over the Shed’s sprawling plaza at Hudson Yards, which can then be made into a movie palace or a gallery for art or a theater with bleacher seats — a flexible new 17,000 square foot public space for New York at what promises to be one of the city’s busiest pedestrian intersections after all the commercial skyscrapers around it are built.

Get Lectured: SCI-Arc, Fall '17



Archinect's Architecture School Lecture Guide for Fall 2017

Ready or not, the start of the school year is coming up. Back for Fall 2017 is Archinect's Get Lectured, an ongoing series where we feature a school's lecture series—and their snazzy posters—for the current term. Check back regularly to keep track of any upcoming lectures you don't want to miss. Mark those calendars!

Want to share your school's lecture series? Send us your school's lecture series poster and details to

Here's a preview of some of the upcoming lecture events at SCI-Arc for Fall '17.

Sept 15
Selected Thesis Exhibition Opening Reception

Sept 22
Tu Casa es mi Casa A Roundtable Discussion

Sept 27
Mark Wigley Lecture

Oct 2
Hernan Diaz Alonso and Peter Testa Conversation 

Oct 4
Oana Stanescu Lecture

Oct 11
Monica Ponce de Leon Lecture

Oct 18
Lisa Iwamoto Lecture

Oct 20
Ruy Klein (David Ruy & Karel Klein): Apophenia                                    Exhibition Opening Reception

Oct 25 
David Benjamin ...

'Unbuilding walls': GRAFT Announced as Curators of the German Pavilion at the Architecture Biennale 2018



Today the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) announced that the curators of the German Pavilion at the Architecture Biennale 2018 will be Lars Krückeberg, Wolfram Putz and Thomas Willemeit of GRAFT together with Marianne Birthler. The architects were selected by the ministry on the recommendation of the selection committee for their submission to the open competition entitled “UNBUILDING WALLS”, which responds to current debates on nations, protectionism and division.

As the world grows together, walls are increasingly being discussed and built that divide people from one another. Walls can denote division, power and exclusion, but also protection.

In 2018, Germany will be reunified for 28 years – exactly as long as the inner German border wall (1961-1989) existed. In the German Pavilion, GRAFT and Marianne Birthler take this parallel as an opportunity to explore the effects of division and the process of healing as a...

Zaha Hadid's Port House and Adjaye's National Museum of African American History and Culture among the projects shortlisted for 2017 Designs of the Year



The shortlist for the Beazley Designs of the Year has been announced! Among the projects nominated are a hijab designed by Nike, the Olympic refugee flag, Kanye West's Life of Pablo merchandise and Ikea furniture that doesn't require tools for installation. The awards celebrate innovative, global design across six categories: Architecture, Digital, Fashion, Graphic, Product and Transport. 

Projects shortlisted in the "Architecture" category are below and the full list of nominations can be seen here

A new urbanism in the Global South



But what is the repertoire of concepts, ideas and visions that inform the work of urban planners in the Global South — in Asia, Latin America and Africa? Are they still under the spell of their colonial and postcolonial masters? Or have they developed their own ideas and their own yardsticks, commensurate with the respective culture of their country and region?

"This insight leads to the most important quality of sustainable urban planning in countries of the Global South," urban planning expert Einhard Schmidt-Kallert writes in his commentary piece on Citiscope, arguing that "Planners need to develop urban planning visions that take into consideration the needs of all citizens, of the urban middle class as well as those of the urban poor in informal settlements. Those visions need to translate these needs into a comprehensive concept plan for an entire city, thus overcoming fragmentation and segregation."

Editor's Picks #473



Anthony Morey introduced Cross-Talk #2: Pedagoy. ryanbacha complained "the architectural academies of old generated inside their walls self-referential pedagogies. God forbid the layman being able to understand anything you said in this article." Responding to the criticism Anthony Morey countered, referencing agonism "The goal of this series is to allow for individuals to create stances, positions, and talk—the operative word in Cross Talk being talk."


Later, Schoon argued with JuneJuly "I disagree with the notion that an architect can't be both artist and engineer.  Certainly a person can exist with high degrees of both technical knowledge and aesthetic sensibility.  Is the traditional architecture education the way to get there?  Probably not."

On the other hand, after listening to Archinect Sessions: #106, fictional\_/Chris_Teeter offered his thanks "excellent thinking Anthony Morel, wished others did the same level of thinking".


The AIA voiced its support of bipartisan leg...

Beazley Designs of the Year nominations feature a host of politically charged and socially engaged projects



Established by London's Design Museum, the Beazley Designs of the Year Award celebrates the most innovative global design in Architecture, Digital, Fashion, Graphic, Product and Transport from the last 12 months. In total, the world's leading museum devoted to architecture and contemporary design has nominated 62 fascinating nominated projects across the six aforementioned categories. 

Now in its tenth year,  the shortlist for 2017 includes a Nike-designed hijab, David Adjaye's National Museum of African American History and Culture, the Pussyhat seen at anti-Trump protests around the country, and the Olympic refugee flag among others that reflect our tumultuous times and highlight the role of design in creative resistance. 

Category winners will be announced and then one overall winner will be crowned the Beazley Designs of the Year awardee on January 25, 2018. Alongside, the Design Museum will host the yearly nominees exhibition starting October 18th continuing through January 28th,...

Trump to reverse Obama’s Federal Flood Risk Management Standard aimed at planning for climate change



The White House confirmed that the order issued Tuesday would revoke an earlier executive order by former President Barack Obama that required recipients of federal funds to strongly consider risk-management standards when building in flood zones, including measures such as elevating structures from the reach of rising water.

President Trump signed an executive order Tuesday that he said would streamline the approval process for building infrastructure such as roads, bridges and offices by eliminating a planning step related to climate change and flood dangers.

Trump's new order will weaken environmental standards that guard against flood risk, saddling the federal government with the burden of paying for flood damage in the future. The executive order also promised “one Federal decision” for major infrastructure projects and setting a two-year goal for completion of permitting processes. Trump said every project would be assigned to a lead agency that would be held “accountable” for it.

“This order will put people throughout the country at risk by allowing developers to ignore potential hazards while muzzling the public’s ability to weigh in on potentially harmful projects near their homes,” Alex Taurel, deputy legislative director of the League of Conservation Voters, said in a statement.


Collapsing? Or is it supposed to look like that? Construction of a new hotel in Bangkok sparks controversy



The panic was kicked off by photos posted to social media tagging traffic news organization JS100. The posts said the under-construction building across from Mahatun Plaza near BTS Phloen Chit looked in danger of collapse. ​Concerned citizens gathered Tuesday at the construction site on Phloen Chit Road where the building’s angled appearance sparked concern about its structural integrity to hear district officials and site management say it was part of the design.

“The building isn’t crooked or leaning over, it’s part of the architectural design,” Morakot Sanitthangkul, Pathum Wan district director, said.”Let me confirm for everyone again, for the fourth time: It’s part of the 3D design.”

The 32-floor hotel was designed by Tandem Architects, with consultation from KPF, and is planned to open in February. 


The building under construction Tuesday on Phloen Chit Road.

Get Lectured: University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2017-18



Archinect's Architecture School Lecture Guide for Fall 2017

Ready or not, the start of the school year is coming up. Back for Fall 2017 is Archinect's Get Lectured, an ongoing series where we feature a school's lecture series—and their snazzy posters—for the current term. Check back regularly to keep track of any upcoming lectures you don't want to miss. Mark those calendars!

Want to share your school's lecture series? Send us your school's lecture series poster and details to

Kicking off in September, check out the 2017-18 Hyde Lecture Series at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln College of Architecture.

Sept 15
WAI Architecture Think Tank
4:00 pm, Richards Hall 15

Sept 20

SC Collective 
4:00 pm, Union Auditorium

Oct 5

Spillman Farmer Architects
4:30 pm 1516 Gallery, Omaha

Oct 11

Sasaki Associates
4:00 pm, Sheldon Auditorium

Oct 25
WEATHERS / Associate Professor School of Architect...

Construction work on New York Wheel to resume



The New York Wheel has been delayed repeatedly since it was first announced in 2012. Initially, developers planned to finish the North Shore attraction in 2015, but that has since been pushed back to at least 2018. The estimated cost of the project has also grown from $230 million to $590 million.

As announced on Monday, The New York Wheel in Staten Island is spinning toward completion once again. The developer, New York Wheel Owner LLC, said it planned to work with American Bridge Company, which built a similar observation wheel in Las Vegas.

steimle architekten designs sculptural “crystal-shaped” Pliezhausen residence



Located on a quiet street in the German town of Pliezhausen, the Pliezhausen residence is a distinctly “crystal-shaped” insulated concrete home that both contrasts and complements its surroundings. Designed by Stuttgart-based steimle architekten, the house was among the Gold Award-winning projects in the Best Architects 18 competition.

Read on for more.

A self-taught designer builds a secret work studio on the underside of a bridge



Abellanas’ secret cabin replicates the childhood experience of hiding under a table or in a closet – ‘The feeling kept hidden while still being able to hear and see what happens around us,’ he says. ‘Observing passing cars and trains with no one seeing me gives me great sense of peace.’

Fernando Abellanas, a self-taught designer from Valencia has created a pop-up studio into the underside of a traffic bridge. Its metal base is moved from one side of the bridge to the other by a hand crank along rails, where a shelf, chair, and desk have been bolted to the bridge’s concrete wall. Though a practical space, the tiny moveable workspace has whimsical origins—the secret urban refuge aims to replicate the childhood experience of hiding under a table or in a closet. "The feeling kept hidden while still being able to hear and see what happens around us," explains Abellanas. "Observing passing cars and trains with no one seeing me gives me great sense of peace."


Photography: Jose Manuel Pedrajas


Photography: Jose Manuel Pedrajas

The cabin’s exact location is a secret, and is part of a collection of spaces Abellanas is creating. ‘The project is an ephemeral intervention, [it will remain] until someone finds it and decides to steal the materials, or the authorities remove it,’ h...

Gunnar Birkerts, founder of Gunnar Birkerts and Associates, has died



On Tuesday Gunnar Birkerts, Detroit-based Latvian-American architect passed away at the age of 92. Born in 1925, in Riga, Birkerts was a graduate of the University of Stuttgart in Germany and immigrated to the United States in 1949. He began his architectural career with Perkins+Will before joining Eero Saarinen Bloomfield Hills, office. Birkerts later worked for Minoru Yamasaki before opening his own practice, Gunnar Birkerts and Associates, in the 1960s. 

Some of his most notable projects include the Kansas City Museum of Contemporary Art, the Calvary Baptist Church of Detroit, The Corning Glass Museum, Lincoln Elementary School in Columbus, IN; and The Latvian National Library. 


The Corning Glass Museum


Marquette Plaza. Image by Richard Langendorf


The Latvian National Library Image via wikimedia


Calvary Baptist Church of Detroit


Kansas City Museum of Contemporary Art Image via wikimedia

Chicago architect, John Macsai, passes away at 91



Chicago architect John Macsai designed Lincolnwood's Purple Hotel and some of Lake Shore Drive's most eye-catching high-rises...From 1955 to 1970, Macsai and his partner, Robert Hausner, helped bring the abstract forms of modernism to the clifflike rows of towers along Chicago's lakefront. Among those designs were a dramatically curving high-rise at 1150 N. Lake Shore Drive and Harbor House at 3200 N. Lake Shore Drive, a standout because of its jutting second-floor window bays.

BIG's Cactus Towers to join Dorte Mandrup's urban IKEA masterplan in Copenhagen



Bjarke Ingels Group recently unveiled the renderings for two hexagonal “Cactus Towers”, as part of a 74,000 square-meter masterplan in Copenhagen that fellow Danish practice Dorte Mandrup Arkitekter is in charge of designing. The project will be built in the Vesterbro district at the Kalvebod Brygge waterfront.


Dorte Mandrup Arkitekter's urban IKEA masterplan, which includes BIG's Cactus Towers (upper left corner). Rendering: Luxigon.

BIG's residential towers, standing at 60 and 80 meters tall, will have 500 compact “youth rooms” with an average size of 30m2 as well as balconies and terraces on each story. The project gets its name from the towers' rotating hexagonal cores, which form a distinctly “spiky” silhouette. According to Magasinet KBH, the towers are BIG's first residential project in Copenhagen since their acclaimed Ørestad projects, which include the 8 House.

Image courtesy of BIG.


Image courtesy of BIG.


Image courtesy of BIG.


Image courtesy of BIG.

The Cactus Towers will over...

University of Michigan to get $800,000 drone testing lab



Autonomous aerial vehicles have a host of applications, researchers say. Large ones can be used for commercial transport and national security. Small drones could survey disaster sites, inspect infrastructures like bridges and wind turbines, gather environmental and atmospheric data, and deliver packages, for example. Package delivery goes beyond Amazon orders.

University of Michigan’s College of Engineering is adding an outdoor fly lab for testing autonomous aerial vehicles to the university’s spate of advanced robotics facilities. Designed by Harley Ellis Deveraux, M-Air will be a netted, four-story complex situated next to the site where the Ford Motor Company Robotics Building will open in late 2019. Construction of the $800,000 M-Air is expected to begin in August and be complete by the end of the year.

“M-Air will allow us to push the edge of our algorithms and equipment in a safe way, where the worst that can happen is it falls from the sky,” said Ella Atkins, professor of aerospace engineering. “With this facility, we can pursue aggressive educational and research flight projects that involve high risk of fly-away or loss-of-control—and in realistic wind, lighting and sensor conditions.”  

Marble ~ ish: Harry der Boghosian Fellowship 2017 installation



Marble~ish was developed as part of the research from the 2016/17 Harry der Boghosian Fellowship at Syracuse School of Architecture. Conducted by Maya Alam in collaboration with her students “~ISH: Stages Before the Real” is an installation exploring questions concerning the in-between: site specificity/site-less, object/landscape, analog/digital, distinctive/similar and flat/flat-less. 

The exhibition represents the culmination of a yearlong design research effort conducted at the School of Architecture. The investigation as a whole deals with 'speculations on social dreaming and experimental preservation in consideration of new media and its effects on our perception'.


Amidst the chaos of the contemporary world, many architects seek the certainty of absolutes. Yet, everything about the contemporary world tells us that it is not governed by certitude. Instead, ours is a world where everything exists in a radical state of the “in-between,” where nothing, not even architecture, has a...

Hossein Amanat, the architect of Tehran's iconic Azadi Tower, reflects on religion and architecture in Iran



In 1966, a 24-year-old architect who had just graduated from Tehran University hesitantly entered a competition to design a monument to mark the 2,500-year celebration of the founding of the Persian empire. [...] The architect, Hossein Amanat, had no idea that his hastily prepared design, which went on to win the competition, would one day become a focal point of the Iranian capital’s skyline, serving as a backdrop to some of the country’s most turbulent political events.

The Azadi tower, he said, was an opportunity to “design modern architecture using old language, to preserve the good things about a culture, leave aside the meaningless parts and create something new and meaningful”.

Herzog & de Meuron received reduced fee for Tate Modern extension



Herzog & de Meuron, the Swiss architecture firm behind the ambitious Tate Modern extension, took a reduced fee for work on the building project after costs went £45m over budget.  According to documents obtained by the Architect’s Journal under the Freedom of Information act, Herzog & de Meuron was asked not to take its full fee for extra work on the 10-storey building, which went from costing £215m in 2012 to £260m in 2015. 

The Art Newspaper cites the minutes from a 2015 Tate board of trustees meeting: "Conversation at a senior level indicates that [Herzog & de Meuron] will look sympathetically on this position, but that costs have already been incurred to a certain level, which will require some recompense, allowed for in the figures budgeted." 

As published minutes reveal, some of the construction firms were also being named for unsatisfactory performance, notably window & facade contractors Seele and Loveld.

Studio Gang-led expansion of American Museum of Natural History is moving forward



The proposed building will contain exhibition space on the ground floor and second floor, classrooms between the second and third floor, a theater on the third floor and offices between the fourth and sixth floors. There will also be an event space on the second floor and an aquarium room on the fifth floor.

The proposed $325 million six-story expansion won the Landmarks Commission’s approval in October 2016. Designed by Studio Gang, the building will be located along Columbus Avenue on the museum’s rear grounds near West 79th Street. The majority of the 218,000-square-foot Gilder Center will be carved out of the museum’s existing footprint to minimize encroachment on the adjacent Theodore Roosevelt Park.


Image courtesy of Studio Gang

Contrasting the museum’s dominant brick-and-mortar facades, the new wing will be constructed from curvilinear stone and glass.


Image courtesy of Studio Gang

The construction on the building is set to be complete by 2020.

World Monuments Fund pledges to help restore earthquake-damaged Kumamoto Castle Town



The historic Japanese city of Kumamoto, famous for its picturesque 15th century castle, experienced a damaging earthquake in 2016, leading to the demolition of several of its historic buildings. The World Monument Fund has pledged to help restore the remaining older buildings (although it should be noted that the current iteration of the castle is a late 20th century concrete copy, retaining only a few of the original wooden walls). According to a press release:

About 350 historic buildings essential to the town’s historic streetscape sustained damage in the 2016 earthquake. Some were demolished in the aftermath of the disaster, leaving many of the approximately 300 structures that remained at great risk of demolition. WMF initially joined ICOMOS Japan in an on-site field study in May 2016 to understand priorities and conservation needs, and will now assist KMT [Kumamoto Machinami Trust] in their restoration efforts. 

Steven Fleming's Velotopia paints a city built for cycling



No disciples of Le Corbusier, Harvey Corbett, Robert Moses or Norman Bel Geddes have been to Velotopia. That means there are no highways and no racks of car-parking stations. Neither have any disciples of Ebenezer Howard been there to suggest that development be clustered around satellite towns with train connections back to the core.

Steven Fleming (previously featured in our Working Out of the Box series), founder of the Dutch bike-centric planning consultancy Cycle Space, recently published a new book that lays out an utopian city built around bicycles as the main form of transportation. In Velotopia people enjoy their daily commutes, the flow of traffic is smooth and the development is mixed use and compact.


Velotopia Photograph: Courtesy of


Indoor bike parking spaces match the anticipated number of beds allowing trips to start inside the home. Photograph: Courtesy of

An edited excerpt in The Guardian showcases Fleming's wry thought experiment. Velotopia is as circular as the topography has allowed, for the usual reason that citizens are always clamouring to live near the civic centre.Development has been restricted to level ground and city limits have been restricted to a diameter of 15km. That ensures average commuting distances of less than 7km and average trip times of less th...

This video shows you how to hand-letter like an architect



If you draw by hand and want that authentic, angular all-caps architectural lettered look for the text on your drawings, this straightforward video breaks down how to create all 26 letters of the alphabet. Get ready to learn about "dynamic angles" and suggested connections: