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SAP Load Balancing and Work Processes Troubleshoot

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:46:00 +0000

The benefit of segregating user groups by line-of-business (using logon groups) is related to the point that groups of users (like SD users or HR users, for example) tend to use the same sets of data. They (generally) work with the same groups of tables and hit the same indexes using the same programs (transactions). So, if you can group all of the users hitting the same tables, onto (or one set of) App server(s), then you can tune the App server buffers to a much greater extent. If the FI users (generally) never hit against the HR tables then the App servers in the FI group don't (generally) have to buffer any HR data. That leaves you free to make memory and buffer adjustments to a more drastic extent, because you don't have to worry (as much) about screwing the HR users (as an example), when you're adjusting the FI server group. So, (in opinion only) you should start with a buffer hit ratio analysis / DB table & index access analysis (by user group) to see where you would get the best benefit from this kind of setup. If you don't have this kind of info, then creating logon groups by line-of-business may have no benefit (or worst case, may make performance degrade for the group with the highest load %). You need some historical information to base your decision on, for how to best split the users up. You may find that 50% of the load is from the SD users and so you may need one group for them (with 3 App servers in it) and one other group for everyone else (with the other 3). The logon group(s) will have to be referenced by SAP GUI, so SAP GUI (or saplogon.ini + maybe the services file, only) will have to change to accomodate any new groups you create in SMLG. Also consider that there's variables for time-of-day (load varies by time-of-day) and op-mode switches (resources vary by op-mode).All Work process are running? What will be our action? Are all the work processes (dia,btc,enq,upd,up2,spo) running or just all the dialog work processes? If all the work processes are running, then you may want to look at SM12 (or is SM13?) and see if updates are disabled. If they are, look at the alert log (if it's an Oracle database) and see if you have any space related errors (e.g. ORA-01653 or ORA-01654). If you do, add a datafile or raw device file to the applicable tablespace and then, re-enable updates in SM12. If only all the dialog work processes are running, there are several possible causes. First, look to see if there's a number in the Semaphore column in SM50 or dpmon. If there is, click once on one of the numbers in the Semaphore column to select it and then, press F1 (help) to get a list of Semaphores. Then, search OSS notes and, hopefully, you'll find a note that will tell you how to fix the problem. If it's not a semaphore (or sometimes if it is), use vmstat on UNIX or task manager on Windows to see if the operating system is running short on memory which would cause it to swap. In vmstat, the free column (which is in 4k pages on most UNIX derivatives) will be consistently 5MB or so and the pi and/or po columns will have a non- zero value. The %idle column in the cpu or proc section will be 0 or a very low single digit while the sys column will be a very high double-digit number because the operating system is having to swap programs out to disk and in from disk before it can execute them. In task manager, look at free memory in the physical memory section under the performance tab. If it's 10MB or 15MB (I think), then the operating system will be swapping. Usually, when all the dialog work processes are running, you won't be able to log in via SAPgui and will need to execute the dpmon utility at the commandline level. The procedure is basically the same on UNIX and Windows. On UNIX: telnet to server and login as sidadm user.cd to /sapmnt/SID/profile directoryexecute "dpmon pf=SID_hostname_SYSNR" (e.g. PRD_hercules_DVEGMS00) select option "m" and then, option "l" On Windows: Click on START, then RUNType "cmd" and press enterchange to drive where profile directory resides (e.g. f:)cd to \sapmnt\SID\profileexecut[...]



SAP System Performance Issues

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:46:00 +0000

My server becomes slow when more users login.What could be the reason? Is it because of less hardware resource? Server configuration is 104GB HDD, 2GB Ram.OS:Win 2003 server.Database:Oracle. I manage SAP R/3 4.6C systems on Risc 6000 machines, under Oracle 9.2. The overall performance problem for me is to know if SAP response time is acceptable ; if not, do this :- at AIX level : utilities are topas, to catch what's wrong : Disk I/O ? CPU bottleneck ? Too much swap ?- at Oracle level : tkprof but don't know much about this.- at SAP level : you can manage SAP memory, Oracle and OS too. If SAP response time is acceptable, then try this : Try to have a look at OS response time : ST06 : look at CPU, Memory, Swap, Disk and Lan response time. Try to have a look at buffer quality : ST02, if many fields are red, investigate each fields dependant parameters. Try to have a look at DB response time : ST04N, databuffer quality (SGA zone), how much physical reads / logical reads Ratio, wait times, number of user calls, Shared Pool cache hit ratio should be >96%, Sort usage, Redo logging. I use this kind of procedure to manage my systems. SAP Tips by: Christophe Rabeau It depends how much you allocated for SGA (database buffers, shared pool buffer, redo log buffers), how much you allocated for SAP buffers esp. Program buffers and whether the server have any other external processes/programs running. How many Dialog Work Processes you allocated…I think your problem most likely is you don’t have enough of these Dialog processes. Also maybe users running inefficient reports/programs which are holding the Dialog processes, goto SM50 & check all DIA (Dialog) with status “waiting”…if ALL are “running” then you have wait time (problems !) for other users wanting to process transactions . To troubleshoot performance, you need these tcode tools:- ST04 – Database ß in here, check especially for Expensive SQLs (Detail Analysis à SQL Request) ST02 – SAP buffers ST06 – OS stats ST05 – SQL trace SE30 – Abap runtime analysis SAP Tips by: Derek Phung A few step which you can exercise to sort/identify performance issues. * ST03, ST02, ST04 are the tcode for workload, tuning and DB Performance Monitoring codes. * ST06 FOR Operation System Monitoring. ** SM51 OR SM50 is process overview which tells you the workprocess sequence. ( Ideally 10-15 process with OLTP and batch process scheduled at peak and off peak times respectively) say 8-17 hrs and 17-8 hrs for Batch Process) Operation Mode can be configured in RZ04 tcode. ** Check for top CPU in ST06 tcode. CPU should not exceed more than 60% for long time for any process. ** Based of No. of instances ( Application Servers ) should have adequately sized. ** Most resources intensive process have to be scheduled in Batch Process ( in Background in Non Peak Hours ) ** Look for unnecessary Jobs Active During Prime Time** Look for Parameters Set To Your Business Process. ( RZ10, RZ11 ) Check Snote:0124361 ** Refer Early Watch Alert Periodically for Overall System Performance.. ( Tcode SDCC )[...]



Tuning Summary In Transaction ST02

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:46:00 +0000

My current system is SAP R/3 Enterprise 4.70. I have some questions about tuning summary in transaction ST02 :

To the best of my knowledge I am answering your questions. Ok

1. Do we have to increase every profile parameter value which is displayed in red alert in transaction ST02 ?

Ans: Ofcourse it shoud be, since each buffer holds different values, wherever the red alert is there change the parameter value.

2. Why do the swapped objects always increase after a few days of tuning (in RZ10) & system restart?

Ans: Since more data had been fed into the server, it needs more space to hold in buffer while retrieving the data. Since buffer is shot in space, swap memory will be used. It is not enough to increase the buffer and that does not mean tuning, tuning in the sense full analysis of the problem and working in that particular area to resolve the issue. For example, creation of index, data archival, availability of statistics, alotting of no. of work process, etc.

3. Is there any standard in tuning ST02 to hold up the increasing value of swapped objects?

Ans: No. It depends on requirement.

4. After analysing ST02, how can we calculate the value of the parameter profile to be increased (in RZ10) ?

Ans: yes, use the command:
sappfpar check pf=\\usr\sap\trans\tpparam
(or)
sappfpar check pf=\\usr\sap\trans\tp_domain_




Troubleshooting SAP Performance Issues

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:45:00 +0000

Is there a document that will help me troubleshoot system performance? What are the steps on how to troubleshoot?

Troubleshooting is a BIG task of itself, there is no single reference document because there are too many reasons why a system can appear "slow" to the user:

- Different Databases

Every database has its own mechanism for optimizing access, even more, each database has BOOKS on performance optimization. This can start from parameters to database layout to operating system configuration, used filesystems, mount parameters...

- Different Operating System

The same goes for operating systems, a standard Windows 2000 (or 2003) isn´t configured for optimal throughput, there is a LOT to tune, e. g. enable "background process priorities", stop non-needed services, network configurations (TCP window sizes) etc. Also the connection between application and database servers can be an issue

- SAP Itself

Almost for each and every long running program there are optimizations, be it on ABAP layer or on selection layer. Out of my experience, most self developed programs (Z*-programs) are the main issue, because developers program "quick-and-dirty"
doing "select *" and other things.

For e.g.:
If CPU is 100% Busy, what action should be taken to keep CPU idle?

This can't be answered generally. One need to check what process is using so much CPU - then one can start digging deeper. To add info regarding this issue, you may use:

st06->details analysis menu->snapshot analysis->top CPU from there, start to narrow down.




SAP Load Balancing and Work Processes Troubleshoot

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:45:00 +0000

SAP Load Balancing and Work Processes Troubleshoot The benefit of segregating user groups by line-of-business (using logon groups) is related to the point that groups of users (like SD users or HR users, for example) tend to use the same sets of data. They (generally) work with the same groups of tables and hit the same indexes using the same programs (transactions). So, if you can group all of the users hitting the same tables, onto (or one set of) App server(s), then you can tune the App server buffers to a much greater extent. If the FI users (generally) never hit against the HR tables then the App servers in the FI group don't (generally) have to buffer any HR data. That leaves you free to make memory and buffer adjustments to a more drastic extent, because you don't have to worry (as much) about screwing the HR users (as an example), when you're adjusting the FI server group. So, (in opinion only) you should start with a buffer hit ratio analysis / DB table & index access analysis (by user group) to see where you would get the best benefit from this kind of setup. If you don't have this kind of info, then creating logon groups by line-of-business may have no benefit (or worst case, may make performance degrade for the group with the highest load %). You need some historical information to base your decision on, for how to best split the users up. You may find that 50% of the load is from the SD users and so you may need one group for them (with 3 App servers in it) and one other group for everyone else (with the other 3). The logon group(s) will have to be referenced by SAP GUI, so SAP GUI (or saplogon.ini + maybe the services file, only) will have to change to accomodate any new groups you create in SMLG. Also consider that there's variables for time-of-day (load varies by time-of-day) and op-mode switches (resources vary by op-mode). All Work process are running? What will be our action? Are all the work processes (dia,btc,enq,upd,up2,spo) running or just all the dialog work processes? If all the work processes are running, then you may want to look at SM12 (or is SM13?) and see if updates are disabled. If they are, look at the alert log (if it's an Oracle database) and see if you have any space related errors (e.g. ORA-01653 or ORA-01654). If you do, add a datafile or raw device file to the applicable tablespace and then, re-enable updates in SM12. If only all the dialog work processes are running, there are several possible causes. First, look to see if there's a number in the Semaphore column in SM50 or dpmon. If there is, click once on one of the numbers in the Semaphore column to select it and then, press F1 (help) to get a list of Semaphores. Then, search OSS notes and, hopefully, you'll find a note that will tell you how to fix the problem. If it's not a semaphore (or sometimes if it is), use vmstat on UNIX or task manager on Windows to see if the operating system is running short on memory which would cause it to swap. In vmstat, the free column (which is in 4k pages on most UNIX derivatives) will be consistently 5MB or so and the pi and/or po columns will have a non- zero value. The %idle column in the cpu or proc section will be 0 or a very low single digit while the sys column will be a very high double-digit number because the operating system is having to swap programs out to disk and in from disk before it can execute them. In task manager, look at free memory in the physical memory section under the performance tab. If it's 10MB or 15MB (I think), then the operating system will be swapping. Usually, when all the dialog work processes are running, you won't be able to log in via SAPgui and will need to execute the dpmon utility at the commandline level. The procedure is basically the same on UNIX and Windows. On UNIX: telnet to server and login as sidadm user.cd to /sapmnt/SID/profile directoryexecute "dpmon pf=SID_hostname_SYSNR" (e.g. PRD_hercules_DVEGMS00) select option "m" and then,[...]



SAP System Performance Issues

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:44:00 +0000

SAP System Performance Issues My server becomes slow when more users login.What could be the reason? Is it because of less hardware resource? Server configuration is 104GB HDD, 2GB Ram.OS:Win 2003 server.Database:Oracle. I manage SAP R/3 4.6C systems on Risc 6000 machines, under Oracle 9.2. The overall performance problem for me is to know if SAP response time is acceptable ; if not, do this :- at AIX level : utilities are topas, to catch what's wrong : Disk I/O ? CPU bottleneck ? Too much swap ?- at Oracle level : tkprof but don't know much about this.- at SAP level : you can manage SAP memory, Oracle and OS too. If SAP response time is acceptable, then try this : Try to have a look at OS response time : ST06 : look at CPU, Memory, Swap, Disk and Lan response time. Try to have a look at buffer quality : ST02, if many fields are red, investigate each fields dependant parameters. Try to have a look at DB response time : ST04N, databuffer quality (SGA zone), how much physical reads / logical reads Ratio, wait times, number of user calls, Shared Pool cache hit ratio should be >96%, Sort usage, Redo logging. I use this kind of procedure to manage my systems. SAP Tips by: Christophe Rabeau It depends how much you allocated for SGA (database buffers, shared pool buffer, redo log buffers), how much you allocated for SAP buffers esp. Program buffers and whether the server have any other external processes/programs running. How many Dialog Work Processes you allocated…I think your problem most likely is you don’t have enough of these Dialog processes. Also maybe users running inefficient reports/programs which are holding the Dialog processes, goto SM50 & check all DIA (Dialog) with status “waiting”…if ALL are “running” then you have wait time (problems !) for other users wanting to process transactions . To troubleshoot performance, you need these tcode tools:- ST04 – Database ß in here, check especially for Expensive SQLs (Detail Analysis à SQL Request) ST02 – SAP buffers ST06 – OS stats ST05 – SQL trace SE30 – Abap runtime analysis SAP Tips by: Derek Phung A few step which you can exercise to sort/identify performance issues. * ST03, ST02, ST04 are the tcode for workload, tuning and DB Performance Monitoring codes. * ST06 FOR Operation System Monitoring. ** SM51 OR SM50 is process overview which tells you the workprocess sequence. ( Ideally 10-15 process with OLTP and batch process scheduled at peak and off peak times respectively) say 8-17 hrs and 17-8 hrs for Batch Process) Operation Mode can be configured in RZ04 tcode. ** Check for top CPU in ST06 tcode. CPU should not exceed more than 60% for long time for any process. ** Based of No. of instances ( Application Servers ) should have adequately sized. ** Most resources intensive process have to be scheduled in Batch Process ( in Background in Non Peak Hours ) ** Look for unnecessary Jobs Active During Prime Time** Look for Parameters Set To Your Business Process. ( RZ10, RZ11 ) Check Snote:0124361 ** Refer Early Watch Alert Periodically for Overall System Performance.. ( Tcode SDCC ) [...]



Tuning Summary In Transaction ST02

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:43:00 +0000

Tuning Summary In Transaction ST02

My current system is SAP R/3 Enterprise 4.70. I have some questions about tuning summary in transaction ST02 :

To the best of my knowledge I am answering your questions. Ok

1. Do we have to increase every profile parameter value which is displayed in red alert in transaction ST02 ?

Ans: Ofcourse it shoud be, since each buffer holds different values, wherever the red alert is there change the parameter value.

2. Why do the swapped objects always increase after a few days of tuning (in RZ10) & system restart?

Ans: Since more data had been fed into the server, it needs more space to hold in buffer while retrieving the data. Since buffer is shot in space, swap memory will be used. It is not enough to increase the buffer and that does not mean tuning, tuning in the sense full analysis of the problem and working in that particular area to resolve the issue. For example, creation of index, data archival, availability of statistics, alotting of no. of work process, etc.

3. Is there any standard in tuning ST02 to hold up the increasing value of swapped objects?

Ans: No. It depends on requirement.

4. After analysing ST02, how can we calculate the value of the parameter profile to be increased (in RZ10) ?

Ans: yes, use the command:
sappfpar check pf=\\usr\sap\trans\tpparam
(or)
sappfpar check pf=\\usr\sap\trans\tp_domain_



Troubleshooting SAP Performance Issues

Thu, 12 Feb 2009 04:42:00 +0000

Troubleshooting SAP Performance Issues

Is there a document that will help me troubleshoot system performance? What are the steps on how to troubleshoot?

Troubleshooting is a BIG task of itself, there is no single reference document because there are too many reasons why a system can appear "slow" to the user:

- Different Databases

Every database has its own mechanism for optimizing access, even more, each database has BOOKS on performance optimization. This can start from parameters to database layout to operating system configuration, used filesystems, mount parameters...

- Different Operating System

The same goes for operating systems, a standard Windows 2000 (or 2003) isn´t configured for optimal throughput, there is a LOT to tune, e. g. enable "background process priorities", stop non-needed services, network configurations (TCP window sizes) etc. Also the connection between application and database servers can be an issue

- SAP Itself

Almost for each and every long running program there are optimizations, be it on ABAP layer or on selection layer. Out of my experience, most self developed programs (Z*-programs) are the main issue, because developers program "quick-and-dirty"
doing "select *" and other things.

For e.g.:
If CPU is 100% Busy, what action should be taken to keep CPU idle?

This can't be answered generally. One need to check what process is using so much CPU - then one can start digging deeper. To add info regarding this issue, you may use:

st06->details analysis menu->snapshot analysis->top CPU from there, start to narrow down.

As you see there is not a quick button to press on and everything will be well. A good start can be the book "SAP



The SAP Licensing Procedure

Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:53:00 +0000

Use

To use the R/3 System, you require a license key. This key prevents unauthorized use of the R/3 software. The SAP license is dependent on your R/3 message server.

When you install your R/3 System, a temporary license is installed. This temporary license is valid for four weeks, starting from the date of installation. Before the temporary license expires, you must have obtained a license key. For your own convenience, we recommend that you apply for your permanent license key as soon as possible after installing or upgrading your R/3 System.

To do so, you have to:


  • locate your customer key

  • request a license key

You will need to provide the following information:

  • Installation number

You will find this 10-figure number on your delivery note.

  • SAP System ID (for example, C11)
  • System type (for example, production)
  • Name of a contact person
  • Telephone and fax number
  • Customer key

This is the 11-position hardware number determined with saplicense -get (AS/400: saplicense '-get').

You can then install the key using the SAPLICENSE program. For instructions, see Installing an SAP License.

If you buy or lease the R/3 System, your license key has unlimited validity. If you are using the R/3 System for test or demonstration purposes, the license key will be valid for the test or demonstration period only. After this time has expired, you will need to apply for a new license key.

If your old license key expires or if you change your hardware, you can continue to operate the R/3 System with a temporary license key for a period of four weeks. For instructions, see Installing a Temporary SAP License.

After that time, the R/3 System will operate only with a new license key. The expiry date for the license is displayed both on the copyright screen and the system status screen.




SAP The SAPLICENSE Program

Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:53:00 +0000

The SAPLICENSE program is used to install, check and maintain SAP licenses in your R/3 System. It resides in the directory /usr/sap//SYS/exe/run . (In the case of AS/400, the program resides in the kernel library.) Windows NT:Replace the slash (/) with a backslash (\) in all path names. If you start saplicense without any options at operating system level, all the options are displayed. Prerequisites As of Release 4.5A the database interface library is linked dynamically. To allow SAPLICENSE to locate this library, the following variables must be set in the environment of the user calling SAPLICENSE: dbms_type = (for example, ora, inf, ada, mss, db2, db4, db6) DIR_LIBRARY = (for example, /usr/sap/SID/SYS/exe/run) User for SAPLICENSE: NT and UNIX You must be logged on as user adm . This ensures that all the required environment variables are set correctly. AS/400 You must be logged on as user OFR. The executables library R3OPT must be included in your library list. Features AS/400 only:For AS/400 the option string must be enclosed in single quotation marks, for example '-help', '-get', '-temp'. saplicense provides the following options: -delete Delete an installed license. -get Output the customer key (hardware key). -help [option] Display help information for the specified option (that is, get , install , temp , show or test ). -install [ifile=] Install a license key. Optional parameter ifile= (or IFILE= ) causes the license data to be read from the installation file. -number Get the installation number. -show Display all installed licenses. -temp Install a temporary license. -test Test whether a valid SAP license exists. (R/3 must have been started.) -version Display the version of SAPLICENSE .[...]



SAP Locating Your Customer Key

Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:52:00 +0000

Procedure

  1. Find out the host on which the message server is running by looking at parameter
  2. rdisp/mshost in profile /usr/sap//SYS/profile/DEFAULT.PFL. This parameter specifies the host on which the message server is started.

rdisp/mshost =hs0011

In this example, the message server is started on host hs0011.

  • Log on to the host on which the message server is running at operating system level as user
  • adm (AS/400: user OFR).
  • Using command
  • saplicense -get (AS/400: saplicense '-get'), determine the 11-position customer key of the host.
  • The next step is to
  • Request an SAP License Key.



    SAP Requesting an SAP License Key

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:52:00 +0000

    You should use the Online Service System (OSS) to request an SAP License Key.

    Procedure

    1. Log on to OSS.
    2. Choose Registration ® Registration R/3 System ® License key.

    To see detailed information about the procedure for requesting a license key, select 6 . .

    1. Double click on the plus sign (+) to the left of the installation for which you wish to request a new license key. This displays all licensed systems for that installation.
    2. Position your cursor on the line beginning NEW Request new system.
    3. To request a new key, select New key.
    4. Check that the data displayed is correct and supplement as required.
    5. Select Request key.
    6. To see the current status of your license request, look in the Comments column.

    You will receive a fax from SAP providing information about your new license key, which is also available via OSS. Your system landscape will be updated automatically in OSS.

    Once the new license key has been assigned, you can display it by selecting Display license key. A pop-up window is displayed containing the license key and all the license data for your system.

    To avoid having to type this license data in by hand (and risk mistyping something), select Export script. This function allows you to import the R/3 license key file into your system. Alternatively, you can copy the information into your system via cut and paste.

    Requesting a License Key by Fax

    If you do not have access to OSS, you can use the Request Fax License Key form to request a license key. The form is part of your software delivery package. Alternatively, you can download the form from SAPNet.

    Fill out the form completely and send it to the fax number given on the form.

    Provided you specify all the necessary information in your fax, SAP will send you the 24-position license key by fax within 3 working days.

    Keep this fax in a safe place. If you should ever accidentally delete a license, you will need the license key in order to install the license again.




    SAP Installing an SAP License

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:51:00 +0000

    Prerequisites The 24-position license key, which you receive from SAP by fax. Procedure Log on to the host on which the central SAP instance is running at operating system level as user adm (UNIX and NT) or OFR (AS/400). Call saplicense -install [ifile=] (AS/400: saplicense '-install [ifile=]'). If you are using an R/3 license key file, enter it as the . This file is created in OSS when your license key is assigned. If you are unable to download the installation file to your system, you can copy the contents of the file with cut and paste. Example of an R/3 license key file: #SAPSYSTEM=C11CUSTOMER-KEY=A0123456789INSTNO=0123456789EXPIRATION=99991231LKEY=012345678901234567891234# If you are entering the data manually (that is, you are leaving out the optional parameter), make sure that you enter the key correctly, for example, that you distinguish between the number 0 and the uppercase letter O. Example for entering the license data manually Specify your sap system name:SAP SYSTEM NAME = PRDSpecify your customer key:CUSTOMER KEY = D1889390344Specify your installation number:INSTALLATION NO = 0005500021Specify your expiration date:EXPIRATION_DATE [YYYYMMDD] = 99991231Specify your license key:LICENSE_KEY 1...5....0....5....0...4LICENSE_KEY = 9KJDYITLVLPRZS9WXVS8SNTNsaplicense: License successfully installed The license is now installed and activated. Check whether you can log on to the R/3 System. After logging on, choose System ® Status. Check whether the following SAP system data agrees with the data just entered: Installation number License expiration If you can log on and the data is correct, the license was correctly installed. Troubleshooting If you get the following message when installing the license: saplicense: License not installed, *** Wrong license data specified you probably mistyped one of the values. Please make sure that you use the correct uppercase/lowercase in the entries.Also note that the Backspace (delete character) key is not set correctly on some terminals. You should therefore avoid using this key. It is not necessary to start/stop the R/3 System in order to install the license. The installed license becomes active immediately. If you experience any problems installing the license key, enter a problem message in OSS specifying component XX-SER-SWFL-LIC.[...]



    SAP Installing a Temporary SAP License

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:51:00 +0000

    In the following cases, it could be necessary to use a temporary license to bridge the time until the SAP license has arrived by fax:

    • If the hardware configuration of the host on which the message server is running changes, the customer key of the host can also change.
    • If the message server is moved to another host.
    • If the license has expired. The expiry date can be extended by 3 weeks with the temporary license.

    Procedure

    1. Log on to the host on which the central SAP instance is running as user
    2. adm (UNIX and NT) or OFR (AS/400) at operating system level.
    3. Enter saplicense -temp (AS/400: saplicense '-temp').

    Enter the SAP System ID when it is requested.

    The following message shows that the program has terminated successfully:

    saplicense: Temporary license successfully installed

    Rejection of a Temporary License

    SAPLICENSE rejects installation of a temporary license in certain cases:

    • A temporary license can only be installed if a valid license existed and has been used recently (within the last 3 weeks).

    The following message tells you that a temporary license cannot be granted because the date of the last successful license check was more than 3 weeks ago:

    saplicense: Temporary license NOT installed, *** Old license older than 3 weeks

    • If the R/3 System is set up from a copy of an existing R/3 System, it is not possible to install a temporary license for the first time.

    Apply for a license before you want to work with an R/3 System that has been copied.




    SAP Deleting an SAP License

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:50:00 +0000

    You have to delete a license, for example, if the R/3 System was set up from a copy of an existing R/3 System. Procedure Log on to the host on which the central SAP instance is running at operating system level as user adm (UNIX and NT) or OFR (AS/400). Display the licenses that are installed. To do this, enter saplicense -show (AS/400: saplicense '-show' ). SAPLICENSE lists all the licenses and their statuses. LICENSE system: TST customer key: TEMPLICENSEexpiration_date: 19960202installation no:... key:...product ID: R3_ORA*** license useable ***LICENSE system: TST customer key: D1889390344expiration_date: 99991231installation no:... key:...product ID: R3_ORA*** license useable ***LICENSE system: PRD customer key: TEMPLICENSEexpiration_date: 19960131installation no:... key:...product ID: R3_ORA*** license useable ***LICENSE system: PRD customer key: D9566626666expiration_date: 99991231installation no:... key:...product ID: R3_ORA*** license useable *** The above example shows you that 4 licenses are installed (2 licenses have been applied for and 2 are temporary licenses). You can see from the R/3 System names that 2 licenses are installed for system TST, and 2 licenses for system PRD. This could be the case if the R/3 System TST was copied to the name PRD and then a license, which was applied for, was installed for the copied system PRD. The old licenses for system TST, however, still exist.These old licenses can no longer be used in the new system and can be deleted. Delete the licenses with saplicense -delete (AS/400: saplicense '-delete')as follows: First enter the SAP System IDs. SAPLICENSE then asks for the customer key (11-position hardware key).Enter the customer key or TEMPLICENSE .saplicense then asks for the product ID, which is a name starting with "R3_" indicating the database type (for example, R3_ORA).Enter the product ID appropriate for your R/3 System.The licenses are deleted.This is confirmed by the following message: saplicense: license deleted Remarks The status of a license is not checked when a license is deleted. In particular, there is no check to establish whether you are deleting a license that was in use. If a valid license that was in use is deleted, it is no longer possible to log on to R/3, but users who are already logged on can continue working. If you accidentally deleted a valid license that was in use, you can install this license again at any time with saplicense -install (AS/400: saplicense '-install' ) if you still have the fax containing the license key. The existence of old, unused licenses has no effect on R/3 System operation. Nevertheless, it is advisable to delete licenses that are no longer used (performance optimization during the license check). Deleting temporary licenses (CUSTOMER KEY = TEMPLICENSE) does not mean that you can install further temporary licenses (see also the section "Installing a Temporary SAP License ").[...]



    SAP Testing a License

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:50:00 +0000

    If you cannot log onto the R/3 System, SAPLICENSE provides the option -test pf= (AS/400: '-test pf=' ) for troubleshooting.When you call the program with this option, SAPLICENSE determines the customer key of the message server, simulates an R/3 System logon and carries out the required license check. You can follow the individual steps on the screen. Log on to the host on which the central SAP instance is running at operating system level as user adm (UNIX and NT) or OFR (AS/400). UNIX and AS/400: Start the R/3 System and the database with startsap. NT: Start the R/3 System and the database with the SAP Service Manager.Start SAPLICENSE as follows: UNIX and NT: saplicense -test pf=AS/400: saplicense '-test pf='It is mandatory that you specify the profile file. Enter the profile file (with complete path) of the R/3 System to be checked. You would enter the following for an R/3 System with the name PRD, where the instance number is 00:UNIX and NT: saplicense -test pf=/usr/sap/PRD/SYS/profile/PRD_DVEBMGS00AS/400: saplicense '-test pf=/usr/sap/PRD/SYS/profile/PRD_DVEBMGS00' The following message shows that the test was terminated successfully:test result: license test okThe subsequent message tells which license was used for the check:LICENSE system: PRD customer key: D1889390344 expiration_date: 99991231installation no: 0005500021 key: 9KJDYITLVLPRZS9WXVS8SNTNproductid: R3_ORAIf you get an error message when the license is checked, you can use the program output to find out where the error occurred (creation of the message server link, connection to the database, etc.). Depending on the message, now check whether the message server is running, whether the database has been started, etc.To carry out more detailed error analysis, use additional option TRACE=2. The command syntax is as follows: saplicense -test pf= TRACE=2SAPLICENSE then creates a file dev_slic in the current directory. This file contains more detailed error messages.[...]



    SAP High-Availability Configurations

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:49:00 +0000

    The licensing procedure allows you to install more than one license. This is necessary, for example, for the following configurations:

    • Oracle Parallel Server mode
    • Cluster environment of hosts with standby hosts to switch over to if an error occurs ("High Availability" strategy)

    If standby hosts are defined for the message server (or the R/3 System) in High Availability configurations, a license must be installed for each standby host. You can find out the customer key of the standby host by calling saplicense -get (AS/400: saplicense '-get' ) on the standby host.




    What is SAP IDES and System Requirement for installations?

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:48:00 +0000

    What is SAP IDES and System Requirement for installations? System Requirement to install IDES For installing IDES 46C on a Laptop, you need :- Pentium 3/Pentium 4 with any CPU 2*40 GB HDD 512 MB RAM DVD Drive What is SAP IDES (Internet Demonstration and Evaluation System)? SAP IDES is a normal R/3 but with lots of DEMO data. The system that contains several sample companies typifying relevant business processes. It is simple to use and has a variety of master and transaction data, and is used for demos, online/classroom training, and presentations. Potential customers use IDES to trial and test software via Internet. SAP IDES – the "Internet Demonstration and Evaluation System" in the R/3 System, represents a model company. It consists of an international group with subsidiaries in several countries. IDES contains application data for various business scenarios that can be run in the SAP System. The business processes in the IDES system are designed to reflect real-life business requirements, and have access to many realistic characteristics. IDES uses easy-to-follow business scenarios to show you the comprehensive functions of the R/3 System. The focal point of IDES, however, is not the functionality itself, but the business processes and their integration. IDES not only covers the Logistics area, but also Financials, and Human Resources. It demonstrates how the R/3 System is able to support practically all types of industries, from discrete production through to process industries, from engineering-to-order to repetitive manufacturing. However, IDES is not a sector-oriented model company. The individual processes are based on practice-oriented data for sectors such as Retailing or Banking. The IDES group manufactures products as diverse as elevators, motorcycles, and paints. IDES is managed by SAP just as any regular business enterprise. SAP regularly updates the IDES data (master data, transaction data, and customizing). IDES also carry out period-end closing and plan with different time-horizons. Transaction data are generated to ensure that the information systems in all areas have access to realistic evaluation data. IDES are constantly implementing new, interesting business scenarios to highlight the very latest functions available in the R/3 System. New functions are represented and documented by IDES scenarios. Above all, IDES shows you the possibilities of the integrated applications in the SAP System. IDES cover all aspects of a business enterprise, including Human Resources, Financial Accounting, Product Cost Planning, Overhead Management, Profitability Analysis, Planning, Sales and Distribution, Materials Management, Production, and much, much more. IDES have also integrated document administration and third-party CAD systems within the IDES system. This means that you can call up and display external documents, or access CAD drawings. IDES shows you how the R/3 System supports production processes, the supply chain, and the efficient usage of global resources. Or perhaps you would like to increase your understanding of just-in-time-production or the integration of the electronic KANBAN system in an MRP II environment? IDES provides the ideal way to learn about areas such as Product Cost Controlling, Activity-Based Costing, or integrated Service Management and Plant Maintenance. How to manage high inflation is just one of the ever-growing number of IDES business scenarios that you can choose from. Where to find IDES Installation Documents and Screenshots? I have to install MySAP 2004 (IDES) ECC 5.0 in windows environment, where can I get those insta[...]



    IDES Installation Procedure for SAP Install on W2k server

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:48:00 +0000

    SAP IDES Installation Procedure for SAP Install on W2k server Procedure for installation on W2k server with sp3. Installation Of SAP 4.6b System Requirements. P-III System1024 MB or 512 MB RAMMinimum 60GB HDD40 GB Hdd (2GB for WinNT & 38 GB for oracle & SAP)10 GB Hdd for CD dumps.CDROM drive.Network Card C:\ - 10GB - Windows 2000 Server - NTFSD:\ - 40GB - Oracle & SAP - NTFSE:\ - 10GB - CD Dumps - NTFSF:\ - CDROM Drive Install Windows 2000 server in first 10GB partitionComputer Name - SAPSRVIP Address - 192.168.1.2Subnet Mask - 255.255.255.0Work Group - TEKSOFTComplete the installation & Restart. Install Service Pack 3Install All the DriversInstall IE6 SP1 Create two Users as mentioned bellow Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools -> Computer Management -> Local Users and Groups -> Users -> New User a. First user name TEKADMGive password, disable the already enabled option & enable"Password Never Expires & user cannot change the password option " b. Second user name SAPServiceTEKGive password, disable the already enabled option & enable"Password Never Expires & user cannot change the password option " Add the two Users to Administrators Group Change hostfile Open C:\Winnt\System32\driver\ect\host file in Notepad & add IP Address and Computer Name inThe bottom of file. Save & Exit.Change the Virtual Memory C: Min - 512MBMax - 1024MB D: Min - 2048MBMax - 2560MB Change the File and Printer sharing properties to “ Maximize through Logon as TEKADMInsert SAP-Oracle CD &Select F:\NT\i386\setup & click enterLocation of oracle D:\orant & click enterAccept path change & click enterOracle 8 enterprise edition & click enter(Oracle 8.1.7 will not be supported by SAP Kernel 4.6B)(Oracle 8.1.7 will be supported by SAP Kernel 4.6C only) After completion of oracle Stop the service "Oracle TNSlistner 80"Select F:\NT\i386\Patchs\8.0.5.2.2\setup & click enterAccept the defaults & complete the installation.Restart the system. Dump all the export CDs (6 CDs) intoE:\dump\db1 - export CD 1E:\dump\db2 - export CD 2E:\dump\db3 - export CD 3 (To dump type as E:\dump\db1>Xcopy /e f: & enter)E:\dump\db4 - export CD 4E:\dump\db5 - export CD 5E:\dump\db6 - export CD 6 Insert Kernel CD Select F:\46bker\NT\i386\NTPATCH\R3dllins & click enterThis will install patch for NT. Restart the system.Logon as TEKADMFrom kernel CDF:\NT\common\r3setup & enterEnter the following System Name - TEK (must be 3 Letters Capital)Location - C:\users\Tekadm\install (it comes by default)Accept to restart the machine. Logon on as TEKADM Copy the file "db_ides.r3s" from DB1\IDES\NT\ORA\DB_IDES.R3S(18KB files size) to C:\users\tekadm\install Start r3setup fromC:\users\tekadm\install\r3setup & enterSelect "central.r3s" file & enter& Follow as mentioned bellow System Name - TEKInstance no. - 00Accept DefaultsDirectory of SAP system -change to D:RAM of the sys. - Accept the defaultLocation of the KERNEL CD - F:Port no. - 3600Enter the password of TEKADM two timesEnter the password of SAPServiceTEK two timesStart the installation.This will come upto Select C:\users\tekadm\install\r3setup & enterSelect "db_ides.r3s" & enterSystem Name - TEKInstance no. - 00Accept DefaultsSelect WE8DEC (default for r/3 4.x system) & enterOracle dir. - D: Location of SAP Database specific files SAP Database Drive SAPARCH DSAPBACKUP DSAPCHECK DSAPREORG DSAPTRACE D & enterLocation of Oracle Data files Oracle Data directory drive SAPDATA1 DSAPDATA2 DSAPDATA3 DSAPDATA4 DSAPDATA5 DS[...]



    SAP IDES System crtl Files are Deleted

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:47:00 +0000

    IDES System crtl Files are Deleted

    In my ides system my crtl files are deleted which are there in the oracle directory deleted? They are necessary for the database to open.

    In such case when I am running the MMC it shows msg server and dispatcher + work connected and working ,
    but when I try to connect thrugh Sapgui , it does not connect and says a msg to reconnect y/n . and the sap dispather + work turns off.

    If you are sure that only the CTRL (Oracle Database control file) has been deleted then It is possible to recreate then using the trace file (the trace file can be generate if your database is still UP: (If database is not UP the adjust the attached file as per your system)

    IMPORTENT : The following command can only be applied if you have Oracle as your DataBase .

    at SQL prompt
    connect / as sysdba;
    alter database backup controlfile to trace resetlogs;

    alter system switch logfile;
    repeat above command ,once per redolog group(4 time is your case)

    It will create a file at %SAPTRACE%\usertrace\ directory which contain a script for automatic change of the control file. It will be used to recover the database rename it to recovery.sql ; delete its contents before the CREATE CONTROL FILE command ;

    shutdown the database and then do the following (either normal or immediate)

    connect / as sysdba;
    @ recovery.sql;
    It may ask you the archive name which still didnt created
    Try to give it the online redo log path and name (one from one group ) Once DataBase will be recovered and openedthen try to start the SAP System ,if still the SAP system didnt UP ,as Markus said send your latest log file from "work" folder to group.

    RECOVERY.SQL
    ***********************
    CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ARF" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG MAXLOGFILES 255 MAXLOGMEMBERS 3 MAXDATAFILES 254 MAXINSTANCES 50 MAXLOGHISTORY 1134 Logfile Group 1 ('D:\Oracle\ARF\logA\ORIGLOGA.LOG','D:\Oracle\ARF\logB\mirrloga.log')
    size 50M,
    Group 2 ('D:\Oracle\ARF\logA\origlogb.log','D:\Oracle\ARF\logB\mirrlogb.log')
    size 50M
    datafile

    rem RECOVER DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE
    rem ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;

    *****************
    1. Cahnge the (Currently ARF SAP 4.6C oracle 9.20)
    2. Change the path of online redo log or adjust as per your SAP system
    3. Adjust the path & name of DATAFILES
    4. the last two command are remarked so run then individually once your control file have been created .




    BC Certification - Is It Worth Getting Certified

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:46:00 +0000

    SAP BC Certification - Is It Worth Getting Certified

    Do you think it is worth getting certified? How many test are required for the basis certification? Is it required to take classes or can I study on my own?

    Now days there's so many choices. Start at http://www.sap.com/services/education/index.epx, pick your country and select Certification Program.

    If you've got enough years of experience I don't think certification would make much difference to a full time job.

    But if you're a contractor, I could see it highly worthwhile. Upgrades / Migrations have to have certified Basis Consultant.

    Do you require training to attend certification?

    I have done certification in the month of FEB 2003. I took training also.

    If you ask me the question - Do you require training to attend certification? I will ask you following questions-

    1. Do you have time to attend the course in the first place?
    2. Do you want to inform outside world that you want to prove yourself? Coz, World listen you when you are certified. No matter how bad your skills are.
    3. Do not want to take chances?
    4. Invest money? Remember I am using word invest money? Investment is always linked with expectations of future higher returns?
    5. Can keep job and other onhand tasks away for the training time? In otherwords have difficulty to free yourself and so the best choice is making yourself free by attending course would help?
    6. Want to know in and out of SAP? Coz course would try to give you the behind picture in depth (practically may not be possible but may be true to some extent)
    7. Conceptually weak in many of the aspects of basis?

    If your answer is "YES" then better take course before writing exam?

    Esp. in IT, you learn faster when someone guide you rather than you do self study. Of course with Basis certification you need both as time is limited. Also you may have to fight for best tutor (remember).

    There are pros and cons. You are the better judge. If you can give more valid reasons for the choice you made. Go ahead. Sure you will win. Most important is committment.




    Basis Certification Sample Questions

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:45:00 +0000

    SAP Basis Certification Sample Questions

    Caution: more than one answer may be correct.
    Please mark ALL correct answers.

    Question:
    When creating a logon group for Logon Load Balancing, which of the following CANNOT be specified?

    A. Maximum allowable response time.
    B. Maximum number of users who may be logged on to the instance.
    C. Name of the instance defined for the logon group.
    D. Maximum number of sessions per user.
    E. Name of the logon group

    Question:
    Which R/3 System user is used for starting external programs using SAP background jobs?

    A. DDIC
    B. SAP*
    C. SAPR3
    D. SAPCPIC
    E. adm

    Question:
    Name the R/3 System transaction used for mointoring a spool requests.

    A. SM50
    B. SM51
    C. SPAD
    D. SP01
    E. SM37

    Question:
    Which of the following is authorized to maintain R/3 user id parameters?

    A. Only the R/3 system administrator.
    B. All R/3 users having an account in the same R/3 client.
    C. Only the user himself.
    D. Only the R/3 system administrator and the user.

    Question:
    Given a LAN with an R/3 Central Instance with database (Node: host1, Instance Name:DVEBMGS01, SAPSID:C11), and R/3 Dialog Instance (Node: host2), and several R/3 Frontend PC's what is the name of the profile where the SAPDBHOST parameter is defined?

    A. C11_DVEBMGS00_host1
    B. The SAPDBHOST parameter is defined in the database startup profile.
    C. TEMU.PFL
    D. DEFAULT.PFL
    E. START_DVEBMGS01_host1

    Question:
    Given and R/3 Central Instance with all services installed, using Instance ID01, and having the SAP ID of C11. What is the name of the directory where the work process trace files are written (for Windows NT replace the "/" with "\")?

    A. /usr/sap/C11/DVEBMGS01/data
    B. /usr/sap/C11/DVEBMGS01/log
    C. /usr/sap/C11/DVEBMGS01/work
    D. The trace files are written in internal database tables.
    E. The trace files are written in the home directory of the database.

    Question:
    Which of the following functions is NOT possible using the SAP Online Service System (OSS)?

    A. Execute online searches for R/3 Notes.
    B. Register problems with the SAP Hotline.
    C. Lookup SAP training dates and course offerings.
    D. Register changes to SAP objects.
    E. Apply for official Internet address from SAP.




    SAP An example of a DB Backup Strategy

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:44:00 +0000

    An example of a DB Backup Strategy

    Our SAP DB Backup strategy:

    • Full Online Backup on 00:00 from Tuesday to Saturday.
    • Redolog on 06:00 from Monday to Saturday
    • And Once a month full offline backup
    Is this good enough or need improvement?

    An example of a DB Strategy is as follows:-

    • Full online SAP backup every day at 20:00 (including weekends)
    • Full OS filesystem (minus SAP data) every weekday.
    • Continuous archive logging from 15:00 to 11:00 next day (weekdays) and 15:00 to 14:30 (weekends).
    • Archive log deletion at 14:45 every day.
    • We perform a parallel backup on 2 tapes using 3 x 5 DLT tape autoloaders using a 7 day rotating tape cycle. OS backup onto single DAT.
    • The tapes are stored offsite and brought in every weekday. On Friday the Friday,
    • Saturday and Sunday tapes are brought in.
    The only problem I can see with the strategy is if the system crashes at 05:55 on Monday and needs a restore, you could lose a lot of data as you are missing backups on Sunday and Monday, and archive logs from Sunday.

    With this strategy if this happens you will be restoring the data from 00:00 Saturday and the logs from 06:00 Saturday. This means you could lose 48 hours worth of data.

    Is your operation 24 x 7 or 24 x 5? If 24 x 5 it shouldn't be too bad unless you run weekly jobs over the weekend.

    Do you have single tape drives or multiple autoloaders?

    Is there anyone there to change the tapes over the weekend?

    My own personal suggestion would be to forget the offline backup as you do not really want to restore data which could be a month old so why bother shutting the system down every month to back it up. I would perform a daily online backup every
    possible day and continually archive the redo logs with a window for changing the tapes. If nobody is there over the weekend to change the tapes, run your archiving continually through the weekend i.e. start on Friday and finish on Monday.




    SAP Evaluating Online Re-Organization Tools

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:44:00 +0000

    Evaluating Online Re-Organization Tools

    Content Author: Christophe Rabeau

    We are evaluating online reorg tools for an Oracle SAP database which is soon to be of 1 Terra Bite size. I would like some guidance for online reorg.tools and experiences of using some of them.

    I use SAP 4.6C under Oracle 9.2 under AIX 5.1 on Risc6000 medium-performance machines.

    I experienced some reorganizations SAP online, due to the PRD system that must always be up.

    Fisrt, consider that the entire reorg is not possible when SAP is online, because of permanent tables (system tables and so on) that could not be exported/imported while running.

    An entire TABLESPACE reorganization is no more suitable because of the long runtime between 2 offline backups.

    So you can reorg only some tables/indexes or single objects. Be sure that the objects should not be accessed during the reorg, so it will fail. For a particular case, for example a BIG table, I experienced serious perf problems :

    JVTLFZUO table : 10 Gb data + 17 GB indexes = 37 GB to be reorganized.

    When SAP is online, it took about 13 hours (4 procs, 8 GB RAM)
    When SAP is not available for users, it took less than 5 hours !!!

    So my advice is :
    - don't reorg too big tables with SAP online.
    - don't reorg system tables with SAP online.
    - you'd better to perform a reorg by night or in a lower user activity.
    - you'd rather to reorg with SAP down for perfs point of views.
    - always perform an OFFLINE backup before reorg, because the reorg is not always successful.




    SAP Perform the Backup for each Client Separately

    Sun, 08 Feb 2009 06:43:00 +0000

    Perform the Backup for each Client Separately

    I have 2 clients in one server. The database is SQL.
    Would like to perform the backup for each client separately so that I can restore per client.
    So far, I've only found information saying that we have to do the entire backup for the database and that individual client backup is not good.

    Can anyone advise me on how to perform individual client backup and how's the data integrity.

    Sharon

    It little confusing with your statement when you are saying that "I have two clients in server".
    Or is it rather you want to say that you are having two database instaces on one server.

    Scenario 1:
    You have One server hosting more that one client as you say. Lets assume it to be Developement & Test client on single databse. Here please note that any SAP DB instace always have more than two clients. The Defaulta clients are:
    * Client 000 : SAP AG Konzen
    * Client 066 : SAP Early Watch Client.

    In addition you have your client specified as
    * Client XXX : This will be your production / dev / test client

    You can have as many client as you want in a system. Well that really depends on amount of workload and the hardware capacity of the server.

    Scenario 2:
    You have more that one Database instance on single server. Here you have a choice of having same programs files with multiple databases and or having two different databse instaces with saperate program files. Like in case of oracle you can have two oracle instances Oralce 8i and other with Oracle 9i or any combination you like.

    Now your question "Can I take backup of the single client ?"
    Ans : Well its possible but then this is not a normal scenario. Its not call as a backup though. You can use the fuctionalities such as client export or client copy procided by SAP.

    Second Question : " What about the data integrety ?"
    Ans : The option of Client Copy or Client Export are used for specific purpose. You are required to do changes / configure required by the specific fuctionality.

    Important Points:
    In case of database failuer you would need the complete backup of the database and not just particultal client.
    SAP Database does not contain only data but also contains the programs as well. And some of these infomation (Data as you would call) is shared across multiple client in one databse instance.
    Hense it is important to restore the complete databse to retain the integrity of the system.
    In case of having different DB instances on server you can perform backup of the individual databases. That is sufficient to bring the individual system up after the database failuer.

    Hope this is sufficient for your doubt.