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Isnt It Time We Did Something About the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?

2016-08-31T15:41:35-07:00

In this essay, we explore why there has traditionally been so little emphasis on teaching preparation in business doctoral programs. Program administrators and faculty typically espouse support for teaching development; yet the existing reward systems are powerfully aligned in favor of a focus on research competency. Indeed, through the lens of a performance diagnostic model, it is entirely predictable that doctoral programs have not offered more teaching development opportunities, as administrators often do not have the requisite motivation, ability, opportunity, or resources to develop comparable teaching competence. However, given that the average graduate will take a professorial position with greater than 50% of responsibilities devoted to teaching, most external observers would conclude that there is a curious dearth of teaching preparation in contemporary business doctoral programs. However understandable the dearth of teaching development, we argue that those reasons are no longer acceptable, and the present essay is predominately a call for change. Suggestions for enhancing the depth and nature of teaching development are offered, and we include some examples of progressive initiatives underway in the hopes of provoking a more intense conversation on the teaching preparation of the next generation of business professors.
















Emotion and Learning

2016-08-31T15:41:35-07:00




Internationalization at a Distance: A Study of the Online Management Curriculum

2016-08-31T15:41:35-07:00

This article explores how part-time students in an online international management course perceived various features of the course-learning design and whether international perspectives were built into their learning experiences. The focus of the study was on cross-cultural differences across groups of learners in the United Kingdom, in other European countries, and in Russia and studying the course in different languages. Using a mixed-method approach, the study’s results challenge the distinction between "internationalization at home" and "internationalization away" perspectives on curricula, due to growing numbers of students studying online from their home countries. Study participants reported high degrees of engagement with international perspectives, but their experience can be best described as "internationalization at a distance," where traditional campus-based acculturation effects were not observed. The article concludes with a discussion of opportunities for management educators to develop a "glocal" approach to online course curriculum design, intentionally blending global perspectives with locally relevant knowledge and managerial skills.




The Practice of Professional Doctorates: The Case of a U.K.-Based Distance DBA

2016-08-31T15:41:35-07:00

In light of the prominent role of socio-materiality in contemporary social scientific, and particularly educational research, this article uses two practice-based theories to investigate the experiences of German business management professionals on a U.K.-based DBA delivered in Germany. We specifically take concepts from cultural historical activity theory and actor network theory to explore the evolving relationships between professional and academic identities as revealed in qualitative interviews with individual students and supervising faculty. The discussion underlines the potential of these theories to produce rich understandings of the identity formation of researching professionals. We conclude that professional doctorates should be seen not just as specific forms of advanced professional training but as complex and indeterminate processes. Findings suggest that earning a professional doctorate degree often feels like a journey leading to some form of metacognitive shift from a problem-solving mindset to a more critical appreciation of different ways of knowing.




A Rubric for Evaluating Student Analyses of Business Cases

2016-08-31T15:41:35-07:00

This article presents a rubric for evaluating student performance on written case assignments that require qualitative analysis. This rubric is designed for three purposes. First, it informs students of the criteria on which their work will be evaluated. Second, it provides instructors with a reliable instrument for accurately measuring and grading student performance on written case assignments. Third, if the rubric is used multiple times during the semester, student progress can also be measured. In addition, we piloted an instrument, with statistically confirmed reliability, for measuring students’ perceptions of the benefits of the rubric.




The "Kobayashi Maru" Meeting: High-Fidelity Experiential Learning

2016-08-31T15:41:35-07:00

The Kobayashi Maru is a training simulation that has its roots in the Star Trek series notable for its defining characteristic as a no-win scenario with no "correct" resolution and where the solution actually involves redefining the problem. Drawing upon these characteristics, we designed a board meeting simulation for an experiential course in nonprofit governance, which places students in a high-stakes decision-making situation closely modeled on real events. To do so, we uniquely integrated principles from acting literature with theory and research in training and development. The Kobayashi Maru Meeting is a simulation with high physical and psychological fidelity—that is, one that closely resembles the "look and feel" of real-world board governance. The topics are deliberately sensitive to personal, organizational, and societal values to create high engagement and deep learning and to highlight the importance of good governance for organizational leadership. Results from multisource, multimethod data suggest that the simulation enhanced students’ decision making, critical thinking, and communication skills, as well as their ability to deal with their own and others’ reactions in intense circumstances. Beyond board governance, the simulation creates an authentic learning experience that can be adapted to multiple learning contexts including leadership, ethics, decision making, and communication.







Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development: The Neuroscience of the University Classroom

2016-06-27T11:11:47-07:00

Digital technology has proven a beguiling, some even venture addictive, presence in the lives of our 21st century (millennial) students. And while screen technology may offer select cognitive benefits, there is mounting evidence in the cognitive neuroscience literature that digital technology is restructuring the way our students read and think, and not necessarily for the better. Rather, emerging research regarding intensive use of digital devices suggests something more closely resembling a Faustian quandary: Certain cognitive skills are gained while other "deep thinking" capabilities atrophy as a result of alterations in the neural circuitry of millennial brains. This has potentially profound implications for management teaching and practice. In response, some advocate that we "meet students where we find them." We too acknowledge the need to address student needs, but with the proviso that the academy’s trademark commitment to penetrating, analytical thinking not be compromised given the unprecedented array of existential challenges awaiting this generation of students. These and rising faculty suspicions of a new "digital divide" cropping up in the management classroom represents a timely opportunity for management educators to reflect not only on how today’s students read and learn, but equally, on what and how we teach.













Affecting Student Perception and Performance by Grading With 10,000 Points

2016-06-27T11:11:47-07:00

As professors, we each have our own approach to grading which allows us to assess learning and provide useful feedback to our students, yet is not too onerous. This article explains one approach we have used that differs from standard grading scales we often hear about from our colleagues. Rather than being based on 100 points or 100% over the course of a semester, it is based on 10,000 points. This might sound very complicated, but it is actually more simple and straightforward and could be used in any discipline. This article addresses current thinking about grading scales, challenges we face related to student paradigms about grading, how the grading scale based on 10,000 points mitigates those issues, considerations for implementing such a grading scale, and how students reacted to the grading scale.




Developing a Community of Inquiry in a Face-to-Face Class: How an Online Learning Framework Can Enrich Traditional Classroom Practice

2016-06-27T11:11:47-07:00

Traditional classes are typically bound both in the classroom space and scheduled time. In this article, I show how applying an online learning framework called the Community of Inquiry and an organizational architecture of matrixed teams has worked in a face-to-face capstone class and extended those boundaries. These were introduced as an alternative to a case-based writing course as a means of getting more engagement, better thinking, and better papers from students. Matrixed teams involve assigning students to both a semester long team organized around a complex and detailed group paper and, at the same time, to a topic analysis team that fed the content for the paper. In order to support this inquiry, I also used a social media platform called Yammer to cultivate conversations outside the normal class hours that capitalized on in-class work. The approach has been effective: Participation is both deeper in topics and includes more people than in traditional classes. Furthermore, the quality of the written work is significantly better in structure and content, particularly with students at the lower end of the classes.




Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

2016-06-27T11:11:47-07:00

We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral responsibility by respecting project management processes and communication protocols. Low team performers lacked self-regulatory strategies to work autonomously and clearly explain their research and its purpose, to ask for clarification, and to work autonomously. Consequently, effective regulatory strategies are crucial for high team performance, for team skills development, and for preparing business and management students for future team-based work environments.










Inclusive Leadership Development: Drawing From Pedagogies of Womens and General Leadership Development Programs

2016-05-03T11:14:51-07:00

Trends in extant literature suggest that more relational and identity-based leadership approaches are necessary for leadership that can harness the benefits of the diverse and globalized workforces of today and the future. In this study, we compared general leadership development programs (GLDPs) and women’s leadership development programs (WLDPs) to understand to what extent program descriptions addressed inclusive leadership—leadership that draws on relational skills to value both the uniqueness and belonging needs of diverse identities to create business effectiveness for the long term. GLDPs predominantly reflected pedagogical assumptions of separate knowing, development of the autonomous self, and masculine leadership approaches of agentic and transactional leadership. In contrast, pedagogical assumptions of connected knowing, development of the relational self, and relational and identity-based leadership approaches were more prevalent in WLDPs. These findings suggest that WLDPs continue to offer significant value to supporting women leaders in their advancement, yet both WLDPs and GLDPs can do more to be inclusive of additional diverse identities to better develop leaders of the future who can lead with inclusive behaviors. We suggest a pedagogical framework for inclusive leadership development that may better balance and promote synergies between achieving business priorities and relating to others and their diverse identities.




From a Politics of Dilemmas to a Politics of Paradoxes: Feminism, Pedagogy, and Womens Leadership for Social Change

2016-05-03T11:14:51-07:00

Transformational learning is a process resulting in deep and significant change in habitual patterns of identity, thought, emotion, and action, enabling new approaches to role enactment. This article explores how moving from a framework of dilemmas, which require solutions and one-sided choices, to a framework of paradoxes that embraces tensions and contradictions can contribute to meaningful transformational learning in the context of women’s leadership development. Drawing on recent theories of paradoxes and on critical feminist theory, we propose a critical feminist pedagogy of paradoxes for developing women’s leadership of social change enterprises. This perspective is put forth based on our analysis of an experiential course in a graduate gender studies program wherein participants take on leadership roles and interrogate them, by integrating theoretical discussions, reflection, and practical engagement in social activism. We use case studies from our students’ experiences in the field and in the classroom to demonstrate and explore the use of paradoxical thinking for teaching complex modes of leadership. We then show how fundamental, unresolvable paradoxes can be generative of novel ways of enacting social change leadership. We suggest several advantages and implications that this critical feminist pedagogy of paradoxes can have on the development of women’s leadership.




Network-Based Leadership Development: A Guiding Framework and Resources for Management Educators

2016-05-03T11:14:51-07:00

Management education and leadership development has traditionally focused on improving human capital (i.e., knowledge, skills, and abilities). Social capital, networks, and networking skills have received less attention. When this content has been incorporated into learning and development experiences, it has often been more ad hoc and has overlooked how gender affects individuals’ ability to build and use networks effectively. To address these limitations, we present a three-step framework designed to guide management educators in helping others to (1) address misconceptions they have about networks and networking, (2) learn whether their current network is effective, and (3) identify networking strategies they can use to change their network and improve its effectiveness. In each stage, we discuss challenges that both men and women face and identify challenges that are particularly salient for women. Beyond providing this framework as a guide for incorporating networks, networking, and social capital into leadership development, we offer resources management educators can use at each step to create positive learning and development experiences. Finally, we discuss specific considerations for implementing network-based leadership development in women’s only and mixed gender courses and leadership development programs.













A Systematic Approach to Educating the Emerging Adult Learner in Undergraduate Management Courses

2016-03-03T17:03:11-08:00

Management education research has provided educators with new instructional tools to improve course design and update the methods used in the classroom. In an effort to provide the typical undergraduate management student with the best possible learning experience and outcomes, it is important to recognize how and why these new activities benefit the student. To reach this goal, one must first understand that the traditional undergraduate management student, aged 18 to 25 years, is in a phase of life development referred to as emerging adulthood in which they are distinctly different from mature adults demographically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially. With this understanding, our research analyzes how each of the six assumptions of andragogy can be applied uniquely to the emerging adult undergraduate management student. We provide the management educator with a method for classifying the level of development of students along the focus areas of andragogy, general instructional design ideas for addressing those particular levels of development, and a number of specific activities identified in a review of Journal of Management Education articles with notes on the conditions under which activities will be most effective. Student learning experiences can be improved when course activities are designed more intentionally and meaningfully.




Protecting Student Intellectual Property in the Entrepreneurial Classroom

2016-03-03T17:03:11-08:00

While universities are intensely protective of revenue streams related to intellectual property interests for the institution and professors, the financial and legal interests of students in the entrepreneurial process have largely been overlooked. This lack of attention, both in universities and in the literature, is intriguing given the mushrooming growth in entrepreneurial education courses in almost every U.S. university. This article builds and reflects on an original article by Katz, Harshman, and Lund Dean where the authors advocate for establishing classroom norms for promoting and protecting student intellectual property. We present research, insights, and reflections from Professor Katz regarding the controversial ethical and legal issues related to student intellectual property in university settings and provide suggested resources for faculty traversing these issues.




Getting to the Root of the Problem in Experiential Learning: Using Problem Solving and Collective Reflection to Improve Learning Outcomes

2016-03-03T17:03:11-08:00

Experiential learning alone does not guarantee that students will accurately conceptualize content, or meet course outcomes in subsequent active experimentation stages. In an effort to more effectively meet learning objectives, the experiential learning cycle was modified with a unique combination of the 5 Whys root cause problem-solving tool and a collective reflection step. Applying these modifications through multiple iterations of in-class exercises, students in lean operations and leadership courses were able to move beyond treating symptoms of problems and generate more viable alternative actions for future applications of their learning. Improved grades, greater achievement of learning objectives, and positive student reactions provide evidence of the modified experiential learning cycle’s success. A generalized framework for using the modified learning cycle in other management courses is also presented.




Strategies for Teaching Evidence-Based Management: What Management Educators Can Learn From Medicine

2016-03-03T17:03:11-08:00

Evidence-based management (EBMgt) is a growing literature stream in management education which contends that management decision making should be informed by the best available scientific evidence (Rousseau, 2006). Encouraged by the success of evidence-based practice in the field of medicine, advocates of EBMgt have increasingly called for management educators to develop graduates into evidence-based practitioners who—like physicians—value and use evidence in their daily practice in organizations. In this essay, we contribute to these debates by exploring three strategies that are used in medicine to train physicians to engage with evidence: embedding the normative foundation of evidence in problem-solving routines, role modelling being a reflective research consumer, and creating teachable moments through lived experience of research. We consider whether and how these strategies can be adapted to inform teaching the teaching of EBMgt. Drawing on these insights from physician training, we suggest a range of methods and techniques that management educators can implement in their teaching to facilitate student learning about evidence-based practice. We also consider the challenge of developing evidence-based cultures in organizations.