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Z-selective ring-closing metathesis reactions

Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates generally to olefin metathesis. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for Z-selective ring-closing metathesis.



Method for the manufacture of branched saturated hydrocarbons

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to a method for the manufacture of branched saturated hydrocarbons, said method comprising the steps where a feed comprising olefins having at least 10 carbons is simultaneously hydrogenated and isomerized in the presence of hydrogen at a temperature of 100-400° C., under hydrogen partial pressure of 0.01-10 MPa, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the metals of Group VIIIb of the Periodic Table of Elements, a molecular sieve selected from ten member ring molecular sieves, twelve member ring molecular sieves and mesoporous molecular sieves embedded with zeolite, and a carrier, to yield branched saturated hydrocarbons.



Methods and apparatuses for isomerization of paraffins

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for isomerization of paraffins are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating an isomerization effluent into a product stream that comprises branched paraffins and a stabilizer vapor stream that comprises HCl, H2, and C6-hydrocarbons. C6-hydrocarbons are removed from the stabilizer overhead vapor stream to form a HCl and H2-rich stream. An isomerization catalyst is activated using at least a portion of the HCl and H2-rich stream to form a chloride-promoted isomerization catalyst. A paraffin feed stream is contacted with the chloride-promoted isomerization catalyst in the presence of hydrogen for isomerization of the paraffins.



Catalyst for metathesis of ethylene and 2-butene and/or double bond isomerization

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for the double-bond isomerization of olefins is disclosed. The process may include contacting a fluid stream comprising olefins with a fixed bed comprising an activated basic metal oxide isomerization catalyst to convert at least a portion of the olefin to its isomer. The isomerization catalysts disclosed herein may have a reduced cycle to cycle deactivation as compared to conventional catalysts, thus maintaining higher activity over the complete catalyst life cycle.



Method for quenching paraffin dehydrogenation reaction in counter-current reactor

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process is presented for quenching a process stream in a paraffin dehydrogenation process. The process comprises cooling a propane dehydrogenation stream during the hot residence time after the process stream leaves the catalytic bed reactor section. The process includes cooling and compressing the product stream, taking a portion of the product stream and passing the portion of the product stream to the mix with the process stream as it leaves the catalytic bed reactor section.



Catalysts for petrochemical catalysis

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Metal oxide catalysts comprising various dopants are provided. The catalysts are useful as heterogenous catalysts in a variety of catalytic reactions, for example, the oxidative coupling of methane to C2 hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene. Related methods for use and manufacture of the same are also disclosed.



Co-processing of biomass and synthetic polymer based materials in a pyrolysis conversion process

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a process for biomass conversion which includes co-processing the biomass with thermoplastic and non-thermoplastic polymer based materials in a catalytic pyrolysis reactor to convert such to liquid hydrocarbons; wherein hydrogen atoms originating with the polymer materials can remove oxygen from oxygenated hydrocarbons produced in the conversion of the biomass in the reactor.



Synthesis of high caloric fuels and chemicals

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

In one embodiment, the present application discloses methods to selectively synthesize higher alcohols and hydrocarbons useful as fuels and industrial chemicals from syngas and biomass. Ketene and ketonization chemistry along with hydrogenation reactions are used to synthesize fuels and chemicals. In another embodiment, ketene used to form fuels and chemicals may be manufactured from acetic acid which in turn can be synthesized from synthesis gas which is produced from coal, biomass, natural gas, etc.



Catalyst system for heterogenous catalysis of an isobutylene polymerization reaction

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for preparing a catalyst system for heterogenous catalysis of an isobutylene polymerization reaction includes the steps of forming an alumina support in which the alumina support has pores formed therein, and reacting BF3/methanol catalyst complex with the alumina support. The ratio of methanol to BF3 in the catalyst complex ranges from 0.5 moles to 2 moles of methanol per mole of BF3. The alumina support is formed so as to have pores each having a diameter of greater than twenty nanometers. The alumina support can be in the form of beads or extrudates having a length significantly greater than a diameter. The extrudate can also have a tri-lobe configuration.



Electronic device comprising an organic semiconducting material

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to an electronic device comprising at least one organic semiconducting material according to the following formula (I): wherein R1-4 are independently selected from H, halogen, CN, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20-alkyl or heteroalkyl, C6-C20-aryl or C5-C20-heteroaryl, C1-C20-alkoxy or C6-C20-aryloxy, Ar is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20-aryl or C5-C20-heteroaryl, and R5 is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20-aryl or C5-C20-heteroaryl, H, F or formula (II).



Use of phosphorus modified molecular sieves in conversion of organics to olefins

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method of making light olefins in a combined XTO (organics to olefins) and OCP (olefins cracking) process, from an oxygen-containing, halogenide-containing, or sulphur-containing organic feedstock contacted with a catalyst in a first reactor to convert the feedstock into a reactor effluent comprising light olefins and a heavy hydrocarbon fraction; separating the light olefins from the heavy hydrocarbon fraction, then contacting the heavy hydrocarbon fraction in a second reactor with a catalyst to convert a portion of the heavy hydrocarbons into light olefins; wherein the catalyst is a zeolite selected among a H+ or NH4+—form of MFI, MEL, FER, MOR, or clinoptilolite; modifying the zeolite by adding from 0.05 to 7 wt % of phosphorous to the zeolite, and an optional washing and/or drying in either order, then calcination. In an embodiment, the initial zeolite Si:Al atomic ratio of at least one catalyst is 100 or less.



Oligomerisation of olefinic compounds in the presence of an activated oligomerisation catalyst

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This invention relates to the oligomerization of olefinic compounds in the presence of an activated oligomerization catalyst. The invention also extends to a particular manner for providing an activated oligomerization catalyst. According to the present invention, there is provided a process for producing an oligomeric product by the oligomerization of at least one olefinic compound, the process including (a) providing an activated oligomerization catalyst by combining, in any order, iii) a source of chromium, ιv) a ligating compound of the formula (R1)mX1(Y)X2(R2)n wherein X1 and X2 are independently an atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, oxygen, sulphur and selenium or said atom oxidized by S, Se, N or O where the valence of X1 and/or X2 allows for such oxidation, Y is a linking group between X1 and X2 which linking group contains at least one nitrogen atom which is directly bonded to X1 or X2, m and n are independently 0, 1 or a larger integer, and R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, a hydrocarbyl group, an organoheteryl group or a heterohydrocarbyl group, and the respective R1 groups are the same or different when m>1, and the respective R2 groups are the same or different when n>1, in) a catalyst activator which is an organoboron compound including a cation and a non-coordinating anion of the general formula [(R10)xL*-H]+[B(R20)4]− wherein L* is an atom selected from the group consisting of N, S and P, the cation [(R10)x L*-H]* is a Bronsted acid, x is an integer 1, 2 or 3, each R10 is the same or different when x is 2 or 3 and each is a —H, hydrocarbyl group or a heterohydrocarbyl group, provided that at least one of R10 comprises at least 6 carbon atoms and provided further that the total number of carbon atoms in (R10)x collectively is greater than 12, R20 independently at each occurrence is selected from the group consisting of hydride, dialkylamido, halide, alkoxide, aryloxide, hydrocarbyl, halosubstituted-hydrocarbyl radicals, halosubstituted-alkoxide, halosubstituted-aryloxide and a halosubstituted aromatic ring moiety with at least one halide substituent on the aromatic ring, and vi) an aliphatic solvent, and (b) contacting the at least one olefinic compound with the activated oligomerization catalyst to produce an oligomeric product.



Integrated hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactor in a platforming process

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for reforming a hydrocarbon stream is presented. The process involves splitting a naphtha feedstream to at least two feedstreams and partially processing each feedstream in separate reactors. The processing includes passing the light stream to a combination hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactor. The process reduces the energy by reducing the endothermic properties of intermediate reformed process streams.



Continuous process for conversion of lignin to useful compounds

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This specification discloses an operational continuous process to convert lignin as found in ligno-cellulosic biomass before or after converting at least some of the carbohydrates. The continuous process has been demonstrated to create a slurry comprised of lignin, raise the slurry comprised of lignin to ultra-high pressure, deoxygenate the lignin in a lignin conversion reactor over a catalyst which is not a fixed bed without producing char. The conversion products of the carbohydrates or lignin can be further processed into polyester intermediates for use in polyester preforms and bottles.



Biomass feed system including gas assist

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An improved biomass feed system and processes for transporting biomass to downstream processing locations are disclosed. The system uses a pressurized gas to assist in the transporting of the biomass to the conversion reactor.



Hydroconversion of renewable feedstocks

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A hydrocarbon conversion process comprises contacting a renewable feedstock under hydroprocessing conditions with a bulk catalyst to form oleochemicals such as fatty alcohols, esters, and normal paraffins. Advantageously, the reaction conditions can be selected to directly convert the renewable feedstock to the desired product(s).



High octane unleaded aviation gasoline

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

High octane unleaded aviation fuel compositions having high aromatics content and a CHN content of at least 97.2 wt %, less than 2.8 wt % of oxygen content, a T10 of at most 75° C., T40 of at least 75° C., a T50 of at most 105° C., a T90 of at most 135° C., a final boiling point of less than 190° C., an adjusted heat of combustion of at least 43.5 MJ/kg, a vapor pressure in the range of 38 to 49 kPa, freezing point is less than −58° C. is provided.



High energy distillate fuel composition and method of making the same

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The disclosure describes a high energy density jet fuel composition, having a smoke point about 18 mm as determined by ASTM D1322 and a thermal stability of no more than 25 mm Hg as determined by ASTM D 3241, and a method for making a jet fuel composition, wherein the net heat of combustion is determined by the aromatics content, cycloparaffins content, and normal plus or iso paraffins content in the jet fuel composition.



Catalyst compositions for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range and process of preparation thereof

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a catalyst composition for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range, comprising a porous support; Group III A or VA element in the range of 1-10 wt %; Group VI B elements in the range of 1 to 20 wt %; Group VIII B elements in range of 0.01 to 10 wt %. The present invention further provides the process for preparing the catalyst composition for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range. The present invention also provides the process for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range using the catalyst composition or discarded refinery spent hydro-treating catalyst.



CO2-capturing binder, production method thereof based on the selection, purification and optimisation of carbide lime, and agglomerates having an environmental activity

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to CO2 capturing binder with an amortized environmental cost, the method of manufacture thereof by means of selecting, purifying and optimizing the carbide lime paste for use as a cementing material, and aggregates for the manufacture of lime paints and slurries, stuccos, mortars and concretes having multiple applications in the construction industry, in architectural restoration, in public works and land conditioning, object of the present invention. It is basically characterized in that the raw material is the residue in the form of sludge generated in the industrial manufacture of acetylene (C2H2) from calcium carbide (CaC2) the fundamental component of which is calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in highly reactive nanometric formations treated in a specific manner according to the invention.



Methods for removing weakly basic nitrogen compounds from a hydrocarbon stream using acidic clay

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a method for removing weakly basic nitrogen compounds from a hydrocarbon feed stream by contacting the hydrocarbon feed stream with acidic clay to produce a hydrocarbon effluent stream having a lower weakly basic nitrogen compound content relative to the hydrocarbon feed stream. The hydrocarbon feed stream comprises an aromatic compound and a weakly basic nitrogen compound.



Selective oligomerization of isobutene

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for oligomerizing isobutene comprises contacting a feedstock comprising isobutene with a catalyst comprising a MCM-22 family molecular sieve under conditions effective to oligomerize the isobutene, wherein said conditions including a temperature from about 45° C. to less than 140° C. The isobutene may be a component of a hydrocarbon feedstock containing at least one additional C4 alkene. In certain aspects, isobutene oligomers are separated from a first effluent of the oligomerization to produce a second effluent comprising at least one n-butene. The second effluent can be contacted with an alkylation catalyst to produce sec-butylbenzene.



Process to make alpha olefins from ethanol

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a process to make alpha olefins comprising: dehydrating ethanol to recover an ethylene stream,introducing said ethylene stream into an oligomerization zone containing an oligomerization catalyst and into contact with said oligomerization catalyst,operating said oligomerization zone at conditions effective to produce an effluent consisting essentially of 1-butene, 1-hexene, optionally heavier alpha olefins and unconverted ethylene if any,introducing the above effluent into a fractionation zone to recover a stream consisting essentially of 1-butene, a stream consisting essentially of 1-hexene, optionally a stream consisting essentially of heavier alpha olefins and an optional ethylene stream. In an advantageous embodiment the 1-hexene or at least one heavier alpha olefins, if any, are isomerized to an internal olefin and subsequently transformed by metathesis with the aid of additional ethylene into different alpha-olefins with even or odd number of carbons. By way of example 1-hexene is isomerized into 2-hexene and by methathesis with ethylene converted to 1-pentene and propylene.In another embodiment the oligomerization zone is only a dimerization zone and butene is produced. 1-butene is isomerized to 2-butene and sent to a methathesis zone in the presence of ethylene to be converted to propylene. In said embodiment the dehydration catalyst is selected in the group consisting of a crystalline silicate having a ratio Si/Al of at least about 100, a dealuminated crystalline silicate, and a phosphorus modified zeolite.



Integrated hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactor in a platforming process

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for reforming a hydrocarbon stream is presented. The process involves splitting a naphtha feedstream to at least two feedstreams and partially processing each feedstream in separate reactors. The processing includes passing the light stream to a combination hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactor. The process reduces the energy by reducing the endothermic properties of intermediate reformed process streams.



Demulsifying of hydrocarbon feeds

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

In various aspects, the invention provides for processing a hydrocarbon feed having hydrocarbon and emulsified aqueous components demulsifying into hydrocarbon and aqueous phases over an initial demulsification time, with an active agent to form a treated feed. The active agent has an active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component and in the aqueous component, the aqueous component has an aqueous component solubility in the hydrocarbon component. The active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component is greater than the aqueous component solubility in the hydrocarbon component. The active agent solubility in the aqueous component is greater than the active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component. The active agent solubility in the aqueous component is greater than the active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component. A treated demulsified hydrocarbon phase separates from the active agent and the aqueous component in a modified demulsification time that is shorter than the initial demulsification time.



Method for increasing thermal stability of a fuel composition using a solid phosphoric acid catalyst

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This invention relates to a method for increasing thermal stability of fuel, as well as in reducing nitrogen content and/or enhancing color quality of the fuel. According to the method, a fuel feedstock can be treated with a solid phosphoric acid catalyst under appropriate catalyst conditions, e.g., to increase the thermal stability of the fuel feedstock. Preferably, the fuel feedstock can be treated with the solid phosphoric acid catalyst at a ratio of catalyst mass within a contact zone to a mass flow rate of feedstock through the zone of at least about 18 minutes to increase the thermal stability of the fuel feedstock, along with reducing nitrogen content and/or enhancing color quality.



System and process for flushing residual fluid from transfer lines in simulated moving bed adsorption

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process according to various approaches includes flushing an intermediate transfer line between a raffinate stream transfer line and a desorbent stream transfer line away from the adsorptive separation chamber to remove residual fluid including desorbent from intermediate transfer line. The process may include directing the residual fluid flushed from the intermediate transfer line to a recycle stream to introduce the residual fluid into the adsorptive separation chamber.



Methods for removing weakly basic nitrogen compounds from a hydrocarbon stream using basic molecular sieves

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a method for removing weakly basic nitrogen compounds from a hydrocarbon feed stream by contacting the hydrocarbon feed stream with a basic catalyst to convert a portion of the weakly basic nitrogen compounds to basic nitrogen compounds. The method also includes contacting the hydrocarbon feed stream with an acidic adsorbent to adsorb the basic nitrogen compounds from the stream. The hydrocarbon feed stream comprises an aromatic compound and a weakly basic nitrogen compound.



Method for producing olefin

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides a method for producing an olefin from a carboxylic acid having a β-hydrogen atom or an anhydride thereof in the presene of a catalyst containing at least one metal element selected from metals of Group 8, Group 9 and Group 10 and bromine element at a reaction temperature of 120° C. to 270° C.



Catalysts, processes for preparing the catalysts, and processes for transalkylating aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A catalyst comprising an aluminosilicate zeolite having an MOR framework type, an acidic MFI molecular sieve component having a Si/Al2 molar ratio of less than 80, a metal component comprising one or more elements selected from groups VIB, VIIB, VIII, and IVA, an inorganic oxide binder, and a fluoride component.



Method for controlling 2-phenyl isomer content of linear alkylbenzene and catalyst used in the method

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for controlling 2-isomer content in linear alkylbenzene obtained by alkylating benzene with olefins and catalyst used in the method.



Process for producing olefins

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention discloses a process for producing olefins from petroleum saturated hydrocarbons. The process of the present invention comprises: contacting a preheated petroleum saturated hydrocarbons feedstock with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a dehydrogenation reaction zone of a reaction system to obtain a petroleum hydrocarbon stream containing unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds, in which the dehydrogenation reaction has a conversion rate of at least 20%; and contacting the obtained petroleum hydrocarbon stream containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds with olefins cracking catalyst in an olefin cracking zone of the reaction system to obtain a product stream containing olefins with a reduced number of carbon atoms.



Co-current catalyst flow with feed for fractionated feed recombined and sent to high temperature reforming reactors

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process is presented for the increasing the yields of aromatics from reforming a hydrocarbon feedstream. The process includes splitting a naphtha feedstream into a light hydrocarbon stream, and a heavier stream having a relatively rich concentration of naphthenes. The heavy stream is reformed to convert the naphthenes to aromatics and the resulting product stream is further reformed with the light hydrocarbon stream to increase the aromatics yields. The catalyst is passed through the reactors in a sequential manner.



Initial hydrotreating of naphthenes with subsequent high temperature reforming

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for the production of aromatics through the reforming of a hydrocarbon stream is presented. The process utilizes the differences in properties of components within the hydrocarbon stream to increase the energy efficiency. The differences in the reactions of different hydrocarbon components in the conversion to aromatics allows for different treatments of the different components to reduce the energy used in reforming process.



Integrated hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactor in a catalytic reforming process configuration for improved aromatics production

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for reforming hydrocarbons is presented. The process involves applying process controls over the reaction temperatures to preferentially convert a portion of the hydrocarbon stream to generate an intermediate stream, which will further react with reduced endothermicity. The intermediate stream is then processed at a higher temperature, where a second reforming reactor is operated under substantially isothermal conditions.



Conversion of triacylglycerides-containing oils

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for converting triacylglycerides-containing oils into crude oil precursors and/or distillate hydrocarbon fuels is disclosed. The process may include reacting a triacylglycerides-containing oil-carbon dioxide mixture at a temperature in the range from about 250° C. to about 525° C. and a pressure greater than about 75 bar to convert at least a portion of the triacylglycerides to a hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons comprising one or more of isoolefins, isoparaffins, cycloolefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics.



Method and apparatus for preparing fuel components from crude tall oil

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for preparing fuel components from crude tall oil. Feedstock containing tall oil including unsaturated fatty acids is introduced to a catalytic hydrodeoxygenation to convert unsaturated fatty acids, rosin acids and sterols to fuel components. Crude tall oil is purified in a purification by washing the crude tall oil with washing liquid and separating the purified crude tall oil from the washing liquid. The purified crude tall oil is introduced directly to the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation as a purified crude tall oil feedstock. An additional feedstock may be supplied to the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.



Dehydrogenation process

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A dehydrogenation process for the dehydrogenation of at least one dehydrogenatable hydrocarbon, the process comprising contacting a feed comprising the at least one dehydrogenatable hydrocarbon under dehydrogenation conditions with a catalyst composition comprising a support and at least one dehydrogenation component wherein said conditions include a temperature of from 400° C. to 750° C. and a pressure of at least 50 psig (345 kPag).



Method for producing p-xylene and/or p-tolualdehyde

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a method for producing p-xylene and/or p-tolualdehyde with high yield through a short process using biomass resource-derived substances as raw materials. The method for producing p-xylene and/or p-tolualdehyde of the present invention comprises: a cyclization step of producing 4-methyl-3-cyclohexenecarboxaldehyde from isoprene and acrolein; and an aromatization step of producing p-xylene and/or p-tolualdehyde from 4-methyl-3-cyclohexenecarboxaldehyde by gas-phase flow reaction using a catalyst(s).



Reactor

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A liquid/gas reactor includes a bulk catalyst bed and means for supplying fresh feed and recycled at least partially converted liquid product stream to the bulk catalyst bed. The reactor also includes means for collecting an at least partially converted liquid product stream from the bulk catalyst bed and recycling at least a portion thereto. A minor catalyst bed extends substantially vertically through the bulk catalyst bed. Means for supplying recycled at least partially converted product stream only to the minor catalyst bed is also provided. A separating wall is disposed between the bulk catalyst bed and the minor catalyst bed.



High temperature platformer

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An apparatus for reforming a hydrocarbon stream is presented. The apparatus involves changing the design of reformers and associated equipment to allow for increasing the processing temperatures in the reformers and heaters. The reformers are operated under different conditions to utilize advantages in the equilibriums, but require modifications to prevent increasing thermal cracking and to prevent increases in coking.



Method and apparatus for applying plasma particles to a liquid and use for disinfecting water

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention provides a method and apparatus for creating plasma particles and applying the plasma particles to a liquid. Liquid feedstock (e.g., water and/or hydrocarbons mixed with biomass) is pumped through a pipeline; the single-phase stream is then transformed into a biphasic liquid-and-gas stream inside a chamber. The transformation is achieved by transitioning the stream from a high pressure zone to a lower-pressure zone. The pressure drop may occur when the stream further passes through a device for atomizing liquid. Inside the chamber, an electric field is generated with an intensity level that exceeds the threshold of breakdown voltage of the biphasic medium leading to a generation of a plasma state. Furthermore, the invention provides an energy-efficient highly adaptable and versatile method and apparatus for sanitizing water using plasma particles to inactivate biological agents contaminating water.



Lubricant composition for an internal combustion engine and method for lubricating an internal combustion engine

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine contains a component (A) of a polyalphaolefin having a kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C. of 5.5 mm2/s or less, a CCS viscosity at −35 degrees C. of 3000 mPA·s or less and a NOACK of 12 mass % or less, and a component (B) of a mineral oil having a viscosity index of 120 or more. The component (A) is contained at a content of 10 mass % or more of a total amount of the composition.



Lubricant composition for an internal combustion engine and method for lubricating an internal combustion engine

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine contains: a base oil including a component (A) of a polyalphaolefin having a kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C. of 5.5 mm2/s or less, a CCS viscosity at −35 degrees C. of 3000 mPa·s or less and a NOACK of 12 mass % or less and a component (B) of a mineral oil having a viscosity index of 120 or more; and polyisobutylene having a mass average molecular weight of 500,000 or more. A content of the composition (A) is 25 mass % or more of a total amount of a lubricating oil.



Fuel production method, fuel production apparatus, and fuel oil

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A fuel production method and a fuel production apparatus, for producing fuel by which the fuel efficiency can be improved and the generation of hazardous substances can be easily suppressed and which is stable, and fuel oil produced by such a method and apparatus are provided. This improves the satisfaction of users, and contributes to the prevention of environmental destruction. A fuel production method for producing fuel oil by mixing and reacting enzyme water with petroleum-based hydrocarbon oil is provided, the enzyme water being produced by mixing a natural plant enzyme, containing at least lipase, in water. The natural plant enzyme further contains cellulase. The enzyme water further contains methanol.



Catalyst composition and process for oligomerization of ethylene

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a catalyst composition for oligomerization of ethylene, comprising a chromium compound; a ligand of the general structure R1R2P—N(R3)—P(R4)—N(R5)—H, wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 are independently selected from halogen, amino, trimethylsilyl, C1-C10-alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; a modifier containing organic or inorganic halide; and an activator or co-catalyst; and a process for oligomerization utilizing that catalyst.



Separation of components from a multi-component hydrocarbon stream which includes ethylene

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process to separate a multi-component hydrocarbon stream which includes ethylene and other components with at least some of the components being present in a number of phases, is provided. The process includes in a first flash stage, flashing the multi-component hydrocarbon stream, from an elevated pressure and temperature to a pressure in the range of 10-18 bar(a), producing a first ethylene-containing vapor stream at a pressure in the range of 10-18 bar(a) and a multi-phase stream which includes some ethylene. In a second flash stage, the multi-phase stream is flashed to a pressure of less than 6 bar(a), producing a second vapor stream at a pressure of less than 6 bar(a) and a bottoms stream. The first ethylene-containing vapor stream is removed from the first flash stage, the second vapor stream is removed from the second flash stage and the bottoms stream is removed from the second flash stage.



Fuel compositions

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Use in a gas oil fuel composition, which preferably comprises a Fischer-Tropsch derived fuel, of a compound according to formula (I): wherein: R1 to R4 are each independently hydrogen or a C1-10 alkyl group, where such alkyl groups may be the same as or different from one another; and X is a nitrogen- or oxygen-containing group, for the purpose of reducing the cetane number of said fuel composition; preparation of such a fuel composition; and operating a fuel consuming system.



Process for removing oxygenate from an olefin stream

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides a process for removing oxygenate from an olefin stream comprising oxygenate, comprising providing to an oxygenate recovery zone the olefin stream comprising oxygenate and a solvent comprising ethanol, treating the olefin stream comprising oxygenate with the solvent, and retrieving from the oxygenate recovery zone at least one oxygenate-depleted olefinic product stream comprising olefin and a spent solvent comprising at least part of the oxygenate.



Adsorption of acid gases

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An adsorption process is disclosed for removal of acid gas contaminants from a liquid or gas which comprises providing an activated alumina adsorbent which is impregnated with a compound selected from the group consisting of one or more alkali metal compounds, one or more alkaline earth metal compounds, or a mixture of such compounds; contacting the liquid or gas containing acid gas contaminants with the activated alumina adsorbent to adsorb enough acid gas contaminant in the liquid or gas to lower the contaminant content of the liquid or gas, the alumina adsorbent being formed from agglomerated calcined alumina powder and provided with a mercury pore volume of pores greater than 500 angstroms at least 0.10 cc/g.