Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThis invention provides a process for producing 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, the process comprising: (1) a first reaction step of reacting hydrogen fluoride with at least one chlorine-containing compound selected from the group consisting of a chloropropane represented by Formula (1): CClX2CHClCH2Cl, wherein each X is the same or different and is CI or F, a chloropropene represented by Formula (2): CClY2CCl═CH2, wherein each Y is the same or different and is CI or F, and a chloropropene represented by Formula (3): CZ2═CClCH2Cl, wherein each Z is the same or different and is CI or F in a gas phase in the absence of a catalyst while heating; and (2) a second reaction step of reacting hydrogen fluoride with a reaction product obtained in the first reaction step in a gas phase in the presence of a fluorination catalyst while heating. According to the process of this invention, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) can be obtained with high selectivity, and catalyst deterioration can be suppressed.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA process for making a fluorinated olefin having the step of dehydrochlorinating a hydrochlorofluorocarbon having at least one hydrogen atom and at least one chlorine atom on adjacent carbon atoms, preferably carried out in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of (i) one or more metal halides, (ii) one or more halogenated metal oxides, (iii) one or more zero-valent metals/metal alloys, (iv) a combination of two or more of the foregoing.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA novel substance with which an increase in life and emission efficiency of a light-emitting element can be achieved is provided. A carbazole compound having a structure represented by General Formula (G1) is provided. Note that a substituent which makes the HOMO level and the LUMO level of a compound in which a bond of the substituent is substituted with hydrogen deep and shallow, respectively is used as each of substituents in General Formula (G1) (R1, R2, Ar3, and α3). Further, a substituent which makes the band gap (Bg) and the T1 level of a compound in which a bond of the substituent is substituted with hydrogen wide and high is used as each of the substituents in General Formula (G1) (R1, R2, Ar3, and α3).
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method of preparing functionalized graphene, comprises treating graphene with an alkali metal in the presence of an electron transfer agent and coordinating solvent, and adding a functionalizing compound. The method further includes quenching unreacted alkali metal by addition of a protic medium, and isolating the functionalized graphene.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed is a process for producing 2-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (1224), including a first step of separating 2,3-dichloro-1,1,1,3-tetrafluoropropane (234da) into erythro form and threo form, and a second step of bringing the separated erythro form or threo form in contact with a base to obtain 2-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (1224). The first step is a step of separating 234da by distillation to achieve a separation into a fraction containing mainly erythro form and a fraction containing mainly threo form. In the second step, 1224 cis form is obtained from the erythro form, and 1224 trans form is obtained from the threo form. By this process, it is possible to selectively and efficiently produce cis form or trans form of 2-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (1224).
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for producing fluorinated organic compounds, including hydrofluoropropenes, which preferably comprises converting at least one compound of formula (I): CF3(—CX2X2)nCX1═H2 (I) to at least one compound of formula (II): CF3(CX2X2)nCX1═H2 (II), where X1 is Cl, Br or I, each X2 is independently selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, Br or J, and n is 0, 1, or 2.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides routes for making 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (HCFO-1233zd) from commercially available raw materials. More specifically, this invention provides several routes for forming HCFO-1233zd from 3,3,3-trifluoropropene (FC-1234zf).
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides routes for making 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (HCFO-1233zd) from commercially available raw materials. More specifically, this invention provides routes for HCFO-1233zd from inexpensive and commercially available trifluoromethane (HFC-23).
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTParticular compounds having a fluorene skeleton are superior in broad utility and stability, as a protecting reagent for liquid phase synthesis of amino acids and/or peptides.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTFluorinated aromatic materials, their synthesis and their use in optoelectronics. In some cases, the fluorinated aromatic materials are perfluoroalkylated aromatic materials that may include perfluoropolyether substituents.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods for fluorinating organic compounds are described herein.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTProvided is a process for making 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane. The process has the step of hydrofluorinating 2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of SbCl3, SbCl5, SbF5, TiCl4, SnCl4, Cr2O3, and fluorinated Cr2O3.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTTo provide a method for efficiently separating 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) and chloromethane (R40) from a composition comprising HFO-1234yf and R40. An azeotrope-like composition comprising from 58 to 78 mol % of HFO-1234yf and from 22 to 42 mol % of R40, and a method for producing HFO-1234yf, which comprises steps of distilling an initial mixture containing HFO-1234yf in a content exceeding 63 mol % in the total amount of HFO-1234yf and R40, thereby to separate the initial mixture into a first fraction in which the content of HFO-1234yf in the total amount of HFO-1234yf and R40 is lower than the content of HFO-1234yf in the total amount of HFO-1234yf and R40 in the initial mixture, and a second fraction in which the content of HFO-1234yf in the total amount of HFO-1234yf and R40 is higher than the content of HFO-1234yf in the total amount of HFO-1234yf and R40 in the initial mixture, and then obtaining HFO-1234yf having a reduced R40 concentration, from the second fraction.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides a method for separating halocarbons. In particular, the invention provides a method for separating halogenated olefin impurities from 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane (HCFC-244bb) using a solid adsorbent, particularly activated carbon. More particularly the invention pertains to a method for separating 2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-propene (HCFO-1233xf) from HCFC-244bb, which are useful as intermediates in the production of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf).
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe subject of the invention is a process for the preparation of fluoroolefin compounds. It relates more particularly to a process for manufacturing a (hydro)fluoroolefin compound comprising (i) bringing at least one compound comprising from three to six carbon atoms, at least two fluorine atoms and at least one hydrogen atom, provided that at least one hydrogen atom and one fluorine atom are located on adjacent carbon atoms, into contact with potassium hydroxide in a stirred reactor, containing an aqueous reaction medium, equipped with at least one inlet for the reactants and with at least one outlet, in order to give the (hydro)fluoroolefin compound, which is separated from the reaction medium in gaseous form, and potassium fluoride, (ii) bringing the potassium fluoride formed in (i) into contact, in an aqueous medium, with calcium hydroxide in order to give potassium hydroxide and to precipitate calcium fluoride, (iii) separation of the calcium fluoride precipitated in step (ii) from the reaction medium and (iv) optionally, the reaction medium is recycled after optional adjustment of the potassium hydroxide concentration to step (i).
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed is a reactor and agitator useful in a high pressure process for making 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (1233zd) from the reaction of 1,1,1,3,3-pentachloropropane (240fa) and HF, wherein the agitator includes one or more of the following design improvements: (a) double mechanical seals with an inert barrier fluid or a single seal;(b) ceramics on the rotating faces of the seal;(c) ceramics on the static faces of seal;(d) wetted o-rings constructed of spring-energized Teflon and PTFE wedge or dynamic o-ring designs; and(e) wetted metal surfaces of the agitator constructed of a corrosion resistant alloy.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention relates to a process for the preparation of formula (I) which process comprises pyrolyzing a compound of formula (II) wherein X is chloro or bromo, and to compounds which may be used as intermediates for the manufacture of the compound of formula I and to the preparation of said intermediates.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for preparing 13C labeled iodotridecane represented by Formula A: The method comprises the conversion of 13C labeled propargyl alcohol to 13C labeled iodotridecane via alkylation of propargyl alcohol with iododecane.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention relates to a process for removing one or more undesired (hydro)halocarbon compounds from a (hydro)fluoroalkene, the process comprising contacting a composition comprising the (hydro)fluoroalkene and one or more undesired (hydro)halocarbon compounds with an aluminum-containing absorbent, activated carbon, or a mixture thereof.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA dehydrochlorination process is disclosed. The process involves contacting RfCFClCH2X with a catalyst in a reaction zone to produce a product mixture comprising RfCF═CHX, wherein said catalyst comprises MY supported on carbon, and wherein Rf is a perfluorinated alkyl group, X ═H, F, Cl, Br or I, M=K, Na or Cs, and Y═F, Cl or Br.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to a process for separating chlorinated methanes utilizing a dividing wall column. Processes and manufacturing assemblies for generating chlorinated methanes are also provided, as are processes for producing products utilizing the chlorinated methanes produced and/or separated utilizing the present process(es) and/or assemblies.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention is directed to a catalyst for the gas phase fluorination of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and/or 1,2-dichloroethene with HF to give 1-chloro-2,2-difluoroethane which catalyst is prepared by co-depositing FeCl3 and MgCl2 on chromia-alumina, or co-depositing Cr(NO3)3 and Ni(NO3)2 on active carbon, or by doping alumina with ZnCl2, and to a process for the preparation of 1-chloro-2,2-difluoroethane comprising a catalytic gas phase fluorination of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and/or 1,2-dichloroethene wherein one of the catalysts according to claim 2 or 3 is used.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe disclosure describes a process for dehalogenation of chlorofluorocompounds. The process comprises contacting a saturated chlorofluorocompound with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst at a temperature sufficient to remove chlorine and/or fluorine substituents to produce a fluorine containing terminal olefin.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention is directed to processes for the production of 1233zd from 240fa and HF, with or without a catalyst, at a commercial scale. The 240fa and HF are fed to a reactor operating at high pressure. The resulting product stream comprising 1233zd, HCl, HF, and other byproducts is treated to one or more purification techniques including phase separation and one or more distillations to provide purified 1233zd, which meets commercial product specifications, i.e., having a GC purity of 99.5% or greater.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides processes for the production of HCFO-1233zd, 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, from the starting material, 2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (HCFO-1233xf). In a first process, HCFO-1233zd is produced by the isomerization of HCFO-1233xf. In a second process, HCFO-1233zd is produced in a two-step procedure which includes (i) dehydrochlorination of HCFO-1233xf into trifluoropropyne; and (ii) hydrochlorination of the trifluoropropyne into HCFO-1233zd.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure relates to a process for separating a fluoroolefin from a mixture comprising hydrogen fluoride and fluoroolefin, comprising azeotropic distillation both with and without an entrainer. In particular are disclosed processes for separating any of HFC-1225ye, HFC-1234ze, HFC-1234yf or HFC-1243zf from HF.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to 1,4-diethynylbenzene derivatives having substituents in the 2,3-position (cf. formula I, Claims), to the use thereof for high-frequency components, to liquid-crystalline media comprising the compounds, and to high-frequency components, in particular antennae, especially for the gigahertz range, comprising these media. The liquid-crystalline media serve, for example, for the phase shifting of microwaves for tuneable ‘phased-array’ antennae.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention is to provide a new liquid crystal compound having a high clearing point, a good compatibility with other compounds, a small viscosity, and a high stability to heat, light and so forth; compound (1) is provided: R1CF2nR2 (1) wherein, for example, R1 is alkyl having 4 to 10 carbons or —(CH2)2—CH═CH2, R2 is alkyl having 2 to 10 carbons, n is 8, and R1 and R2 are not allowed to be straight-chain alkyl having an identical number of carbons.
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed is a process for the synthesis of 1,1,2,3-tetrachloropropene (HCC-1230xa) using 1,1,3-trichloropropene (HCC-1240za) and/or 3,3,3-trichloropropene (HCC-1240zf) and Cl2 gas as the reactants, wherein the process takes place in a single reactor system. Before this invention, HCC-1230xa was made in a two-step process using HCC-1240za/HCC-1240zf and Cl2 gas, and the processing was conducted using two separate reactors.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure relates to processes for reducing the concentration of RfC≡CX impurities in fluoroolefins. The process involves: contacting a mixture comprising at least one fluoroolefin and at least one RfC≡CX impurity with at least one amine to reduce the concentration of the at least one RfC≡CX impurity in the mixture; wherein Rf is a perfluorinated alkyl group, and X is H, F, Cl, Br or I. The present disclosure also relates to processes for making at least one hydrotetrafluoropropene product selected from the group consisting of CF3CF═CH2, CF3CH═CHF, and mixtures thereof and reducing the concentration of CF3C═CH impurity generated during the process. The present disclosure also relates to processes for making at least one hydrochlorotrifluoropropene product selected from the group consisting of CF3CCl═CH2, CF3CH═CHCl, and mixtures thereof and reducing the concentration of CF3C≡CH impurity generated during the process.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention also relates a process for the manufacture of trans 1-chloro3,3,3-trifluoropropene. The process comprises an isomerization step from cis 1233zd to trans 1233zd.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention also relates a process for the manufacture of trans 1-chloro3,3,3-trifluoropropene. The process comprises an isomerization step from cis 1233zd to trans 1233zd.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA production method of 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene according to the present invention includes reaction of 1,1,1,3,3-pentachloropropane with hydrogen fluoride, characterized in that the concentrations of respective catalytic components in the 1,1,1,3,3-pentachloropropane as the raw material is controlled to a predetermined level or less. By controlling the concentrations of the respective catalytic components in the 1,1,1,3,3-pentachloropropane to the predetermined level or less, it is possible to improve the problems of shortening of catalyst life, retardation of reaction and scaling or corrosion of equipment in the production of the 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene. In addition, the 1,1,1,3,3-pentachloropropane can be obtained selectively with high yield by telomerization reaction of carbon tetrachloride and vinyl chloride. The present invention is thus useful as the method for industrially advantageous, high-yield production of the 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed is a process for producing 1,2-dichloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, which is characterized by that 1-halogeno-3,3,3-trifluoropropene represented by the general formula : (In the formula, X represents a fluorine atom, chlorine atom or bromine atom.) is reacted with chlorine in a gas phase in the presence of a catalyst. It is possible by this process to produce 1,2-dichloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene in an industrial scale with good yield by using 1-halogeno-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, which is available with a low price, as the raw material.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThis invention relates to fluoroalkyl and chlorofluoroalkyl benzenes with relatively high boiling points, having zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential. This invention also relates to the preparation of such fluoroalkyl and chlorofluoroalkyl benzenes. These materials can be used as reaction and heat transfer media, cleaning agents and as intermediates for biologically active materials.
Tue, 17 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA fluorographene and preparation method thereof are provided. For the said fluorographene, the fraction of F is 0.5
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides a method for purifying HFO-1234yf, comprising the steps of (1) cooling a liquid mixture containing HFO-1234yf and HF to separate the mixture into a upper liquid phase having a high concentration of HF and a lower liquid phase having a high concentration of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene; and (2) subjecting the lower liquid phase obtained in step (1) to a distillation operation to withdraw a mixture containing HFO-1234yf and HF from a top of a distillation column, thereby obtaining substantially HF-free HFO-1234yf from a bottom of the distillation column. According to the present invention, HF and HFO-1234yf contained in a mixture containing HF and HFO-1234yf can be separated under simple and economically advantageous conditions.
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention aims in a method wherein tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is reacted with HF in a gas phase in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pentafluoroethane (HFC-125), to reduce production of undesirable by-products and maintain a catalytic activity at a high level over a long period of time while achieving a high conversion ratio of PCE and suppressing deterioration of the catalyst. In a method for producing pentafluoroethane wherein tetrachloroethylene is reacted with HF in a gas phase in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pentafluoroethane, characterized in that chromium oxyfluoride is disposed in a reactor as the catalyst, and oxygen is fed into the reactor together with tetrachloroethylene and HF, at a amount of 0.4-1.8% by mole with respect to tetrachloroethylene.
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe instant invention relates to a process and method for manufacturing 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene by dehydrohalogenating a reactant stream of 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoropropane that is substantially free from impurities, particularly halogenated propanes, propenes, and propynes.
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method of synthesizing an alkyl cyclopentadiene compound is disclosed. The method includes contacting at least one cyclopentadienyl anion source and at least one alkyl group source to form at least one alkyl cyclopentadiene compound. The method further includes extracting the alkyl cyclopentadiene compound with a hydrocarbon solvent. The alkyl cyclopentadiene compound may be converted to a metallocene catalyst compound.
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed are: a diaryliodonium salt mixture which is a precursor of a BF4 salt or the like of a diaryliodonium compound, can be produced in the form of crystals at ambient temperature, can be purified in a simple manner, can be produced with high efficiency, and can be induced into a BF4 salt or the like salt that has excellent solubility in a monomer or the like; and a process for producing the diaryliodonium salt mixture. Also disclosed is a production process which can achieve good yield and can produce reduced amounts of byproducts, and is therefore applicable to the industrial mass production of a diaryliodonium compound. The diaryliodonium salt mixture is characterized by containing at least two specific diaryliodonium salts.
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 ESTThe present invention is directed to a combination reactor system for exothermic reactions comprising a trickle-bed reactor and a shell-and-tube reactor. This combination allows the system to efficiently remove heat while also providing the ability to control both the temperature and/or reaction progression. The trickle-bed reactor removes heat efficiently from the system by utilizing latent heat and does not require the use of a cooling or heating medium. The shell-and-tube reactor is used to further progress the reaction and provides a heat exchanger in order to introduce fluid at the desired temperature in the shell-and-tube reactor. Also, additional reactant or reactants and/or other fluids may be introduced to the shell-and-tube section of the reactor under controlled temperature conditions.
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 ESTMethods or preparing para-xylene from biomass by carrying out a Diels-Alder cycloaddition at controlled temperatures and activity ratios. Methods of preparing bio-terephthalic acid and bio-poly(ethylene terephthalate (bio-PET) are also disclosed, as well as products formed from bio-PET.
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 ESTA novel organic compound suitable for emitting green light and an organic light-emitting device including the organic compound are provided. The organic compound is represented by general formula (1). In general formula (1), R1 to R18 are each independently selected from a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy group, a substituted amino group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group.
Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:00:00 ESTAn optically active bisbenzyl compound or a racemic bisbenzyl compound represented by formula (2) that has axial chirality: where: R1 represents a halogen, or an optionally substituted: linear, branched, or cyclic C1-8 alkyl, C2-8 alkenyl, C2-8 alkynyl, C6-14 aryl, C3-8 heteroaryl, linear, branched, or cyclic C1-8 alkoxy, or C7-16 aralkyl;R21 each independently represents hydrogen, halogen, nitro, or an optionally substituted: linear, branched, or cyclic C1-8 alkyl, C2-8 alkenyl, C2-8 alkynyl, C6-14 aryl, linear, branched, or cyclic C1-8 alkoxy, or a C7-16 aralkyl;R3 represents hydrogen, or an optionally substituted: C6-14 aryl, a C3-8 heteroaryl, or a C7-16 aralkyl; andY2 represents a halogen, or an optionally substituted: C1-8 alkylsulfonyloxy, C6-14 arylsulfonyloxy, or C7-16 aralkylsulfonyloxy.
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:00:00 ESTA process for producing a fluoroalkyl iodide as a telomer Rf(CF2CF2)nI (wherein Rf is a C1-10 fluoroalkyl group, and n is an integer of from 1 to 6) by telomerization from a fluoroalkyl iodide represented by the formula RfI (wherein Rf is as defined above) as a telogen and tetrafluoroethylene (CF2CF2) as a taxogen, which comprises a liquid phase telomerization step of supplying a homogeneous liquid mixture of the telogen and the taxogen from the lower portion of a tubular reactor, moving the mixture from the lower portion towards the upper portion of the reactor in the presence of a radical initiator over a retention time of at least 5 minutes while the reaction system is kept in a liquid phase state under conditions where no gas-liquid separation will take place, so that the taxogen supplied to the reactor is substantially consumed by the reaction in the reactor, and drawing the reaction product from the upper portion of the reactor.
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:00:00 ESTTo provide a compound, when the compound has both a high clearing point and a low crystallization temperature, having a wide temperature range of a liquid crystal phase and also an excellent solubility in other liquid crystal compounds, and further having general physical properties necessary for the compound, namely, stability to heat, light and so forth, a suitable optical anisotropy and a suitable dielectric anisotropy. A compound is represented by formula (1): wherein, for example, Ra and Rb are alkyl having 1 to 10 carbons; A1, A2, A3 and A4 are 1,4-phenylene; Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are a single bond or alkylene having 1 to 4 carbons; and m, n, q and r are independently 0, 1, or 2, and a sum of m, n, q and r is 1, 2, 3 or 4.
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:00:00 ESTA liquid crystal compound having a high stability to heat, light and so forth, a high clearing point, a low minimum temperature of a liquid crystal phase, a small viscosity, a suitable optical anisotropy, a large dielectric anisotropy, a suitable elastic constant and an excellent solubility in other liquid crystal compounds, a liquid crystal composition containing the compound, and a liquid crystal display device including the composition. The compound is represented by formula (1): wherein, for example, R1 is fluorine or alkyl having 1 to 10 carbons; ring A1 and ring A2 are 1,4-phenylene, or 1,4-phenylene in which at least one of hydrogen is replaced by fluorine; Z1, Z2 and Z3 are a single bond; L1 and L2 are hydrogen or fluorine; X1 is fluorine or —CF3; and m is 1, and n is 0.
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST1,4 fullerene deriatives useful for solar cells are provided, where their structures allow for straightforward functionalizations to tune their properties in terms of solubility and LUMO energy levels.
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:00:00 ESTA method and apparatus for method of continuously producing 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane with high yield is provided. The method includes (a) bringing a CoF3-containing cobalt fluoride in a reactor into contact with 3,3,3-trifluoropropene to produce a CoF2-containing cobalt fluoride and 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane, (b) transferring the CoF2-containing cobalt fluoride in the reactor to a regenerator and bringing the transferred CoF2-containing cobalt fluoride into contact with fluorine gas to regenerate a CoF3-containing cobalt fluoride, and (c) transferring the CoF3-containing cobalt fluoride in the regenerator to the reactor and employing the transferred CoF3-containing cobalt fluoride in Operation (a). Accordingly, the 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane can be continuously produced with high yield from the 3,3,3-trifluoropropene using a cobalt fluoride (CoF2/CoF3) as a fluid catalyst, thereby improving the reaction stability and readily adjusting the optimum conversion rate and selectivity.