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Fatty acid acylated salicylates and their uses

Tue, 21 Jul 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to fatty acid acylated salicylate derivatives; compositions comprising an effective amount of a fatty acid acylated salicylate derivative; and methods for treating or preventing an inflammatory disorder comprising the administration of an effective amount of a fatty acid acylated salicylate derivative.



Method for producing n-propyl acetate and method for producing allyl acetate

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Provided is a method for producing n-propyl acetate, which is capable of obtaining high-purity allyl acetate with a low amount of coexisting water and is capable of producing n-propyl acetate with a high yield. The method includes an extraction process of subjecting a raw material liquid containing allyl acetate and water to an extraction operation using water as an extraction solvent and separating the extract into an oily phase and an aqueous phase, a distillation process of distilling the oily phase to obtain a distillate containing allyl acetate as a main component, and a hydrogenation process of subjecting the distillate to a hydrogenation reaction.



Catalytic synthesis of vitamin A intermediate

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a process of production of a compound, which is useful as an intermediate (building block) in organic synthesis, especially in the synthesis of vitamin A or β-carotene and derivatives thereof, e.g. canthaxanthin, astaxanthin or zeaxanthin.



Catalytic dehydration of alcohols using non-volatile acid catalysts

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A catalytic process for dehydration of an aliphatic C2-C6 alcohol to its corresponding olefin is disclosed. The process continuously flows through a reaction zone a liquid phase containing an aliphatic C2-C6 alcohol to contact a non-volatile acid catalyst at a reaction temperature and pressure to at least partially convert the aliphatic C2-C6 alcohol in the liquid phase to its corresponding olefin. The reaction pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure and the reaction temperature is above the boiling point of the olefin at reaction pressure, but below the critical temperature of the alcohol, and the olefin product is substantially in the gaseous phase. After the contacting step, the olefin containing gaseous phase is separated from the liquid phase. The invention also relates to catalytic processes such as a hydrolysis of an olefin to an alcohol, an esterification, a transesterification, a polymerization, an aldol condensation or an ester hydrolysis.



Method for preparing alkyl lactate and a method for preparing lactamide using the same

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This disclosure relates to a method for preparing alkyl lactate with high yield and high selectivity, comprising the step of reacting glycerol with water or alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In addition, the present invention provides a method for efficiently preparing lactamide using the alkyl lactate.



Catalyst and method for synthesis of lactic acid and its derivatives

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A catalyst for synthesis of lactic acid and it derivatives is provided. The catalyst includes SnY2.mH2O and at least one of NH4X or quaternary ammonium salts, wherein X and Y are selected from F—, Cl—, Br—, I—, CH3SO3—, C6H5SO3—, CH3C6H4SO3— or CN—, m represents an integer of 1 to 15. A method for synthesis of lactic acid and it derivatives with the above catalyst is also provided. By using the above catalyst and method, it is capable of converting carbohydrate-containing raw material to lactic acid and its derivatives directly in a more efficient and economical way.



Intermediate compounds of tamiflu, methods of preparation and uses thereof

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Chiral amino compounds, methods of preparation and uses thereof. Tamiflu can be obtained from the said compounds. Multi-substituted chiral tetrahydropyrrolyl amine which can be used as intermediate compounds of medicament can also be produced by the said compounds.



Norbornene-ester-based derivative, method for preparing same, and uses thereof

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to norbornene-ester-based derivatives, to a method for preparing same, and to the uses thereof. This compound may be used as a plasticizer which can replace a phthalate-based plasticizer.



Stabilized isocyanate group-containing ethylenically unsaturated compound

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An object of the present invention is to improve the stability of an ethylenically unsaturated compound having an isocyanate group in the molecule by preventing a polymerization of the ethylenically unsaturated compound. The present invention relates to a stabilizing composition for an isocyanate group-containing ethylenically unsaturated compound, comprising: an isocyanate group-containing ethylenically unsaturated compound (A) which comprises one or more isocyanate groups and one or more ethylenically unsaturated groups in the molecule; and a stabilizing agent (B) which is a compound in which at least one of the ethylenically unsaturated groups in the compound (A) is replaced with an alkyl group which may have a substituent.



Catalyst system

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides a catalyst system capable of catalyzing the carbonylation of an ethylenically unsaturated compound, which system is obtainable by combining: a) a metal of Group VIB or Group VIIIB or a compound thereof, b) a bidentate phosphine, arsine or stibine ligand, and c) an acid, wherein said ligand is present in at least a 2:1 molar excess compared to said metal or said metal in said metal compound, and that said acid is present in at least a 2:1 molar excess compared to said ligand, a process for the carbonylation of an ethylenically unsaturated compound, a reaction medium, and use of the system.



Radiation-sensitive resin composition, method for forming resist pattern, and polymer and compound

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A radiation-sensitive resin composition that provides a resist coating film in a liquid immersion lithography process is provided, the radiation-sensitive resin composition being capable of exhibiting a great dynamic contact angle during exposure, whereby the surface of the resist coating film can exhibit a superior water draining property, and the radiation-sensitive resin composition being capable of leading to a significant decrease in the dynamic contact angle during development, whereby generation of development defects can be inhibited, and further shortening of a time period required for change in a dynamic contact angle is enabled. A radiation-sensitive resin composition including (A) a fluorine-containing polymer having a structural unit (I) that includes a group represented by the following formula (1), and (B) a radiation-sensitive acid generator.



Method of preparing functionalized graphene

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method of preparing functionalized graphene, comprises treating graphene with an alkali metal in the presence of an electron transfer agent and coordinating solvent, and adding a functionalizing compound. The method further includes quenching unreacted alkali metal by addition of a protic medium, and isolating the functionalized graphene.



Process for producing polyisocyanate

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for producing a polyisocyanate includes a purification step of purifying an unpurified polyisocyanate, the purification step including a tar ingredient removal step of removing tar ingredients from an unpurified polyisocyanate, and a distillation step of distilling the unpurified polyisocyanate from which tar ingredients have been removed through a dividing wall distillation column.



Modified layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a process for preparation thereof for C—C bond forming reactions

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a covalently organo-modified LDH (LDH/APTES) was found to be an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for C—C bond forming reactions (i.e. Aldol condensation, Knoevenagel condensation, Henry reaction, Michael addition). More particularly, this catalyst shows consistent activity for several cycles in C—C bond forming reaction. These catalysts were successfully characterized by XRD, FT-IR, 29Si CP MAS NMR.



Aryl ketone compounds and compositions for delivering active agents

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides aryl ketone compounds and compositions containing them which facilitate the delivery of active agents. The aryl ketone compounds have the formula or a salt thereof, where n=1 to 9, and R1 to R5 are independently hydrogen, C1 to C4 alkyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, C2 to C4 alkenyl, halogen, hydroxyl, —NH—C(O)—CH3, or —O—C6H5.



Methods for metabolic imaging

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present embodiments disclose the preparation of hyperpolarized 13C dialkyl succinate compounds and hyperpolarized 13C dialkyl fumarate compounds and their use in real time, in vivo metabolic imaging of the TCA cycle.



Alicyclic alcohol

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Provided is an alicyclic alcohol compound which can be used as a raw material for a compound perfume, and which has excellent floral-green-like aromas which are crisp and fresh; also provided are a manufacturing method for the same, and a perfume composition which contains the alicyclic alcohol compound. An alicyclic alcohol compound having a specified structure represented by chemical formula (1) has excellent floral-green-like aromas which are crisp and fresh; and a method for manufacturing the alicyclic alcohol compound represented by chemical formula (1) by reacting, in the presence of hydrogen fluoride, 4-isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexene and carbon monoxide, isomerizing the resulting 4-isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexane carboxylic acid fluoride, thus making 2-methyl-2-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-propionyl fluoride, reacting with alcohol and acquiring a cyclohexane carbonyl compound, and then reducing the cyclohexane carbonyl compound.



Method for working up distillation residues from isocyanate production

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method for working up distillation, residues from isocyanate production in which monomeric isocyanate present in distillation residues is recovered by means of a spray-dry method and the overall yield of monomeric isocyanate is thus significantly increased.



Separation of ammonium chloride from the gas phase of an isocyanate production process

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Isocyanates are produced in the gas phase and by-products such as ammonium halides are selectively separated from the gas phase by desublimation.



Method for manufacturing spilanthol and intermediate manufacturing product therefor

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Provided is an amide ester that is useful as an intermediate manufacturing product for an aroma compound such as spilanthol or the like. Also provided is a spilanthol manufacturing method using said amide ester. High-purity spilanthol can be manufactured by reacting an amide ester represented by general formula (1) with a basic compound. (In the formula, R1 represents a C1-6 alkyl group or a phenyl group that may be substituted with a C1-4 alkyl group, a C1-4 alkoxy group, or a halogen atom; R2 represents a C1-8 hydrocarbon group; and the wavy lines represent cis configurations, trans configurations, or a mixture of the two configurations.)



Process for preparing carboxamidine compounds

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a process of making a compound of formula (I): Wherein, R1, R2, R4 and X are as defined herein.



Gem-dinitro ester compound as energetic material and preparation method thereof

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Provided is a gem-dinitro ester compound, represented by Formula 1 below: wherein R is a substituted or unsubstituted straight-chain or side-chain alkyl group of C2˜C12.



Low molecular weight cationic lipids for oligonucleotide delivery

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The instant invention provides for novel cationic lipids that can be used in combination with other lipid components such as cholesterol and PEG-lipids to form lipid nanoparticles with oligonucleotides. It is an object of the instant invention to provide a cationic lipid scaffold that demonstrates enhanced efficacy along with lower liver toxicity as a result of lower lipid levels in the liver. The present invention employs low molecular weight cationic lipids comprising at least one short lipid chain to enhance the efficiency and tolerability of in vivo delivery of siRNA.



Phenyl alkyl carbamate derivative compound and pharmaceutical composition containing the same

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A phenyl alkyl carbamate derivative compound and a pharmaceutical composition containing the compound are provided. More specifically, the phenyl alkyl carbamate derivative compound and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a composition for muscle relaxation containing the phenyl alkyl carbamate derivative compounds and/or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as an active ingredient, and a method of muscle relaxation comprising administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of the phenyl alkyl carbamate derivative compound and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to a subject in need of to a subject in need of, are provided.



Method for manufacturing refined chlorogenic acids composition

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Provided is a method for producing a chlorogenic acids composition having a reduced caffeine content and good taste and favor, capable of efficiently recovering high purity of chlorogenic acids from a chlorogenic acids-containing composition. The method for producing a purified chlorogenic acids composition comprises a step A of bringing a chlorogenic acids-containing composition into contact with a cation exchange resin; a step B of bringing the liquid obtained in the step A into contact with an anion exchange resin; and a step C of bringing an eluent into contact with the anion exchange resin after the step B.



Polymerizable compound, polymerizable composition, polymer, and optically anisotropic body

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides a polymerizable compound represented by the following formula (I), a polymerizable composition that includes the polymerizable compound and an initiator, a polymer obtained by polymerizing the polymerizable compound or the polymerizable composition, and an optically anisotropic article that includes the polymer. The polymerizable compound, polymerizable composition, and polymer have a practical low melting point, exhibit an excellent solubility in a general-purpose solvent, can be produced at low cost, and may produce an optical film that achieves uniform conversion of polarized light over a wide wavelength band, and an optically anisotropic article.



Triterpenoid compounds and methods of use thereof

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides therapeutically active compounds and compositions as receptor antagonists and methods of use thereof. In one aspect, the compounds are useful in modulating pain, inflammation and acute phase reactions by inhibiting the PGE2 receptors including PGE2 EP1, EP2 and EP4 receptors.



NONOate derivatives and uses thereof

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A compound of Formula (I): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound. Also described are pharmaceutical formulations thereof and methods of using the same.



Process for the preparation of isocyanates in the gas phase

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Aromatic isocyanates are produced by reacting one or more aromatic primary amines with phosgene in the gas phase. The phosgene and primary aromatic amine(s) are reacted at a temperature above the boiling temperature of the amine(s) in a reactor having a reaction space which is essentially rotationally symmetric to the direction of flow. The flow fate, averaged over the cross-section, of the reaction mixture along the axis of the essentially rotationally symmetric reaction space in the section of the reaction space in which the conversion of the amine groups into isocyanate groups is between 4 and 80% is not more than 8 m/sec. The flow rate averaged over the cross-section of the reaction mixture along the axis of the essentially rotationally symmetric reaction space in the section of the reaction space in which the conversion of the amine groups into isocyanate groups is 4 to 80% is always below the flow rate averaged over the cross-section at the start of this section.



Acetaminophen conjugates, compositions and methods of use thereof

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Acetaminophen conjugates are provided, which have an acetaminophen moiety covalently linked to a second moiety. The conjugates provided may have one or more advantageous properties, including increased water solubility as compared to acetaminophen, reduced toxicity profile as compared to acetaminophen and an altered pharmacokinetic profile. Formulations comprising the conjugates are also provided, as are methods of using the conjugates and kits comprising the conjugates.



Ester group-containing tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, novel polyesterimide precursor derived therefrom, and polyesterimide

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A polyimide demonstrates low coefficient of hygroscopic expansion and low water absorption coefficient when used as an insulation film. The polyimide is derived from a tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride containing ester group expressed by the general formula below, and a polyester imide precursor: wherein R is independent and represents a straight or branched-chain alkyl group with 1 to 6 carbon atoms or straight or branched-chain alkoxyl group with 1 to 6 carbon atoms, n is an integer of 0 to 4, and m is an integer of 2 to 4, but wherein, if m =2, n is an integer of 1 to 4.



Compound for use in peptide synthesis

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention generally relates to processes and methods of peptide and protein synthesis. The present invention also relates to specific compounds for use in such processes and methods. It is shown herein that peptides with a C-terminal tertiary N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-amide (BMEA) undergo N-to-S acyl transfer at weakly acidic pH to form a transient thioester which can be captured for direct ligation with a cysteinyl peptide. These C-terminal BMEA peptides are easily prepared with standard Fmoc solid-phase synthesis protocols, thus giving a very convenient access to the thioester components for native chemical ligation.



Method for inhibiting crystal growth rate of amide compound and method for producing molded article of polyolefin-based resin

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for inhibiting the crystal growth rate of an amide compound present in a molten polyolefin-based resin and a method for producing a polyolefin-based resin molded article are provided. A phenol compound is incorporated into an amide compound-containing polyolefin-based resin such that a weight ratio, amide compound:phenol compound, is 60:40 to 10:90.



Method of labeling sulfenic acid-containing proteins and peptides

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method of labeling a sulfenic acid (—SOH) group of a cysteine residue in a protein; or peptide, comprises contacting said protein or peptide with a beta-ketoester to covalently couple said beta-ketoester to said cysteine residue and form a beta-ketoester-labeled cysteine residue in said protein or peptide.



Resist composition, method of forming resist pattern, polymeric compound, and compound

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A resist composition which can form a very fine resist pattern with excellent lithography properties, a new polymeric compound useful for the resist composition, and a compound useful as a monomer for the polymeric compound. The resist composition contains a polymeric compound containing a structural unit (a0) represented by general formula (a0) shown below. In the formula (a0), A is an anion represented by the general formula (1) or (2).



Bis-acylated hydroxylamine derivatives

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention provides certain bis-acylated hydroxylamine derivative compounds, pharmaceutical compositions and kits comprising such compounds, and methods of using such compounds or pharmaceutical compositions. In particular, the invention provides methods of using such compounds or pharmaceutical compositions for treating, preventing, or delaying the onset and/or develop of a disease or condition. In some embodiments, the disease or condition is selected from cardiovascular diseases, ischemia, reperfusion injury, cancerous disease, pulmonary hypertension and conditions responsive to nitroxyl therapy.



Method for the production of 2-octyl acrylate by means of transesterification

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to the production of 2-octylacrylate of high purity and in good yield using ethyl titanate in solution in 2-octanol or 2-octyl titanate as a transesterification catalyst.



Process for functionalization of unsaturated compounds

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a process for synthesizing a multifunctional compound, including the reaction of a compound of formula (II) with atmospheric or molecular oxygen, in the presence of at least one aldehyde of formula (III), and optionally in the presence of at least one catalyst or at least one radical initiator; wherein: R10, R20, R30, R40, R50, L2, R60, R7, R8, and R9 are as described in the claims. The invention also relates to the use of these compounds as monomers for the preparation of polyurethane. The invention also relates to the use of these compounds as monomers of polymers or of biopolymers.



Processes for producing terephthalic acid and terephthalic esters

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention generally relates to a condensed process for producing terephthalic acid and terephthalic esters from a dialkyl cyclohexane-2,5-dione-1,4-dicarboxylate; a chemoselective process for preparing a substantially bicyclic-lactone-free dialkyl cyclohexane-2,5-diol-1,4-dicarboxylate; and compositions of matter prepared thereby.



Process for the preparation of the monomer pentabromobenzyl acrylate and polymerization thereof

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to a process for preparing pentabromobenzyl acrylate through the reaction of pentahalobenzyl halide with a salt of acrylic acid in water-immiscible solvent, wherein said salt is in aqueous form and the reaction is carried out in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst. A process for polymerizing the pentabromobenzyl acrylate in halogenated aromatic solvent and the poly (pentabromobenzyl acrylate) obtained are also disclosed.



5-aminolevulinic acid derivatives, methods for their preparation and uses thereof

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides drug conjugates comprising 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid that may function as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI). These conjugates may serve as co-drugs which release a plurality of active species in vivo. The novel drug conjugates may be used, for the treatment or prevention of cancer in PDT-dependent and/or PDT-independent (nonPDT) treatments, as well as for cosmetic uses. In addition the present invention provides novel uses for both the novel and known compounds. According to some embodiments, the present invention provides drug conjugates (co-drugs) comprising (i) ALA, (ii) an aldehyde and (iii) a carboxylic acid that may function as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACO for the treatment of anemia and/or for the induction of erythropoiesis.



Feed additive for animals of P-thymol, salt derivative or ester derivative thereof

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A feed additive includes at least one of p-thymol, a salt derivative and an ester derivative thereof for animals.



Esters of (acyloxymethyl)acrylamide, a pharmaceutical composition containing them, and their use as inhibitors of the thioredoxin—thioredoxin reductase system

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The subject of the present invention are novel esters of (acyloxymethyl)acrylamide, a pharmaceutical composition containing them and their use in the production of drugs for the prophylaxis or treatment of oncogenic diseases and diseases connected with increased cell proliferation.



Phenylcarbamate compound and muscle relaxant containing the same

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A novel phenylcarbamate compound and a pharmaceutical composition containing the same are provided. More specifically, a novel phenylcarbamate compound, a composition for muscle relaxation containing the phenylcarbamate compound as an active ingredient, and a method of muscle relaxation comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of the phenylcarbamate compound, are provided.



Patterning process and resist composition

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A negative pattern is formed by coating a resist composition comprising a polymer comprising recurring units having a tertiary ester type acid labile group having a plurality of methyl or ethyl groups on alicycle and an acid generator onto a substrate, prebaking, exposing to high-energy radiation, baking, and developing in an organic solvent developer so that the unexposed region of resist film is dissolved away and the exposed region of resist film is not dissolved. The resist composition exhibits a high dissolution contrast during organic solvent development and forms a fine hole or trench pattern of dimensional uniformity.



Chemically amplified resist composition and patterning process

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A chemically amplified resist composition comprising a base polymer and an amine quencher in the form of a β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, 5-aminovaleric acid, 6-aminocaproic acid, 7-aminoheptanoic acid. 8-aminooctanoic acid or 9-aminononanoic acid derivative having an unsubstituted carboxyl group has a high contrast of alkaline dissolution in rate before and after exposure and forms a pattern of good profile at a high resolution, minimal roughness and wide DOF.



Process for preparing an ester

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for preparing an ester of formula (I): R3CH2—(CR1R2)n—CH2—O—CO—(CR1R2)n—CH2R3 (I) wherein n is 1-3 and R1 and R2 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom or a carbon-linked organic group and R3 is a carbon-linked organic group, is provided by hydrogenation of a certain lactone, carboxylic acid or its ester reactant.



Method for continuously preparing carboxylic acid ester

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for continuously preparing a carboxylic acid ester is disclosed. In the method of the present invention, a vertical reactor is filled with a solid catalyst, a carboxylic acid and an alcohol are introduced into a lower part of the vertical reactor, esterification is performed to form an esterized mixture, the esterized mixture is output from an upper part of the vertical reactor, and distillation is performed to isolate the carboxylic acid ester. The method of the present invention is simple, easily controlled and environmental friendly, and has significantly high conversion rate and selectivity.



Processes for the preparation of fesoterodine

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to improved process for the preparation of fesoterodine and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt, specifically fesoterodine fumarate of formula (1). The invention relates to solid state forms of a novel salt of fesoterodine and process for the preparation thereof. The invention also relates to highly pure fesoterodine fumarate substantially free of impurity X at RRT 1.37. The invention also provides solid particles of pure fesoterodine fumarate wherein 90 volume-percent of the particles (D90) have a size of higher than 200 microns.



Amino acid derivatives and absorbable polymers therefrom

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to the discovery of new class of hydrolysable amino acid derivatives and absorbable polyester amides, polyamides, polyepoxides, polyureas and polyurethanes prepared therefrom. The resultant absorbable polymers are useful for drug delivery, tissue engineering, tissue adhesives, adhesion prevention, bone wax formulations, medical device coatings, stents, stent coatings, highly porous foams, reticulated foams, wound care, cardiovascular applications, orthopedic devices, surface modifying agents and other implantable medical devices. In addition, these absorbable polymers should have a controlled degradation profile.