Tue, 31 May 2016 08:00:00 EDTA microlithography projection objective includes an optical element, a manipulator configured to manipulate the optical element, and a control unit configured to control the manipulator. The control unit includes a first device configured to control movement of the manipulator, a memory comprising an upper bound for a range of movement of the manipulator, and a second device configured to generate a merit function based on a square of a root mean square (RMS) of at least one error and configured to minimize the merit function subordinate to the upper bound for the range of movement of the manipulator.
Tue, 20 Oct 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn exposure method and apparatus for illuminating a pattern with an illumination system to expose a substrate through a projection system. The pattern is illuminated with illumination light with a light amount distribution in which an amount of light is larger in a pair of first areas and a pair of second areas than in an area other than the first and second areas on a pupil plane of the illumination system. The pair of the first areas being arranged outside an optical axis, the pair of the second areas being arranged on the same straight line as the pair of the first areas are arranged on, and the pair of the second areas being arranged outside the pair of the first areas.
Tue, 14 Jul 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn exposure apparatus including a liquid supply system configured to provide a liquid to a space between the projection system and an object, and a movable table having a recess, the recess including therein the object or a surface to hold and support the object, wherein a gap opening into which the liquid can enter is defined between a peripheral wall of the recess and the object, and the recess further including a fluid opening, below the gap opening, to remove the liquid entering the gap opening.
Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn illumination optical system which illuminates a surface to be illuminated on the basis of light from a light source has a first optical path in which a diffractive optical element can be arranged at a first position thereof; a second optical path in which a spatial light modulator with a plurality of optical elements arrayed two-dimensionally and controlled individually can be arranged at a second position thereof; and a third optical path which is an optical path of light having passed via at least one of the first optical path and the second optical path and in which a distribution forming optical system is arranged. The distribution forming optical system forms a predetermined light intensity distribution on an illumination pupil located in the third optical path, based on the light having passed via at least one of the first and second optical paths.
Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn illumination optical apparatus has an optical unit. The optical unit has a light splitter to split an incident beam into two beams; a first spatial light modulator which can be arranged in an optical path of a first beam; a second spatial light modulator which can be arranged in an optical path of a second beam; and a light combiner which combines a beam having passed via the first spatial light modulator, with a beam having passed via the second spatial light modulator; each of the first spatial light modulator and the second spatial light modulator has a plurality of optical elements arranged two-dimensionally and controlled individually.
Tue, 02 Jun 2015 08:00:00 EDTA projection exposure tool for microlithography for imaging mask structures of an image-providing substrate onto a substrate to be structured includes a measuring apparatus configured to determine a relative position of measurement structures disposed on a surface of one of the substrates in relation to one another in at least one lateral direction with respect to the substrate surface and to thereby simultaneously measure a number of measurement structures disposed laterally offset in relation to one another.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithographic apparatus includes an illumination system configured to condition a radiation beam; a support constructed to support a patterning device, the patterning device being capable of imparting the radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section to form a patterned radiation beam; a substrate table including a substrate holder constructed to hold a substrate; and a projection system configured to project the patterned radiation beam onto a target portion of the substrate, wherein the substrate table is constructed and arranged to reduce or eliminate slip and hysteresis in position and orientation between the substrate table and the substrate holder.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAccording to an aspect of the present invention, a spectral purity filter includes an aperture, the aperture being arranged to diffract a first wavelength of radiation and to allow at least a portion of a second wavelength of radiation to be transmitted through the aperture, the second wavelength of radiation being shorter than the first wavelength of radiation, wherein the aperture has a diameter greater than 20 μm.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithographic apparatus having an optical column capable of creating a pattern on a target portion of the substrate. The optical column may be provided with a self-emissive contrast device configured to emit a beam and a projection system configured to project the beam onto the target portion. The apparatus may be provided with an actuator to move the optical column or a part thereof with respect to the substrate. An optical sensor device is provided which is movable in respect of the optical columns and has a range of movement which enables the optical sensor device to move through a projection area of each of the optical columns to measure a beam of each of the optical columns.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA multi facet mirror of a microlithographic projection exposure apparatus includes a plurality of mirror facet units. Each unit includes a mirror member with a body, a reflective coating provided at one end of the body and an actuating surface provided at an opposite end. The unit further includes a rest member on which the actuating surface rests while the mirror member is not moving, and an actuator that tilts the mirror member about a tilting axis. The actuator has a contact surface and a lifting member which moves the actuating surface along a lifting direction. In a first operating state of the lifting member the actuating surface rests on the rest member and in a second operating state on the contact surface. A displacement member displaces the contact surface along a lateral direction only while the lifting member is in the second operating state.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides an exposure apparatus and an exposure method. The method comprises: utilizing an exposure light source to provide light rays to the photo-resist layer, wherein the light rays pass through the mask and the transparent substrate to reach the photo-resist layer; and utilizing a reflective plate to reflect the light rays passing through the transparent substrate and the photo-resist layer back to the photo-resist layer. The present invention can reduce a line space of a pattern of the photo-resist layer.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe disclosure relates to a method for adapting a projection exposure apparatus for microlithography to a mask having structures with different pitches and/or different structure widths in different structure directions. Wavefront aberrations induced by the mask are reduced by a manipulator of the projection exposure apparatus for microlithography.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA drawing device draws a pattern on a substrate by radiating light from an optical head part on a target object (for example, substrate) which relatively moves with respect to the optical head part. Here, the optical head part has a spatial modulating unit which spatially modulates light from a light source, based on pattern data, and an optical path corrector which shifts the route of light spatially modulated in the spatial modulating unit at precision subdivided more than units of spatial modulation in the spatial modulating unit (more specifically, for example, units of pixels of spatial light modulator).
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn exposure apparatus exposes a substrate via a projection optical system and a liquid. The exposure apparatus includes a stage that is movable below the projection optical system while holding the substrate and a detector that is capable of detecting a liquid adhered to a rear surface of the substrate. As an alternative, or in addition, the apparatus can include a detector that is capable of detecting a liquid adhered to an optical member disposed at the stage.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn optical arrangement, in particular in a projection exposure apparatus for EUV lithography. In an aspect an optical arrangement has a housing (100, 200, 550, 780) in which at least one optical element is arranged, and at least one subhousing (140, 240, 560, 790, 811, 823, 824, 831, 841) which is arranged within the housing and which surrounds at least one beam incident on the optical element in operation of the optical system, wherein the internal space of the subhousing is in communication with the external space of the subhousing by way of at least one opening, wherein provided in the region of the opening is at least one flow guide portion which deflects a flushing gas flow passing through the opening from the internal space to the external space of the subhousing, at least once in its direction.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods and apparatus for cooling mirrors in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography system using a liquid metal interface are described. According to one aspect of the present invention, an apparatus includes a heat exchanger, a mirror assembly, and a first liquid metal interface. The heat exchanger includes at least one well defined therein. The mirror assembly includes a mirror block having a mirrored surface. The mirror assembly also has at least one surface. Finally, the first liquid metal interface includes liquid metal which is contained in the first well. The at least one surface is in contact with the liquid metal to transfer heat from the mirror block to the heat exchanger.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA mask inspection system with Fourier filtering and image compare can include a first detector, a dynamic Fourier filter, a controller, and a second detector. The first detector can be located at a Fourier plane of the inspection system and can detect a first portion of patterned light produced by an area of a mask. The dynamic Fourier filter can be controlled by the controller based on the detected first portion of the patterned light. The second detector can detect a second portion of the patterned light produced by the section of the mask and transmitted through the dynamic Fourier filter. Further, the mask inspection system can include a data analysis device to compare the second portion of patterned light with another patterned light. Consequently, the mask inspection system is able to detect any possible defects on the area of the mask more accurately and with higher resolution.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn exposure apparatus exposes a substrate with exposure light via a liquid. The exposure apparatus includes an optical system including an emission surface from which the exposure light is emitted; a liquid supply port that supplies the liquid in order to fill an optical path of the exposure light emitted from the emission surface with the liquid; and a fluid supply port that supplies a fluid including a material capable of changing the specific resistance of the liquid to at least a part of a space around a liquid immersion space that is formed by the liquid.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithographic projection apparatus includes a substrate table by which a substrate is held, a projection system via which a patterned beam is projected onto the substrate to expose the substrate through liquid, and a liquid supply system. The liquid supply system includes a supply flow path, and supplies the liquid via the supply flow path during the exposure. The liquid supply system also includes a device by which the supply flow path is connected with a vacuum system to prevent liquid in the supply flow path from leaking.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods and apparatus for cooling mirrors in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography system using a liquid metal interface are described. According to one aspect of the present invention, an apparatus which may be used in an EUV lithography system includes a heat exchanger, a mirror assembly, and a first liquid metal interface. The heat exchanger including at least a first surface. The mirror assembly includes a first mirror block having a first mirrored surface, as well as at least a first well. Finally, the first liquid metal interface includes liquid metal which is contained in the first well. The first surface is in contact with the liquid metal such that heat may be transferred from the first mirror block to the heat exchanger.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithographic method related to Talbot imaging for printing a desired pattern of features that is periodic or quasi-periodic in at least one direction onto a substrate surface, which method includes providing a mask bearing a pattern of mask features, arranging the substrate parallel and in proximity to the mask, providing an illumination source having a central wavelength and a spectral bandwidth, forming from said source an illumination beam with an angular distribution of intensity, arranging the distance of the substrate from the mask and exposing the mask pattern to said beam so that each angular component of illumination exposes the substrate to substantially the entire range of lateral intensity distributions that occur between successive Talbot image planes for the illumination wavelengths, wherein the angular distribution of the beam is designed in conjunction with the pattern of features in the mask and the distance of the substrate from the mask.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA clamping device is constructed and arranged to clamp two parts together. The clamping device includes an aligner constructed and arranged to bring the two parts in an aligned position with respect to each other, a clamp constructed and arranged to maintain the two parts in the aligned position, a disconnect constructed and arranged to guide the two parts away from the aligned position to a disconnected position, and an actuator constructed and arranged to convert an electrical current to kinetic energy. The aligner, the clamp, and the disconnect are constructed and arranged to be driven by the actuator.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides an exposure apparatus including a measurement unit configured to measure a position of the mark on a substrate, and a control unit configured to control an amount of light on a predetermined plane of an optical system included in the measurement unit, wherein an amount of light emitted by a light source is smaller in a non-measurement period in which the position of the mark is not measured than in a measurement period in which the position of the mark is measured, and the control unit sets a transmittance in an optical path between the light source and the predetermined plane to be higher in the non-measurement period than in the measurement period.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA device for transmission image sensing for sensing an aerial image in a lithographic exposure apparatus comprises a projection system arranged to form, at an image side of the projection system, an aerial image of an object mark. The device further comprises a detector comprising a slit pattern having features corresponding to at least a part of the aerial image. The slit pattern is arranged to be exposed to the aerial image. The detector is further being arranged to detect detection radiation transmitted by the slit pattern; wherein d
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA projection exposure method includes exposing an exposure area of a radiation sensitive substrate with at least one image of a pattern of a mask in a scanning operation. The scanning operation includes moving the mask relative to an effective object field of the projection objective and simultaneously moving the substrate relative to an effective image field of the projection objective in respective scanning directions. The projection exposure method also includes changing imaging properties of the projection objective actively during the scanning operation according to a given time profile to change dynamically at least one aberration of the projection objective between a beginning and an end of the scanning operation.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithographic system includes an immersion type lithographic apparatus, which includes a support constructed and arranged to support a substrate, a projection system constructed and arranged to project a patterned beam of radiation onto a target portion of the substrate, a liquid confinement structure configured to at least partially fill a space between the projection system and at least one of the substrate and support with an immersion liquid, a liquid supply system arranged to provide the immersion liquid to the liquid confinement structure, and a cleaning liquid supply system arranged to provide a cleaning liquid to a surface of the lithographic apparatus that comes into contact with the immersion liquid. The system includes a switch to provide the cleaning liquid directly to the liquid confinement structure and to provide the immersion liquid indirectly to the liquid confinement structure via a liquid purification system.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn immersion lithographic apparatus is disclosed that includes a fluid supply system configured to supply a fluid, the fluid supply system having a chamber with a plurality of inlet holes in a first side wall and a plurality of outlet holes in a second side wall, the first side wall facing the second side wall, wherein the inlet holes direct fluid entering the chamber in a direction towards areas of the second side wall between the plurality of outlet holes.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides a drawing apparatus for performing drawing on a substrate with a charged particle beam, the apparatus comprising an optical system configured to irradiate the substrate with the charged particle beam, a substrate stage configured to hold the substrate, an aperture member provided with the substrate stage, a detector configured to detect a charged particle beam having passed through an aperture of the aperture member, and a support configured to support the detector, wherein the support and the substrate stage are separated from each other.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA target positioning device, in particular for a lithography system, comprising a carrier for carrying a target, and a stage for carrying and moving the carrier along a first direction (X). The stage comprising two X-stage bases, both arranged on top of a common base plate, each X-stage base carries an X-stage carriage, and a Y-beam comprising a Y-stage for carrying said carrier and moving the carrier said carrier in a second direction (Y). The Y-beam bridges the space between the X-stage carriages and is connected to the X-stage carriages via a flexible coupling. The device further comprises two motors each for driving a corresponding X-stage carriage along its corresponding X-stage base. The two motors are arranged at least substantially below the stage. Each motor of said two motors is coupled to an eccentric cam or crank which is connected to the corresponding X-stage carriage via a crank shaft.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA dual wafer stage exchanging system for a lithographic device is disclosed, said system comprises two wafer stages running between an exposure workstation and a pre-processing workstation, and said two stages are set on a base and suspended above the upper surface of the base by air bearings. Each wafer stages is passed through by a Y-direction guide rail respectively, wherein one end of said guide rail is connected with a main driving unit and another end of said guide rail is detachably coupled with one of the two X-direction auxiliary driving units with single degree of freedom, and said two wafer stages are capable of moving in Y-direction along the guide rails and moving in X-direction under the drive of the auxiliary driving units with single degree of freedom. The position exchange of said two wafer stages can be enabled by the detachment and connection of the Y-direction guide rails and the auxiliary units with single degree of freedom.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn optical imaging arrangement includes an optical projection system and a support structure system. The optical projection system includes a group of optical elements configured to transfer, in an exposure process using exposure light along an exposure light path, an image of a pattern of a mask supported by a mask support structure onto a substrate supported by a substrate support structure. The mask support structure and the substrate support structure form a primary source of vibration. The support structure system includes a base support structure, an optical element support structure and at least one secondary vibration source support structure of a secondary vibration source other than the primary source of vibration. The optical element support structure supports the optical elements.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn an exposure apparatus, a photomask 3 is provided with a plurality of mask pattern columns 15 formed by arranging a plurality of mask patterns 13 at a predetermined pitch in a direction substantially orthogonal to a conveying direction A of an object to be exposed and a plurality of microlenses 14 formed on a side of the object to be exposed corresponding to the mask patterns 13 to project reduced mask patterns 13 on the object to be exposed The photomask 3 is obtained by forming subsequent mask pattern columns 15b to 15d and the microlenses 14 corresponding to them so as to be shifted by a predetermined dimension in an arranging direction of a plurality of mask patterns 13 from a mask pattern column 15a located downstream in the conveying direction A of the object to be exposed.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn an illumination optical system, a light flux from a light source is made to come into a first fly's eye optical system, and an illumination area is illuminated, via a second fly's eye optical system and a condenser optical system, with light fluxes from a plurality of mirror elements which construct the first fly's eye optical system, wherein a reflecting surface of each of the mirror elements has a width in one direction narrower than a width of each of the mirror elements in a direction perpendicular to the one direction, and a reflectance distribution in the one direction of each of the mirror elements is trapezoidal. The intensity distribution of the illumination area can be set to be a nonuniform distribution, and respective points in the illumination area can be illuminated with the light fluxes having an approximately same aperture angle distribution.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe disclosure relates to a projection exposure apparatus for semiconductor lithography which includes an actuator system to mechanically actuate a component of the projection exposure apparatus. The actuator system has at least one mechanism to reduce and/or dampen the heat input into the component that is due to heat arising during the operation of the actuator system.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method of structuring a photosensitive material is disclosed. The method includes illuminating a first object structure and projecting a pattern of the first object structure onto a photosensitive material such that the projected pattern of the first object structure is focussed at a first focus position with respect to the photosensitive material. The method also includes illuminating a second object structure and projecting a pattern of the second object structure onto the photosensitive material such that the projected pattern of the second object structure is focussed at a second focus position with respect to the photosensitive material. The respective patterns are projected in the same projection direction.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTSystem and method for manufacturing three-dimensional integrated circuits are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes providing an imaging writer system that includes a plurality of spatial light modulator (SLM) imaging units arranged in one or more parallel arrays, receiving mask data to be written to one or more layers of the three-dimensional integrated circuit, processing the mask data to form a plurality of partitioned mask data patterns corresponding to the one or more layers of the three-dimensional integrated circuit, assigning one or more SLM imaging units to handle each of the partitioned mask data pattern, and controlling the plurality of SLM imaging units to write the plurality of partitioned mask data patterns to the one or more layers of the three-dimensional integrated circuits in parallel. The method of assigning performs at least one of scaling, alignment, inter-ocular displacement, rotational factor, or substrate deformation correction.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTProvided is a method to load a patterning device (1010) onto a reticle stage (RS) of a lithography system, a Rapid Exchange Device (RED) configured to load a patterning device (1010) onto a reticle stage (RS) of a lithography system, and a system for manufacturing a semiconductor device lithographically. The method involves sharing compliance among six degree of freedom between the reticle stage (RS) and the RED. The RED complies in only a first three degrees of freedom and the reticle stage (RS) in only a second three degrees of freedom until the reticle stage (RS) and patterning device (1010) are substantially in contact and coplanar.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn a laser interference lithography apparatus, a laser source provides a first laser beam, and an optics assembly is optically coupled to the laser source and receives and processes the first laser beam into one or multiple second laser beams. An exposure stage carries a to-be-exposed object. The fiber assembly receives and processes the second laser beam(s) into one or multiple single mode and stable coherent third laser beams without spatial noise. An interference pattern is generated on the to-be-exposed object using the third laser beam(s). The apparatus is configured without a pin hole spatial filter and a beam expander being disposed on an optical path from an output end of the laser source to the exposure stage.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA digital exposure apparatus includes a displaceable stage, a light source part, a digital micro mirror part and a micro lens part. A substrate is disposed on the stage. The light source part generates a first light. The digital micro mirror part is disposed over the stage. The digital micro mirror part includes a plurality of digital micro mirrors. The digital micro mirror converts the first light into one or more second light beams. The micro lens part is disposed between the stage and the digital micro mirror part and includes a plurality of micro lenses. The micro lenses convert the one or more second light beams into one or more third light beams which are irradiated upon the substrate. The third light has an oval cross sectional shape.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn optical beam deflecting element may be used effectively as an energy distribution manipulator in an illumination system to vary the energy distribution within a given spatial intensity distribution in a pupil plane of the illumination system substantially without changing the shape and size and position of illuminated areas in the pupil plane.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method includes directing a beam of radiation along an optical axis toward a workpiece support, measuring a spectrum of the beam at a first time to obtain a first profile, measuring the spectrum of the beam at a second time to obtain a second profile, determining a spectral difference between the two profiles, and adjusting a position of the workpiece support along the optical axis based on the difference. A different aspect involves an apparatus having a workpiece support, beam directing structure that directs a beam of radiation along an optical axis toward the workpiece support, spectrum measuring structure that measures a spectrum of the beam at first and second times to obtain respective first and second profiles, processing structure that determines a difference between the two profiles, and support adjusting structure that adjusts a position of the workpiece support along the optical axis based on the difference.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn exposure apparatus exposes a substrate with illumination light via a projection optical system and liquid, and includes a controller that controls movement of first and second movable members each of which can hold a substrate. The controller executes a relative movement between the first and second movable members such that, while one of the movable members is arranged opposed to the projection optical system, the other of the movable members comes close to the one of the movable members, and so as to move the close first and second movable members relative to the projection optical system such that the other of the movable members is arranged opposed to the projection optical system in place of the one of the movable members while substantially maintaining a liquid immersion region under the projection optical system.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure relates to an actuator for projection exposure systems that include a magnet. The magnet is encapsulated and/or supported in a magnet holding plate that is produced by microtechnical production methods so that a moving manipulator surface is held in the magnet holding plate via monolithic or bonded connections without additional connecting material so that there is a secure connection.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn a lithographic projection apparatus, a liquid supply system maintains liquid in a space between the projection system and the substrate. The liquid supply system may further include a de-mineralizing unit, a distillation unit, a de-hydrocarbonating unit, a UV radiation source, and/or a filter configured to purify the liquid. A gas content reduction device may be provided to reduce a gas content of the liquid. A chemical may be added to the liquid using an adding device to inhibit lifeform growth and components of the liquid supply system may be made of a material which is non-transparent to visible light such that growth of lifeforms may be reduced.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn adjusting method that adjusts an immersion exposure apparatus that comprises a first holder, which holds a substrate, and a second holder, which holds the substrate before the substrate is held by the first holder, and that exposes the substrate, which is held by the first holder, through a liquid. The adjusting method comprises: holding a thermometer with the first holder; holding the thermometer with the second holder; and adjusting the temperature of at least one of the first holder and the second holder based on the detection result of the thermometer held by the first holder and the detection result of the thermometer held by the second holder.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method is provided for purifying a resin for photolithography wherein, from an insufficiently purified resin (also referred to as “crude resin”), low molecular weight impurities such as an unreacted monomer and a polymerization initiator, which cause a development defect of a resist pattern or deterioration of the storage stability of the resin for photolithography can be removed more effectively. The method for purifying a resin for photolithography includes an operation (a) wherein a slurry in which a resin is dispersed in a solution containing a good solvent and a poor solvent is stirred, and then an operation (b) wherein, to said slurry, a poor solvent is added to lower the ratio of the good solvent to the poor solvent, and then, the resin is separated from the solution.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithographic apparatus arranged to transfer a pattern from a patterning device onto a substrate is disclosed, the apparatus including a substrate table constructed to hold a substrate, a first clamping system configured to clamp the substrate table to a substrate table support structure, and a second clamping system configured to clamp a substrate to the substrate table after the substrate table has been clamped to the substrate table support structure.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTMicrolithographic illumination system includes individually drivable elements to variably illuminate a pupil surface of the system. Each element deviates an incident light beam based on a control signal applied to the element. The system also includes an instrument to provide a measurement signal, and a model-based state estimator configured to compute, for each element, an estimated state vector based on the measurement signal. The estimated state vector represents: a deviation of a light beam caused by the element; and a time derivative of the deviation. The illumination system further includes a regulator configured to receive, for each element: a) the estimated state vector; and b) target values for: i) the deviation of the light beam caused by the deviating element; and ii) the time derivative of the deviation.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn illumination optical apparatus has an optical unit. The optical unit has a light splitter to split an incident beam into two beams; a first spatial light modulator which can be arranged in an optical path of a first beam; a second spatial light modulator which can be arranged in an optical path of a second beam; and a light combiner which combines a beam having passed via the first spatial light modulator, with a beam having passed via the second spatial light modulator; each of the first spatial light modulator and the second spatial light modulator has a plurality of optical elements arranged two-dimensionally and controlled individually.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn exposure apparatus exposes a substrate with an energy beam via a projection system and liquid and an immersion member forms an immersion area under the projection system with the liquid. A controller controls a stage system having first and second substrate holding members that hold first and second substrates, (i) to execute a relative movement between the first and second substrate holding members such that, while one of the substrate holding members is arranged opposed to the projection system, the other of the substrate holding members comes close to the one substrate holding members, and (ii) to move the close substrate holding members relative to the immersion member below the projection system such that the other of the substrate holding members is arranged opposite to the projection system in place of the one substrate holding members while substantially maintaining the immersion area under the projection system.