Antimicrobial stewardship programmes are increasingly being used to improve the quality of antimicrobial prescribing, with the dual aim of optimizing clinical outcomes and minimizing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC) is celebrating its 40th anniversary and, as part of activities to commemorate this event, this article highlights the contribution of JAC to antimicrobial stewardship. Papers published in JAC have contributed to the evidence base for stewardship, have highlighted educational and behavioural change initiatives aimed at improving antibiotic prescribing practice, and have actively sought to foster the practice of antimicrobial stewardship amongst its readers.
The treatment of invasive fungal diseases constitutes a significant unmet medical need. There are relatively few antifungal agents in clinical development and a paucity of novel targets. Morbidity and mortality remain high and clinical outcomes are compromised by submaximal efficacy, emergence of drug resistance and drug-related toxicity. Thus, new antifungal agents are urgently required. A deep understanding of exposure–response relationships underpins the development of safe and effective clinical regimens of any therapeutic agent. Pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) is increasingly recognized as a vital tool in the development of new antimicrobial agents and maximizes the probability that the right dose will be studied the first time. There is currently no information or agreement as to what constitutes an adequate PK/PD package for the development of a new antifungal agent. This review provides a summary of the achievements of antifungal PK/PD for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and outlines the necessary components of a PK/PD package for a new antifungal agent. Such information is critical for the accelerated and efficient development of new agents and enables improved clinical outcomes to be secured.
Guideline development should be based on the quality of evidence, balance of benefits and harms, economic evaluation and patients’ views and preferences. Therefore, these factors were considered in the development of a new guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of vancomycin.
To develop an evidence-based guideline for vancomycin TDM and to promote standardized vancomycin TDM in clinical practice in China.
We referred to the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the quality of evidence and grade the strength of recommendations, according to economic evaluation and patients’ views and preferences. We used the GRADE Grid method to formulate the recommendations.
The guideline presents recommendations about who should receive vancomycin TDM, how to monitor vancomycin efficacy and renal safety, therapeutic trough concentrations, time to start initial vancomycin TDM, loading dose and how to administer and adjust the vancomycin dose.
We developed an evidence-based guideline for vancomycin TDM, which provides recommendations for clinicians and pharmacists to conduct vancomycin TDM in China.
With the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance it is crucial that clinicians use antibiotics wisely, which largely means following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Treatment of various types of wounds is one of the more common reasons for prescribing antibiotics.
This guidance document is aimed at providing clinicians an understanding of: the basic principles of why AMS is important in caring for patients with infected wounds; who should be involved in AMS; and how to conduct AMS for patients with infected wounds.
We assembled a group of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document.
All open wounds will be colonized with bacteria, but antibiotic therapy is only required for those that are clinically infected. Therapy is usually empirical to start, but definitive therapy should be based on results of appropriately collected specimens for culture. When prescribed, it should be as narrowly focused, and administered for the shortest duration, as possible. AMS teams should be interdisciplinary, especially including specialists in infection and pharmacy, with input from administrative personnel, the treating clinicians and their patients.
Available evidence is limited, but suggests that applying principles of AMS to the care of patients with wounds should help to reduce the unnecessary use of systemic or topical antibiotic therapy and ensure the safest and most clinically effective therapy for infected wounds.
While subtype-specific substitutions linked to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor resistance are well described in human N1 and N2 influenza NAs, little is known about other NA subtypes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the R292K and E119V ± I222L substitutions could be associated with oseltamivir resistance in all group 2 NAs and had an impact on virus fitness.
Reassortant viruses with WT NA or variant N2, N3, N6, N7 or N9 NAs, bearing R292K or E119V ± I222L substitutions, were produced by reverse genetics. The antiviral susceptibility, activity, Km of the NA, mutation stability and in vitro virus fitness in MDCK cells were determined.
NA activities could be ranked as follows regardless of the substitution: N3 ≥ N6 > N2 ≥ N9 > N7. Using NA inhibitor resistance interpretation criteria used for human N1 or N2, the NA-R292K substitution conferred highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and the N6- or N9-R292K substitution conferred reduced inhibition by zanamivir and laninamivir. Viruses with the N3- or N6-E119V substitution showed normal inhibition by oseltamivir, while those with the N2-, N7- or N9-E119V substitution showed reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. Viruses with NA-E119V + I222L substitutions showed reduced inhibition (N3 and N6) or highly reduced inhibition (N2, N7 and N9) by oseltamivir. Viruses bearing the NA-R292K substitution had lower affinity and viruses bearing the NA-E119V substitution had higher affinity for the MUNANA substrate than viruses with corresponding WT NA.
NA-R292K and E119V + I222L substitutions conferred reduced inhibition by oseltamivir for all group 2 NAs. Surveillance of NA inhibitor resistance for zoonotic and human influenza viruses and the development of novel antiviral agents with different targets should be continued.
The aim of the study was to identify the determinant responsible for erythromycin resistance in Helcococcus kunzii clinical isolate UCN99 and to characterize the genetic support and environment of this novel gene.
MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to EUCAST guidelines. The entire genome sequence of H. kunzii UCN99 was determined using a 454/Roche GS Junior sequencer. The fragment encompassing the new resistance gene and its own promoter was cloned into the pAT29 shuttle vector and the recombinant plasmid pAT29erm(47) was expressed in both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The transcription start site (TSS) was experimentally determined by 5' RACE-PCR.
UCN99 exhibited a constitutive macrolide/lincosamide/streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance phenotype, suggesting the presence of an Erm protein. WGS allowed the identification of a novel gene, named erm(47), encoding a protein sharing 44%–48% amino acid identity with known Erm methylases. In both S. aureus and S. agalactiae, the introduction of pAT29erm(47) conferred a significant increase (≥16-fold) in MICs of all macrolides and lincosamides tested, as well as a 4-fold increase in MICs of quinupristin (streptogramin B), confirming the MLSB resistance. The TSS identification revealed the presence of a short leader peptide, potentially implicated in a translational attenuation mechanism. It was also demonstrated that erm(47) was harboured by a 81 kb genomic island integrated into a chromosomal gene.
This is the first description of a novel MLSB resistance determinant, named erm(47). The prevalence of this gene among Gram-positive cocci must be further investigated to determine its clinical significance.
Ceftaroline (the active metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil) is a cephalosporin that possesses activity against MRSA due to its differentiating high affinity for PBP2a. It is known that PBP2a sequence variations, including some outside of the transpeptidase-binding pocket, impact ceftaroline susceptibility and recent evidence suggests involvement of non-PBP2a mechanisms in ceftaroline resistance. This study evaluated the potential of ceftaroline to select for resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones during serial passage.
Selection experiments were performed by up to 20 daily passages of three S. aureus isolates (two MRSA and one MSSA) in broth with increasing selective pressure. Mutants that emerged were tested for changes in ceftaroline susceptibility and genetically characterized.
The MSSA isolate developed mutations in PBP2 and PBP3 that increased the ceftaroline MIC by 16-fold and increased the MICs of other β-lactams. A Glu447Lys substitution in the PBP2a transpeptidase pocket in one MRSA isolate elevated the ceftaroline MIC to 8 mg/L. Selective pressure in a ceftaroline-resistant MRSA isolate generated mutations in LytD, as well as changes in the pbp4 promoter previously shown to result in PBP4 overexpression, the one PBP not inhibited by ceftaroline. Elevated ceftaroline MIC was reversed when tested in combination with extremely low levels of methicillin or meropenem that could inhibit the function of PBP4.
These studies demonstrate that resistance to ceftaroline can be manifested through numerous mechanisms. Further, they support a hypothesis where PBP4 can functionally provide the essential transpeptidase activity required for MRSA cell wall biogenesis when PBP2a is inhibited.
Aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate whether the cluster membership could have an impact on hetero-resistance phenotype to colistin in the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC); and (ii) determine the genetic mechanism of colistin hetero-resistance in ECC.
A collection of 124 clinical isolates belonging to 13 clusters were used to analyse the hetero-resistance phenotype (MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method, Etest and population analysis profiling). Different mutants (phoP, phoQ, phoPQ, pmrA, pmrB, pmrAB, arnE, arnF and arnBCADTEF) were constructed and tested for their colistin hetero-resistance phenotype.
Based on broth microdilution and Etest results, it was shown that the hetero-resistance to colistin depended on the cluster: strains from clusters I, II, IV, VII, IX, X, XI and XII were usually hetero-resistant, whereas those from clusters III, V, VI, VIII and XIII were categorized as susceptible. However, for some cluster V and VIII strains, a small proportion (<10–7) of cells appeared resistant when tested by population analysis profiling. From a mechanistic point of view, analysis of mutants revealed that the mechanism of hetero-resistance was mainly due to the expression of the arn operon and the phoP/phoQ two-component regulatory system.
Because the colistin hetero-resistance appeared cluster-dependent in the ECC, it should be advocated to determine the cluster of the strain associated with the infection in parallel with the MIC of colistin. The resistance mechanism may not be similar to other Enterobacteriaceae since only the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ (and not PmrA/PmrB) seemed to play a role in resistance regulation.
To characterize ESBL-encoding Escherichia coli cultured from pigs and their plasmids carrying these genes following conjugation into recipient strains.
Six ESBL-producing E. coli were recovered from faecal samples taken from pigs along with a further isolate from the environment of a farrowing house on three pig farms in Ireland. These isolates were characterized by phylogenetic grouping, MLST and ESBL genotype analyses. Conjugation experiments were carried out in broth mating assays. S1-nuclease PFGE was used to determine the plasmid profiles. Whole-genome sequences of the seven E. coli were determined and subsequently analysed.
Phylogenetic groups and the corresponding MLST STs identified among the seven tested E. coli isolates included A/ST10, A/ST34, C/ST23 and C/ST1629. All seven isolates carried one or more high-molecular-weight plasmids and demonstrated the ability to transfer their cefotaxime resistance phenotype at high frequencies. Five transmissible plasmid replicon types were detected, including IncK/B (n = 3), IncI1 (n = 2), IncFIA (n = 1), IncFIB (n = 1) and IncN (n = 1). ESBL-encoding genes, including blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-20, were identified.
As the first report from pig sources in Ireland, characterization of these ESBL-encoding isolates and their transmissible plasmids extends our understanding on these resistance markers from porcine E. coli.
aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae. We aimed to analyse the interplay between this plasmid-mediated gene and chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms on both FQ resistance and bacterial fitness in Escherichia coli.
E. coli ATCC 25922 and derived isogenic strains carrying chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance modifications (Ser83Leu–Asp87Asn in GyrA, Ser80Arg in ParC and/or a marR gene deletion) were electroporated with a pBK-CMV vector encoding AAC(6')-Ib-cr. The MICs of FQs were determined by microdilution and bactericidal activity was determined using time–kill curves. A peritoneal sepsis murine model was used to evaluate the in vivo impact. Bacterial fitness was analysed using growth curves and competition assays.
The presence of the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene increased the MICs of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin 4–8-fold for all E. coli genotypes, independently of the initial resistance level. Combination of the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene with three or four chromosomal mechanisms was necessary to reach MIC values above the susceptible category. Killing curve assays showed a clear selective advantage for survival in strains harbouring the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene (up to 7 log10 cfu/mL after 24 h). AAC(6')-Ib-cr significantly reduced the ciprofloxacin efficacy in vivo. In terms of bacterial fitness cost, maximal OD was significantly lower for all strains harbouring the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, independently of chromosomal mutations associated.
The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, in spite of producing low-level resistance by itself, plays a relevant role in acquisition of a clinical level of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin resistance, when combined with three or four chromosomal mutations, both in vitro and in vivo.
Amongst the highly diverse Escherichia coli population, the ST131-O25b:H4 clonal complex is particularly worrisome as it is associated with a high level of antibiotic resistance. The lack of new antibiotics, the worldwide continuous increase of infections caused by MDR bacteria and the need for narrow-spectrum antimicrobial agents have revived interest in phage therapy. In this article, we describe a virulent bacteriophage, LM33_P1, which specifically infects O25b strains, and provide data related to its therapeutic potential.
A large panel of E. coli strains (n = 283) was used to assess both the specificity and the activity of bacteriophage LM33_P1. Immunology, biochemistry and genetics-based methods confirmed this specificity. Virology methods and sequencing were used to characterize this bacteriophage in vitro, while three relevant mouse models were employed to show its in vivo efficacy.
Bacteriophage LM33_P1 exclusively infects O25b E. coli strains with a 70% coverage on sequence types associated with high antibiotic resistance (ST131 and ST69). This specificity is due to an interaction with the LPS mediated by an original tail fibre. LM33_P1 also has exceptional intrinsic properties with a high adsorption constant and produces over 300 virions per cell in <10 min. Using animal pneumonia, septicaemia and urinary tract infection models, we showed the in vivo efficacy of LM33_P1 to reduce the bacterial load in several organs.
Bacteriophage LM33_P1 represents the first weapon that specifically and quickly kills O25b E. coli strains. Therapeutic approaches derived from this bacteriophage could be developed to stop or slow down the spread of the ST131-O25b:H4 drug-resistant clonal complex in humans.
Owing to gene transposition and plasmid conjugation, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is typically identified among varied Enterobacteriaceae species and STs. We used WGS to characterize the chromosomal and plasmid molecular epidemiology of NDM transmission involving four institutions in Singapore.
Thirty-three Enterobacteriaceae isolates (collection years 2010–14) were sequenced using short-read sequencing-by-synthesis and analysed. Long-read single molecule, real-time sequencing (SMRTS) was used to characterize genetically a novel plasmid pSg1-NDM carried on Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147.
In 20 (61%) isolates, blaNDM was located on the pNDM-ECS01 plasmid in the background of multiple bacterial STs, including eight K. pneumoniae STs and five Escherichia coli STs. In six (18%) isolates, a novel blaNDM-positive plasmid, pSg1-NDM, was found only in K. pneumoniae ST147. The pSg1-NDM–K. pneumoniae ST147 clone (Sg1-NDM) was fully sequenced using SMRTS. pSg1-NDM, a 90 103 bp IncR plasmid, carried genes responsible for resistance to six classes of antimicrobials. A large portion of pSg1-NDM had no significant homology to any known plasmids in GenBank. pSg1-NDM had no conjugative transfer region. Combined chromosomal–plasmid phylogenetic analysis revealed five clusters of clonal bacterial NDM-positive plasmid transmission, of which two were inter-institution clusters. The largest inter-institution cluster involved six K. pneumoniae ST147-pSg1-NDM isolates. Fifteen patients were involved in transmission clusters, of which four had ward contact, six had hospital contact and five had an unknown transmission link.
A combined sequencing-by-synthesis and SMRTS approach can determine effectively the transmission clusters of blaNDM and genetically characterize novel plasmids. Plasmid molecular epidemiology is important to understanding NDM spread as blaNDM-positive plasmids can conjugate extensively across species and STs.
The objective of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay targeting the gonococcal porB gene (PorB-PCR) for predicting susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin. This complements a previously described PCR assay for detecting penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) developed by our laboratory (PPNG-PCR).
The PorB-PCR assay was designed using six probes to characterize various combinations of amino acids at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b class protein, including the WT G101/A102 and mutant G101K/A102D, G101K/A102N and G101K/A102G sequences, as well as the PorB1a sequence. The ability of these sequences to predict penicillin susceptibility was initially assessed using 2307 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from throughout Australia for which phenotypic susceptibility data were available. The assay was then applied to N. gonorrhoeae-positive clinical specimens (n = 70). Specificity was assessed by testing commensal Neisseria strains (n = 75) and N. gonorrhoeae-negative clinical specimens (n = 171).
Testing of the 2307 N. gonorrhoeae isolates using PorB-PCR to detect G101/A102 and PorB1a sequences identified a total of 78.4% (61.2% and 17.2%, respectively) of penicillin-susceptible isolates with specificities of 97.4% and 99.3% and positive predictive values of 98.8% and 98.9%, where PPNG strains were simultaneously identified and excluded. Similar performance data were obtained when the PorB-PCR assay was applied to the N. gonorrhoeae-positive clinical specimens. No false-positive results were observed for the N. gonorrhoeae-negative samples and no cross-reactions were observed with the non-gonococcal species.
When used in parallel with the previously described PPNG-PCR, the PorB-PCR approach has the potential to facilitate individualized treatment of gonorrhoea using penicillin.
Gonorrhoea and MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae remain public health concerns globally. Enhanced, quality-assured, gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is essential worldwide. The WHO global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was relaunched in 2009. We describe the phenotypic, genetic and reference genome characteristics of the 2016 WHO gonococcal reference strains intended for quality assurance in the WHO global GASP, other GASPs, diagnostics and research worldwide.
The 2016 WHO reference strains (n = 14) constitute the eight 2008 WHO reference strains and six novel strains. The novel strains represent low-level to high-level cephalosporin resistance, high-level azithromycin resistance and a porA mutant. All strains were comprehensively characterized for antibiogram (n = 23), serovar, prolyliminopeptidase, plasmid types, molecular AMR determinants, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing STs and MLST STs. Complete reference genomes were produced using single-molecule PacBio sequencing.
The reference strains represented all available phenotypes, susceptible and resistant, to antimicrobials previously and currently used or considered for future use in gonorrhoea treatment. All corresponding resistance genotypes and molecular epidemiological types were described. Fully characterized, annotated and finished references genomes (n = 14) were presented.
The 2016 WHO gonococcal reference strains are intended for internal and external quality assurance and quality control in laboratory investigations, particularly in the WHO global GASP and other GASPs, but also in phenotypic (e.g. culture, species determination) and molecular diagnostics, molecular AMR detection, molecular epidemiology and as fully characterized, annotated and finished reference genomes in WGS analysis, transcriptomics, proteomics and other molecular technologies and data analysis.
To elucidate the genome-based epidemiology and phylogenomics of azithromycin-resistant (MIC >2 mg/L) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains collected in 2009–14 in Europe and clarify the azithromycin resistance mechanisms.
Seventy-five azithromycin-resistant (MIC 4 to >256 mg/L) N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in 17 European countries during 2009–14 were examined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and WGS.
Thirty-six N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing STs and five phylogenomic clades, including 4–22 isolates from several countries per clade, were identified. The azithromycin target mutation A2059G (Escherichia coli numbering) was found in all four alleles of the 23S rRNA gene in all isolates with high-level azithromycin resistance (n = 4; MIC ≥256 mg/L). The C2611T mutation was identified in two to four alleles of the 23S rRNA gene in the remaining 71 isolates. Mutations in mtrR and its promoter were identified in 43 isolates, comprising isolates within the whole azithromycin MIC range. No mutations associated with azithromycin resistance were found in the rplD gene or the rplV gene and none of the macrolide resistance-associated genes [mef(A/E), ere(A), ere(B), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C) and erm(F)] were identified in any isolate.
Clonal spread of relatively few N. gonorrhoeae strains accounts for the majority of the azithromycin resistance (MIC >2 mg/L) in Europe. The four isolates with high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC ≥256 mg/L) were widely separated in the phylogenomic tree and did not belong to any of the main clades. The main azithromycin resistance mechanisms were the A2059G mutation (high-level resistance) and the C2611T mutation (low- and moderate-level resistance) in the 23S rRNA gene.
An outbreak of NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii and possible secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae were investigated.
From October 2012 to March 2015, meropenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 45 samples from seven patients at Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. In silico resistance genes, Inc plasmid types and STs (MLST) were obtained from WGS data from 24 meropenem-resistant isolates (13 C. freundii, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Escherichia coli and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca) and 1 meropenem-susceptible K. oxytoca. The sequences of the meropenem-resistant C. freundii isolates were compared by phylogenetic analyses. In vitro susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested. Furthermore, in vitro conjugation and plasmid characterization was performed.
From the seven patients, 13 highly clonal ST18 NDM-1-producing C. freundii were isolated. The ST18 NDM-1-producing C. freundii isolates were only susceptible to tetracycline, tigecycline, colistin and fosfomycin (except for the C. freundii isolates from Patient 2 and Patient 7, which were additionally resistant to tetracycline). The E. coli and K. pneumoniae from different patients belonged to different STs, indicating in vivo transfer of blaNDM-1 in the individual patients. This was further supported by in vitro conjugation and detection of a 154 kb IncA/C2 plasmid with blaNDM-1. Patient screenings failed to reveal any additional cases. None of the patients had a history of recent travel abroad and the source of the blaNDM-1 plasmid was unknown.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of an NDM-1-producing C. freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of an IncA/C2 plasmid with blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae.
Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a frequent cause of multidrug resistance in cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms. One example is the Cdr1p transporter from the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans that belongs to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters found in fungi and plants. Cdr1p is overexpressed in several azole-resistant clinical isolates, causing azole efflux and treatment failure. Cdr1p appears as a doublet band in western blot analyses, suggesting that the protein is post-translationally modified. We investigated whether Cdr1p is phosphorylated and the function of this modification.
Phosphorylated residues were identified by MS. Their function was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and expression of the mutants in a C. albicans endogenous system that exploits a hyperactive allele of the Tac1p transcription factor to drive high levels of Cdr1p expression. Fluconazole resistance was measured by microtitre plate and spot assays and transport activity by Nile red accumulation.
We identified a cluster of seven phosphorylated amino acids in the N-terminal extension (NTE) of Cdr1p. Mutating all seven sites to alanine dramatically diminished the ability of Cdr1p to confer fluconazole resistance and transport Nile red, without affecting Cdr1p localization. Conversely, a Cdr1p mutant in which the seven amino acids were replaced by glutamate was able to confer high levels of fluconazole resistance and to export Nile red.
Our results demonstrate that the NTE of Cdr1p is phosphorylated and that NTE phosphorylation plays a major role in regulating Cdr1p and possibly other PDR transporter function.
Combination therapy of voriconazole with an echinocandin is often employed in order to increase the efficacy of voriconazole monotherapy.
Four clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with different in vitro susceptibilities to voriconazole (MIC 0.125–2 mg/L) and anidulafungin (MEC 0.008–0.016 mg/L) were tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model simulating human serum concentrations of standard dosages of voriconazole and anidulafungin. Fungal growth was assessed using galactomannan production and quantitative PCR. Drug concentrations were determined with bioassays. Pharmacodynamic interactions were assessed using Bliss independence analysis (BI) and Loewe additivity-based canonical mixture response-surface non-linear regression analysis (LA). Probability of target attainment (PTA) was estimated with Monte Carlo analysis for different doses of anidulafungin (25, 50 and 100 mg) and azole resistance rates (5%–25%).
Synergy [BI 51% (8%–80%), LA 0.63 (0.38–0.79)] was found at low anidulafungin (fCmax/MEC <10) and voriconazole (fAUC/MIC <10) exposures, whereas antagonism [BI 12% (5%–18%, LA 1.12 (1.04–4.6)] was found at higher drug exposures. The largest increase in PTA was found with 25 mg of anidulafungin and voriconazole MIC distributions with high (>10%) resistance rates. PTAs for isolates with voriconazole MICs of 1, 2 and 4 mg/L was 78%, 12% and 0% with voriconazole monotherapy and 96%–100%, 68%–82% and 9%–20% with combination therapy, respectively. Optimal activity was associated with a voriconazole tCmin/MIC ratio of 1.5 for monotherapy and 0.75 for combination therapy.
The present study indicated that the combination of voriconazole with low-dose anidulafungin may increase the efficacy and reduce the cost and potential toxicity of antifungal therapy, particularly against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates and in patients with subtherapeutic serum levels. This hypothesis warrants further in vivo verification.
Polymyxin B is being increasingly utilized as a last resort against resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We examined the pharmacodynamics of novel dosing strategies for polymyxin B combinations to maximize efficacy and minimize the emergence of resistance and drug exposure against Acinetobacter baumannii.
The pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B together with doripenem were evaluated in time–kill experiments over 48 h against 108 cfu/mL of two polymyxin-heteroresistant A. baumannii isolates (ATCC 19606 and N16870). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships were mathematically modelled using S-ADAPT. A hollow-fibre infection model (HFIM) was also used to simulate clinically relevant polymyxin B dosing strategies (traditional, augmented ‘front-loaded’ and ‘burst’ regimens), together with doripenem, against an initial inoculum of 109 cfu/mL of ATCC 19606.
In static time–kill studies, polymyxin B concentrations >4 mg/L in combination with doripenem 25 mg/L resulted in rapid bactericidal activity against both strains with undetectable bacterial counts by 24 h. The mathematical model described the rapid, concentration-dependent killing as subpopulation and mechanistic synergy. In the HFIM, the traditional polymyxin B combination regimen was synergistic, with a >7.5 log10 reduction by 48 h. The polymyxin B ‘front-loaded’ combination resulted in more rapid and extensive initial killing (>8 log10) within 24 h, which was sustained over 10 days. With only 25% of the cumulative drug exposure, the polymyxin B ‘burst’ combination demonstrated antibacterial activity similar to traditional and ‘front-loaded’ combination strategies. The polymyxin B ‘front-loaded’ and ‘burst’ combination regimens suppressed the emergence of resistance.
Early aggressive dosing regimens for polymyxin combinations demonstrate promise for treatment of heteroresistant A. baumannii infections.
Hypermutable bacteria are causing a drastic problem via their enhanced ability to become resistant. Our objectives were to compare bacterial killing and resistance emergence between differently shaped tobramycin concentration–time profiles at a given fAUC/MIC, and determine the tobramycin exposure durations that prevent resistance.
Static concentration time–kill studies over 24 h used Pseudomonas aeruginosa WT strains (ATCC 27853 and PAO1) and hypermutable PAOmutS. fAUC/MIC values of 36, 72 and 168 were assessed at initial inocula of 106 and 104 cfu/mL (all strains) and 101.2 cfu/mL (PAOmutS only) in duplicate. Tobramycin was added at 0 h and removed at 1, 4, 10 or 24 h. Proportions of resistant bacteria and MICs were determined at 24 h. Mechanism-based modelling was conducted.
For all strains, high tobramycin concentrations over 1 and 4 h resulted in more rapid and extensive initial killing compared with 10 and 24 h exposures at a given fAUC/MIC. No resistance emerged for 1 and 4 h durations of exposure, although extensive regrowth of susceptible bacteria occurred. The 24 h duration of exposure revealed less regrowth, but tobramycin-resistant populations had completely replaced susceptible bacteria by 24 h for the 106 cfu/mL inoculum. The hypermutable PAOmutS showed the highest numbers of resistant bacteria. Total and resistant bacterial counts were described well by novel mechanism-based modelling.
Extensive resistance emerged for 10 and 24 h durations of exposure, but not for shorter durations. The tobramycin concentration–time profile shape is vital for resistance prevention and should aid the introduction of optimized combination regimens.
There is uncertainty about the optimal teicoplanin regimens for neonates. The study aim was to determine the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of teicoplanin in neonates, evaluate currently recommended regimens and explore the exposure–effect relationships.
An open-label PK study was conducted. Neonates from 26 to 44 weeks post-menstrual age were recruited (n = 18). The teicoplanin regimen was a 16 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 8 mg/kg once daily. Therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment were not conducted. A standard two-compartment PK model was developed, followed by models that incorporated weight. A PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) model with C-reactive protein serial measurements as the PD input was fitted to the data. Monte Carlo simulations (n = 5000) were performed using Pmetrics. The AUCs at steady state and the proportion of patients achieving the recommended drug exposures (i.e. Cmin >15 mg/L) were determined. The study was registered in the European Clinical Trials Database Registry (EudraCT: 2012-005738-12).
The PK allometric model best accounted for the observed data. The PK parameters medians were: clearance = 0.435 x (weight/70)0.75 (L/h); volume = 0.765 (L); Kcp = 1.3 (h–1); and Kpc = 0.629 (h–1). The individual time-course of C-reactive protein was well described using the Bayesian posterior estimates for each patient. The simulated median AUC96-120 was 302.3 mg·h/L and the median Cmin at 120 h was 12.9 mg/L; 38.8% of patients attained a Cmin >15 mg/L by 120 h.
Teicoplanin population PK is highly variable in neonates, weight being the best descriptor of PK variability. A low percentage of neonates were able to achieve Cmin >15 mg/L. The routine use of therapeutic drug monitoring and improved knowledge on the PD of teicoplanin is required.
Telavancin is a novel lipoglycoprotein antibiotic with MRSA activity. To date, tissue pharmacokinetics (PK) and plasma protein binding of the drug are insufficiently described.
To investigate tissue PK and plasma protein binding of telavancin in healthy volunteers.
Eight male healthy subjects received a single dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight of telavancin as an intravenous infusion over 1 h. At defined timepoints before and up to 24 h after treatment, total telavancin concentrations were measured in plasma. Additionally, unbound telavancin levels were determined in plasma, muscle and subcutis by means of microdialysis.
Key PK parameters of total telavancin in plasma were in good agreement with previously described values. Mean ± SD Cmax and calculated AUC0-24 of free telavancin in plasma were 13.8 ± 7.8 mg/L and 82.9 ± 34.3 mg·h/L, respectively. Unbound drug levels in plasma ranged from 13.2% to 24.8% of corresponding total telavancin. Mean ± SD Cmax and AUC0-24 of unbound telavancin were 4.3 ± 1.5 mg/L and 61.5 ± 27.1 mg·h/L for muscle and 3.4 ± 1.8 and 50.0 ± 29.8 mg·h/L for subcutis, respectively. Relevant PK/pharmacodynamic indices were calculated for total and unbound drug.
This study provides important information on soft tissue PK and plasma protein binding of telavancin in healthy volunteers. Unbound plasma concentrations above levels assumed from previously available data and sustained free drug exposure in soft tissues support the current mode of administration.
Approximately 1.5 million HIV-positive women become pregnant annually. Without treatment, up to 45% will transmit HIV to their infants, primarily through breastfeeding. These numbers highlight that HIV acquisition is a major health concern for women and children globally. They also emphasize the urgent need for novel approaches to prevent HIV acquisition that are safe, effective and convenient to use by women and children in places where they are most needed.
4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, a potent NRTI with low cytotoxicity, was administered orally to NOD/SCID/c–/– mice and to bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice, a preclinical model of HIV infection. HIV inhibitory activity in serum, cervicovaginal secretions and saliva was evaluated 4 h after administration. 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine's ability to prevent vaginal and oral HIV transmission was evaluated using highly relevant transmitted/founder viruses in BLT mice.
Strong HIV inhibitory activity in serum, cervicovaginal secretions and saliva obtained from animals after a single oral dose of 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (10 mg/kg) demonstrated efficient drug penetration into relevant mucosal sites. A single daily oral dose of 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine resulted in efficient prevention of vaginal and oral HIV transmission after multiple high-dose exposures to transmitted/founder viruses in BLT humanized mice.
Our data demonstrated that 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine efficiently prevents both vaginal and oral HIV transmission. Together with 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine's relatively low toxicity and high potency against drug-resistant HIV strains, these data support further clinical development of 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine as a potential pre-exposure prophylaxis agent to prevent HIV transmission in women and their infants.
IFN-based therapy against hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) has poor effectiveness and tolerability. In HIV/HCV-coinfected liver transplant recipients, the results are even poorer. Here, we report our experience using direct antiviral agents (DAAs) in 11 consecutive coinfected patients within the LT setting.
Four patients with compensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were treated while awaiting LT and seven patients received antiviral therapy due to severe hepatitis C recurrence after LT [fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (n = 1), fibrosis stage ≥F3 (n = 2) and decompensated cirrhosis (n = 4)]. Patients were treated with different sofosbuvir-based regimens with or without ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks.
Sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved in all patients. Two of the four patients treated while awaiting LT reached the time of transplant with undetectable HCV-RNA that remained undetectable 12 weeks after LT, one patient had detectable HCV-RNA at the time of transplant but achieved SVR after completing 12 weeks of therapy after LT and the last patient is still on the waiting list. Seven patients with severe post-LT hepatitis C recurrence were treated within 11–120 months after LT. In these patients, viral eradication was associated with an improvement in liver function and clinical decompensation. Tolerance to antiviral therapy was good and only four patients reported mild adverse events.
IFN-free regimens are effective and well tolerated in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients within the LT setting, but more data are needed to confirm our promising results and to establish the best treatment option in this population.
Intermittent seminal HIV-RNA detection can occur in MSM despite concomitant plasma virological control on combined ART (cART). We undertook the present study to determine if seminal HIV detection was associated with seminal cytomegalovirus (CMV) detection or detection of HIV-infected cells in semen.
Longitudinal semen samples from HIV-1-infected MSM on successful cART enrolled in the EVARIST ANRS EP 49 study were analysed. We first conducted a case–control analysis (ratio 1 : 3) to assess HIV-DNA detection in semen cells in the 20 patients with detectable HIV-RNA in seminal plasma (cases) matched with 60 participants with undetectable HIV-RNA (controls) based on total HIV-DNA load in blood cells. Second, we measured CMV-DNA in all seminal plasma samples.
HIV-1-DNA in semen cells was detected on at least one sample visit in 12/20 cases and 11/60 controls. Detection of HIV-RNA in seminal plasma was associated significantly with the detection of HIV-DNA in semen cells [OR, 7.6 (95% CI, 2.1–28.4); P = 0.002] when adjusted on total HIV-DNA in blood cells. CMV-DNA was detected in 107/273 seminal plasma samples with a median value of 3.62 log10 copies/mL (IQR, 2.83–4.38), yielding a prevalence of 39.2%. Seminal CMV-DNA shedding [OR, 1.5 (95% CI, 0.6–3.6); P = 0.343] was not associated with the risk of detection of HIV-RNA in seminal plasma.
The presence of HIV-DNA in semen cells was predictive of HIV-RNA detection, suggesting that viral particles arise through local HIV replication by infected semen cells. Despite virological control, compartmentalization of HIV in the genital tract might act in residual replication and transmission.
No data are available on bone metabolism in infants exposed to tenofovir during breastfeeding. We investigated bone metabolism markers in the first year of life in infants from mothers who received tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz during pregnancy and 12 months of breastfeeding in a national Option B+ programme in Malawi.
Serum samples collected at 6 and 12 months in tenofovir-exposed infants and in a small sample of tenofovir-unexposed infants from the same clinical centre were analysed in batches for levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP; marker of bone formation) and of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX; marker of bone resorption).
Overall, 136 tenofovir-exposed infants were evaluated. No infant had at either timepoint CTX values above the upper normal limit, while most of them had at 6 and 12 months levels of BAP above the upper normal limit for the age range. Levels of bone markers showed no differences by gender and no association with growth parameters. Tenofovir-unexposed and -exposed children had similar mean levels of bone markers at 6 months (CTX: 0.62 versus 0.55 ng/mL, P = 0.122; BAP: 384 versus 362 U/L, P = 0.631).
No significant association between treatment with tenofovir and CTX or BAP levels was found. The high levels of BAP, coupled to the normal levels observed for CTX, might reflect primarily skeletal growth. Potential negative effects of prolonged exposure to tenofovir through breastfeeding cannot however be excluded and longitudinal studies that evaluate bone mineralization status in children enrolled in Option B+ programmes are warranted.
Use of ART containing HIV PIs has previously been associated with toxicity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), potentially contributing to the development of lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. However, the effect of PIs on SAT function in ART-naive patients independent of other ART classes is unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of initiating PI-only ART on SAT function in ART-naive subjects.
In the HIVNAT-019 study, 48 HIV-infected, ART-naive Thai adults commencing PI-only ART comprising lopinavir/ritonavir/saquinavir for 24 weeks underwent assessments of fasting metabolic parameters and body composition. In a molecular substudy, 20 subjects underwent SAT biopsies at weeks 0, 2 and 24 for transcriptional, protein, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and histological analyses. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00400738.
Over 24 weeks, limb fat increased (+416.4 g, P = 0.023), coinciding with larger adipocytes as indicated by decreased adipocyte density in biopsies (–32.3 cells/mm2, P = 0.047) and increased mRNA expression of adipogenesis regulator PPARG at week 2 (+58.1%, P = 0.003). Increases in mtDNA over 24 weeks (+600 copies/cell, P = 0.041), decreased NRF1 mRNA expression at week 2 (–33.7%, P < 0.001) and increased COX2/COX4 protein ratio at week 24 (+288%, P = 0.038) indicated improved mitochondrial function. Despite decreased AKT2 mRNA at week 2 (–28.6%, P = 0.002) and increased PTPN1 mRNA at week 24 (+50.3%, P = 0.016) suggesting insulin resistance, clinical insulin sensitivity [by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR)] was unchanged.
Initiation of PI-only ART showed little evidence of SAT toxicity, the changes observed being consistent with a return to health rather than contributing to lipodystrophy.
The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of viral success in HIV-infected patients on first-line ART by the assessment of dried blood spot (DBS) viral load (VL) and to assess the performance of DBS sampling for VL measurement, genotypic resistance and antiretroviral concentration determinations.
HIV-infected patients treated for >1 year with first-line ART in Niamey, Niger were included. VL based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (limit of quantification <800 copies/mL) was measured on DBS capillary samples. Resistance genotype was assessed for all detectable VLs (limit of detection >100 copies/mL); antiretroviral concentrations were interpreted using standard plasma cut-offs after extrapolation of blood to plasma results. Median (IQR) results are presented.
Two hundred and eighteen patients (61% women), aged 41 (34–46) years, with 138 (56–235) CD4 cells/mm3 at baseline were included. After 4 (2–6) years of follow-up under therapy, CD4 gain was +197 (98–372) cells/mm3; 81% had VL <800 copies/mL. Antiretroviral concentrations were adequate in 87% of patients and nevirapine/efavirenz concentrations were related to viral success (P < 0.001). DBS genotypic resistance amplification succeeded in 71% of failing patients: NRTI drug resistance mutations were identified in 73% including resistance to lamivudine/emtricitabine (67%), abacavir (30%) and tenofovir (21%); and NNRTI drug resistance mutations were identified in 82% including resistance to rilpivirine (39%) and etravirine (15%).
This study demonstrated a good response after 4 years of first-line ART in Niger. Adherence was high, according to antiretroviral concentrations, and the majority of failures were explained by selection of drug resistance mutations detected in the DBS genotype. Using DBS might improve the assessment of ART failure in HIV-infected patients in low-income countries.
Clinical trials of PI monotherapy indicate that most participants maintain viral suppression and emergent protease resistance is rare. However, outcomes among patients receiving PI monotherapy for clinical reasons, such as toxicity or adherence issues, are less well studied.
An observational study of patients attending an HIV treatment centre in London, UK, who had received PI monotherapy between 2004 and 2013, was conducted using prospectively collected clinical data and genotypic resistance reports. Survival analysis techniques were used to examine the times to virological failure and treatment discontinuation.
Ninety-five patients had PI monotherapy treatment for a median duration of 126 weeks. Virological failure occurred during 64% of episodes and 8% of patients developed emergent protease mutations. We estimate failure occurs in half of episodes within 2 years following initiation. Where PI monotherapy was continued following virological failure, 68% of patients achieved viral re-suppression. Despite a high incidence of virological failure, many patients continued PI monotherapy and 79% of episodes were ongoing at the end of the study. The type of PI used, the presence of baseline protease mutations and the plasma HIV RNA at initiation did not have a significant impact on treatment outcomes.
There was a higher incidence of virological failure and emerging resistance in our UK clinical setting than described in PI monotherapy clinical trials and other European observational studies. Despite this, many patients continued PI monotherapy and regained viral suppression, indicating this strategy remains a viable option in certain individuals following careful clinical evaluation.
We assessed the virological efficacy of a 6 month maraviroc/raltegravir simplification strategy following 6 months of quadruple therapy combining tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine with maraviroc/raltegravir.
HIV-1-infected naive patients were enrolled in an open label, single-arm, Phase 2 trial. All patients received maraviroc 300 mg twice daily, raltegravir 400 mg twice daily and tenofovir/emtricitabine for 24 weeks. Patients with stable HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL stopped tenofovir/emtricitabine at week (W) 24 and pursued maraviroc/raltegravir until W48. The primary endpoint was the virological response defined by HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL at W48.
Thirty-three patients were analysed. Patients were mostly male (94%), Caucasians (91%), MSM (82%); their median age was 42 years. At baseline, median CD4 cell count was 453 cells/mm3 and HIV-RNA was 4.3 log copies/mL. All patients had CCR5-tropic viruses by genotropism and phenotropism assays. All but one patient had an HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL at W24 and entered the simplification phase. Virological success was maintained at W48 in 88% (90% CI 79%–97%) of patients. N155H mutation was detected at failure in one patient. No tropism switch was observed. Raltegravir and maraviroc plasma exposure were satisfactory in 92% and 79% of 41 samples from 21 patients. Five severe adverse events (SAEs) were observed up to W48; none was related to the study drugs. Four patients presented grade 3 AEs; none was related to the study. No grade 4 AE was observed. No patient died.
Maraviroc/raltegravir maintenance therapy following a 6 month induction phase with maraviroc/raltegravir/tenofovir/emtricitabine was well tolerated and maintained virological efficacy in these carefully selected patients.
Invasive infections caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPCKP) are associated with very high mortality. Because infection is usually preceded by rectal colonization, we investigated if decolonization therapy (DT) with aminoglycosides had a protective effect in selected patients.
Patients with rectal colonization by colistin-resistant KPCKP who were at high risk of developing infection (because of neutropenia, surgery, previous recurrent KPCKP infections or multiple comorbidities) were followed for 180 days. Cox regression analysis including a propensity score was used to investigate the impact of the use of two intestinal decolonization regimens with oral aminoglycosides (gentamicin and neomycin/streptomycin) on mortality, risk of KPCKP infections and microbiological success. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02604849).
The study sample comprised 77 colonized patients, of which 44 (57.1%) received DT. At 180 days of follow-up, decolonization was associated with a lower risk of mortality in multivariate analyses (HR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06–0.55) and a lower risk of KPCKP infections (HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02–0.83) and increased microbiological success (HR 4.06; 95% CI 1.06–15.6). Specifically, gentamicin oral therapy was associated with a lower risk of crude mortality (HR 0.15; 95% CI 0.04–0.54), a lower risk of KPCKP infections (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.008–0.94) and increased microbiological response at 180 days of follow-up (HR 5.67; 95% CI 1.33–24.1). Neomycin/streptomycin therapy was only associated with a lower risk of crude mortality (HR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06–0.9).
Intestinal decolonization with aminoglycosides is associated with a reduction in crude mortality and KPCKP infections at 180 days after initiating treatment.
Multiresistant Gram-negative pathogens pose major healthcare concerns with a limited therapeutic armamentarium. Aminoglycosides (AG) are under-utilized due to nephrotoxicity. We aimed to evaluate AG-associated acute kidney injury (AG-AKI) in elderly inpatients, with and without shock.
We examined the incidence and predictors of AG-AKI by KDIGO criteria and extended renal dysfunction (ERD) in patients aged >60 years. ERD represented a composite of hospital mortality or absence of renal recovery over 6 months following AG-AKI.
Two hundred and seventy-eight patients (aged 74 ± 8 years) were studied; 43% and 19% received >7 and >10 days of AG therapy, respectively, and 70% gentamicin (versus amikacin). Thirteen per cent had shock and 17% developed AG-AKI. Comparing all patients with shock versus no shock, AG-AKI developed in 33% versus 14%, respectively (P = 0.005); correspondingly among 47 patients with AG-AKI, more with shock had stage 2/3 AKI (92% versus 43%) and dialysis (50% versus 9%) (P < 0.01), but more had other strong AKI confounders than AG therapy alone (83% versus 40%, P = 0.02). Multivariate analyses identified mechanical ventilation, frusemide administration and AG therapy >10 days as predictors of AG-AKI (P < 0.05), whereas shock, pneumonia and frusemide administration predicted more severe stage 2/3 AG-AKI (P < 0.05). Hospital mortality was 30% versus 7% with AG-AKI versus none (P < 0.001). Twenty-three of 211 (11%) patients with extended analysis had ERD, with 47% experiencing renal recovery following AG-AKI. Mechanical ventilation and contrast administration during index hospitalization predicted ERD (P < 0.05).
AG-AKI is common in the elderly, with a significant risk of ERD, but the cause and severity are greatly influenced by critical illness and shock, more so than AG therapy alone.
To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for 7 days. Oropharyngeal swabs obtained before, within 48 h post-treatment and at 28–35 days were assessed for proportions of amoxicillin-resistant (ARS; amoxicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L) and -non-susceptible (ANS; MIC ≥0.5 mg/L) streptococci. Alterations in amoxicillin MICs and in penicillin-binding-proteins were also investigated. ITT and PP analyses were conducted.
ARS and ANS proportions increased 11- and 2.5-fold, respectively, within 48 h post-amoxicillin treatment compared with placebo [ARS mean increase (MI) 9.46, 95% CI 5.57–13.35; ANS MI 39.87, 95% CI 30.96–48.78; P < 0.0001 for both]. However, these differences were no longer significant at days 28–35 (ARS MI –3.06, 95% CI –7.34 to 1.21; ANS MI 4.91, 95% CI –4.79 to 14.62; P > 0.1588). ARS/ANS were grouped by pbp mutations. Group 1 strains exhibited significantly lower amoxicillin resistance (mean MIC 2.8 mg/L, 95% CI 2.6–3.1) than group 2 (mean MIC 9.3 mg/L, 95% CI 8.1–10.5; P < 0.0001). Group 2 strains predominated immediately post-treatment (61.07%) and although decreased by days 28–35 (30.71%), proportions remained higher than baseline (18.70%; P = 0.0004).
By utilizing oropharyngeal streptococci as model organisms this study provides the first prospective, experimental evidence that resistance selection in patients receiving amoxicillin is modest and short-lived, probably due to ‘fitness costs’ engendered by high-level resistance-conferring mutations. This evidence further supports European guidelines that recommend amoxicillin when an antibiotic is indicated for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections.
Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a diverse range of infections of varying severity. The Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) scoring system stratifies patients into four classes (I = least severe to IV = most severe) based on the Standardized Early Warning Score (SEWS). The objective of this study was to apply CREST to hospitalized patients with SSTIs in order to quantify disease severity and evaluate appropriateness of antibiotic management.
This was a retrospective, hypothesis-generating, single-centre evaluation of hospitalized patients with SSTIs admitted in 2011. Based on CREST classification, the empirical antimicrobial choices were categorized as appropriate, over-treatment or under-treatment.
A total of 369 patients were screened and 200 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were classified as either CREST class I (n = 68) or class II (n = 102). Over-treatment was more common in the less severe classes (88% and 32% in class I and class II, respectively; P < 0.05). Sixty-three percent of class I (n = 43) were over-treated due to both the use of intravenous antibiotics when oral therapy was sufficient and use of unnecessarily broad-spectrum antibiotics. In contrast, 25% (n = 26) of class II were over-treated due to use of unnecessarily broad-spectrum antibiotics. Overall clinical failure rates remained low with only 1%, 4% and 17% of patients unable to achieve initial response in class II, class III and class IV.
Retrospective application of CREST identified opportunities to improve the management of SSTIs. CREST can be of great value in discriminating less-severe SSTIs, which can be treated on an outpatient basis.
Antimicrobial stewardship teams play an important role in assisting with the optimization of antimicrobial use in acute care settings. We aimed to determine whether a rapid review by a multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship team would improve the timeliness of optimal antimicrobial therapy for patients with positive blood cultures.
This prospective randomized controlled trial was undertaken in two Australian hospitals. Patients received either standard care (a clinical microbiologist, registrar or laboratory scientist communicating the positive blood culture by phone to the treating doctor) or intervention (standard care plus rapid review by a multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship team). Outcomes included time to appropriate and/or active antimicrobial therapy and in-hospital mortality. The trial was registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000258651).
A total of 160 patients were enrolled in this study: 81 in the standard care arm and 79 in the intervention arm. Patients in the intervention arm were commenced earlier on active (HR 8.02, 95% CI: 2.15–29.91) and appropriate antimicrobials (HR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.13–3.38), with a higher proportion of patients allocated to the intervention arm receiving active therapy at 48 h (96% versus 82%) and appropriate therapy at 72 h (70% versus 54%). The majority of patients where the blood culture was a contaminant were not started on antimicrobial therapy, and there were no significant differences in time to cessation of antimicrobial therapy.
Antimicrobial stewardship team review of patients with pathogenic positive blood cultures improved the time to both active and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global political and patient safety issue. With ongoing strategic interventions to improve the shape of UK postgraduate clinical training, ensuring that all clinicians have appropriate knowledge and practical skills in the area of AMR is essential. To assess this, a cross-sectional analysis was undertaken of the coverage and quality of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS)/AMR within UK postgraduate clinical training curricula.
UK clinical specialty training curricula were identified. Topics and individual learning points relating to AMS or AMR were extracted for each specialty. Learning points were quality assessed against the expected level of clinical competence. Inter-specialty analysis was performed.
Overall 37 specialties were assessed, equating to 2318 topics and 42 527 learning points. Of these, 8/2318 (0.3%) topics and 184/42 527 (0.4%) learning points were related to AMS/AMR. Infectious diseases represented all eight topics and 43/184 (23%) of the learning points. In contrast, primary care, which is responsible for the highest proportion of antimicrobial usage, had no topics and only 2/1368 (0.15%) of the AMS/AMR learning points. This paucity of representation was reflected across most of the remaining specialties. On quality assessment, the majority of learning points (111/184; 60%) required knowledge only, with no demonstration of behaviour in clinical practice required.
Coverage of AMS/AMR is poor across the majority of UK postgraduate clinical training curricula, with little depth of learning required. Given the threat of AMR, and evolving changes in clinical training pathways, we call for cross-specialty action to address this current lack of engagement.
The UK 5 year antimicrobial resistance strategy recognizes the role of point-of-care diagnostics to identify where antimicrobials are required, as well as to assess the appropriateness of the diagnosis and treatment. A sore throat test-and-treat service was introduced in 35 community pharmacies across two localities in England during 2014–15.
Trained pharmacy staff assessed patients presenting with a sore throat using the Centor scoring system and patients meeting three or all four of the criteria were offered a throat swab test for Streptococcus pyogenes, Lancefield group A streptococci. Patients with a positive throat swab test were offered antibiotic treatment.
Following screening by pharmacy staff, 149/367 (40.6%) patients were eligible for throat swab testing. Of these, only 36/149 (24.2%) were positive for group A streptococci. Antibiotics were supplied to 9.8% (n = 36/367) of all patients accessing the service. Just under half of patients that were not showing signs of a bacterial infection (60/123, 48.8%) would have gone to their general practitioner if the service had not been available.
This study has shown that it is feasible to deliver a community-pharmacy-based screening and treatment service using point-of-care testing. This type of service has the potential to support the antimicrobial resistance agenda by reducing unnecessary antibiotic use and inappropriate antibiotic consumption.
The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry.
A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts.
Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers.
The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use.
There is increasing evidence supporting the need for antifungal stewardship (AFS) programmes in order to promote appropriate antifungal use, improve diagnosis and quality of care, and decrease the costs of antifungal treatment. AFS programmes delivered by experienced teams can be efficacious and cost effective. However, there are a variety of challenges often faced during the implementation of AFS programmes which can present barriers to their success. These can include lack of dedicated personnel, lack of investment in new diagnostic and prescription tools, and misperception by other physicians.
The epidemiology of Candida species infection has changed over recent decades, influenced by local hospital-related factors, patient predisposing conditions and type of antifungal agents administered. A shift from Candida albicans as the predominant pathogen towards an increasing prevalence of the species Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis amongst critically ill patients has been documented. Changes in Candida species distribution may impact treatment recommendations due to differences in susceptibility to antifungal agents among species. Previous exposure to antifungal agents has likely contributed to this shift in species distribution. Another evolving epidemiological factor to consider is the global increase in antifungal resistance to certain antifungal drug types, which has been contributed to by the inappropriate use of these agents. Proposed management strategies to optimize treatment of patients with Candida infection include starting prompt ‘early’ antifungal therapy, early cessation of inappropriate therapy, using an adequate dose and duration of therapy and de-escalating treatment whenever possible. The implementation of institutional antifungal stewardship programmes has the potential to promote appropriate utilization of antifungal agents and to significantly improve the care of patients with Candida infection. However, a cultural change among healthcare providers and authorities is currently needed to improve antifungal use worldwide.
Diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA) has long been challenging due to the inability to culture the causal Aspergillus agent from blood or other body fluids. This shortcoming has fuelled an interest in non-culture-based diagnostic techniques such as the detection of galactomannan (GM) in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the detection of 1,3-β
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs. Management of cryptococcosis, the most common IFD worldwide, generally utilizes a pre-emptive or therapeutic strategy that does not involve prophylaxis or empirical antifungal treatment strategies. Antifungal stewardship outcomes for cryptococcosis may vary according to the availability of local resources. Invasive fusariosis, the second-most common form of non-Aspergillus mould infection among haematological malignancy patients, can be managed with pre-emptive (or diagnostic-driven) approaches based on the monitoring of serum galactomannan (GM) antigen in increased-risk populations. The success of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in decreasing the burden of invasive fusariosis in selected patient populations depends on the development and implementation of rapid diagnostic strategies for early and appropriate administration of therapy. Mucormycosis may emerge as a breakthrough IFD in haematology or solid organ transplant recipients receiving antifungals that lack activity against Mucorales. The concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has thus arisen for mucormycosis in the haematology setting because of the recent availability of circulating Mucorales DNA measurement. These examples demonstrate the challenges of implementing antifungal stewardship programmes in areas with limited resources, as well as in IFDs that are difficult to diagnose and treat.
There are a variety of challenges faced in the management of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), including high case-fatality rates, high cost of antifungal drugs and development of antifungal resistance. The diagnostic challenges and poor outcomes associated with IFD have resulted in excessive empirical use of antifungals in various hospital settings, exposing many patients without IFD to potential drug toxicities as well as causing spiralling antifungal drug costs. Further complexity arises as different patient groups show marked variation in their risk for IFD, fungal epidemiology, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antifungal drugs. To address these issues and to ensure optimal management of IFD, specialist knowledge and experience from a range of backgrounds is required, which extends beyond the remit of most antibiotic stewardship programmes. The first step in the development of any antifungal stewardship (AFS) programme is to build a multidisciplinary team encompassing the necessary expertise in the management of IFD to develop and implement the AFS programme. The specific roles of the key individuals within the AFS team and the importance of collaboration are discussed in this article.
This review, for the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC), gives an overview of the manuscripts related to veterinary bacteriology published in the journal in the past 40 years with a focus on ‘One Health’ aspects. From 1975 to 2000 the number of manuscripts related to veterinary medicine was limited, but thereafter, the number steadily increased. Most manuscripts published were related to food-producing animals, but companion animals and minor species were also covered. Subjects included antimicrobial usage in animals and the consequences for human medicine, new resistance genes and mechanisms, the prevalence and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of resistant bacteria in animals with zoonotic potential such as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These manuscripts have added to our knowledge on the risks of transmission of resistant bacteria from animals to humans and the importance of the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.
The emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB has complicated TB treatment success. Among many factors that contribute to the development of resistance, low drug exposure is not the least important. This review summarizes the available information on pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in relation to microbial susceptibilities, in order to optimize the dose and make general treatment recommendations. A total of 37 studies on adult (32 studies) and paediatric (5 studies) MDR-TB patients were included. Among the 32 adult studies, 19 were on susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by MIC, 1 was on susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by MBC, 1 was on susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by mutant prevention concentration and 4 were on pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin, and 7 others were included. Likewise, out of five studies on children, two dealt with levofloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters, one reviewed CSF concentrations and two dealt with background information. In adult MDR-TB patients, standard dosing of once-daily 1000 mg levofloxacin in TB treatment did not consistently attain the target concentration (i.e. fAUC/MIC >100 and fAUC/MBC >100) in 80% of the patients with MIC and MBC of 1 mg/L, leaving them at risk of developing drug resistance. However, with an MIC of 0.5 mg/L, 100% of the patients achieved the target concentration. Similarly, paediatric patients failed consistently in achieving given pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets due to age-related differences, demanding a shift towards once daily dosing of 15–20 mg/kg. Therefore, we recommend therapeutic drug monitoring for patients with strains having MICs of ≥0.5 mg/L and suggest revising the cut-off value from 2 to 1 mg/L.
The monobactam aztreonam is currently being re-examined as a therapeutic agent in light of the global spread of carbapenem resistance in aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and aztreonam's stability to Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamases. Of particular interest are the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of aztreonam alone and in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors. The choice of inhibitor may vary depending on the spectrum of β-lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae. The monobactam ring is also being used to produce new developmental monobactams. Thus, a greater understanding of aztreonam pharmacokinetics and dynamics is of great relevance in drug development. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic profile of aztreonam in man and its pharmacodynamics in human and pre-clinical studies when studied alone and with β-lactamase inhibitors.
During the last decade infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) have become increasingly prevalent. Because of their high morbidity and mortality rates, these infections constitute a serious threat to public health worldwide. Ceftazidime/avibactam is a new approved agent combining ceftazidime and a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against various β-lactamases produced by MDR GNB. Avibactam has a spectrum of inhibition of class A and C β-lactamases, including ESBLs, AmpC and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes. Thus, combination with this inhibitor expands ceftazidime's spectrum of activity to MDR Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. In Phase II clinical trials of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections ceftazidime/avibactam exhibited clinical efficacy comparable to those of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin, respectively. A Phase III clinical trial confirmed the efficacy of ceftazidime/avibactam in patients with MDR Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa infections. Microbiological surveillance studies, in vivo animal models of infection and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment analyses are also discussed, to assess the potential role of this new drug in the treatment of infections caused by MDR GNB.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common reasons for prescription of antimicrobials in primary care. Laboratory resistance data produced because of specimen analysis to support individual patient diagnosis and management are generalized to guide empirical therapy across a wider population, but are limited by bias toward certain patient groups and almost certainly overestimate the incidence of resistance. Other methods of surveillance are required to provide unbiased estimates of antimicrobial resistance, but need to be sustainable. Sentinel surveillance, perineal flora sampling and development of clinical algorithms to support more stratified and personalized antimicrobial prescribing need to be further investigated. Linkages to prescription and clinical outcome data are essential if the burden of antimicrobial resistance in UTI is to be understood. Pilot and feasibility studies need to be performed to establish the best approach to enhancing the quality, relevance and sustainability of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in community-acquired UTI.
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Their natural reservoir is intestinal.
We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate CRE and ESBL carriage duration and to evaluate the effect of decolonization therapy. We included cohort and comparative studies examining the natural history of CRE/ESBL colonization, examining rates of carriage following decolonization or comparing decolonization and no decolonization conducted in the healthcare setting or in the community. A comprehensive search was conducted until November 2015. We compiled carriage rates at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months with and without decolonization therapy and assessed the effect of decolonization.
Thirty-seven studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. In healthcare settings, pooled ESBL/CRE colonization rates decreased without intervention from 76.7% (95% CI = 69.3%–82.8%) at 1 month to 35.2% (95% CI = 28.2%–42.9%) at 12 months of follow-up. Following decolonization, the rate was 37.1% (95% CI = 27.5%–47.7%) at end of therapy and 57.9% (95% CI = 43.1%–71.4%) at 1 month. In two randomized trials, carriage was significantly reduced at end of therapy (risk ratio = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.25–0.65), but the effect was not significant after 1 month (risk ratio = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.48–1.05), with no longer follow-up. Heterogeneity was explained by surveillance methodology, with no differences observed between ESBLs and CREs. Among community dwellers, ESBL colonization decreased from 52.3% (95% CI = 29.5%–74.2%) at 1 month to 19.2% (95% CI = 9.7%–34.4%) at 6 months.
A significant proportion of ESBL and CRE carriers remain colonized up to 1 year in the healthcare setting. While short-term decolonization therapy reduces carriage during therapy, its longer-term effects are unclear.
Due to clarithromycin resistance, the current efficacy of Helicobacter pylori first-line triple therapies including clarithromycin is low. It seems reasonable to explore alternative clarithromycin-free therapies.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of triple therapy including a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and metronidazole (PAM) as first-line H. pylori therapy by systematic review and meta-analysis.
Studies evaluating PAM in adult patients were included. Meta-analyses comparing PAM with other treatments were performed. The primary endpoint was the ITT eradication rate for H. pylori first-line treatment. In addition, sensitivity analyses ascertained the effects of treatment schedule, dosage and duration on cure rates.
Ninety-four studies (8061 patients) were included. Meta-analyses comparing PAM versus clarithromycin-including triple therapies showed a significant difference in favour of PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin (PAC) (70% versus 77.1%; OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56–0.88) and PPI, metronidazole and clarithromycin (PMC) therapy (66.4% versus 77.7%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.39–0.76). Sensitivity analyses showed a similar efficacy of PAM versus PAC when drugs were administered for 14 days (80% versus 84%; OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.44–1.12). There were not enough studies to perform further comparisons. Number of antibiotic doses (P = 0.012), length of treatment (P < 0.001) and use of high metronidazole doses (P = 0.021) were related to higher cure rates in the sensitivity analysis including observational studies.
PAM was less efficacious than clarithromycin-including triple therapies. However, its efficacy was similar to that of PAC when drugs were administered for 14 days, although ITT cure rates did not reach 90%. Use of 14 day, thrice daily and high-metronidazole-dose PAM treatments markedly increased the cure rate.
The objectives of this study were to identify the amikacin dosage regimens and drug concentrations consistent with good outcomes and to determine the drug exposures related to nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
A literature review was conducted in Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Full journal articles reporting randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series trials, and controlled before and after studies involving amikacin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and dose adjustment were considered for inclusion.
Seventeen studies for inclusion were identified, comprising 1677 participants. Amikacin doses ranged from 11 to 15 mg/kg/day with 13 studies using 15 mg/kg/day. Studies were generally designed to compare different aminoglycosides rather than to assess concentration–effect relationships. Only 11 papers presented data on target concentrations, rate of clinical cure and toxicity. Target peak concentrations ranged from 15 to 40 mg/L and target troughs were typically <10 or <5 mg/L. It was not clear whether these targets were achieved. Measured peaks averaged 28 mg/L for twice-daily dosing and 40–45 mg/L for once-daily dosing; troughs averaged 5 and 1-2 mg/L, respectively. Fifteen of the included studies reported rates of nephrotoxicity; auditory and vestibular toxicities were reported in 12 and 8 studies.
This systematic review found little published evidence to support an optimal dosage regimen or TDM targets for amikacin therapy. The use of alternative approaches, such as consensus opinion and a review of current practice, will be required to develop guidelines to maximize therapeutic outcomes and minimize toxicity with amikacin.
Rilpivirine is listed as a recommended or alternative key drug in the current ART guidelines. E138K in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a primary mutation in resistance to rilpivirine, although in vitro experiments showed it confers only <3-fold resistance. An unidentified mechanism could amplify resistance to rilpivirine conferred by E138K.
The objective of this study was to reveal the mechanism amplifying rilpivirine resistance conferred by E138K.
HIV-1 RT sequences were compared in patients who failed rilpivirine-containing ART virologically. The effects of mutations commonly identified with E138K on rilpivirine susceptibility were analysed by using recombinant HIV-1 variants.
Rilpivirine-containing ART was introduced in 162 HIV-1-infected patients at the outpatient clinic of the AIDS Clinical Center (National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan) between May 2012 and June 2015. Virological treatment failure occurred in six of these patients. E138K emerged in three patients while other rilpivirine resistance mutations emerged in the other three patients. I135T/L were identified in only three patients with E138K and existed before the introduction of rilpivirine-containing ART. Analysis of recombinant HIV-1 variants indicated that E138K conferred low-level rilpivirine resistance and that coexistence of I135T/L with E138K amplified the resistance.
I135T/L, escape mutations from HLA-B*51/52-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are prevalent in Japan, may predispose HIV-1 to harbour E138K upon failure of rilpivirine-containing ART. The mutation patterns of drug resistance may vary due to baseline polymorphic mutations.
Exacerbations of asthma and COPD are triggered by rhinoviruses. Uncontrolled inflammatory pathways, pathogenic bacterial burden and impaired antiviral immunity are thought to be important factors in disease severity and duration. Macrolides including azithromycin are often used to treat the above diseases, but exhibit variable levels of efficacy. Inhaled corticosteroids are also readily used in treatment, but may lack specificity. Ideally, new treatment alternatives should suppress unwanted inflammation, but spare beneficial antiviral immunity.
In the present study, we screened 225 novel macrolides and tested them for enhanced antiviral activity against rhinovirus, as well as anti-inflammatory activity and activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were grown from 10 asthmatic individuals and the effects of macrolides on rhinovirus replication were also examined. Another 30 structurally similar macrolides were also examined.
The oleandomycin derivative Mac5, compared with azithromycin, showed superior induction (up to 5-fold, EC50 = 5–11 μM) of rhinovirus-induced type I IFNβ, type III IFN1 and type III IFN2/3 mRNA and the IFN-stimulated genes viperin and MxA, yet had no effect on IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA. Mac5 also suppressed rhinovirus replication at 48 h, proving antiviral activity. Mac5 showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, it did not have any antibacterial properties compared with azithromycin when used against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (as a model organism) and also the respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Further non-toxic Mac5 derivatives were identified with various anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial activities.
The data support the idea that macrolides have antiviral properties through a mechanism that is yet to be ascertained. We also provide evidence that macrolides can be developed with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral activity and show surprising versatility depending on the clinical need.
To evaluate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug-resistant-protein 1 (MRP1) on raltegravir intracellular drug disposition in CD4+ T cells, investigate the effect of HIV-1 infection on P-gp expression and correlate HIV-1 viraemia with P-gp activity in primary CD4+ T cell subsets.
The cellular accumulation ratio of [3H]raltegravir was quantified in CD4+ T cell lines overexpressing either P-gp (CEM-P-gp) or MRP1 (CEM-MRP1) and in primary CD3+CD4+ T cells with high (P-gphigh) and low P-gp activity (P-gplow); inhibition of efflux transporters was confirmed by the intracellular retention of calcein-AM. The correlation of P-gp activity with HIV-1 viraemia was assessed in naive and memory T cell subsets from 21 HIV-1-infected treatment-naive subjects.
[3H]Raltegravir cellular accumulation ratio decreased in CEM-P-gp cells (P < 0.0001). XR9051 (a P-gp inhibitor) and HIV-1 PIs reversed this phenomenon. Primary CD4+P-gphigh cells accumulated less raltegravir (38.4% ± 9.6%) than P-gplow cells, whereas XR9051 also reversed this effect. In vitro HIV-1 infection of PBMCs and stimulation of CD4+ T cells increased P-gp mRNA and P-gp activity, respectively, while primary CD4+P-gphigh T cells sustained a higher HIV-1 replication than P-gplow cells. A significant correlation between HIV-1 viraemia and P-gp activity was found in different CD4+ T cell subsets, particularly memory CD4+ T cells (r = 0.792, P < 0.0001).
Raltegravir is a substrate of P-gp in CD4+ T cells. Primary CD4+P-gphigh T cells eliminate intracellular raltegravir more readily than P-gplow cells and HIV-1 viraemia correlates with P-gp overall activity. Specific CD4+P-gphigh T cell subsets could facilitate the persistence of viral replication in vivo and ultimately promote the appearance of drug resistance.
To improve understanding of mechanisms of daptomycin resistance and to dissect the genetic basis of reversion to daptomycin hypersusceptibility in Enterococcus faecium.
Daptomycin-resistant mutants (Mut4, Mut8, Mut16, Mut32, Mut64 and Mut128 with MICs from 4 to 128 mg/L) were obtained in vitro from E. faecium strain Aus0004 (MIC at 2 mg/L). The entire genome sequences of Mut64 and Mut128 were determined as well as those of liaFSR and cls genes for other mutants and corresponding revertants (named Rev4 to Rev128). The study of daptomycin resistance stability was performed without any selective pressure. The expression of liaF, liaS and liaR genes was quantified by quantitative RT–PCR.
By comparative genomic analysis, substitutions Asn13Ser in cls and Gly92Asp in liaS were identified in Mut64 and Mut128. Only the liaS mutation was found in Mut16 and Mut32 while Mut4 and Mut8 were devoid of any mutation. After 15 days, all mutants except Mut4 reverted to daptomycin hypersusceptibility (MICs from 0.12 to 0.25 mg/L). In all revertants (except Rev4 and Rev8), an IS was found in the liaFSR operon with a dramatic decrease of its expression: IS66 in the promoter region of liaF (Rev16 and Rev64), IS30 in liaR (Rev32) and IS982 in liaF (Rev128).
We demonstrated the stepwise and sequential acquisition of mutations in liaS and in cls leading to daptomycin resistance in E. faecium, and the instability of daptomycin resistance as well as the role of liaFSR inactivation in reversion to daptomycin hypersusceptibility.
MDR MRSA isolates cultured from primates, their facility and primate personnel from the Washington National Primate Research Center were characterized to determine whether they were epidemiologically related to each other and if they represented common local human-associated MRSA strains.
Human and primate nasal and composite environmental samples were collected, enriched and selected on medium supplemented with oxacillin and polymyxin B. Isolates were biochemically verified as Staphylococcus aureus and screened for the mecA gene. Selected isolates were characterized using SCCmec typing, MLST and WGS.
Nasal cultures were performed on 596 primates and 105 (17.6%) were MRSA positive. Two of 79 (2.5%) personnel and two of 56 (3.6%) composite primate environmental facility samples were MRSA positive. Three MRSA isolates from primates, one MRSA from personnel, two environmental MRSA and one primate MSSA were ST188 and were the same strain type by conventional typing methods. ST188 isolates were related to a 2007 ST188 human isolate from Hong Kong. Both MRSA isolates from out-of-state primates had a novel MLST type, ST3268, and an unrelated group. All isolates carried ≥1 other antibiotic resistance gene(s), including tet(38), the only tet gene identified.
ST188 is very rare in North America and has almost exclusively been identified in people from Pan-Asia, while ST3268 is a newly reported MRSA type. The data suggest that the primate MDR MRSA was unlikely to come from primate centre employees. Captive primates are likely to be an unappreciated source of MRSA.
Recent surveillance of MRSA colonizing patients and healthcare workers in two African countries (Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe) reported the frequent recovery of oxacillin-susceptible MRSA (OS-MRSA): Staphylococcus aureus strains that gave positive results with the mecA DNA probe, but had low oxacillin MIC values characteristic of susceptible S. aureus. This apparent dissociation of the drug-resistant phenotype from mecA—the primary genetic determinant of resistance—prompted us to perform a more detailed analysis on nine of the African OS-MRSA strains.
Oxacillin MIC values were determined by Etest and population analysis profiles with and without induction of the stringent stress response by mupirocin. Biochemical profiling using SDS–PAGE followed by western blotting was used for the detection of PBP2A protein produced.
Cultures of the African MRSA strains (ST88-IVa and ST8-V) showed heterogeneous oxacillin resistance in which the majority of cells exhibited low oxacillin MICs (≤0.75 mg/L), but highly resistant subpopulations were also present with oxacillin MIC values up to several hundred mg/L and with frequencies of 10–4 to 10–6. The same strains after induction of the stringent stress response by mupirocin ‘converted’ the heterogeneous phenotypes into a more homogeneous and higher level resistance. After induction by oxacillin and mupirocin, each of the nine African OS-MRSA strains produced PBP2A—the protein product of mecA.
The resistant phenotype of OS-MRSA resembles the phenotypes of historically early MRSA clones. The nature of genetic determinants responsible for the heterogeneous phenotypes of OS-MRSA remains to be determined.
The diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor OP0595 (RG6080) also acts as an antibiotic, targeting PBP2 in Enterobacteriaceae, but this activity is vulnerable to mutational resistance. We used WGS to investigate the basis of this resistance.
Twenty OP0595-selected mutants, comprising four derived from each of five different Escherichia coli strains, were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq. Reads from each mutant were mapped to the assembled genome of the corresponding parent. A variant-calling file generated with Samtools was parsed to determine genetic alterations.
Besides OP0595, the mutants consistently showed decreased susceptibility to mecillinam, which likewise targets PBP2, and grew as stable round forms in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of OP0595. Among the 20 mutants, 18 had alterations in genes encoding tRNA synthase and modification functions liable to induce expression of the RpoS sigma factor through activation of the stringent response or had mutations suppressing inactivators of RpoS or the stringent response signal-degrading enzyme, SpoT. TolB was inactivated in one mutant: this activates RcsBC regulation and was previously associated with mecillinam resistance. The mechanism of resistance remained unidentified in one mutant. Both the RpoS and RcsBC systems regulate genes of cell division, including ftsAQZ that can compensate for loss or inhibition of PBP2, allowing survival of the challenged bacteria as stable round forms, as seen.
WGS identified the global stringent response signal, entailing induction of RpoS, as the main mediator of mutational resistance to OP0595 in E. coli.
We analysed diverse strains of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica to assess if its division into biovars I and II is associated with specific mutations previously linked to erythromycin resistance and to determine the distribution of this resistance trait across this subspecies.
Three-hundred and fourteen F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains were tested for erythromycin susceptibility and whole-genome sequences for these strains were examined for SNPs in genes previously associated with erythromycin resistance. Each strain was assigned to a global phylogenetic framework using genome-wide canonical SNPs. The contribution of a specific SNP to erythromycin resistance was examined using allelic exchange. The geographical distribution of erythromycin-resistant F. tularensis strains was further investigated by literature search.
There was a perfect correlation between biovar II strains (erythromycin resistance) and the phylogenetic group B.12. Only B.12 strains had an A -> C SNP at position 2059 in the three copies of the rrl gene. Introducing 2059C into an rrl gene of an erythromycin-susceptible F. tularensis strain resulted in resistance. An additional 1144 erythromycin-resistant strains were identified from the scientific literature, all of them from Eurasia.
Erythromycin resistance in F. tularensis is caused by an A2059C rrl gene mutation, which exhibits a strictly clonal inheritance pattern found only in phylogenetic group B.12. This group is an extremely successful clone, representing the most common type of F. tularensis throughout Eurasia.
Global dissemination of KPC-type carbapenemases is mainly associated with the spread of high-risk clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae and of KPC-encoding plasmids. In this study, we explored the population structure of KPC-encoding plasmids from the recent epidemics of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) in Greece and Italy, the two major European endemic settings.
Thirty-four non-replicate clinical strains of KPC-Kp representative of the early phases (2008–11) of the Greek (n = 22) and Italian (n = 12) epidemics were studied. Isolates were typed by MLST, and blaKPC-carrying plasmids were characterized by S1 profiling, PCR-based replicon typing and RFLP. Transfer experiments by conjugation or transformation were carried out with Escherichia coli recipients. Eleven plasmids, representative of all different restriction profiles, were completely sequenced.
The representative Greek strains belonged to 14 sequence types (STs), with a predominance of ST258. The representative Italian strains belonged to three STs, with a predominance of clonal complex 258 (ST258, ST512). The 34 strains carried plasmids of variable size (78–166 kb), either with blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 gene embedded in a Tn4401a transposon. Plasmids from Greek strains were mostly of a single RFLP type (A) and resembled the archetypal pKpQIL KPC-encoding plasmid, while plasmids from Italian strains belonged to a more heterogeneous population, showing five RFLP profiles (A, C–F). Types A and C resembled pKpQIL or deletion derivatives thereof, while types D–F included plasmids with hybrid structures between pKpQIL, pKPN3 and pKPN101-IT.
pKpQIL-like plasmids played a major role in the dissemination of blaKPC in Greece and Italy, but evolved with different dynamics in these endemic settings.
To evaluate the in vitro biological properties of a novel class of isothiazolone inhibitors of the bacterial type II topoisomerases.
Inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activity was assessed using DNA supercoiling and decatenation assays. MIC and MBC were determined according to CLSI guidelines. Antibacterial combinations were assessed using a two-dimensional chequerboard MIC method. Spontaneous frequency of resistance was measured at various multiples of the MIC. Resistant mutants were generated by serial passage at subinhibitory concentrations of antibacterials and genetic mutations were determined through whole genome sequencing. Mammalian cytotoxicity was evaluated using the HepG2 cell line.
Representative isothiazolone compound REDX04957 and its enantiomers (REDX05967 and REDX05990) showed broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against the ESKAPE organisms, with the exception of Enterococcus spp., as well as against a variety of other human bacterial pathogens. Compounds retained activity against quinolone-resistant strains harbouring GyrA S83L and D87G mutations (MIC ≤4 mg/L). Compounds inhibited the supercoiling activity of wild-type DNA gyrase and the decatenation function of topoisomerase IV. Frequency of resistance of REDX04957 at 4x MIC was <9.1 x 10–9. Against a panel of recent MDR isolates, REDX05967 demonstrated activity against Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC50 and MIC90 of 16 and 64 mg/L, respectively. Compounds showed a lack of cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells at 128 mg/L.
Isothiazolone compounds show potent activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens with a dual targeting mechanism-of-action and a low potential for resistance development, meriting their continued investigation as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents.
Quinolinequinones (QQ) have been shown to inhibit the growth of mycobacterial species, but their mode(s) of action and molecular target(s) remain unknown. To facilitate further development of QQ as antimycobacterial drugs, we investigated the molecular mechanism and target of QQ in mycobacteria.
Cell viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin was determined in the presence of QQ8c, a representative QQ compound, and isoniazid, a frontline antitubercular drug. The effect of QQ8c on mycobacterial energetics was studied using inverted membrane vesicles. NADH oxidation and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in the presence and absence of KCN. Generation of ROS was measured via oxygen consumption in an oxygen electrode. The effects of QQ8c were compared with the antimycobacterial drug clofazimine in side-by-side experiments.
QQ8c challenge resulted in complete sterilization of cultures with no refractory resistant population observed. QQ8c stimulated NADH oxidation by type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and oxygen consumption in inverted membrane vesicles. Large quantities of ROS were produced in the presence of QQ8. Even when oxygen consumption was blocked with KCN, activation of NDH-2 by QQ8c occurred suggesting QQ8c was redox cycling.
QQ8c targets NDH-2 of the mycobacterial respiratory chain leading to activation of NADH oxidation and generating bactericidal levels of ROS in a manner similar to, but more effectively than, the antimycobacterial drug clofazimine. Our results validate respiratory-generated ROS as an avenue for antimycobacterial drug development.
There exists a significant diversity among class A β-lactamases and the proliferation of these enzymes is a significant medical concern due to the ability of some members to efficiently hydrolyse both extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that, in combination with ceftazidime, has recently obtained regulatory approval in the USA. Although avibactam is known to efficiently inhibit key class A enzymes, the diversity of this enzyme family warranted a more complete investigation to understand the breadth of the potential spectrum of inhibition.
Using the known residues critical for avibactam binding, a thorough structural and sequence-based conservation analysis was performed across >650 class A enzymes. Several variations that had the potential to impact avibactam inhibition were observed and representative enzymes were cloned and expressed isogenically to evaluate the impact of these variations.
The majority of the key residues involved in avibactam binding were well conserved across the different sub-families of class A β-lactamases, although some differences were observed. The differences in the -loop of PER enzymes were found to impact the ability of avibactam to effectively protect β-lactams against hydrolysis. However, substitutions in a key hydrogen-bonding residue (N170) in some of the GES variants were found to not have a significant impact on avibactam inhibition.
Overall, the computational and experimental analyses suggest that the vast majority of class A β-lactamases should be well inhibited by avibactam, although a very small number of outliers exist.
Carbapenemase-resistant bacteria are increasingly spreading worldwide causing public concern due to their ability to elude antimicrobial treatment. Early identification of these bacteria is therefore of high importance. Here, we describe the development of a simple and robust protocol for the detection of carbapenemase activity in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, suitable for routine and clinical applications.
The final protocol involves cellular lysis and enzyme extraction from a defined amount of bacterial cells followed by the addition of a benchmark drug (e.g. the carbapenem antibiotic imipenem or ertapenem). Carbapenem inactivation is mediated by enzymatic hydrolysis (cleavage) of the β-lactam common structural motif, which can be detected using MALDI-TOF MS.
A total of 260 strains were studied (208 carbapenemase producers and 52 non-carbapenemase producers) resulting in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the KPC, NDM and OXA-48-like PCR-confirmed positive isolates using imipenem as benchmark. Differences between the benchmark (indicator) antibiotics imipenem and ertapenem, buffer constituents and sample preparation methods have been investigated. Carbapenemase activity was further characterized by performing specific inhibitor experiments. Intraday and interday reproducibility (coefficient of variation) of the observed hydrolysis results were 15% and 30%, respectively. A comparative study of our extraction method and a recently published method using whole bacterial cells is presented and differences are discussed.
Using this method, an existing carbapenemase activity can be directly read from the mass spectrum as a ratio of hydrolysed product and substrate, setting an important step towards routine application in clinical laboratories.
2016-09-22T00:05:52-07:00Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:52-07:00Objectives Inhibitors of uridine diphosphate-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC, which catalyses the first, irreversible step in lipid A biosynthesis) are a promising new class of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) compare the antibiotic activities of three LpxC inhibitors (LPC-058, LPC-011 and LPC-087) and the reference inhibitor CHIR-090 against Gram-negative bacilli (including MDR and XDR isolates); and (ii) investigate the effect of combining these inhibitors with conventional antibiotics. Methods MICs were determined for 369 clinical isolates (234 Enterobacteriaceae and 135 non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli). Time–kill assays with LPC-058 were performed on four MDR/XDR strains, including Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15 ESBL and Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii producing KPC-2, VIM-1 and OXA-23 carbapenemases, respectively. Results LPC-058 was the most potent antibiotic and displayed the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity, with MIC90 values for Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and A. baumannii of 0.12, 0.5, 1 and 1 mg/L, respectively. LPC-058 was bactericidal at 1x or 2x MIC against CTX-M-15, KPC-2 and VIM-1 carbapenemase-producing strains and bacteriostatic at ≤4x MIC against OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. Combinations of LPC-058 with β-lactams, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were synergistic against these strains, albeit in a species-dependent manner. LPC-058's high efficacy was attributed to the presence of the difluoromethyl-allo-threonyl head group and a linear biphenyl-diacetylene tail group. Conclusions These in vitro data highlight the therapeutic potential of the new LpxC inhibitor LPC-058 against MDR/XDR strains and set the stage for subsequent in vivo studies. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:52-07:00Background Although nitrofurantoin has been used for >60 years for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, its pharmacodynamic properties are not fully explored. Use is increasing because of increasing resistance to other antimicrobials due to ESBLs. Methods We tested nine ESBL+ and two ESBL– strains in time–kill assays. Bactericidal activity and regrowth were assessed for all species and concentrations. Early-phase pharmacodynamics was analysed with a sigmoidal Emax model and the maximal killing rate, slope and EC50/MIC ratio were determined for each species. Results A bactericidal effect was found at ≥2x MIC for Enterobacter cloacae after 4–8 h, for Klebsiella pneumoniae after 8–10 h and for Escherichia coli after 12–16 h. Overall, no killing was observed at low sub-MIC concentrations, whereas regrowth was found at 0.5–1x MIC after a short decline in cfu. The lowest maximal killing rates were observed for E. coli (0.21 ± 0.05 h–1), followed by K. pneumoniae (0.37 ± 0.09 h–1) and E. cloacae (0.87 ± 0.01 h–1). Surprisingly, the Hill slopes for these three species were significantly different (10.45 ± 9.37, 2.68 ± 0.64 and 1.01 ± 0.06, respectively), indicating a strong concentration-dependent early-phase antibacterial activity against E. cloacae. EC50/MIC ratios were significantly lower for E. coli (0.24 ± 0.08 mg/L) and K. pneumoniae (0.27 ± 0.03 mg/L) as compared with E. cloacae (0.77 ± 0.18 mg/L). Conclusions Nitrofurantoin was bactericidal against all species, demonstrating an unusual differential pattern of activity with concentration-dependent-type killing behaviour against E. cloacae and time-dependent killing behaviour against E. coli, which may have significant consequences on species-dependent dosing regimens. The results also demonstrate that the pharmacodynamic properties of some drugs cannot be generalized within a family, here the Enterobacteriaceae. [...]
MRSA strains of clonal complexes (CCs) 5, 8, 30 and 45 are leading causes of complicated endovascular infections associated with suboptimal clinical outcomes. Telavancin is a novel anti-MRSA agent that both inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and disrupts membranes by depolarization.
In this study, we compared the in vitro susceptibility and in vivo efficacy of telavancin versus daptomycin in an experimental rabbit infective endocarditis (IE) model caused by four MRSA strains representing each of the above CC types.
All study strains were susceptible to telavancin (MICs of ≤0.12 mg/L) and daptomycin (MICs of ≤0.5 mg/L). In vitro time–kill analyses revealed that supra-MIC levels of telavancin were effective at preventing regrowth at 24 h of incubation. In the IE animal model for all CC types, treatment with telavancin produced significantly greater reductions in MRSA counts as compared with daptomycin-treated animals in all target tissues. Moreover, telavancin-treated animals had a significantly higher percentage of sterile tissue cultures versus daptomycin-treated animals (e.g. 78%–100% versus 0% sterile vegetations and 100% versus 0%–11% sterile kidneys and spleen, in the telavancin- and daptomycin-treated animals, respectively).
These results suggest that telavancin exhibits significantly greater efficacies versus daptomycin in treating experimental IE caused by MRSA clinical isolates across four common CC types.
The effectiveness of anidulafungin versus liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for treating experimental Candida parapsilosis catheter-related infection by an antifungal-lock technique was assessed.
Two clinical strains of C. parapsilosis (CP12 and CP54) were studied. In vitro studies were used to determine the biofilm MICs (MBIC50 and MBIC90) by XTT reduction assay and LIVE/DEAD biofilm viability for anidulafungin and LAmB on 96-well microtitre polystyrene plates and silicone discs. An intravenous catheter was implanted in New Zealand white rabbits. Infection was induced by locking the catheter for 48 h with the inoculum. The 48 h antifungal-lock treatment groups included control, 3.3 mg/mL anidulafungin and 5.5 mg/mL LAmB.
Anidulafungin showed better in vitro activity than LAmB against C. parapsilosis growing in biofilm on silicone discs. MBIC90 of LAmB: CP12, >1024 mg/L; CP54, >1024 mg/L. MBIC90 of anidulafungin: CP12, 1 mg/L; CP54, 1 mg/L (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, only anidulafungin (1 mg/L) showed >90% non-viable cells in the LIVE/DEAD biofilm viability assay on silicone discs. No differences were observed between the in vitro susceptibility of anidulafungin or LAmB when 96-well plates were used. Anidulafungin achieved significant reductions relative to LAmB in log10 cfu recovered from the catheter tips for both strains (P ≤ 0.05). Only anidulafungin achieved negative catheter tip cultures (CP12 63%, CP54 73%, P ≤ 0.05).
Silicone discs may be a more reliable substrate for the study of in vitro biofilm susceptibility of C. parapsilosis. Anidulafungin-lock therapy showed the highest activity for experimental catheter-related infection with C. parapsilosis.
To use Monte Carlo simulation with an integrated pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to evaluate guideline-recommended antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) regimens with anaerobic coverage in abdominal surgery.
AP regimens were tested in simulated subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery using relevant PK models and pathogen distributions in surgical site infections (SSIs). Predicted cumulative target attainment was the percentage of simulated subjects with free (unbound) antimicrobial plasma concentrations above the MICs for potential SSI pathogens.
Cefazolin plus metronidazole covered SSI aerobes in 70% and the Bacteroides fragilis group in 99% of subjects, whereas cefoxitin only covered aerobes and anaerobes in 63% and 27% of cases, respectively. The broad-spectrum ceftriaxone plus metronidazole covered aerobes in 82% and anaerobes in 99% of simulations, while ertapenem covered aerobes in 88% and anaerobes in 90% of cases. Clindamycin covered the B. fragilis group in only 11% of cases. For cefazolin, 2 g doses maintained target attainment in simulated subjects from 80 to 120 kg, whereas 1 g doses were associated with lower target attainment against potential Gram-negative pathogens even in those <80 kg. For gentamicin, 3 mg/kg doses were comparable to the suggested 5 mg/kg, but superior to the traditional 1.5 mg/kg.
This study demonstrates the use of PK-PD to inform decisions regarding AP in abdominal surgery. In this case, the findings support avoiding cefoxitin, avoiding clindamycin for anaerobic coverage, selecting 2 g doses of cefazolin even in patients <80 kg and using 3 mg/kg doses of gentamicin.
To describe the population pharmacokinetics of oral amoxicillin and to compare the PTA of current dosing regimens.
Two groups, each with 14 healthy male volunteers, received oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets on two separate days 1 week apart. One group received 875/125 mg twice daily and 500/125 mg three times daily and the other group 500/125 mg twice daily and 250/125 mg three times daily. A total of 1428 amoxicillin blood samples were collected before and after administration. We analysed the concentration–time profiles using a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic method (PKSolver) and a population pharmacokinetic method (NONMEM). The PTA was computed using Monte Carlo simulations for several dosing regimens.
AUC0–24 and Cmax increased non-linearly with dose. The final model included the following components: Savic's transit compartment model, Michaelis–Menten absorption, two distribution compartments and first-order elimination. The mean central volume of distribution was 27.7 L and mean clearance was 21.3 L/h. We included variability for the central volume of distribution (34.4%), clearance (25.8%), transit compartment model parameters and Michaelis–Menten absorption parameters. For 40% fT>MIC and >97.5% PTA, the breakpoints were 0.125 mg/L (500 mg twice daily), 0.25 mg/L (250 mg three times daily and 875 mg twice daily), 0.5 mg/L (500 mg three times daily) and 1 mg/L (750, 875 or 1000 mg three times daily and 500 mg four times daily).
The amoxicillin absorption rate appears to be saturable. The PTAs of high-dose as well as twice-daily regimens are less favourable than regimens with lower doses and higher frequency.
Limited availability of viral load (VL) monitoring in HIV treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa can delay switching to second-line ART, leading to the accumulation of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors after continued virological failure on first-line ART, among adults and children in sub-Saharan Africa.
HIV-1-positive adults and children on an NNRTI-based first-line ART were included. Retrospective VL and, if VL ≥1000 copies/mL, pol genotypic testing was performed. Among participants with continued virological failure (≥2 VL ≥1000 copies/mL), drug resistance was evaluated.
At first virological failure, DRM(s) were detected in 87% of participants: K103N (38.7%), G190A (21.8%), Y181C (20.2%), V106M (8.4%), K101E (8.4%), any E138 (7.6%) and V108I (7.6%) associated with NNRTIs, and M184V (69.7%), any thymidine analogue mutation (9.2%), K65R (5.9%) and K70R (5.0%) associated with NRTIs. New DRMs accumulated with an average rate of 1.45 (SD 2.07) DRM per year; 0.62 (SD 1.11) NNRTI DRMs and 0.84 (SD 1.38) NRTI DRMs per year, respectively. The predicted susceptibility declined significantly after continued virological failure for all reverse transcriptase inhibitors (all P < 0.001). Acquired drug resistance patterns were similar in adults and children.
Patterns of drug resistance after virological failure on first-line ART are similar in adults and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Improved VL monitoring to prevent accumulation of mutations, and new drug classes to construct fully active regimens, are required.
2016-09-22T00:05:52-07:00Objectives Optimizing antiretroviral drug combination on an individual basis in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotypic resistance testing. Here, we describe our latest computational models to predict treatment responses, with or without a genotype, and compare the potential utility of global and local models as a treatment tool for South Africa. Methods Global random forest models were trained to predict the probability of virological response to therapy following virological failure using 29 574 treatment change episodes (TCEs) without a genotype, 3179 of which were from South Africa and were used to develop local models. In addition, 15 130 TCEs including genotypes were used to develop another set of models. The ‘no-genotype’ models were tested with an independent global test set (n = 1700) plus a subset from South Africa (n = 222). The genotype models were tested with 750 independent cases. Results The global no-genotype models achieved area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.82 and 0.79 with the global and South African tests sets, respectively, and the South African models achieved AUCs of 0.70 and 0.79. The genotype models achieved an AUC of 0.84. The global no-genotype models identified more alternative, locally available regimens that were predicted to be effective for cases that failed their new regimen in the South African clinics than the local models. Both sets of models were significantly more accurate predictors of outcomes than genotyping with rules-based interpretation. Conclusions These latest global models predict treatment responses accurately even without a genotype, out-performed the local South African models and have the potential to help optimize therapy, particularly in resource-limited settings. [...]
Although echinocandins are generally well tolerated, there is little information on the frequency with which renal and hepatic adverse effects occur during use of micafungin or other parenteral antifungal (PAF) agents in clinical practice.
MYCOS is a multicentre cohort study of adult and paediatric patients who received micafungin or other PAFs between 2005 and 2012 at seven tertiary care hospitals from six centres in the USA. PAF cohort controls were selected through propensity score (PS) matching to micafungin recipients using clinical characteristics, other treatments, procedures and hospital service where PAF treatment was initiated. Analysis was restricted to patients without chronic liver and kidney conditions at the time of cohort entry. Treatment-emergent hepatic and renal injury was documented by changes in liver enzymes or estimated glomerular filtration rate through 30 days following completion of PAF treatment. Comparisons were quantified using the HR from a proportional hazards analysis.
There were 2970 micafungin recipients PS matched to 6726 recipients of comparator PAFs. Balance was achieved in all baseline covariates between treatment groups. There were similar rates of hepatic injury (micafungin, 13 events per 100 patients and other PAF, 12 per 100; HR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.86–1.14) and lower rates of renal injury (micafungin, 63 events per 100 patients and other PAF, 65 per 100; HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.87–0.99) for micafungin recipients versus PAF comparators.
For a wide spectrum of underlying conditions, we observed no increase in liver injury by micafungin and possibly a reduced risk of renal dysfunction in comparison with other PAF medications.
2016-09-22T00:05:52-07:00Objectives The study objective was to examine the epidemiological trends of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in New York City medical centres. Patients and methods Single patient isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from nine medical centres in New York City during a 3 month period from 2013 to 2014. Isolates were tested for the presence of blaKPC. Results were compared with similar surveillance studies conducted in 2006 and 2009. Infection control data, including utilization of medical devices, were analysed at a subset of hospitals. Results There was a progressive decline in the percentage of K. pneumoniae harbouring blaKPC from 2006 to 2013–14. For the nine hospitals that participated in all three surveillance studies, the percentages of isolates with blaKPC fell from 36% in 2006 to 25% in 2009 to 13% in 2013–14. Seven of the nine hospitals had marked declines in isolates with blaKPC, while two hospitals continued to struggle with this pathogen. These two hospitals were smaller and had longer lengths of patient stay. Device utilization rates were obtained from two hospitals that successfully controlled the spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae; both had ~20%–25% reduction in the usage of urinary catheters. Changes in antibiotic usage at one hospital could not explain the decline in these pathogens. Conclusions Over the past decade there has been a steady decline in KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in most New York City hospitals. The reason for the decline is probably multifactorial, involving a reduction in device (catheter) utilization and possibly an improvement in infection control practices. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:52-07:00Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the evolution and risk factors of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in children in the community for a long period distinguishing ST131 and non-ST131 Escherichia coli. Patients and methods In this prospective study, rectal samples were obtained from children aged 6–24 months by community paediatricians between 2010 and 2015. Demographic characteristics and risk factors for ESBL-E carriage were collected. Distribution of β-lactamase genes, phylogenetic groups, ST131 and virulence factors of resistant E. coli was determined. Results We enrolled 1886 children; 144 (7.6%) harboured ESBL-E, and this rate increased from 4.8% to 10.2% between 2010 and 2015. Risk factors for ESBL-E carriage were being cared for at home [adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–2.9], recent antibiotic use (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1) and travel history (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1–2.6). Among patients carrying ESBL, E. coli (98%) and CTX-M type (90%) predominated and PapGII adhesin, characteristic of pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains, was rare (7%). In 2015, E. coli isolates frequently belonged to the phylogenetic group B2 (48%), and 37% were ST131 compared with 5% in 2010. Compared with non-ESBL-producing strains, ST131 carriage was associated with hospitalization in the last 6 months (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4–8.8). Conclusions Between 2010 and 2015, the carriage of ESBL-E in community children doubled because of the massive expansion of the E. coli ST131 clonal group. The risk for carrying ST131 was associated with previous hospitalization, but not, contrary to the counterpart, antibiotic treatment, daycare attendance or travel history. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:53-07:00Objectives The objectives of this study were to prospectively assess the rectal carriage rate of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCREB) in non-ICU patients on hospital admission and to investigate resistance mechanisms and risk factors for carriage. Methods Adult patients were screened for 3GCREB carriage at six German tertiary care hospitals in 2014 using rectal swabs or stool samples. 3GCREB isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods. Each patient answered a questionnaire about potential risk factors for colonization with MDR organisms (MDROs). Univariable and multivariable risk factor analyses were performed to identify factors associated with 3GCREB carriage. Results Of 4376 patients, 416 (9.5%) were 3GCREB carriers. Escherichia coli was the predominant species (79.1%). ESBLs of the CTX-M-1 group (67.3%) and the CTX-M-9 group (16.8%) were the most frequent β-lactamases. Five patients (0.11%) were colonized with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The following risk factors were significantly associated with 3GCREB colonization in the multivariable analysis (P < 0.05): centre; previous MDRO colonization (OR = 2.12); antibiotic use within the previous 6 months (OR = 2.09); travel outside Europe (OR = 2.24); stay in a long-term care facility (OR = 1.33); and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR = 1.22). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest admission prevalence study of 3GCREB in Europe. The observed prevalence of 9.5% 3GCREB carriage was higher than previously reported and differed significantly among centres. In addition to previously identified risk factors, the treatment of GERD proved to be an independent risk factor for 3GCREB colonization. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:53-07:00Objectives Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major public health concern. Treatment with commonly prescribed antibiotics is associated with high rates of recurrence after initial cure. Here, we present the efficacy and safety of surotomycin, an orally administered, minimally absorbed, selective bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide, compared with vancomycin, in patients with CDI. Methods In this Phase 2, randomized, controlled, double-blind, non-inferiority, multicentre trial, participants received surotomycin 125 mg twice daily, surotomycin 250 mg twice daily or vancomycin 125 mg four times daily for 10 days. The primary efficacy outcome was clinical response at end of treatment. The registration number of the study on clinicaltrials.gov is NCT01085591. Results Clinical cure rates were similar among treatment groups (92.4% for surotomycin 125 mg twice daily, 86.6% for surotomycin 250 mg twice daily and 89.4% for vancomycin). Recurrence rates were 27.9% for surotomycin 125 mg twice daily, 17.2% for surotomycin 250 mg twice daily and 35.6% for vancomycin. The lower recurrence rate with surotomycin 250 mg twice daily versus vancomycin was statistically significant (P = 0.035). Recurrence rates were statistically similar between the surotomycin dose groups (P = 0.193). Rates of sustained clinical response at end of study were 66.7% for surotomycin 125 mg twice daily, 70.1% for surotomycin 250 mg twice daily and 56.1% for vancomycin. Incidence of adverse events was similar among treatment arms. Conclusions Recurrence rates of CDI were lower with surotomycin with higher sustained clinical response rates compared with vancomycin, both of which may offer potential clinical benefits. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:53-07:00Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a novel, self-administered questionnaire to identify primary-care physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotics and resistance (KAAR). Methods The study population comprised primary care physicians. The study was conducted in five phases. Phase I consisted of a systematic review and qualitative focus-group study (n = 33 physicians), in which items were formulated so as to be measured on a continuous, visual analogue scale (VAS); in Phase II, content validation and face validity were evaluated by a panel of experts, which reformulated, added and deleted items; Phase III consisted of a pilot study on a population possessing similar characteristics (n = 15); in Phase IV, we analysed reliability by means of a test–retest study (n = 91) and calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs); and in Phase V, we assessed construct validity by applying the known-groups technique, measuring the differences between contrasting groups of physicians formed according to antibiotic prescription quality indicators (group 1, n = 156 versus group 2, n = 191). Results Following Phases I and II, the questionnaire contained 16 knowledge and attitude items. Participants in the pilot study (Phase III) reported no difficulty. The test–retest study (Phase IV) showed that 11 of the 16 initial knowledge and attitude items yielded an ICC > 0.5, while analysis of known-groups validity (Phase V) showed that 13 of the 16 initial items which assessed knowledge and attitudes discriminated between physicians with good and bad indicators of antibiotics prescription. Conclusion The final 11 item KAAR questionnaire appears to be valid, reliable and responsive. [...]
2016-09-22T00:05:53-07:00Objectives Little is known about the validity and reliability of expert assessments of the quality of antimicrobial prescribing, despite their importance in antimicrobial stewardship. We investigated how infectious disease doctors' assessments compared with a reference standard (modal expert opinion) and with the assessments of their colleagues. Methods Twenty-four doctors specialized in infectious diseases or clinical microbiology (16 specialists and 8 residents) from five hospitals were asked to assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial agents prescribed for a broad spectrum of indications in 56 paper cases. They were instructed how to handle guideline applicability and deviations. We created a reference standard of antimicrobial appropriateness using the modal assessment of 16 specialists. We calculated criterion validity and interrater and intrarater overall and specific agreement with an index expert (senior infectious disease physician) and analysed the influence of doctor characteristics on validity. Results Specialists agreed with the reference standard in 80% of cases (range 75%–86%), with a sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 84%, respectively. This did not differ by clinical specialty, hospital or years of experience, and residents had similar results. Specialists agreed with the index expert in 76% of cases and the index expert agreed with his previous assessments in 71% of cases. Conclusions Doctors specialized in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology assess the appropriateness of antimicrobials prescribed for a broad spectrum of indications with acceptable agreement and validity, regardless of their experience or hospital of employment. However, there is [...]