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Preview: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education - recent issues

Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education - recent issues



Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education - RSS feed of recent issues (covers the latest 3 issues, including the current issue)



 



Cover

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00




Editorial_Board

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00




Subscription

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00




Table_of_Contents

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00




The Self-Concept of Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Students

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

The present study investigated the self-concept of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students in different educational settings compared with those of hearing students in Ethiopia. The research involved a sample of 103 Grade 4 students selected from 7 towns in Ethiopia. They were selected from a special school for the deaf, a special class for the deaf, and a regular school. The Self-Description Questionnaire I (Marsh, 1990) was used to measure the children’s self-concept. The study results indicated that, in comparison with their hearing peers, DHH students had a lower self-concept in the areas of general self, general school, reading, and parental relations. The DHH students in the special school showed a higher self-concept in regard to their physical appearance than the hearing and DHH students in the special class. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the self-concept dimensions of peer relations, mathematics, and physical abilities.




Structured Instruction With Modified Storybooks to Teach Morphosyntax and Vocabulary to Preschoolers Who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

Children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) are at risk for diminished morphosyntactical and vocabulary development. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repeated reading combined with structured instruction. Targets were a morphosyntactical form and novel vocabulary words. Participants were 3 preschoolers who are D/HH who were receiving instruction with an oral approach. Data from a multiple baseline design indicated that all children acquired the targeted skills and demonstrated high levels of generalization of these skills to untrained context. Implications for teaching young children who are D/HH using repeated storybook reading are discussed.




Articulatory Suppression Effects on Short-term Memory of Signed Digits and Lexical Items in Hearing Bimodal-Bilingual Adults

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

We can gain a better understanding of short-term memory processes by studying different language codes and modalities. Three experiments were conducted to investigate: (a) Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) digit spans in Chinese/TSL hearing bilinguals (n = 32); (b) American Sign Language (ASL) digit spans in English/ASL hearing bilinguals (n = 15); and (c) TSL lexical sign spans in Chinese/TSL hearing bilinguals (n = 22). Articulatory suppression conditions were manipulated to determine if participants would use a speech- or sign-based code to rehearse lists of signed items. Results from all 3 experiments showed that oral suppression significantly reduced spans while manual suppression had no effect, revealing that participants were using speech-based rehearsal to retain lists of signed items in short-term memory. In addition, sub-vocal rehearsal using Chinese facilitated higher digit spans than English even though stimuli were perceived and recalled using signs. This difference was not found for lexical sign spans.




Cued Speech Transliteration: Effects of Speaking Rate and Lag Time on Production Accuracy

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

Many deaf and hard-of-hearing children rely on interpreters to access classroom communication. Although the exact level of access provided by interpreters in these settings is unknown, it is likely to depend heavily on interpreter accuracy (portion of message correctly produced by the interpreter) and the factors that govern interpreter accuracy. In this study, the accuracy of 12 Cued Speech (CS) transliterators with varying degrees of experience was examined at three different speaking rates (slow, normal, fast). Accuracy was measured with a high-resolution, objective metric in order to facilitate quantitative analyses of the effect of each factor on accuracy. Results showed that speaking rate had a large negative effect on accuracy, caused primarily by an increase in omitted cues, whereas the effect of lag time on accuracy, also negative, was quite small and explained just 3% of the variance. Increased experience level was generally associated with increased accuracy; however, high levels of experience did not guarantee high levels of accuracy. Finally, the overall accuracy of the 12 transliterators, 54% on average across all three factors, was low enough to raise serious concerns about the quality of CS transliteration services that (at least some) children receive in educational settings.




Development of American Sign Language Guidelines for K-12 Academic Assessments

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

The U.S. federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was enacted with goals of closing achievement gaps and providing all students with access to equitable and high-quality instruction. One requirement of ESSA is annual statewide testing of students in grades 3–8 and once in high school. Some students, including many deaf or hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students, are eligible to use test supports, in the form of accommodations and accessibility tools, during state testing. Although technology allows accommodations and accessibility tools to be embedded within a digital assessment system, the success of this approach depends on the ability of test developers to appropriately represent content in accommodated forms. The Guidelines for Accessible Assessment Project (GAAP) sought to develop evidence- and consensus-based guidelines for representing test content in American Sign Language. In this article, we present an overview of GAAP, review of the literature, rationale, qualitative and quantitative research findings, and lessons learned.




Level of Educational Attainment Among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual–bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the long-term outcomes of bilingual–bicultural education, and several of their findings have raised questions about benefits of the approach. This study examined the level of educational attainment of 408 deaf individuals who attended primary school either before or during the period of bilingual–bicultural education in Denmark, both relative to a comparable hearing cohort. Beyond group comparisons, three logistic regression models were created to evaluate the prediction of educational attainment by a number of relevant variables. Compared to the hearing population, the deaf population had a significantly lower level of educational attainment both before and after the introduction of bilingual–bicultural education. Signed language and spoken language abilities, the kind of school attended, degree of hearing loss, parental hearing loss, and gender were found significantly to explain levels of educational attainment in the deaf population.




Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention.




Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists

2016-09-01T05:52:58-07:00

Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about medication. We used two questionnaires to compare the results from the deaf participants with those from the HH and hearing participants. We found that before the lecture, the deaf participants’ understanding of medication use was lower than that of the HH and hearing participants. The deaf participants’ knowledge increased after the lecture, but did not improve to the level exhibited by the HH participants. However, the deaf participants felt confident using medication despite their low comprehension levels. In conclusion, adjusting the medication information provided by pharmacists according to the recipient’s reading level could help improve deaf patients’ knowledge; however, such measures might not increase deaf patients’ comprehension levels sufficiently.













What Parents Need to Know

2016-09-01T05:52:59-07:00




Why Deaf Culture Matters in Deaf Education

2016-09-01T05:52:59-07:00







Cover

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Editorial_Board

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Subscription

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Table_of_Contents

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Assessing Vocal Development in Infants and Toddlers Who Are Hard of Hearing: A Parent-Report Tool

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

The main purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the Vocal Development Landmarks Interview—Experimental Version (VDLI-E) was sensitive to variation in the vocal development of infants and toddlers who are hard of hearing. The VDLI-E is an interactive parent interview that uses audio samples of authentic infant vocalizations to make targeted vocal behaviors clear and understandable to parents without the need for technical terms, verbal descriptions, or adult modeling of infant productions. The VDLI-E was found to be sensitive to age and hearing and was related to performance on concurrent measures of early auditory skills, expressive vocabulary, and overall expressive language abilities. These findings provide preliminary support for the utility of this measure in monitoring the impact of early auditory experiences on vocal development for 6- to 18-month-old children who are hard of hearing.




Hearing Parents Appraisals of Parenting a Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Child: Application of a Positive Psychology Framework

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

Hearing parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children face unique challenges and stressors, the understanding of which has been the focus of numerous studies; yet, relatively little is known about their positive experiences. Using a qualitative purposive sampling design, interviews were conducted with 11 hearing parents (8 mothers, 3 fathers) exploring parents’ positive appraisals of their experiences in raising a child who is deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis was conducted, which allowed the researchers to identify themes and patterns in the parents’ appraisals. Nine key themes emerged, which characterized parents’ positive perceptions of raising a child who is D/HH: knowing the child, appreciating everyday positives, increasing involvement with the child, relishing the highs, taking less for granted, letting go, learning, advocating, and experiencing personal growth. A positive psychology framework was employed to foster understanding of the interview findings and their implications. When asked about the positive aspects of raising a D/HH child, hearing parents were readily able to identify ways in which their parenting experience had been enhanced and their lives improved as a result of their unique situations. The implications of these findings are discussed.




Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4–5-year olds with hearing aids to that of 180 typically hearing children. Parent ratings of psychosocial functioning and social skills, as well as scores of receptive vocabulary, were obtained. Children with hearing loss evidenced more psychosocial problems than hearing agemates. Female gender and early detection of hearing loss predicted better psychosocial functioning among children with hearing loss, whereas vocabulary and degree of hearing loss did not. Early intervention addressing psychosocial functioning is warranted for children with all degrees of hearing loss, including mild and moderate. Gender differences should be investigated in future research.




Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers With Hearing Loss

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers’ phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The study used an experimental design with participants assigned to one of two intervention conditions—vocabulary instruction, or explicit PA instruction. Both intervention programs were based around items drawn from a common word set and presented over six short weekly sessions by a researcher using a computer tablet. Overall, participants showed greater knowledge of word items used in interventions and improved performance on rhyme-based PA skills following intervention. However, the PA group showed significantly greater improvement than the vocabulary group for both overall PA performance and for consonant–vowel–consonant blending. DHH children’s order of PA skill development was also examined, with comparison to that shown for children without hearing loss. The results provide early encouraging evidence about the potential benefit of explicit PA instruction for this population.




How Do Deaf Children With and Without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some frequent content words and ignoring the function words. The present results show that deaf children, including those wearing CIs from an early age, do use the KWS. It is also shown that this tendency is related with a linguistic deficiency, especially with a poor ability to deal with function words. Furthermore, the age of implantation, and the degree of hearing loss for children without CIs, plays an important role in using the KWS. Some pedagogical consequences of this situation are considered.




Instruction and Service Time Decisions: Itinerant Services to Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the specific kinds of services provided by itinerant teachers to deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students in general education settings, (b) examine the relationship between student academic performance and instructional support provided by the itinerant teacher, and (c) examine how service provision decisions are made by itinerant teachers. We used quantitative and qualitative data collected during a 5-year longitudinal study. Data were obtained from teacher questionnaires, standardized achievement tests, and interviews. Results indicated that itinerant teachers of DHH students provided direct academic instruction to 60% of students with the majority of students receiving instruction in reading and writing. They provided instruction in nonacademic areas to 80% of students with a majority of students receiving instruction in self-advocacy. Low-achieving students were the most likely to receive academic instruction from the itinerant teacher. Decisions regarding service time were influenced by student needs and performance, age, parental request, and transitions.




Deaf Students Reading and Writing in College: Fluency, Coherence, and Comprehension

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

Research in discourse reveals numerous cognitive connections between reading and writing. Rather than one being the inverse of the other, there are parallels and interactions between them. To understand the variables and possible connections in the reading and writing of adult deaf students, we manipulated writing conditions and reading texts. First, to test the hypothesis that a fluent writing process leads to richer content and a higher degree of coherence in a written summary, we interrupted the writing process with verbal and nonverbal intervening tasks. The negligible effect of the interference indicated that the stimuli texts were not equivalent in terms of coherence and revealed a relationship between coherence of the stimuli texts, amount of content recalled, and coherence of the written summaries. To test for a possible effect of coherence on reading comprehension, we manipulated the coherence of the texts. We found that students understood the more coherent versions of the passages better than the less coherent versions and were able to accurately distinguish between them. However, they were not able to judge comprehensibility. Implications for further research and classroom application are discussed.




The Effects of Theory of Mind Training on the False Belief Understanding of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

Data from a growing number of research studies indicate that children with hearing loss are delayed in Theory of Mind (ToM) development when compared to their typically developing, hearing peers. While other researchers have studied the developmental trajectories of ToM in school-age students who are deaf, a limited number have addressed the need for interventions for this population. The present study extends the current research on ToM interventions to the Prekindergarten and Kindergarten levels. This study used a single-case multiple baseline design to examine the effects of a ToM intervention on participants’ false belief understanding as well as outcomes on a near generalization measure and a far generalization measure. A ToM thought bubble intervention (i.e., a visual representation of what people are thinking) developed by Wellman and Peterson (2013. Deafness, thought bubbles, and theory-of-mind development. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2357–2367) was modified in key areas. Results from the Single-Case Design portion of the study indicate a functional, or causal, relation between the ToM intervention and the participants’ acquisition of the targeted skills in each stage although progress was not uniform. Results from the pre–post assessments indicate that the children did make progress up the scale. These results inform the field in regard to the efficacy and feasibility of a ToM intervention for young deaf children.




Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00

The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge’s (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants.







New Framework for Research Efforts

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Literacy... the Earlier, the Better

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Improving ASL Pedagogy

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Bilingualism--But for the "Slash"!

2016-06-11T02:56:51-07:00




Cover

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00




Editorial_Board

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00




Subscription

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00




Table_of_Contents

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00




Vocabulary Knowledge of Children With Cochlear Implants: A Meta-Analysis

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

This article employs meta-analysis procedures to evaluate whether children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower spoken-language vocabulary knowledge than peers with normal hearing. Of the 754 articles screened and 52 articles coded, 12 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (with an additional 5 included for one analysis). Effect sizes were calculated for relevant studies and forest plots were used to compare differences between groups of children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants. Weighted effect size averages for expressive vocabulary measures (g = –11.99; p < .001) and for receptive vocabulary measures (g = –20.33; p < .001) indicated that children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower vocabulary knowledge than children with normal hearing. Additional analyses confirmed the value of comparing vocabulary knowledge of children with hearing loss to a tightly matched (e.g., socioeconomic status-matched) sample. Age of implantation, duration of implantation, and chronological age at testing were not significantly related to magnitude of weighted effect size. Findings from this analysis represent a first step toward resolving discrepancies in the vocabulary knowledge literature.




Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified "division of labor" hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field.




Psychometric Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Mental Health Problems Among Children With Hearing Loss

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

More knowledge is needed about the characteristics of mental health problems among deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) children. This study investigates the factor structure of one of the most widely used screening tools, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the prevalence of mental health problems among D/HH children. Our data were derived from two independent samples of D/HH children, one from 2007 of children (N = 334) in bilingual/bicultural educational programs and another from 2014 of children (N = 233) in mostly mainstream oral educational programs with cochlear implants. Teacher-SDQs were collected for the 2007 sample and parent-SDQs for the 2014 sample. The factor structure of the SDQ was examined from both Exploratory Factor Analytic (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analytic (CFA) perspectives and internal consistency was examined. Mean problem scores were presented. The five-factor structure of the SDQ was overall found for both the 2007 and the 2014 samples using EFA. However, problems with the Conduct scale and the reversed items loading onto the Prosocial scale were observed. The five-factor model was superior to a one- and a two-factor model from a CFA perspective in both samples. Better internal consistency was observed for the 2007 sample rated by teachers. Both samples showed higher mean scores on all SDQ problem subscales compared to a cohort of Danish children without hearing loss. The five-factor structure of the SDQ is recommended to be used among D/HH children.




Empathy and Theory of Mind in Deaf and Hearing Children

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

Empathy (or sharing another’s emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy’s development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65 deaf children of hearing parents) aged 4–13 years were therefore designed to (a) compare levels of empathy in deaf and hearing children, and (b) explore correlations of ToM with empathy in deaf and hearing groups. Results showed that (a) deaf children scored lower in empathy than their hearing peers and (b) empathy and ToM were significantly correlated for deaf children but not for the hearing. Possible reasons for these divergent developmental patterns were considered, along with implications for future research.




Effects of Hearing Status and Sign Language Use on Working Memory

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

Deaf individuals have been found to score lower than hearing individuals across a variety of memory tasks involving both verbal and nonverbal stimuli, particularly those requiring retention of serial order. Deaf individuals who are native signers, meanwhile, have been found to score higher on visual-spatial memory tasks than on verbal-sequential tasks and higher on some visual-spatial tasks than hearing nonsigners. However, hearing status and preferred language modality (signed or spoken) frequently are confounded in such studies. That situation is resolved in the present study by including deaf students who use spoken language and sign language interpreting students (hearing signers) as well as deaf signers and hearing nonsigners. Three complex memory span tasks revealed overall advantages for hearing signers and nonsigners over both deaf signers and deaf nonsigners on 2 tasks involving memory for verbal stimuli (letters). There were no differences among the groups on the task involving visual-spatial stimuli. The results are consistent with and extend recent findings concerning the effects of hearing status and language on memory and are discussed in terms of language modality, hearing status, and cognitive abilities among deaf and hearing individuals.




Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students’ American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency.




Impacts of Visual Sonority and Handshape Markedness on Second Language Learning of American Sign Language

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

The roles of visual sonority and handshape markedness in sign language acquisition and production were investigated. In Experiment 1, learners were taught sign-nonobject correspondences that varied in sign movement sonority and handshape markedness. Results from a sign-picture matching task revealed that high sonority signs were more accurately matched, especially when the sign contained a marked handshape. In Experiment 2, learners produced these familiar signs in addition to novel signs, which differed based on sonority and markedness. Results from a key-release reaction time reproduction task showed that learners tended to produce high sonority signs much more quickly than low sonority signs, especially when the sign contained an unmarked handshape. This effect was only present in familiar signs. Sign production accuracy rates revealed that high sonority signs were more accurate than low sonority signs. Similarly, signs with unmarked handshapes were produced more accurately than those with marked handshapes. Together, results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that signs that contain high sonority movements are more easily processed, both perceptually and productively, and handshape markedness plays a differential role in perception and production.




Visual Access in Interpreter-Mediated Learning Situations for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing High School Students Where an Artifact Is in Use

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

This article highlights interpreter-mediated learning situations for deaf high school students where such mediated artifacts as technical machines, models, and computer graphics are used by the teacher to illustrate his or her teaching. In these situations, the teacher’s situated gestures and utterances, and the artifacts will contribute independent pieces of information. However, the deaf student can only have his or her visual attention focused on one source at a time. The problem to be addressed is how the interpreter coordinates the mediation when it comes to deaf students’ visual orientation. The presented discourse analysis is based on authentic video recordings from inclusive learning situations in Norway. The theoretical framework consists of concepts of role, footing, and face-work (Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London, UK: Penguin Books). The findings point out dialogical impediments to visual access in interpreter-mediated learning situations, and the article discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and educational interpreters.




Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills Across a Diverse Deaf Student Body

2016-03-08T07:29:10-08:00

This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e., deaf with a disability). Years 1 through 4 included the ASL Receptive Skills Test (ASL-RST); Years 2 through 4 also included the Receptive Test of ASL (RT-ASL). Student performance for both measures positively correlated with age; deaf students with deaf parents scored higher than their same-age peers with hearing parents in some instances but not others; and those with a documented disability tended to score lower than their peers without disabilities. These results provide longitudinal findings across a diverse segment of the deaf/hard of hearing residential school population.




Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension

2016-03-08T07:29:11-08:00

Semantic and lexical decision tasks were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying code-blend facilitation: the finding that hearing bimodal bilinguals comprehend signs in American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English words more quickly when they are presented together simultaneously than when each is presented alone. More robust facilitation effects were observed for semantic decision than for lexical decision, suggesting that lexical integration of signs and words within a code-blend occurs primarily at the semantic level, rather than at the level of form. Early bilinguals exhibited greater facilitation effects than late bilinguals for English (the dominant language) in the semantic decision task, possibly because early bilinguals are better able to process early visual cues from ASL signs and use these to constrain English word recognition. Comprehension facilitation via semantic integration of words and signs is consistent with co-speech gesture research demonstrating facilitative effects of gesture integration on language comprehension.




Reading Function and Content Words in Subtitled Videos

2016-03-08T07:29:11-08:00

In this study, we examined how function and content words are read in intra- and interlingual subtitles. We monitored eye movements of a group of 39 deaf, 27 hard of hearing, and 56 hearing Polish participants while they viewed English and Polish videos with Polish subtitles. We found that function words and short content words received less visual attention than longer content words, which was reflected in shorter dwell time, lower number of fixations, shorter first fixation duration, and lower subject hit count. Deaf participants dwelled significantly longer on function words than other participants, which may be an indication of their difficulty in processing this type of words. The findings are discussed in the context of classical reading research and applied research on subtitling.




A Feast for the Open Mind

2016-03-08T07:29:11-08:00




Deaf Ecologies

2016-03-08T07:29:11-08:00