Preview: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education - current issue
The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Current Issue
Published: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
Last Build Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2017 01:44:24 GMT
Adolescent Depression: Differential Symptom Presentations in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Youth Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9
AbstractThe present study examined differences in symptom presentation in screening for pediatric depression via evaluation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). In particular, we examined whether PHQ-9 items function differentially among deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH; n = 75) and hearing (n = 75) youth based on participants recruited from crisis assessment services. Multiple indicators multiple causes models were used to examine whether items of the PHQ-9 functioned differently between groups as well as whether there were group differences in the mean severity of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that DHH youth were more likely to endorse psychosomatic items, and less likely to endorse an affective item. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 functions differently when used with DHH youth. Implications of these findings are discussed, including both for future work with the PHQ-9 and with regard to the conceptualization of depression across hearing groups.
Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Reading for Deaf and Hearing Children in Primary School
AbstractForty-one children with severe-profound prelingual hearing loss were assessed on single word reading, reading comprehension, English vocabulary, phonological awareness and speechreading at three time points, 1 year apart (T1–T3). Their progress was compared with that of a group of hearing children of similar nonverbal IQ, initially reading at the same level. Single word reading improved at each assessment point for the deaf children but there was no growth in reading comprehension from T2 to T3. There were no differences between children with cochlear implants and those with hearing aids on either reading measure but orally educated children had higher scores than children who signed in the classroom. English vocabulary and speechreading were the most consistent longitudinal predictors of reading for the deaf children. Phonological awareness was the most consistent longitudinal predictor for the hearing group and also a concurrent predictor of reading at T3 for both groups. There were many more significant correlations among the various measures for the deaf children than the hearing at both T1 and T3, suggesting that skills underpinning reading, including phonological awareness and vocabulary, are more closely related for deaf children. Implications of these findings for of deaf children's literacy are explored.
Made to Hear
Mauldin, L. (2016) Made to Hear: Cochlear Implants and Raising Deaf Children. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 215 pages. Paperback.
Legal Rights: An Important Update
National Association of the Deaf. (2015). Legal Rights—The Guide for Deaf and Hard of Hearing People (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Interactive Reading with Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children in eBooks Versus Print Books
AbstractInteractive storybook reading is effective in enhancing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's emergent literacy skills. The current digital era gives parents more opportunities to read books with their child. From an early age on, interaction between parent and child during literacy activities is very important for the development of emergent literacy skills. The purpose of the present study was to explore the opportunities of eBooks on a tablet for interactive reading with young DHH children. Parent and child interactive behavior in reading print books was compared to eBooks in 18 parents and their 1- to 3-year-old DHH child. All parents followed an interactive reading program after which their interactive reading behaviors were observed while reading print books and eBooks with their child. Results mainly showed similar interactive reading behaviors in parents and children when reading print books or eBooks, except for a lower occurrence of pointing to pictures/objects in the parent behavior when reading the eBooks. These results give parents and professionals even more opportunities for interactive storybook reading with DHH children, and thus more opportunities to enhance their language and literacy skills. Tablets can be easily taken with you making eBooks accessible for interactive reading wherever you are.
Working Together— with Families
M. (2016). Early intervention for deaf and hard-of-hearing infants, toddlers, and their families: Interdisciplinary perspectives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Paperback. 349 pp. $55.00.
Influences on Facial Emotion Recognition in Deaf Children
AbstractThis exploratory research is aimed at studying facial emotion recognition abilities in deaf children and how they relate to linguistic skills and the characteristics of deafness. A total of 166 participants (75 deaf) aged 3–8 years were administered the following tasks: facial emotion recognition, naming vocabulary and cognitive ability. The children's teachers or speech therapists also responded to two questionnaires, one on children's linguistic-communicative skills and the other providing personal information. Results show a delay in deaf children's capacity to recognize some emotions (scared, surprised, and disgusted) but not others (happy, sad, and angry). Notably, they recognized emotions in a similar order to hearing children. Moreover, linguistic skills were found to be related to emotion recognition skills, even when controlling for age. We discuss the importance of facial emotion recognition of language, conversation, some characteristics of deafness, and parents’ educational level.
Concern for Others: A Study on Empathy in Toddlers with Moderate Hearing Loss
AbstractEmpathy, the ability to feel the emotions of others and respond affectively to these emotions, is an important factor in the development of social competence. The purpose of this study was to examine empathy levels in toddlers with moderate hearing loss (MHL) compared to toddlers with no hearing loss (nHL), and to explore the relation between language ability and empathy. We focused on affective empathy and the precursors of cognitive empathy. A total of 23 toddlers with MHL and 21 toddlers with nHL participated in the study. Parent report (ITSEA) and observation measures were used to rate the toddlers’ levels of empathy. The results showed that the levels of affective empathy in toddlers with MHL and with nHL were similar on both measures. Toddlers with MHL lagged behind their peers with nHL on some precursors of cognitive empathy (intention understanding and joint attention). Language ability was unrelated to empathy levels in both groups of toddlers. In conclusion, toddlers with MHL seem to be at risk for problems in their empathy development. Although they are aware of the emotions of others, the development of more complex skills needed for an adequate empathic response is delayed in comparison with their hearing peers.
Preliminary Evidence Assessing Social–Emotional Competences in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Infants and Toddlers Using a New Parent Questionnaire
AbstractSocial–emotional competences are an important developmental domain for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children and early diagnosis of problems is needed to ensure that DHH children receive appropriate support in this domain. In order to explore the usefulness of an instrument, which was recently developed for very young children, two studies in DHH infants and toddlers were conducted from Germany using the Social–Emotional Assessment/Evaluation Measure (Squires et al. (2013). Social-Emotional Assessment/Evaluation Measure (SEAM). Baltimore, ML: Brooks). Preliminary analysis of data obtained from a sample of 182 DHH children aged between 2 and 36 months (Study 1) suggests that it provides valid, reliable data and is suitable for use in practice. The data also corroborate well-known findings from other research in deaf education, in particular the role of parental responsivity for the development of social–emotional competences. Study 2 documents the consistency of evaluations of 44 DHH children by their mothers and by early intervention providers using the scales. Overall, the results suggest that this new evaluation instrument has potential applications in deaf educational practice but further research is needed to demonstrate its full value.
Emotion Understanding in Preschool Children with Mild-to-Severe Hearing Loss
AbstractDeaf and hard of hearing school-aged children are at risk for delayed development of emotion understanding; however, little is known about this during the preschool years. We compared the level of emotion understanding in a group of 35 4–5-year-old children who use hearing aids to that of 130 children with typical hearing. Moreover, we investigated the parents’ perception of their child's level of emotion understanding. Children were assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Parents were presented with the same test and asked to guess what their child answered on each item. The results showed that children with hearing loss performed at the same level as typically hearing children, despite having lower vocabulary scores. Parents of children with hearing loss were more accurate in their estimations of their child's competence, and higher accuracy was associated with better emotion understanding. These findings may have implications for early intervention planning.
The Significance of Deaf Identity for Psychological Well-Being
AbstractResearch has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity—deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor hearing)—were associated with levels of psychological well-being and a number of other variables. The sample was 742 adults with hearing loss in Denmark. The study found that those with a deaf, hearing or bicultural identity had significantly higher levels of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory and current deaf identity themes.
A Case of Specific Language Impairment in a Deaf Signer of American Sign Language
AbstractThis article describes the case of a deaf native signer of American Sign Language (ASL) with a specific language impairment (SLI). School records documented normal cognitive development but atypical language development. Data include school records; interviews with the child, his mother, and school professionals; ASL and English evaluations; and a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychoeducational evaluation, and they span an approximate period of 7.5 years (11;10–19;6) including scores from school records (11;10–16;5) and a 3.5-year period (15;10–19;6) during which we collected linguistic and neuropsychological data. Results revealed that this student has average intelligence, intact visual perceptual skills, visuospatial skills, and motor skills but demonstrates challenges with some memory and sequential processing tasks. Scores from ASL testing signaled language impairment and marked difficulty with fingerspelling. The student also had significant deficits in English vocabulary, spelling, reading comprehension, reading fluency, and writing. Accepted SLI diagnostic criteria exclude deaf individuals from an SLI diagnosis, but the authors propose modified criteria in this work. The results of this study have practical implications for professionals including school psychologists, speech language pathologists, and ASL specialists. The results also support the theoretical argument that SLI can be evident regardless of the modality in which it is communicated.
Generation of Signs Within Semantic and Phonological Categories: Data from Deaf Adults and Children Who Use American Sign Language
AbstractTwo key areas of language development include semantic and phonological knowledge. Semantic knowledge relates to word and concept knowledge. Phonological knowledge relates to how language parameters combine to create meaning. We investigated signing deaf adults’ and children's semantic and phonological sign generation via one-minute tasks, including animals, foods, and specific handshapes. We investigated the effects of chronological age, age of sign language acquisition/years at school site, gender, presence of a disability, and geographical location (i.e., USA and Puerto Rico) on participants’ performance and relations among tasks. In general, the phonological task appeared more difficult than the semantic tasks, students generated more animals than foods, age, and semantic performance correlated for the larger sample of U.S. students, and geographical variation included use of fingerspelling and specific signs. Compared to their peers, deaf students with disabilities generated fewer semantic items. These results provide an initial snapshot of students’ semantic and phonological sign generation.