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Preview: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education - current issue

The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Current Issue

Published: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 06:45:38 GMT


Interpreting in the Zone

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

JackHoza (2016). Interpreting in the Zone: How the Conscious and Unconscious Function in Interpreting. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Press. Hardback. $70. ISBN 978-1-56368-666-5.

Speech Intelligibility and Personality Peer-ratings of Young Adults With Cochlear Implants

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Speech intelligibility, or how well a speaker’s words are understood by others, affects listeners’ judgments of the speaker’s competence and personality. Deaf cochlear implant (CI) users vary widely in speech intelligibility, and their speech may have a noticeable “deaf” quality, both of which could evoke negative stereotypes or judgments from peers. In this study, college students with typical hearing (TH) used semantic differential scales to rate speech samples of highly-intelligible TH young adults and age-matched CI users with high or low intelligibility (CI-Hi, CI-Lo) on personality traits related to competence (intelligence, achievement), friendship skills (friendliness, popularity), and attractiveness as a friend (extraversion, dependability). Judges rated TH positively, CI-Lo negatively, and CI-Hi as intermediate, even though CI-Hi were as intelligible as TH. Both CI user groups were rated as friendly but unattractive as friends (insecure, shy, boring, unpopular, does not “sound like someone who could be my friend”), underlining the role of deaf speech quality in peer judgments. Such negative first impressions are likely to affect CI users’ social interactions and friendships, highlighting the importance of speech intelligibility and quality for CI users and calling for education on deafness and deaf speech for TH peers.

Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3–19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students’ spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175–205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175–205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent survey responses indicated primarily positive perceptions of the program. Some staff identified ongoing challenges with balancing signed and spoken language use. Many parents responded with strong emotions, some stating that the program was “life-changing” for their children/families.

Exploring Cascading Effects of Multimodal Communication Skills in Infants With Hearing Loss

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Infants and toddlers with hearing loss (HL) are at risk for developing communicative delays that can have a substantial lasting effect. Understanding child characteristics that may be targeted in early intervention is essential to maximizing communicative outcomes in children with HL. Among the most malleable predictors of communication skills include maternal responsivity, gestures, and vocalizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among maternal responsivity, prelinguistic communication skills and expressive vocabulary in children with HL. Based upon the results we propose a theoretical cascading model of communicative outcomes for children with HL such that gesture use may be associated with future vocalizations which may in turn be related to long-term spoken language outcomes. This exploratory model may be supported by the underlying transactional model of bidirectional language development that occurs through maternal sensitivity in the first two years of life. Additionally, parents of children with HL may be less likely to respond to a single mode of communication than to a combination of modes. This exploratory study provides a theoretical framework by which multimodal communication development in infants and toddlers with HL may be better understood, and suggests hypotheses for future research and implications for intervention practice.

Literacy Outcomes in Deaf Students with Cochlear Implants: Current State of the Knowledge

Thu, 05 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The purpose of this paper is to examine the available peer-reviewed research regarding literacy achievement in deaf children with cochlear implants. A related goal is to identify gaps in the empirical literature and suggest directions for future research. Included in this review are studies that exclusively report reading and writing outcomes for groups of students. A total of 21 studies were identified, representing those published over approximately a 20-year time period (1997–2016) and collectively reporting the literacy outcomes for over 1,000 cochlear implant users. Overall findings of the studies of reading comprehension suggest that the majority of participants achieved scores in the average range, although a wide-range of variability was reported. Only 3 studies of writing were available for review, with 2 reporting lower achievement in this area as compared to reading. Factors impacting outcomes achieved such as age at implantation, presence of additional disabilities, consistency of device use, and communication modality are explored and summarized.

Emerging Research

Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Nicodemus.  B,  Cagle,  K (2015). Signed Language Interpretation and Translation Research: Selected Papers from the First International Symposium. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. 250 pages. $70.00

Early Reading Development in Chinese-speaking Children with Hearing Loss

Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

This study aims to explore early reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) by examining character recognition and linguistic comprehension. Twenty-five children with HL received three measures relevant to character reading: phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), and character recognition; two linguistic-comprehension measures: receptive vocabulary knowledge and listening comprehension; and one reading comprehension measure. Three demographic variables pertinent to children with HL were also taken into account. The results showed that the degree of HL was significantly related to reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary knowledge, and listening comprehension, the latter two of which were further correlated with the type of hearing device; however, the hearing age was associated with neither of the measures. MA made a unique contribution to character reading in the presence of PA, but the reverse was not true. Linguistic comprehension significantly accounted for additional variance in reading comprehension over and above character recognition but not vice versa. A further analysis controlling for character recognition revealed that receptive vocabulary knowledge was more contributive to early reading comprehension than was listening comprehension. The results of the current investigation have potential to inform educational practice in teaching and/or intervening Chinese children with HL regarding their reading skills.

Auditory Verbal Therapy: For young children with hearing loss and their Estabrooks et al.

Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

EstabrooksWMacIver-LuxKRhoadesE A (2016). Auditory-Verbal Therapy For Young Children with Hearing Loss and Their Families, and the Practitioners Who Guide Them (1st edition). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing. Hardback. 602 pages. $79.95.

Focus and construal in American Sign Language

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

RankinM (2016). Form, Meaning, and Focus in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. Hardback. 135 pages. $80.00.

Leadership Succession: Future-proofing Pipelines

Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The challenges in deaf education illustrate the requirement and importance of leadership in this specialized field. The significant and impending talent depletion unfolding as baby-boomers retire, positions leadership succession planning as a strategic issue. This mixed methods study is the first of its kind in New Zealand. The aim is to understand leadership demographics and assumptions to determine the need for strategic succession planning to identify and address leaky pipelines. The findings from 82% of the deaf education workforce through a questionnaire and interviews with seven senior leaders reveal that senior leaders do not appear aware of four key areas that dissuade and shrink the pool of potential leadership aspirants. The four areas are prioritizing family; safeguarding health; concerns about bureaucracy, paperwork, and workload; and, a reluctance to move away from teaching. Aspirant identification appears informal, as there is no formal succession plan in place, which suggests a leadership crisis is imminent in New Zealand deaf education provision. Recommendations are provided that may help address this situation in New Zealand and other first-world nations if sufficient leaders are in place to deal with the challenges facing deaf education today and in the future.

Longitudinal Associations Between Bullying and Emotions in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents

Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In hearing adolescents, emotions play important roles in the development of bullying and victimization. Yet, it is unclear whether this also applies to adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). The present study examines the longitudinal associations of anger, fear, guilt, and shame with bullying/victimization in DHH adolescents. Overall, 80 DHH and 227 hearing adolescents (Mage = 11.7; 103 males) completed self-reports on two occasions with a 9-month interval. Outcomes show that DHH adolescents reported fewer bullying behaviors, but more victimization compared to hearing adolescents. Longitudinal relations between emotions and bullying/victimization did not differ between DHH and hearing adolescents. More anger and less guilt predicted increased bullying, and more bullying predicted increased anger and decreased guilt. Higher levels of anger, fear, and shame predicted increased victimization, and more victimization predicted increased anger, fear, and shame. These findings emphasize that emotions are involved in both the emergence and maintenance of bullying and victimization. These outcomes have clinical implications for the prevention of bullying.

Language and Psychosocial Functioning among Deaf Learners with and without Cochlear Implants

Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Various studies have examined psychosocial functioning and language abilities among deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs). Few, however, have explored how relations among those abilities might change with age and setting. Most relevant studies also have failed to consider that psychosocial functioning among both CI users and nonusers might be influenced by having language abilities in both signed and spoken language. The present investigation explored how these variables might influence each other, including the possibility that deaf individuals’ psychosocial functioning might be influenced differentially by perceived and actual signed and spoken language abilities. Changes in acculturation and quality of life were examined over their first year in college, together with changes in perceived and assessed language abilities. Students with and without CIs differed significantly in some aspects of psychosocial functioning and language ability, but not entirely in the directions expected based on studies involving school-aged deaf students. Participants’ cultural affiliations were related as much or more to perceived language abilities as to the reality of those abilities as indicated by formal assessments. These results emphasize the need to consider the heterogeneity of deaf learners if they are to receive the support services needed for personal and academic growth.

Face Recognition is Shaped by the Use of Sign Language

Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Previous research has suggested that early deaf signers differ in face processing. Which aspects of face processing are changed and the role that sign language may have played in that change are however unclear. Here, we compared face categorization (human/non-human) and human face recognition performance in early profoundly deaf signers, hearing signers, and hearing non-signers. In the face categorization task, the three groups performed similarly in term of both response time and accuracy. However, in the face recognition task, signers (both deaf and hearing) were slower than hearing non-signers to accurately recognize faces, but had a higher accuracy rate. We conclude that sign language experience, but not deafness, drives a speed–accuracy trade-off in face recognition (but not face categorization). This suggests strategic differences in the processing of facial identity for individuals who use a sign language, regardless of their hearing status.