Preview: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education - current issue
The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Current Issue
Published: Tue, 27 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
Last Build Date: Tue, 27 Dec 2016 10:44:05 GMT
The Magic Years of Early Childhood
SpencerP. & KoesterL. S. (2016). Nurturing Language and Learning: Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Infants and Toddlers. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 404 pages. Paperback. $55.00
In Memoriam: Amy Hile
The field of deaf studies and deaf education lost a strong advocate for bilingual education with the sudden loss of Dr. Amy Hile. Her research and influence in the area of bilingual studies was clearly on the radar of many with an interest in bilingualism. Amy had just completed a review of the literature that she hoped to submit prior to her untimely death. At the encouragement of her colleagues and with the permission of her family, we considered publication of this review in her memory. As editor, I took the liberty of changing some minor grammatical issues such as verb tense and pronoun use, and one of the Associate Editors reviewed the content but did not change the wording in any way. Nor did we send the document out for peer review. Thus, with the exception of the changes mentioned, this document is written in Dr. Hile's words, unedited. We submit this draft document in her memory on behalf of a grateful field.
Mental Disorders in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adult Outpatients: A Comparison of Linguistic Subgroups
AbstractDeaf and hard of hearing (DHH) individuals who use signed language and those who use spoken language face different challenges and stressors. Accordingly, the profile of their mental problems may also differ. However, studies of mental disorders in this population have seldom differentiated between linguistic groups. Our study compares demographics, mental disorders, and levels of distress and functioning in 40 patients using Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) and 36 patients using spoken language. Assessment instruments were translated into NSL. More signers were deaf than hard of hearing, did not share a common language with their childhood caregivers, and had attended schools for DHH children. More Norwegian-speaking than signing patients reported medical comorbidity, whereas the distribution of mental disorders, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and daily functioning did not differ significantly. Somatic complaints and greater perceived social isolation indicate higher stress levels in DHH patients using spoken language than in those using sign language. Therefore, preventive interventions are necessary, as well as larger epidemiological and clinical studies concerning the mental health of all language groups within the DHH population.
Barriers and Facilitators to Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons for Behavioral Clinical Trials Research
AbstractDeaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility during the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that originally explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors’ help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers’ own words that could be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged were not wholly dissimilar from the general preferences of members of other sociolinguistic minority groups—a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality procedures, trust, and transparency of the research process. Yet, how these themes are applied to the inclusion of Deaf research participants is distinct from any other sociolinguistic minority population, given Deaf people's unique sensory and linguistic characteristics. We summarize our findings in a preliminary “Checklist for Designing Deaf Behavioral Clinical Trials” to operationalize the steps researchers can take to apply Deaf-friendly approaches in their empirical work.
The Transition From Early Intervention to School for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Administrator Perspectives
AbstractAlthough the transition from early intervention (EI) to school is a significant milestone in the lives of young children, little research to date has investigated this transition among children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The aims of this study were to investigate the organizational policies, procedures, and guidelines that facilitate or hinder the transition from the EI system to the school system for children who are D/HH from the perspective of program administrators. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique methodology, 146 incidents were extracted from 10 interviews and sorted into 10 helping, 9 hindering, and 5 wish list categories. Findings are consistent with the Ecological and Dynamic Model of Transition (Rimm-Kaufman & Pianta, 2000), which conceptualizes the transition to school as being influenced by the pattern of interactions between the individuals, groups, and institutions connected to the child.
Social Maturity and Executive Function Among Deaf Learners
AbstractTwo experiments examined relations among social maturity, executive function, language, and cochlear implant (CI) use among deaf high school and college students. Experiment 1 revealed no differences between deaf CI users, deaf nonusers, and hearing college students in measures of social maturity. However, deaf students (both CI users and nonusers) reported significantly greater executive function (EF) difficulties in several domains, and EF was related to social maturity. Experiment 2 found that deaf CI users and nonusers in high school did not differ from each other in social maturity or EF, but individuals who relied on sign language reported significantly more immature behaviors than deaf peers who used spoken language. EF difficulties again were associated with social maturity. The present results indicate that EF and social maturity are interrelated, but those relations vary in different deaf subpopulations. As with academic achievement, CI use appears to have little long-term impact on EF or social maturity. Results are discussed in terms of their convergence with findings related to incidental learning and functioning in several domains.
The Profiles of Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities and Known Hearing Loss
AbstractThe present study describes the characteristics of students in Grades 3–12 with significant cognitive disabilities (SCD) and known hearing loss. The study analyzed results of a survey of teachers of students with SCD (n = 38,367) who were slated to participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards in 14 states in the United States. Analysis revealed similar profiles in academic achievement and symbolic language use combined with an increased incidence of additional sensory impairments among students with SCD and known hearing loss compared to their peers without known hearing loss. Results suggest that hearing loss may be underidentified and underserved among students with SCD and point to the need for improved hearing screenings and evaluations combined with services delivered by teams that follow a model of interprofessional practice.
Daily Stress, Hearing-Specific Stress and Coping: Self-reports from Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children and Children With Auditory Processing Disorder
AbstractThis study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and coping questionnaire. Reports were compared with normative data for hearing children. Regarding everyday general stressors, stress levels for children who are D/HH or with APD did not differ from those of hearing children. Within children with hearing problems, everyday stressors were experienced as more stressful than hearing-specific stressors. For coping strategies, differences between children with hearing problems (D/HH, APD) and hearing children were shown (i.e., problem solving, anger-related emotion regulation). Girls scored higher in seeking social support whereas boys reported higher amounts of media use as a way of coping. Differences regarding stress and coping between children who are D/HH and children with APD were minor; D/HH children reported more social support seeking. Implications for assessment and resource promotion are discussed.
American Sign Language and Academic English: Factors Influencing the Reading of Bilingual Secondary School Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
AbstractFor many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students.
Fingerspelled and Printed Words Are Recoded into a Speech-based Code in Short-term Memory
AbstractWe conducted three immediate serial recall experiments that manipulated type of stimulus presentation (printed or fingerspelled words) and word similarity (speech-based or manual). Matched deaf American Sign Language signers and hearing non-signers participated (mean reading age = 14–15 years). Speech-based similarity effects were found for both stimulus types indicating that deaf signers recoded both printed and fingerspelled words into a speech-based phonological code. A manual similarity effect was not observed for printed words indicating that print was not recoded into fingerspelling (FS). A manual similarity effect was observed for fingerspelled words when similarity was based on joint angles rather than on handshape compactness. However, a follow-up experiment suggested that the manual similarity effect was due to perceptual confusion at encoding. Overall, these findings suggest that FS is strongly linked to English phonology for deaf adult signers who are relatively skilled readers. This link between fingerspelled words and English phonology allows for the use of a more efficient speech-based code for retaining fingerspelled words in short-term memory and may strengthen the representation of English vocabulary.
Vocabulary and Grammar Differences Between Deaf and Hearing Students
AbstractThe present study investigated the development of literacy skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children in Japan. The three components of literacy, vocabulary, orthographic knowledge, and grammatical knowledge were assessed by using the subtests of the Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities (ATLAN), based on the item response theory developed by the authors). The participants consisted of 207 DHH children (first through twelfth grades) in Study 1, and 425 hearing children (first through sixth grades) in Study 2. The findings show that more than 80% of DHH children's vocabulary variance was explained by the other two componential skills, while the three tasks’ difficulty was different. More specifically, their vocabulary and especially, their grammar lagged behind those of hearing children, whereas the difference between the two groups on kanji (one of the three orthographic systems in Japanese taught during the school years) was less. Although considerably delayed, their pattern of responses in grammar was similar to that predicted from normative data. Effective instruction for DHH children's literacy skills was generally discussed.
Auditory Deprivation Does Not Impair Executive Function, But Language Deprivation Might: Evidence From a Parent-Report Measure in Deaf Native Signing Children
AbstractDeaf children are often described as having difficulty with executive function (EF), often manifesting in behavioral problems. Some researchers view these problems as a consequence of auditory deprivation; however, the behavioral problems observed in previous studies may not be due to deafness but to some other factor, such as lack of early language exposure. Here, we distinguish these accounts by using the BRIEF EF parent report questionnaire to test for behavioral problems in a group of Deaf children from Deaf families, who have a history of auditory but not language deprivation. For these children, the auditory deprivation hypothesis predicts behavioral impairments; the language deprivation hypothesis predicts no group differences in behavioral control. Results indicated that scores among the Deaf native signers (n = 42) were age-appropriate and similar to scores among the typically developing hearing sample (n = 45). These findings are most consistent with the language deprivation hypothesis, and provide a foundation for continued research on outcomes of children with early exposure to sign language.