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The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Current Issue





Published: Tue, 30 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 20:45:01 GMT

 



Social Dominance Orientation, Language Orientation, and Deaf Identity

2017-05-30

Abstract
The notion of the Deaf community as a linguistic-cultural minority has been increasingly recognized and studied over the last two decades. However, significant differences of opinion and perspective within that population typically have been neglected in the literature. Social dominance orientation (SDO), a theoretical construct, typically focusing on intergroup perceptions and relations, is one aspect that has been left unexplored and might prove particularly enlightening. The present study investigated SDO among 119 deaf and 49 hearing young adults through a standardized SDO questionnaire. SDO was examined with regard to cultural identities (deaf, hearing, bicultural, and marginal), cochlear implant use, and language orientation (sign language or spoken language). The deaf participants were found to be more egalitarian than hearing individuals overall. Deaf individuals who held the strongest deaf identities, those who were sign language oriented, and not cochlear implant users, were the most egalitarian.



The Effect of Word Frequency on Phonemic Accuracy in Children With Cochlear Implants and Peers With Typical Levels of Hearing

2017-05-30

Abstract
The frequency of occurrence of words and sounds has a pervasive influence on typically developing children's language acquisition. For instance, highly frequent words appear earliest in a child's lexicon, and highly frequent phonemes are produced more accurately. This study evaluates (a) whether word frequency influences word accuracy and (b) whether this is also the case for children with a history of auditory deprivation. More specifically, the influence of word frequency on phonemic accuracy is examined in deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI), and compared to age-matched children with typical hearing, between word onset and age 7. Results show that highly frequent words are produced more accurately, except for words in the highest frequency regions (i.e., predominantly closed-class words). This effect is more pronounced in children with typical hearing when compared with children with CI. Thus, children with CI are sensitive to word frequency, but to a lesser extent than peers with typical hearing.



Operationalization of Sign Language Phonological Similarity and its Effects on Lexical Access

2017-05-30

Abstract
Cognitive mechanisms for sign language lexical access are fairly unknown. This study investigated whether phonological similarity facilitates lexical retrieval in sign languages using measures from a new lexical database for American Sign Language. Additionally, it aimed to determine which similarity metric best fits the present data in order to inform theories of how phonological similarity is constructed within the lexicon and to aid in the operationalization of phonological similarity in sign language. Sign repetition latencies and accuracy were obtained when native signers were asked to reproduce a sign displayed on a computer screen. Results indicated that, as predicted, phonological similarity facilitated repetition latencies and accuracy as long as there were no strict constraints on the type of sublexical features that overlapped. The data converged to suggest that one similarity measure, MaxD, defined as the overlap of any 4 sublexical features, likely best represents mechanisms of phonological similarity in the mental lexicon. Together, these data suggest that lexical access in sign language is facilitated by phonologically similar lexical representations in memory and the optimal operationalization is defined as liberal constraints on overlap of 4 out of 5 sublexical features—similar to the majority of extant definitions in the literature.



Job Satisfaction of Teachers of Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

2017-05-20

Abstract
The pressure that educators are experiencing to educate more students, with more challenges, to higher levels of learning than any time in the past is significantly changing their working conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of a national sample of teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing to ascertain their overall job satisfaction as well as to identify the specific factors that positively and negatively affect their ability to do their jobs well. In addition, responses of different subsets of teachers (e.g., itinerant, elementary, and secondary) were compared. Responses from 495 deaf educators are reported. Collectively, 89% of participants stated that they were satisfied to very satisfied with their overall job. Specific aspects of the job that respondents indicated that they were most satisfied or most dissatisfied with are presented and suggestions for addressing some of the identified challenges as well as recommendations for future research are provided.



Effects of a Picture Racetrack Game on the Expressive Vocabulary of Deaf Preschoolers

2017-05-18

Abstract
This study examined the effects of a picture racetrack game on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of picture labeling for 2 preschool students who are deaf. The game consisted of placing photographs representing individualized target vocabulary around a racetrack board and prompting the participant to sign each photo. A multiple baseline design across picture sets demonstrated that playing the picture racetrack game was functionally related to acquisition of vocabulary to 100% mastery on at least 3 consecutive sessions for each participant. Additionally, both participants maintained most of the vocabulary they acquired for at least 4 weeks after intervention, and they generalized picture labeling to a different presentation mode (i.e., a photo album).



Metaphor Comprehension by Deaf Young Adults

2017-05-10

Abstract
In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and unrelated word pairs) and were asked to perform a semantic judgment task. The word pairs were presented randomly, 1 word at a time, in the center of a computer screen. The reaction times and accuracy rates were collected. The groups of deaf and hearing participants both showed lower correct responses and longer reaction times for the novel metaphors than for the conventional metaphors. The percentages of correct scores on the semantic judgment task did not differ between the groups. However, the reaction times were significantly longer for the novel metaphors in the group of deaf individuals than in the group of hearing individuals. Thus, deaf young adults show the same pattern of metaphor processing as hearing peers, that is, novel metaphors are more difficult to process compared with conventional metaphors. However, processing of novel metaphors by deaf participants is achieved with more effort.



Bilingual/Bicultural Education in Latin America

2017-03-14

de Garcia, Barbara Gerner and Karnopp, Lodenir Becker (2016). Change and Promise: Bilingual Deaf Education and Deaf Culture in Latin America. Gallaudet University Press: Washington, DC, 245 pages. $70.00. Hardback. 978-1-56368-6740.



Building Pathways to the Future

2017-02-23

Luft, P. (2016). Promoting Positive Transition Outcomes. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. 320 pages. Hardcover. $75.00.



Speech Intelligibility and Psychosocial Functioning in Deaf Children and Teens with Cochlear Implants

2017-02-23

Abstract
Deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are at risk for psychosocial adjustment problems, possibly due to delayed speech–language skills. This study investigated associations between a core component of spoken-language ability—speech intelligibility—and the psychosocial development of prelingually deaf CI users. Audio-transcription measures of speech intelligibility and parent reports of psychosocial behaviors were obtained for two age groups (preschool, school-age/teen). CI users in both age groups scored more poorly than typically hearing peers on speech intelligibility and several psychosocial scales. Among preschool CI users, five scales were correlated with speech intelligibility: functional communication, attention problems, atypicality, withdrawal, and adaptability. These scales and four additional scales were correlated with speech intelligibility among school-age/teen CI users: leadership, activities of daily living, anxiety, and depression. Results suggest that speech intelligibility may be an important contributing factor underlying several domains of psychosocial functioning in children and teens with CIs, particularly involving socialization, communication, and emotional adjustment.



Everyday Stressors in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents: The Role of Coping and Pragmatics

2017-02-17

Abstract
The current mixed-methods study examined everyday problems among deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) adolescents across various life domains. To better understand the factors influencing levels of perceived stress, the impact of DHH adolescents’ coping and pragmatic abilities was also examined. Thirty DHH adolescents completed questionnaires about everyday stressors and coping, and 13 of these respondents were interviewed regarding their everyday problems. All participants used spoken language and attended mainstream high schools. Teachers evaluated the pragmatic skills of each participant through a communication assessment tool. The quantitative-based results showed that DHH adolescents perceived greatest stress related to the future, peers, and school, in that order. Considerably less stress was experienced with regard to parents, leisure, and romantic relationships. The qualitative data reflected the context-specific everyday stressors experienced by DHH adolescents and suggested they have been generated by problems related to having a hearing loss, experiences in social interactions, classroom environment, and academic challenges. Importantly, lower pragmatic abilities and increased level of withdrawal coping style were found to be associated with higher perceived stress. The conclusions focused on ways in which schools, teachers, and professionals can implement prevention and intervention efforts to adequately support DHH adolescents in facing everyday challenges.