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Last Build Date: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 10:09:26 GMT

 



Preeclampsia

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 10:03:26 GMT

redirect

New page

#redirect[[Pre-eclampsia]]



Canagliflozin

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 10:01:21 GMT

reduces cardiovascular complications with slight increase in PVD amputations

← Older revision Revision as of 10:01, 17 August 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
{{PharmacologyBox||Invokana®}}
{{PharmacologyBox||Invokana®}}
-
An oral [[:Category:SGLT2 inhibitors|sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor]] used to treat [[type 2 diabetes]]. It is also marketed combined with metformin (vokanamet®).
+
An oral [[:Category:SGLT2 inhibitors|sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor]] used to treat [[type 2 diabetes]]. It is also marketed combined with metformin (vokanamet®). Alone it reduces cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetics at 3.5 years[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=28605608  Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, Erondu N, Shaw W, Law G, Desai M, Matthews DR. Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes. The New England journal of medicine. 2017 Jun.](Print-Electronic) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1611925 Link to article] – subscription may be required.)
==Side-effects==
==Side-effects==
{{:Category:SGLT2 inhibitors/Sideeffects}}
{{:Category:SGLT2 inhibitors/Sideeffects}}
[[Category:SGLT2 inhibitors]]
[[Category:SGLT2 inhibitors]]
{{refsec}}
{{refsec}}



Coronary artery bypass grafting

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 09:56:19 GMT

off-pump CABG inferior

← Older revision Revision as of 09:56, 17 August 2017
Line 4: Line 4:
Commonly referred to as '''CABG''' and pronounced 'cabbage'
Commonly referred to as '''CABG''' and pronounced 'cabbage'
-
A surgical procedure carried out by Cardiac surgeons for patients with [[ischaemic heart disease]] (IHD) in which narrowed coronary blood vessels are bypassed using either a reversed saphenous vein graft (SVG), a left (LIMA) or right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or a radial artery graft.  
+
A surgical procedure carried out by Cardiac surgeons for patients with [[ischaemic heart disease]] (IHD) in which narrowed coronary blood vessels are bypassed using either a reversed saphenous vein graft (SVG), a left (LIMA) or right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or a radial artery graft. On-pump CABG is superior to no-pump CABGERROR: No title found.
==Indications==
==Indications==



Shortage occupation list

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 10:17:00 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 10:17, 15 August 2017 (One intermediate revision not shown)Line 1: Line 1: {{UK|UK specific}} {{UK|UK specific}}  +[[Category:Regulation]]  +[[Category:UK health policy]] [[Category: General practice]] [[Category: General practice]] [[Category: Politics]] [[Category: Politics]] The ''shortage occupation list'' is a list of occupations in which, because there is a shortage of suitably trained and skilled people to undertake the occupation, visa restrictions are reduced, to allow people who would not otherwise be permitted to work in the UK to do so. The ''shortage occupation list'' is a list of occupations in which, because there is a shortage of suitably trained and skilled people to undertake the occupation, visa restrictions are reduced, to allow people who would not otherwise be permitted to work in the UK to do so. {{England & Wales| {{England & Wales| -On 14 August 2017 the list of medical specialties on the shortage occupation list in the UK were as below. (NB Scotland has a separate list.)+On 14 August 2017 the list of medical specialties on the shortage occupation list in the UK were as below. (NB Scotland has a separate list.)}} Consultants in the following specialties:   Consultants in the following specialties:   Line 22: Line 24: Note that, despite a severe recruitment crisis and lobbying by the profession, General Practitioners were not on this list. Note that, despite a severe recruitment crisis and lobbying by the profession, General Practitioners were not on this list. -}}+  -[[Category:Regulation]]+Getting general practice added to the shortage occupation list (SOL) will address the barriers with the resident labour market test – which is an issue for some GP practices trying to recruit.  The second issue is the sponsorship for tier 2 visas.  Even if general practice as a speciality is added to the SOL, sponsorship for the visa is the second hurdle.  For trainees HEE (in England), NES (in Scotland) and NWSSP (in Wales) act as the umbrella sponsorship organisations.  Unfortunately there isn’t one in NI at present for trainees. -[[Category:UK health policy]]+  +For qualified GPs, the list of sponsoring organisations can be accessed [https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/637446/2017-08-14_Tier_2_5_Register_of_Sponsors.pdf here].[https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/637446/2017-08-14_Tier_2_5_Register_of_Sponsors.pdf Home Office.  + REGISTER OF SPONSORS (Tiers 2 & 5 and Sub Tiers Only).  + 2017 (14 August). (Last viewed 14 August.) (https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/637446/2017-08-14_Tier_2_5_Register_of_Sponsors.pdf)]  There isn’t a national solution at present, but the GPC is working with stakeholders to address this.  +  ==External links== ==External links== *[https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list][https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office. Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list 2016 (29 February). Updated 2017 (10 August). Last viewed 15 August 2017. (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office)] *[https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list][https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office. Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list 2016 (29 February). Updated 2017 (10 August). Last viewed 15 August 2017. (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigra[...]



Shortage occupation list

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 09:16:21 GMT

Categorise ← Older revision Revision as of 09:16, 15 August 2017 (One intermediate revision not shown)Line 1: Line 1: -{{stub}}+{{UK|UK specific}} -[[Category: General Practice]]+[[Category: General practice]] -[[Category: Regulations]]+[[Category: Politics]] The ''shortage occupation list'' is a list of occupations in which, because there is a shortage of suitably trained and skilled people to undertake the occupation, visa restrictions are reduced, to allow people who would not otherwise be permitted to work in the UK to do so. The ''shortage occupation list'' is a list of occupations in which, because there is a shortage of suitably trained and skilled people to undertake the occupation, visa restrictions are reduced, to allow people who would not otherwise be permitted to work in the UK to do so. - +{{England & Wales| On 14 August 2017 the list of medical specialties on the shortage occupation list in the UK were as below. (NB Scotland has a separate list.) On 14 August 2017 the list of medical specialties on the shortage occupation list in the UK were as below. (NB Scotland has a separate list.) Line 11: Line 11: *emergency medicine   *emergency medicine   *old age psychiatry   *old age psychiatry   -(CT3 trainee and ST4 to ST7 trainee in emergency medicine  +  -(Core trainee in psychiatry  +Trainees in:  +*CT3 trainee and ST4 to ST7 trainee in emergency medicine    +*Core trainees in psychiatry   Non-consultant, non-training, medical staff posts in the following specialties:   Non-consultant, non-training, medical staff posts in the following specialties:   Line 20: Line 22: Note that, despite a severe recruitment crisis and lobbying by the profession, General Practitioners were not on this list. Note that, despite a severe recruitment crisis and lobbying by the profession, General Practitioners were not on this list. - +}}  +[[Category:Regulation]]  +[[Category:UK health policy]] ==External links== ==External links== *[https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list][https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office. Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list 2016 (29 February). Updated 2017 (10 August). Last viewed 15 August 2017. (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office)] *[https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list][https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office. Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list 2016 (29 February). Updated 2017 (10 August). Last viewed 15 August 2017. (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office)] Line 26: Line 30: {{Refsec}} {{Refsec}}  +{{subjectBox}}  +{{draft}} [...]



Shortage occupation list

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 08:39:49 GMT

Created page with "{{stub}} Category: General Practice Category: Regulations The ''shortage occupation list'' is a list of occupations in which, because there is a shortage of suitably trai..."

New page

{{stub}}
[[Category: General Practice]]
[[Category: Regulations]]
The ''shortage occupation list'' is a list of occupations in which, because there is a shortage of suitably trained and skilled people to undertake the occupation, visa restrictions are reduced, to allow people who would not otherwise be permitted to work in the UK to do so.

On 14 August 2017 the list of medical specialties on the shortage occupation list in the UK were as below. (NB Scotland has a separate list.)

Consultants in the following specialties:

*clinical radiology
*emergency medicine
*old age psychiatry
(CT3 trainee and ST4 to ST7 trainee in emergency medicine
(Core trainee in psychiatry

Non-consultant, non-training, medical staff posts in the following specialties:
*emergency medicine (including specialist doctors working in accident and emergency)
*old age psychiatry
*paediatrics

Note that, despite a severe recruitment crisis and lobbying by the profession, General Practitioners were not on this list.

==External links==
*[https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list][https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office. Immigration Rules Appendix K: shortage occupation list 2016 (29 February). Updated 2017 (10 August). Last viewed 15 August 2017. (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list Home Office)]
*[http://www.nhsemployers.org/your-workforce/recruit/employer-led-recruitment/international-recruitment/shortage-occupation-list NHS Employers page on the shortage occupation list][http://www.nhsemployers.org/your-workforce/recruit/employer-led-recruitment/international-recruitment/shortage-occupation-list NHS Employers. Shortage occupation list. 2017 (04 April). Last viewed 15 August 2017. (http://www.nhsemployers.org/your-workforce/recruit/employer-led-recruitment/international-recruitment/shortage-occupation-list)]

{{Refsec}}



Abbreviations

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 08:19:57 GMT

S:

← Older revision Revision as of 08:19, 15 August 2017
Line 727: Line 727:
*SMC - Scottish Medicines Consortium
*SMC - Scottish Medicines Consortium
*SOB - Short of breath
*SOB - Short of breath
 +
*SOL - [[Shortage occupation list|Shortage Occupation List]]
*SoMe - [[Social Media]]
*SoMe - [[Social Media]]
*SOME - [[Otitis media with effusion|Serous Otitis Media with Effusion]] aka Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) or glue ear
*SOME - [[Otitis media with effusion|Serous Otitis Media with Effusion]] aka Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) or glue ear



HLA

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:59:54 GMT

Redirected page to Major histocompatibility complex

← Older revision Revision as of 20:59, 13 August 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
-
#redirect [[Human lymphocyte antigen]]
+
#redirect[[Major histocompatibility complex]]
 +
[[category:immunology]]
 +
[[category:abbreviations]]



MHC

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:58:52 GMT

Redirected page to Major histocompatibility complex

← Older revision Revision as of 20:58, 13 August 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
-
#REDIRECT[[Human lymphocyte antigen]]
+
#redirect[[Major histocompatibility complex]]
 +
[[category:immunology]]
 +
[[category:abbreviations]]



Human lymphocyte antigen

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:56:48 GMT

Redirect ← Older revision Revision as of 20:56, 13 August 2017 Line 1: Line 1: -[[Category:Immunology]]+#redirect[[Major histocompatibility complex]] -{{draft}}+[[category:immunology]] -Human Lymphocyte Antigens are the product and expression of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in humans.+ - + -Important in organ [[transplantation]], and presumably because of their physical association with other genes with which they have co-evolved some of them also act as markers for increased or decreased susceptibility to assorted diseases, eg [[genetics of diabetes|diabetes mellitus]].+ - + -MHC is also involved in recognition of antigens. MHC proteins on [[Antigen presenting cell|antigen presenting cells (APCs)]] combine with antibodies, and it is this complex of MHC and antigens that is presented to the immune system.+ - + -MHC proteins are genetically determined, and, while there is a wide range of them, the range is limited, which goes some way to explaining why some individuals are unable to generate an immune response to certain [[Antigen|antigens]]. This may be significant in [[vaccination]].+ [...]



Major histocompatibility complex

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:56:04 GMT

Detail ← Older revision Revision as of 20:56, 13 August 2017 Line 2: Line 2: The major histocompatibility complex is the set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates. The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. The major histocompatibility complex is the set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates. The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. [[category:immunology]] [[category:immunology]]  +  +Human lymphocyte antigens are important in organ [[transplantation]], and presumably because of their physical association with other genes with which they have co-evolved some of them also act as markers for increased or decreased susceptibility to assorted diseases, eg [[genetics of diabetes|diabetes mellitus]].  +  +The MHC is also involved in recognition of antigens. MHC proteins on [[Antigen presenting cell|antigen presenting cells (APCs)]] combine with antibodies, and it is this complex of MHC and antigens that is presented to the immune system.  +  +MHC proteins are genetically determined, and, while there is a wide range of them, the range is limited, which goes some way to explaining why some individuals are unable to generate an immune response to certain [[Antigen|antigens]]. This may be significant in [[vaccination]].  +{{draft}} [...]



Human leukocyte antigen complex

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:52:15 GMT

Redirect

New page

#redirect[[Major histocompatibility complex]]
[[category:immunology]]



Major histocompatibility complex

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:50:12 GMT

Created page with "{{biochemistryBox|||MHC}} The major histocompatibility complex is the set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vert..."

New page

{{biochemistryBox|||MHC}}
The major histocompatibility complex is the set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates. The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex.
[[category:immunology]]



KITE-718

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:41:23 GMT

More immunotherapy

New page

{{PharmacologyBox}}
KITE-718 is a [[:Category:TCR cell therapies|T-cell receptor cell therapy]] in development to target various solid tumours. It targets the MAGE A3/A6 antigen expressed in non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer and head and neck cancer.

[[Category:TCR cell therapies]]



Category:TCR cell therapies

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:34:21 GMT

Typo

← Older revision Revision as of 20:34, 13 August 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
-
T-cell receptor (TCR) cell therapy is an immunotherapy approach that unlike [[:Category:CAR-T cell therapies|CAR T cells]] that recognize proteins expressed on the surface, it can recognize tumor-specific proteins on the inside of cells. When tumour-specific proteins are broken into fragments, they show up on the cell surface associated with the [[major histocompatibility complex]] (MHC). TCRs are engineered to recognize a tumour-specific protein fragment/MHC combination.
+
T-cell receptor (TCR) cell therapy is an immunotherapy approach that unlike [[:Category:CAR-T cell therapies|CAR T cells]] that recognize proteins expressed on the surface, it can recognize tumour-specific proteins on the inside of cells. When tumour-specific proteins are broken into fragments, they show up on the cell surface associated with the [[major histocompatibility complex]] (MHC). TCRs are engineered to recognize a tumour-specific protein fragment/MHC combination.
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
[[category:Biologics]]
[[category:Biologics]]



Category:CAR-T cell therapies

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:33:23 GMT

Def

← Older revision Revision as of 20:33, 13 August 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Category:Biologics]]
[[Category:Biologics]]
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
 +
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an immunotherapy approach that primes [[T-cell]] clones to recognise proteins expressed on the cell surface associated with particular tumours. Such cells are then targeted for destruction by the activated immune system.



Category:TCR cell therapies

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:26:33 GMT

New category

New page

T-cell receptor (TCR) cell therapy is an immunotherapy approach that unlike [[:Category:CAR-T cell therapies|CAR T cells]] that recognize proteins expressed on the surface, it can recognize tumor-specific proteins on the inside of cells. When tumour-specific proteins are broken into fragments, they show up on the cell surface associated with the [[major histocompatibility complex]] (MHC). TCRs are engineered to recognize a tumour-specific protein fragment/MHC combination.

[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
[[category:Biologics]]



Axicabtagene ciloleucel

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 20:09:04 GMT

Update

← Older revision Revision as of 20:09, 13 August 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
-
{{PharmacologyBox||KTE-C19}}
+
{{PharmacologyBox||KTE-C19, axi-cel ®}}
-
[[Axicabtagene ciloleucel]] is chimeric antigen receptor [[T-cell]] immunotherapy (CAR-T cell therapy)  preparation of autologous [[T cell]]s genetically modified to express a [[Wikipedia:chimeric antigen receptor|chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)]] targeting [[CD19]]. The product is in development to treat adult pationsatients with [[diffuse large B cell lymphoma]] (DLBCL), primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) and transformed [[follicular lymphoma]] (TFL)[http://ir.kitepharma.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=1014817 Kite Pharma, Inc Press release 28 Feb 2017]. It is a member of the [[EMEA]]'s PRIority MEdicines ([[PRIME scheme|PRIME]]) scheme for breakthrough therapies.
+
[[Axicabtagene ciloleucel]] is chimeric antigen receptor [[T-cell]] immunotherapy (CAR-T cell therapy)  preparation of autologous [[T cell]]s genetically modified to express a [[Wikipedia:chimeric antigen receptor|chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)]] targeting [[CD19]]. The product is in development to treat adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), [[diffuse large B cell lymphoma]] (DLBCL), primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), transformed [[follicular lymphoma]] (TFL)[http://ir.kitepharma.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=1014817 Kite Pharma, Inc Press release 28 Feb 2017], [[chronic lymphocytic leukaemia]] and [[acute lymphoblastic leukaemia]] (ALL)[http://ir.kitepharma.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=1036453 Press release Kite Pharma 8 August 2017]. It is a member of the [[EMEA]]'s PRIority MEdicines ([[PRIME scheme|PRIME]]) scheme for breakthrough therapies.
[[Category:Biologics]]
[[Category:Biologics]]
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]



KITE-585

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 19:36:20 GMT

Another CART in development

New page

{{pharmacologyBox}}
KITE-585 is a a chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T cell therapy) in development for [[multiple myeloma]]. It targets [[tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17]].
[[Category:Biologics]]
[[Category:Immunotherapy]]
[[Category:CAR-T cell therapies]]



CD269

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 19:30:04 GMT

Redirect

New page

#redirect[[Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17]]
[[category:receptor proteins]]
[[category:clusters of differentiation]]



B-cell maturation protein

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 19:28:40 GMT

Redirect

New page

#redirect[[Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17]]
[[category:receptor proteins]]



TNFRSF17

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 19:26:32 GMT

Subclude

New page

{{geneticsBox|||BCM, BCMA}}
[[category:genes]]
{{:Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17}}



Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 19:22:55 GMT

what you learn on walks up Mt Victoria

New page


{{BiochemistryBox|||Tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17, [[B-cell maturation protein]], [[CD269]]}}
[[category:receptor proteins]]
[[category:membrane proteins]]

The [[TNFRSF17]] gene at 16p13.13 codes for the 184 amino acid [[tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17]]. This is a receptor for [[Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B|B-cell activating factor]] and [[TNFSF13/APRIL]]. It promotes B-cell survival and plays a role in the regulation of humoral immunity. It is excessively expressed on [[multiple myeloma]] clones. Accordingly it is being targeted as an immunotherapy possibility through products such as [[KITE-585]].



TNFRSF17/BCMA

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 19:04:14 GMT

Redirect

New page

#redirect[[Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17]]



Oestradiol

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:37:37 GMT

Redirect

New page

#redirect[[estradiol]]



Puberty

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:34:08 GMT

Obesity ← Older revision Revision as of 08:34, 13 August 2017 Line 3: Line 3: ==Process== ==Process== ===Hormonal Changes=== ===Hormonal Changes=== -#Onset requires ↑ in pulsatile release [[GnRH]] from the [[arcuate nucleus]] of the [[pituitary]].+#Onset requires ↑ in pulsatile release [[GnRH]] from the [[arcuate nucleus]] of the [[pituitary]] which requires in turn adequate thyroid function. **[[Kisspeptin]]-[[GRP54]] signaling complex involved in this activation **[[Kisspeptin]]-[[GRP54]] signaling complex involved in this activation **[[Leptin]] appears to have permissive role **[[Leptin]] appears to have permissive role Line 17: Line 17: **Testosterone results in [[virilization]] **Testosterone results in [[virilization]] ===Females=== ===Females=== -*Ultimately mediated through ↑ [[estradiol]].+*Ultimately mediated through ↑ [[oestradiol]]. *[[Oestradiol]] promotes: *[[Oestradiol]] promotes: **[[Breast]] growth **[[Breast]] growth Line 73: Line 73: #Genetic #Genetic #Nutrition #Nutrition  +#* starvation generally delays puberty  +#* childhood obesity brings forward female puberty and delays male puberty[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=20802107  Burt Solorzano CM, McCartney CR. Obesity and the pubertal transition in girls and boys. Reproduction (Cambridge, England). 2010 Sep; 140(3):399-410.](Print) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/rep-10-0119 Link to article] – subscription may be required.) #Physical activity and exercise (delays) #Physical activity and exercise (delays) -#Chronic illness+#Chronic illness (delays) #Environmental chemicals (rarely important unless high exposures) #Environmental chemicals (rarely important unless high exposures) #*Pharmaceutical sex steroids used by adults in home #*Pharmaceutical sex steroids used by adults in home [...]



Delayed puberty

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:20:35 GMT

Categorise

New page

Constitutional delay in [[puberty]] (Pubertas tarda) is defined as the spontaneous onset of puberty occurring more than two standard deviations later than normal mean age of onset—or, alternatively, later than the 97th percentiles. It can have psychological and social implications. Pathological causes of delay in puberty are those that create [[hypogonadotropic hypogonadism]] and tend therefore to be permanent. A suspected diagnosis of constitutional delay of growth and puberty can be definitively confirmed only when puberty and the pubertal growth spurt finally do occur spontaneously, more than two standard deviations later than the normal mean age.
[[category:paediatrics]]
[[category:reproductive medicine]]



Puberty

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 07:58:53 GMT

typos ← Older revision Revision as of 07:58, 13 August 2017 Line 10: Line 10: #*Ovaries produce  more [[estradiol]] than [[testosterone]]. #*Ovaries produce  more [[estradiol]] than [[testosterone]]. #*Testicles produce more [[testosterone]] than [[estradiol]] #*Testicles produce more [[testosterone]] than [[estradiol]] -#[[Oestradiol]] and [[testosterone]] produce the body changes of puberty acting through the [[oestrogen receptor]]s and [[androgen receptor]]..+#[[Oestradiol]] and [[testosterone]] produce the body changes of puberty acting through the [[oestrogen receptor]]s and [[androgen receptor]]. *Supplemented by [[adrenarche]] which has usually occurred a few years before and has increased adrenal secretion of steroid sex hormones. *Supplemented by [[adrenarche]] which has usually occurred a few years before and has increased adrenal secretion of steroid sex hormones. #[[Insulin-like growth factor-1|IGF1]] is a key mediator of induced growth spurt #[[Insulin-like growth factor-1|IGF1]] is a key mediator of induced growth spurt ===Males=== ===Males=== -*Ultimately mediated through ↑ [[testesterone]] and later and slower raise than in females of [[estradiol]]  +*Ultimately mediated through ↑ [[testosterone]] and later and slower raise than in females of [[oestradiol]]   **Testosterone results in [[virilization]] **Testosterone results in [[virilization]] ===Females=== ===Females=== *Ultimately mediated through ↑ [[estradiol]]. *Ultimately mediated through ↑ [[estradiol]]. -*[[Estradiol]] promotes:+*[[Oestradiol]] promotes: **[[Breast]] growth **[[Breast]] growth **[[Uterus]] growth **[[Uterus]] growth Line 56: Line 56: ***Genital hair development ***Genital hair development **Androgenic hair follows in this approximate order: **Androgenic hair follows in this approximate order: -***Axillary) hair+***Axillary hair ***Perianal hair ***Perianal hair ***Upper lip hair ***Upper lip hair Line 90: Line 90: [[category:gynaecology]][[Category:General practice]][[Category:Family planning]] [[category:gynaecology]][[Category:General practice]][[Category:Family planning]] {{draft}} {{draft}}  +{{refsec}} [...]



Precocious puberty

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 07:32:52 GMT

Subclude

← Older revision Revision as of 07:32, 13 August 2017
Line 15: Line 15:
Secretion of sex steroids from abnormal sources.
Secretion of sex steroids from abnormal sources.
*In females, certain ovarian tumours can secrete oestrogen, e.g. [[granulosa cell tumour]]
*In females, certain ovarian tumours can secrete oestrogen, e.g. [[granulosa cell tumour]]
-
 
+
{{refsec}}
{{refsec}}
-
{{stub}}
+
-
 
+
[[Category:Paediatrics]]
[[Category:Paediatrics]]
[[Category:Reproductive medicine]]
[[Category:Reproductive medicine]]



Puberty

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 06:46:44 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 06:46, 13 August 2017 Line 6: Line 6: **[[Kisspeptin]]-[[GRP54]] signaling complex involved in this activation **[[Kisspeptin]]-[[GRP54]] signaling complex involved in this activation **[[Leptin]] appears to have permissive role **[[Leptin]] appears to have permissive role -#Anterior pituitary responds by secreting pulsitile [[Lutanising hormone|LH]] and [[FSH]].+#Anterior pituitary responds by secreting pulsitile [[Luteinizing hormone|LH]] and [[FSH]]. #[[Ovary|Ovaries]] or [[testis|testes]] grow #[[Ovary|Ovaries]] or [[testis|testes]] grow #*Ovaries produce  more [[estradiol]] than [[testosterone]]. #*Ovaries produce  more [[estradiol]] than [[testosterone]]. #*Testicles produce more [[testosterone]] than [[estradiol]] #*Testicles produce more [[testosterone]] than [[estradiol]] -#[[Estradiol]] and [[testosterone]] produce the body changes of puberty.  +#[[Oestradiol]] and [[testosterone]] produce the body changes of puberty acting through the [[oestrogen receptor]]s and [[androgen receptor]].. *Supplemented by [[adrenarche]] which has usually occurred a few years before and has increased adrenal secretion of steroid sex hormones. *Supplemented by [[adrenarche]] which has usually occurred a few years before and has increased adrenal secretion of steroid sex hormones. #[[Insulin-like growth factor-1|IGF1]] is a key mediator of induced growth spurt #[[Insulin-like growth factor-1|IGF1]] is a key mediator of induced growth spurt [...]



Oestrogen resistance

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 06:39:20 GMT

Subclude

New page

{{geneticsBox}}
{{:Oestrogen receptor}}
[[category:genetic syndromes]]



Oestrogen receptor

Sun, 13 Aug 2017 06:36:09 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 06:36, 13 August 2017 (One intermediate revision not shown)Line 1: Line 1: -{{biochemistryBox|||Estrogen receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, estradiol receptor, oestradiol receptor, ER, ER-alpha}}  +{{biochemistryBox|||Estrogen receptor, oestrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, estradiol receptor, oestradiol receptor, ER, ER-alpha}}   [[category:membrane proteins]] [[category:membrane proteins]] [[category:receptor proteins]] [[category:receptor proteins]] Line 5: Line 5: [[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]] [[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]] -The [[ESR1]] gene at 6q25.1-q25.2 codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and its various and complex interactions are well characterised.+The [[ESR1]] gene at 6q25.1-q25.2 codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] (ER) whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and these various and complex interactions are well characterised. Like other steroid receptors it is involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. -Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the [[puberty|pubertal]] growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused [[epiphyses]], with [[osteoporosis]]. [[Glucose intolerance]], hyperinsulinemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur.+The ER has three domains:  +# a modulating N-terminal domain  +#* called the A/B or AF-1 domain  +#* ligand-independent transactivation function  +#* provides the major transactivation function in differentiated cells  +# a DNA-binding domain  +# a C-terminal ligand-binding domain.  +#* called the E/F or AF-2 domain  +#* ligand-dependent transactivation domain  +   +Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the [[puberty|pubertal]] growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused epiphyses, with [[osteoporosis]]. Glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinaemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur. -==Significance in Breast Cancer==+==Significance in breast cancer== The protein expression of ER-α can be assessed using immunohistochemistry. The intensity of staining and the proportion of tumour cells staining pos[...]



Oestrogen receptor beta

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 22:36:38 GMT

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{{BiochemistryBox|||ER-beta, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 2}}
[[category:oestrogen receptors]]
[[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]]
[[category:receptor proteins]]
{{:ESR2}}



Oestrogen receptor

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 21:05:27 GMT

Categorise ← Older revision Revision as of 21:05, 12 August 2017 Line 2: Line 2: [[category:membrane proteins]] [[category:membrane proteins]] [[category:receptor proteins]] [[category:receptor proteins]]  +[[category:oestrogen receptors]]  +[[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]] -The [[ESR1]] gene codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and its various and complex interactions are well characterised.+The [[ESR1]] gene at 6q25.1-q25.2 codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and its various and complex interactions are well characterised. Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the [[puberty|pubertal]] growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused [[epiphyses]], with [[osteoporosis]]. [[Glucose intolerance]], hyperinsulinemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur. Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the [[puberty|pubertal]] growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused [[epiphyses]], with [[osteoporosis]]. [[Glucose intolerance]], hyperinsulinemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur. [...]



Category:Nuclear receptor transcription factors

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 21:01:40 GMT

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[[category:transcription factors]]



Category:Oestrogen receptors

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 21:00:42 GMT

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[[category:receptor proteins]]
[[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]]



Estrogen receptor

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 20:58:20 GMT

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#redirect[[oestrogen receptor]]
[[category:oestrogen receptors]]
[[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]]



Oestrogen receptor alpha

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 20:55:54 GMT

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#redirect[[oestrogen receptor]]
[[category:oestrogen receptors]]
[[category: nuclear receptor transcription factors]]



ESR2

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 20:52:04 GMT

Gene

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{{geneticsBox|||ESTRB, NR3A2}}
[[category:genes]]

The [[ESR2]] gene at 14q23.2-q23.3 codes for the 530 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor beta]]. It can form heterodimers with [[oestrogen receptor alpha]] and is also a member of the family of oestrogen receptors which are nuclear receptor transcription factors. The peptide contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or other [[oestogen]]s the protein dimers interact with specific DNA sequences to activate [[transcription]]. Some of the six isoforms, such as isoform 2 dominantly inhibit the DNA binding of [[oestrogen receptor alpha]] when combined in a heterodimer with it. These alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have differential tissue expression.



Oestrogen receptor

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 20:15:21 GMT

role in breast cancer ← Older revision Revision as of 20:15, 12 August 2017 Line 4: Line 4: The [[ESR1]] gene codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and its various and complex interactions are well characterised. The [[ESR1]] gene codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and its various and complex interactions are well characterised. -Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the pubertal growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused epiphyses, with [[osteoporosis]]. Glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur.+   +Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the [[puberty|pubertal]] growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused [[epiphyses]], with [[osteoporosis]]. [[Glucose intolerance]], hyperinsulinemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur.  +   +  +==Significance in Breast Cancer==  +The protein expression of ER-α can be assessed using immunohistochemistry. The intensity of staining and the proportion of tumour cells staining positive is typically assessed using the Allred score (also known a the quick/Quick score). For more nuanced measurements, the more time-consuming [[H-score]] is used. About 75% of breast cancers are ER+, which respond to hormonal blockade either with oestrogen antagonists (e.g. [[tamoxifen]]), but also with aromatase inhibitors (e.g. [[anastrazole]] or [[letrozole]])), the latter more important in post-menopausal women where a significant about of oestrogen is produced by adipose tissue. [...]



Oestrogen receptor

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 10:45:01 GMT

ESR2 ← Older revision Revision as of 10:45, 12 August 2017 (One intermediate revision not shown)Line 1: Line 1: -{{biochemistryBox|||Estrogen receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, estradiol receptor, oestradiol receptor, ER, ER-alpha}}+{{biochemistryBox|||Estrogen receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, estradiol receptor, oestradiol receptor, ER, ER-alpha}}   -The [[ESR1]] gene codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site.+ -[[category:receptor proteins]]+ [[category:membrane proteins]] [[category:membrane proteins]]  +[[category:receptor proteins]]  +  +The [[ESR1]] gene codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site that is very similar to [[oestrogen receptor beta]] coded by the [[ESR2]] gene with which it can form heterodimers. There are several isoforms and its various and complex interactions are well characterised.  +Mutations in the gene cause [[oestrogen resistance]] (estrogen resistance , ESTRR, {{OMIM|615363}}) with absence of the pubertal growth spurt but continued growth into adulthood and very tall adult stature. There is delayed bone maturation and unfused epiphyses, with [[osteoporosis]]. Glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and lipid abnormalities can also occur. [...]



ESR1

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 10:25:41 GMT

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{{geneticsBox|||ESR, NR3A1}}
{{:Oestrogen receptor}}
[[category:genes]]



Oestrogen receptor

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 10:21:16 GMT

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{{biochemistryBox|||Estrogen receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, estradiol receptor, oestradiol receptor, ER, ER-alpha}}
The [[ESR1]] gene codes for the 595 amino acid [[oestrogen receptor]] whose ligand is [[oestrogen]]. This is a nuclear hormone receptor with a [[DNA]] binding site.
[[category:receptor proteins]]
[[category:membrane proteins]]



Her2

Sat, 12 Aug 2017 10:04:50 GMT

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#redirect[[Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2]]