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Medical trade unions

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 11:35:56 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 11:35, 19 October 2017
(One intermediate revision not shown)
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{{UK|
{{UK|
*[[British Medical Association]]
*[[British Medical Association]]
-
*[http://www.hcsa.com/ Hospital Consultants & Specialists Association (HCSA)]}}
+
*[http://www.hcsa.com/ Hospital Consultants & Specialists Association (HCSA)]
 +
*[http://www.unitetheunion.org/how-we-help/list-of-sectors/healthsector/healthsectoryourprofession/mpumedicalpractitionersunion/ Doctors in Unite aka Medical Practitioners Union]
 +
 
 +
(It is perfectly possible and acceptable to be a member of more than one trade union - many Doctors in Unite members are also BMA members, for example.)}}
{{Australia|
{{Australia|
*[https://ama.com.au/ Australian Medical Association]
*[https://ama.com.au/ Australian Medical Association]



Violence and intimidation

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 11:29:42 GMT

Created page with "{{stub}} Sometimes patients or members of the public in a healthcare setting may be violent or intimidating towards doctors and other healthcare staff. ==Employer's duty of care..."

New page

{{stub}}
Sometimes patients or members of the public in a healthcare setting may be violent or intimidating towards doctors and other healthcare staff.

==Employer's duty of care to staff==
Employers' have a duty of care to protect their staff.

It may not be possible to prevent all instances of violence and intimidation towards healthcare staff, but there may be measures that can be taken to ensure that staff know what to do if a patient or member of the public is violent or intimidating, and to support them following any incident when this occurs.

==External links==
*[http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg69.pdf Violence at work: A guide for employers] and [http://www.hse.gov.uk/violence/preventing-workplace-harassment.pdf Preventing workplace harrassment and violence - from the [[Health and Safety Executive]] web site.
*[https://www.unison.org.uk/content/uploads/2013/06/Best-Practice-and-ProceduresDuty-of-Care-handbook-20113.pdf Duty of care handbook for members working in health and social care] from the Trade Union, [https://www.unison.org.uk/ Unison].



Information about GP practices

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 11:19:29 GMT

Policies that might be covered in a practice leaflet and web site:

← Older revision Revision as of 11:19, 19 October 2017
Line 34: Line 34:
: *medicals "required" by others in order for patients to undertake activities (performing, driving, parachuting, diving, and so on) are private work.  
: *medicals "required" by others in order for patients to undertake activities (performing, driving, parachuting, diving, and so on) are private work.  
:*The practice leaflet and website should state the practice policy on performing such medicals; and emphasise that patients booking appointments for such purposes will be charged even if it is practice policy not to do the work (and therefore the appointment amounts to a request being made and denied) - unless they had told the receptionist the purpose of the appointment and they had not been advised that the appointment would be private and chargeable.
:*The practice leaflet and website should state the practice policy on performing such medicals; and emphasise that patients booking appointments for such purposes will be charged even if it is practice policy not to do the work (and therefore the appointment amounts to a request being made and denied) - unless they had told the receptionist the purpose of the appointment and they had not been advised that the appointment would be private and chargeable.
-
*Violence, intimidation, and defamation
+
*[[Violence and intimidation|Violence, intimidation]], and defamation
*Situations in which a patient might be removed from the practice list, and the process, including e.g.:
*Situations in which a patient might be removed from the practice list, and the process, including e.g.:
:*When patients move away
:*When patients move away



Motor neurone disease

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 09:15:12 GMT

Classification:

← Older revision Revision as of 09:15, 19 October 2017
Line 25: Line 25:
==Classification==
==Classification==
-
Three main types exist, depending on the motor neurone type affected:
+
Three main types exist, depending on the [[motor neurone]] type affected:
*Upper motor neurone - Primary Lateral Sclerosis (very rare - 0.01 per 100,000)
*Upper motor neurone - Primary Lateral Sclerosis (very rare - 0.01 per 100,000)
*Lower motor neurone - Progressive Muscle Atrophy, and Spinal Muscle Atrophy
*Lower motor neurone - Progressive Muscle Atrophy, and Spinal Muscle Atrophy



Motor neurone

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 09:14:02 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 09:14, 19 October 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
{{subjectBox}}
{{subjectBox}}
[[category:cells]]
[[category:cells]]
 +
(NB - for Motor Neurone Disease, see [[Motor neurone disease]].)
 +
A motor neurone (motor neuron, motorneuron, usually means [[lower motor neurone]]) is an efferent [[CNS]] neuron that innervates muscles and glands with muscles and controls their contractions. Their cell body is classically located in the [[spinal cord]] and the [[axon]] projects outside the spinal cord. However [[upper motor neurone]]s of the cortex control the lower motor neurons and in the case of the  [[facial nerve]] directly innervate some (facial) muscle.  Human motor neurons use [[acetylcholine]] as their neurotransmitter. Subtypes of motor neurones include:
A motor neurone (motor neuron, motorneuron, usually means [[lower motor neurone]]) is an efferent [[CNS]] neuron that innervates muscles and glands with muscles and controls their contractions. Their cell body is classically located in the [[spinal cord]] and the [[axon]] projects outside the spinal cord. However [[upper motor neurone]]s of the cortex control the lower motor neurons and in the case of the  [[facial nerve]] directly innervate some (facial) muscle.  Human motor neurons use [[acetylcholine]] as their neurotransmitter. Subtypes of motor neurones include:
# Alpha motor neurones (ventral horn cells)
# Alpha motor neurones (ventral horn cells)



Sedation

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 09:09:39 GMT

Applications: Link to pdf changed to link to RCR website with information about guidance and link to full pdf

← Older revision Revision as of 09:09, 19 October 2017
Line 18: Line 18:
===Applications===
===Applications===
*[[Endoscopy]] - see [[NCEPOD]] recommendations[http://www.ncepod.org.uk/2004report/sedation.htm NCEPOD 2004 Sedation section in ''Scoping Our Practice'' Report''] and also BSG recommendations [http://www.bsg.org.uk/clinical_prac/guidelines/sedation.htm Safety and sedation during endoscopic procedures. British Society of Gastroenterology, 2003.].
*[[Endoscopy]] - see [[NCEPOD]] recommendations[http://www.ncepod.org.uk/2004report/sedation.htm NCEPOD 2004 Sedation section in ''Scoping Our Practice'' Report''] and also BSG recommendations [http://www.bsg.org.uk/clinical_prac/guidelines/sedation.htm Safety and sedation during endoscopic procedures. British Society of Gastroenterology, 2003.].
-
*Other medical imaging procedures - see [[Royal College of Radiologists]] guidelines.[https://www.rcr.ac.uk/system/files/publication/field_publication_files/Safe_Sedation.pdf Royal College of Radiologists. Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department. 2003 (September).]
+
*Other medical imaging procedures - see [[Royal College of Radiologists]] guidelines.[https://www.rcr.ac.uk/publication/safe-sedation-analgesia-and-anaesthesia-within-radiology-department Royal College of Radiologists. Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department. 2003 (September).]
*Orthopaedic reductions, e.g. fractures or dislocations
*Orthopaedic reductions, e.g. fractures or dislocations
*Adjunct to local anaesthetic procedures, e.g. anxious patients undergoing local anaesthetic hernia repair
*Adjunct to local anaesthetic procedures, e.g. anxious patients undergoing local anaesthetic hernia repair



Royal College of Radiologists

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 09:08:56 GMT

Link to pdf changed to page at RCR website with link to the pdf.

← Older revision Revision as of 09:08, 19 October 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
{{stub}}
{{stub}}
[https://www.rcr.ac.uk Royal College of Radiologists website]
[https://www.rcr.ac.uk Royal College of Radiologists website]
-
NB - see Royal College of Radiologists statement on ''Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department''.[https://www.rcr.ac.uk/system/files/publication/field_publication_files/Safe_Sedation.pdf Royal College of Radiologists. Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department. 2003 (September).]
+
NB - see Royal College of Radiologists statement on ''Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department''.[https://www.rcr.ac.uk/publication/safe-sedation-analgesia-and-anaesthesia-within-radiology-department Royal College of Radiologists. Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department. 2003 (September).]
{{Refsec}}
{{Refsec}}



Sedation

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 08:54:04 GMT

Applications:

← Older revision Revision as of 08:54, 19 October 2017
Line 18: Line 18:
===Applications===
===Applications===
*[[Endoscopy]] - see [[NCEPOD]] recommendations[http://www.ncepod.org.uk/2004report/sedation.htm NCEPOD 2004 Sedation section in ''Scoping Our Practice'' Report''] and also BSG recommendations [http://www.bsg.org.uk/clinical_prac/guidelines/sedation.htm Safety and sedation during endoscopic procedures. British Society of Gastroenterology, 2003.].
*[[Endoscopy]] - see [[NCEPOD]] recommendations[http://www.ncepod.org.uk/2004report/sedation.htm NCEPOD 2004 Sedation section in ''Scoping Our Practice'' Report''] and also BSG recommendations [http://www.bsg.org.uk/clinical_prac/guidelines/sedation.htm Safety and sedation during endoscopic procedures. British Society of Gastroenterology, 2003.].
 +
*Other medical imaging procedures - see [[Royal College of Radiologists]] guidelines.[https://www.rcr.ac.uk/system/files/publication/field_publication_files/Safe_Sedation.pdf Royal College of Radiologists. Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department. 2003 (September).]
*Orthopaedic reductions, e.g. fractures or dislocations
*Orthopaedic reductions, e.g. fractures or dislocations
*Adjunct to local anaesthetic procedures, e.g. anxious patients undergoing local anaesthetic hernia repair
*Adjunct to local anaesthetic procedures, e.g. anxious patients undergoing local anaesthetic hernia repair



Royal College of Radiologists

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 08:53:48 GMT

Created page with "{{stub}} [https://www.rcr.ac.uk Royal College of Radiologists website] NB - see Royal College of Radiologists statement on ''Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the r..."

New page

{{stub}}
[https://www.rcr.ac.uk Royal College of Radiologists website]
NB - see Royal College of Radiologists statement on ''Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department''.[https://www.rcr.ac.uk/system/files/publication/field_publication_files/Safe_Sedation.pdf Royal College of Radiologists. Safe sedation, analgesia and anaesthesia within the radiology department. 2003 (September).]

{{Refsec}}



Inflammatory bowel disease

Wed, 18 Oct 2017 21:25:55 GMT

epidemiology ← Older revision Revision as of 21:25, 18 October 2017 Line 1: Line 1: {{SubjectBox||[[ICD-10 - K50-K52|K50-52]]}} {{SubjectBox||[[ICD-10 - K50-K52|K50-52]]}} -Inflammatory bowel disease is the general term given to [[Crohn's disease]] and [[ulcerative colitis]]. In some cases despite many tests it can be hard to differentiate the two and the general term IBD may be given. Other non infective toxic and radiation induced bowel inflammation may be considered by some under this vague term. Not to be confused with [[irritable bowel syndrome]] which is quite a different condition. Management involves referral to a [[Gastroenterologist]].+Inflammatory bowel disease is the general term given to [[Crohn's disease]] (first described [[1932]]Crohn, BB, Ginzburg, L, and Oppenheimer, GD. Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity. JAMA. 1932; 99: 1323–1329) and [[ulcerative colitis]] (first described in [[1875]]Wilks, S and Moxon, W. Lectures on pathological anatomy. 2nd edn. J&A Churchill, London; 1875). In some cases despite many tests it can be hard to differentiate the two and the general term IBD may be given. Other non infective toxic and radiation induced bowel inflammation may be considered by some under this vague term. Not to be confused with [[irritable bowel syndrome]] which is quite a different condition. Management involves referral to a [[Gastroenterologist]].  +==Epidemiology==  +The incidence of [[inflammatory bowel disease]] is strongly associated with socioeconomic development[http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32448-0/fulltext Ng SC, Shi HY, Hamidi N et al. Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies Lancet 2017]DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32448-0 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32448-0].  +By the early 21st century prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in many Western nations was more than 0·3% but since [[1990]] the rate appears to be declining perhaps because of less tobacco [[smoking]].  +  +See articles on [[Crohn's disease]] and [[ulcerative colitis]] for their slightly different aetiologies (as we presently understand). [[Category: Gastroenterology]] [[Category: Gastroenterology]] [[Category: General surgery]] [[Category: General surgery]]  +{{refsec}} [...]



Ulcerative colitis

Wed, 18 Oct 2017 21:23:17 GMT

History

← Older revision Revision as of 21:23, 18 October 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
{{SubjectBox||[[ICD-10 - K50-K52|K51]]}}
{{SubjectBox||[[ICD-10 - K50-K52|K51]]}}
==Contents==
==Contents==
-
A chronic inflammatory condition of the [[colon]]. Often starts distally and spreads proximally.
+
A chronic inflammatory condition of the [[colon]]. Often starts distally and spreads proximally.
 +
===History===
 +
First described in [[1875]]Wilks, S and Moxon, W. Lectures on pathological anatomy. 2nd edn. J&A Churchill, London; 1875.
===Aetiology===
===Aetiology===



Crohn's disease

Wed, 18 Oct 2017 21:22:21 GMT

reference

← Older revision Revision as of 21:22, 18 October 2017
Line 4: Line 4:
==History==
==History==
-
First described in [[1932]] by [[Burrill Bernard Crohn]], [[Leon Ginzberg]] and [[Gordon D. Oppenheimer]]; who published a series of fourteen cases of "Terminal Ileitis: A new clinical entity". It later became known as '''Regional Enteritis''' and acquired the Crohn's appellation.
+
First described in [[1932]] by [[Burrill Bernard Crohn]], [[Leon Ginzberg]] and [[Gordon D. Oppenheimer]]; who published a series of fourteen cases of "Terminal Ileitis: A new clinical entity"Crohn, BB, Ginzburg, L, and Oppenheimer, GD. Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity. JAMA. 1932; 99: 1323–1329. It later became known as '''Regional Enteritis''' and acquired the Crohn's appellation.
==Aetiology==
==Aetiology==



Tofacitinib

Wed, 18 Oct 2017 21:01:25 GMT

update ← Older revision Revision as of 21:01, 18 October 2017 Line 2: Line 2: [[Category:medicines]] [[Category:medicines]] ==Introduction== ==Introduction== -A small molecule oral JAK1/3 inhibitor being developed for the indications of [[rheumatoid arthritis]][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=24453498  Cutolo M, Meroni M. Clinical utility of the oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of inflammation research. 2013 Nov 15; 6:129-137.](Epub) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S35901 Link to article] – subscription may be required.), [[inflammatory bowel disease]] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=24480677  Sandborn WJ, Ghosh S, Panes J, Vranic I, Wang W, Niezychowski W. A Phase 2 Study of Tofacitinib, an Oral Janus Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients with Crohn's Disease. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2014 Jan 27.](Epub ahead of print) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2014.01.029 Link to article] – subscription may be required.),[[psoriasis]][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=23855761  Strober B, Buonanno M, Clark JD, Kawabata T, Tan H, Wolk R, Valdez H, Langley RG, Harness J, Menter A, Papp K. Effect of tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, on haematological parameters during 12 weeks of psoriasis treatment. The British journal of dermatology. 2013 Nov; 169(5):992-9.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.12517 Link to article] – subscription may be required.), organ transplantation[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=23841583  Wojciechowski D, Vincenti F. Tofacitinib in kidney transplantation. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 2013 Sep; 22(9):1193-9.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/13543784.2013.811231 Link to article] – subscription may be required.) and [[HIV]] infection[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=24419350  Gavegnano C, Detorio M, Montero C, Bosque A, Planelles V, Schinazi RF. Ruxolitinib and Tofacitinib are Potent and Selective Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication and Virus Reactivation in Vitro. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2014 Jan 13.](Epub ahead of print) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02496-13 Link to article] – subscription may be required.).  +A small molecule oral JAK1/3 inhibitor licensed in [[rheumatoid arthritis]][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=24453498  Cutolo M, Meroni M. Clinical utility of the oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of inflammation research. 2013 Nov 15; 6:129-137.](Epub) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S35901 Link to article] – subscription may be required.), and being developed for the indications of [[inf[...]



FEZF2

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:34:30 GMT

subclude

New page

{{GeneticsBox|||FEZL, ZNF312, FKSG36}}
[[Category:Genes]]
{{:Fez family zinc finger protein 2}}



Fez family zinc finger protein 2

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:31:56 GMT

involved in differentation to neurons

New page


{{BiochemistryBox|||Forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like protein 2, zinc finger protein 312, zinc finger protein Fez-like}}
[[Category:transcription repressors]]

[[Fez family zinc finger protein 2]] is a 459 amino acid [[:Category:transcription repressors|transcription repressor]] coded by the [[FEZF2]] gene at 3p14.2. It is permissive to the specification of corticospinal motor neurones and other subcerebral projection neurones.



Motor neurone

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:29:19 GMT

Q ← Older revision Revision as of 22:29, 16 October 2017 Line 1: Line 1: {{subjectBox}} {{subjectBox}} [[category:cells]] [[category:cells]] -A motor neuron (motorneuron, usually means l[[ower motor neuron]]) is an efferent [[CNS]] neuron that innervates muscles and glands with muscles and controls their contractions. Their cell body is classically located in the [[spinal cord]] and the [[axon]] projects outside the spinal cord. However [[upper motor neuron]]s of the cortex control the lower motor neurons and in the case of the  [[facial nerve]] directly innervate some (facial) muscle.  Human motor neurons use [[acetylcholine]] as their neurotransmitter. Subtypes of motor neurons include:+A motor neurone (motor neuron, motorneuron, usually means [[lower motor neurone]]) is an efferent [[CNS]] neuron that innervates muscles and glands with muscles and controls their contractions. Their cell body is classically located in the [[spinal cord]] and the [[axon]] projects outside the spinal cord. However [[upper motor neurone]]s of the cortex control the lower motor neurons and in the case of the  [[facial nerve]] directly innervate some (facial) muscle.  Human motor neurons use [[acetylcholine]] as their neurotransmitter. Subtypes of motor neurones include: -# Alpha motor neurons (ventral horn cells)+# Alpha motor neurones (ventral horn cells) #*Innervate extrafusal muscle fibers, which are the main force-generating component of a muscle #*Innervate extrafusal muscle fibers, which are the main force-generating component of a muscle -# Beta motor neurons+# Beta motor neurones #*Innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles #*Innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles -# Gamma motor neurons+# Gamma motor neurones #*Innervate intrafusal muscle fibers within the muscle spindle and regulate the sensitivity of the spindle to muscle stretching #*Innervate intrafusal muscle fibers within the muscle spindle and regulate the sensitivity of the spindle to muscle stretching The other main classification is into: The other main classification is into: -#Somatic motor neurons+#Somatic motor neurones #*Project their axons to [[skeletal muscle]]s #*Project their axons to [[skeletal muscle]]s -#Special visceral motor neurons+#Special visceral motor neurones #*project their axons to facial and neck muscles (in man) #*project their axons to facial and neck muscles (in man) -#General visceral motor neurons (visceral motor neurons)+#General visceral motor neurones (visceral motor neurons) #*Indirectly innervate cardiac muscle and smooth muscles of the arteries via synapse onto neurons located in ganglia of the [[autonomic nervous system]]. #*Indirectly innervate cardiac muscle and smooth muscles of the arteries via synapse onto neurons located in ganglia of the [[autonomic nervous system]]. [...]



Motor neuron

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:26:55 GMT

moved [[Motor neuron]] to [[Motor neurone]] Queen's english




Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 6

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:20:00 GMT

subclude

New page

{{GeneticsBox|||BHLHA3, NEUROD}}
{{:Neurogenic differentiation factor 1}}
[[Category:Diabetes mellitus]]
[[Category:Clinical genetics]]



NEUROD1

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:17:40 GMT

subclude

New page

{{GeneticsBox|||BHLHA3, NEUROD}}
{{:Neurogenic differentiation factor 1}}
[[Category:Genes]]



Neurogenic differentiation factor 1

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:17:01 GMT

categorise

New page


{{BiochemistryBox|||Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 3, neuroD, neuroD1, bHLHa3}}
[[Category:transcriptional activators]]

The [[NEUROD1]] gene at 2q31.3 codes for the 356 amino acid [[neurogenic differentiation factor 1]]. This is a [[:Category:transcriptional activators|transcriptional activator]] that binds to E box-containing promoter consensus core sequences 5'-CANNTG-3'. It helps regulate several cell differentiation pathways, such as those that promote the formation of early retinal ganglion cells, inner ear sensory neurons, granule cells forming either the cerebellum or the dentate gyrus cell layer of the hippocampus, endocrine islet cells of the pancreas and enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine.

Variations of the [[NEUROD1]] gene are implicated in:
#[[Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 6]] (MODY6, {{OMIM|606394}})
#*Autosomal dominant inheritance
#*Diabetes onset in childhood or early adulthood
#*Insulin-independence at the beginning as abnormality in secretion.
#[[Type 2 diabetes]], (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM, {{OMIM|125853}}



Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:15:39 GMT

redirect

New page

#redirect[[Type 2 diabetes]]
[[Category: Diabetes mellitus]]



NIDDM

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 22:14:52 GMT

redirect

New page

#redirect[[Type 2 diabetes]]
[[Category:Abbreviations]]
[[Category: Diabetes mellitus]]



Glial cell

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 21:56:41 GMT

definition

New page

{{SubjectBox}}
A term to describe a cell in the nervous system that has functions supportive of [[neurone]] function. There are actually several kinds.
[[Category:Glial cells]]
[[Category:Cells]]
[[Category:Cell types]]
[[category:Histology]]



Neurone

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 21:52:25 GMT

combine ← Older revision Revision as of 21:52, 16 October 2017 Line 4: Line 4: [[Image:neurone.png]] [[Image:neurone.png]]
 +{{SubjectBox}}  +Neurones (neuron) are nerve cells. There are multiple subtypes. In man most are not believed to divide in adult life, although matters are much more complex since for example you can use [[neurogenic differentiation factor 1]] to upregulate reactive [[glial cell]]s into neural stem cells and neurons in vivo in mammals[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=28987284  Chen W, Zhang B, Xu S, Lin R, Wang W. Lentivirus carrying the NeuroD1 gene promotes the conversion from glial cells into neurons in a spinal cord injury model. Brain research bulletin. 2017 Oct.](Print-Electronic) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.10.001 Link to article] – subscription may be required.) and you only need three transcription factors ([[POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2]], [[myelin transcription factor 1-like protein]], and [[fez family zinc finger protein 2]]) to change a human [[fibroblast]] into a [[neurone]][https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=28962665  Miskinyte G, Devaraju K, Grønning Hansen M, Monni E, Tornero D, Woods NB, Bengzon J, Ahlenius H, Lindvall O, Kokaia Z. Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to functional excitatory cortical neurons integrating into human neural networks. Stem cell research & therapy. 2017 Sep; 8(1):207.](Electronic) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0658-3 Link to article] – subscription may be required.).  +[[Category:Cells]]  +[[Category:Cell types]]  +[[Category:Queen's english]] [[category:Histology]] [[category:Histology]]  +{{refsec}} [...]



Neuron

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 21:34:02 GMT

redirect

← Older revision Revision as of 21:34, 16 October 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
-
{{SubjectBox}}
+
#redirect[[neurone]]
-
Neurons are nerve cells. There are multiple subtypes. In man they are not believed to divide in adult life.
+
[[Category:American english]]
-
[[Category:Cells]]
+
-
[[Category:Cell types]]
+



Neurones

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 21:30:09 GMT

redirect

← Older revision Revision as of 21:30, 16 October 2017
Line 1: Line 1:
-
#redirect[[neuron]]
+
#redirect[[neurone]]



Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 03:01:54 GMT

tox levels ← Older revision Revision as of 03:01, 16 October 2017 Line 2: Line 2: Common drug of abuse as [[hallucinogen]]. Causes long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems that may be clinically significant[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=22389076  Murphy PN, Bruno R, Ryland I, Wareing M, Fisk JE, Montgomery C, Hilton J. The effects of 'ecstasy' (MDMA) on visuospatial memory performance: findings from a systematic review with meta-analyses. Human psychopharmacology. 2012 Mar; 27(2):113-38.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.1270 Link to article] – subscription may be required.)[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=22147810  Di Iorio CR, Watkins TJ, Dietrich MS, Cao A, Blackford JU, Rogers B, Ansari MS, Baldwin RM, Li R, Kessler RM, Salomon RM, Benningfield M, Cowan RL. Evidence for chronically altered serotonin function in the cerebral cortex of female 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine polydrug users. Archives of general psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 69(4):399-409.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.156 Link to article] – subscription may be required.). A cause of [[serotonin syndrome]] and idiosyncratic severe reactions including [[disseminated intravascular coagulation]] and [[hepatitis]][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=22713531  Nadkarni GN, Hoskote SS, Piotrkowski J, Annapureddy N. Serotonin Syndrome, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, and Hepatitis After a Single Ingestion of MDMA in an Asian Woman. American journal of therapeutics. 2012 Jun 16.](Epub ahead of print) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e3182583b8d Link to article] – subscription may be required.). Common drug of abuse as [[hallucinogen]]. Causes long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems that may be clinically significant[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=22389076  Murphy PN, Bruno R, Ryland I, Wareing M, Fisk JE, Montgomery C, Hilton J. The effects of 'ecstasy' (MDMA) on visuospatial memory performance: findings from a systematic review with meta-analyses. Human psychopharmacology. 2012 Mar; 27(2):113-38.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.1270 Link to article] – subscription may be required.)[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=22147810  Di Iorio CR, Watkins TJ, Dietrich MS, Cao A, Blackford JU, Rogers B, Ansari MS, Baldwin RM, Li R, Kessler RM, Salomon RM, Benningfield M, Cowan RL. Evidence for chronically altered serotonin function in the cerebral cortex of female 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine polydrug users. Archives of general psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 69(4):399-409.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.156 Link[...]



Neurones

Sun, 15 Oct 2017 15:49:23 GMT

Redirected page to Neuron

New page

#redirect[[neuron]]



Brain

Sun, 15 Oct 2017 15:46:26 GMT

more substructures ← Older revision Revision as of 15:46, 15 October 2017 Line 3: Line 3: ==Structure== ==Structure== ===Gross Anatomy=== ===Gross Anatomy=== - +====General==== -*The brain is often divided into the [[forebrain]], [[midbrain]] & [[hindbrain]].+*The brain is often divided into the [[forebrain]], [[midbrain]] & [[hindbrain]]. Another way of dividing it is into the [[brainstem]], [[cerebrum]] and [[cerebellum]]. -Another way of dividing it is into the [[brainstem]], [[cerebrum]] and [[cerebellum]].+ - + *The hindbrain continues into the [[spinal cord]], which leaves the cranium through the [[foramen magnum]]. *The hindbrain continues into the [[spinal cord]], which leaves the cranium through the [[foramen magnum]]. -  *Overlying the nervous tissue of the brain, there are three protective coverings - the [[meninges]]. *Overlying the nervous tissue of the brain, there are three protective coverings - the [[meninges]]. -  *In addition, the brain also has its own blood supply.  Movement between the blood and the brain is regulated by the [[blood-brain barrier]]. *In addition, the brain also has its own blood supply.  Movement between the blood and the brain is regulated by the [[blood-brain barrier]]. -  *The brain is surrounded by [[cerebrospinal fluid]] (C.S.F).  This serves the main purpose of cushioning the brain against physical shocks.    *The brain is surrounded by [[cerebrospinal fluid]] (C.S.F).  This serves the main purpose of cushioning the brain against physical shocks.    - +====Telencephalon (Forebrain)====  +The main structures include:  +*[[Cerebral cortex]]  +*[[Basal ganglia]]  +*[[Olfactory cortex]]  +*[[Olfactory tubercle]]  +*[[Septum]]  +*[[Anterior commissure]]  +*[[Fornix]]  +*[[Subfornical organ]]  +*[[Corpus callosum]]  +*[[Basal forebrain]]  +*[[Hippocampus]]  +*[[Caudate nucleus]]  +*[[Putamen]]  +*[[Globus pallidus]] (internal & external)  +*[[Ventral striatum]]  +*[[Claustrum]]  +*[[Amygdalar complex]]  +====Diencephalon====  +The main components are:  +*[[Thalamus]]  +*[[Hypothalamus]]  +*[[Pituitary]]  +*[[Epithalamus]]  +*[[Pineal body]]  +*[[Red nucleus]]  +*[[Subthalamus]]  +*[[Substantia nigra]]  +====Mesencephalon (Midbrain)====  +The main components are:  +*[[Tectum]]  +*[[Superior colliculus]]  +*[[Inferior colliculus]]  +*[[Periaquaductal nuclei]]  +*[[Posterior commissure]]  +*[[Superior olive]]  +*[[Inferior olive]]  +====Metencephalon (Hindbrain)====  +The main components are:  +*[[Pons]]  +*[[Cerebellum ]]  +**[[Basal cerebellar nuclei]]  +**[[Cerebellar cortex]]  +====Myelencephalon (Brainstem)====  +This is the [[medulla]] ===Microscopic Anatomy=== ===Microscopic Anatomy=== The brain itself is composed of: The brain itself is composed of: [...]



Cerebral cortex

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 18:12:32 GMT

draft

New page

{{infobox Anatomy |name={{PAGENAME}} |image_name=[[Image:Brain.png]] |caption= |system= |function= |origin= |branches= |insertion= |arterial_supply=[[Image:Brainbloodsupply.png|thumb|Blood supply of brain]]|venous_drainage= |lymphatic_drainage= |innervation= |vertebral_levels= |search_gray = {{PAGENAME}}}}
The [[cerebral cortex]] is essentially the [[forebrain]] (cerebrum) without the [[olfactory bulb]] and [[basal ganglia]] of the forebrain which are the [[caudate nucleus|caudate]] and [[lenticular nucleus|lenticular]] nuclei and the [[thalamus]].
==Structure==
===Gross Anatomy===
The anatomy is quite complex and able to be related to function.

[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]
{{draft}}



Cerebrum

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 18:03:31 GMT

redirect

New page

#redirect[[cerebral cortex]]
[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]



File:Coronal section of brain immediately in front of pons.png

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 18:01:38 GMT

categorise

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[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]



File:Brainbloodsupply.png

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 18:01:03 GMT

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File:Brain.png

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 18:00:46 GMT

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File:Pituitary.png

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 17:59:30 GMT

categorise

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Pituitary modified from Grays
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[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]Pituitary modified from Grays
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File:Hypothalamus.png

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 17:59:16 GMT

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File:Saggitalbrain.png

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 17:58:47 GMT

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← Older revision Revision as of 17:58, 14 October 2017
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Psilocybin

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 17:55:03 GMT

update as to how it might work in depression ← Older revision Revision as of 17:55, 14 October 2017 Line 1: Line 1: -{{PharmacologyBox||Psilocybine, indocybin, psilocibin, psilocin phosphate ester, psilotsibin, [3-[2- (dimethylamino)ethyl]- 1H-indol- 4-yl] dihydrogen phosphate}}+{{PharmacologyBox||Psilocybine, indocybin, psilocibin, psilocin phosphate ester, psilotsibin, [3-[2- (dimethylamino)ethyl]- 1H-indol- 4-yl] dihydrogen phosphate|||prodrug of psilocin (4-OH-dimethyltryptamine) a non-selective serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist}} -A [[:Category:Serotonin agonists|serotonin agonist]] hallucinogen that may be active in [[depression]][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=26909323  Kraehenmann R, Schmidt A, Friston K, Preller KH, Seifritz E, Vollenweider FX. The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity. NeuroImage. Clinical. 2016; 11:53-60.](Epub) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2015.08.009 Link to article] – subscription may be required.)[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=24882567  Kraehenmann R, Preller KH, Scheidegger M, Pokorny T, Bosch OG, Seifritz E, Vollenweider FX. Psilocybin-Induced Decrease in Amygdala Reactivity Correlates with Enhanced Positive Mood in Healthy Volunteers. Biological psychiatry. 2015 Oct 15; 78(8):572-81.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.04.010 Link to article] – subscription may be required.). It has hallucinogenic, anxiolytic, and psychoactive activity.+A [[:Category:Serotonin agonists|serotonin agonist]] hallucinogen that may be active in [[depression]] and anxiety for some time after a dose[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=26909323  Kraehenmann R, Schmidt A, Friston K, Preller KH, Seifritz E, Vollenweider FX. The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity. NeuroImage. Clinical. 2016; 11:53-60.](Epub) ([http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2015.08.009 Link to article] – subscription may be required.)[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=24882567  Kraehenmann R, Preller KH, Scheidegger M, Pokorny T, Bosch OG, Seifritz E, Vollenweider FX. Psilocybin-Induced Decrease in Amygdala Reactivity Correlates with Enhanced Positive Mood in Healthy Volunteers. Biological psychiatry. 2015 Oct 15; 78(8):572-81.]([http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.04.010 Link to article] – subscription may be required[...]



Safety netting

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 14:06:40 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 14:06, 14 October 2017 Line 13: Line 13: There is a [[Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUINs) payments framework|CQUIN]] about early recognition of sepsis.[https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/cquin-guidance-16-17-v3.pdf NHS England. 'Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN): Guidance for 2016/17.' 2016(March).] There is a [[Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUINs) payments framework|CQUIN]] about early recognition of sepsis.[https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/cquin-guidance-16-17-v3.pdf NHS England. 'Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN): Guidance for 2016/17.' 2016(March).]  +==Resources== Resources are available including: Resources are available including: *in the "Red Book" given to parents in England. *in the "Red Book" given to parents in England. Line 19: Line 20: *Many local leaflets etc. have also been produced *Many local leaflets etc. have also been produced - +==See also==  +[[Safety]] {{Refsec}} {{Refsec}} {{draft}} {{draft}} [[category:primary care]][[category:emergency medicine]] [[category:primary care]][[category:emergency medicine]] [...]



Safety

Sat, 14 Oct 2017 14:04:52 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 14:04, 14 October 2017 Line 1: Line 1: {{EtymologyBox|''sauf'' French}} {{EtymologyBox|''sauf'' French}} '''Freedom from injury, danger or risk''' is the desire which usually the patient and doctor wish to maximise. The compromises involved introduce the concept of [[risk]] which has a narrower meaning. More details are found in the articles on [[:Category:clinical safety|clinical safety]] and [[:Category:clinical risk|clinical risk]]. The [[clinical effectiveness]] of a healthcare intervention should be evaluated considering that interventions safety.   '''Freedom from injury, danger or risk''' is the desire which usually the patient and doctor wish to maximise. The compromises involved introduce the concept of [[risk]] which has a narrower meaning. More details are found in the articles on [[:Category:clinical safety|clinical safety]] and [[:Category:clinical risk|clinical risk]]. The [[clinical effectiveness]] of a healthcare intervention should be evaluated considering that interventions safety.    +  +==See also==  +*[[Safety netting]]  +*[[:Category:clinical safety|clinical safety]]  +*[[:Category:clinical risk|clinical risk]]  + [[Category:Clinical Governance]] [[Category:Clinical Governance]] [[Category:Clinical safety]] [[Category:Clinical safety]] [...]



Group B meningococcal vaccine

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:17:57 GMT

Created page with "{{stub}} {{InterestBox|Although these vaccines are frequently referred to as meningococcal B vaccines, they are more correctly serotype independent vaccines, which may also provi..."

New page

{{stub}}
{{InterestBox|Although these vaccines are frequently referred to as meningococcal B vaccines, they are more correctly serotype independent vaccines, which may also provide some level of protection against some other Neisseria organisms such as [[Gonorrhoea|N. gonorrhoea]]}}
[[Neisseria meningitidis|Meningococcal organisms]] have historically been recognised and identified by the antigenic molecules in their polysaccharide coats.

The commonest strain in the UK for many years has been group B meningococcus. The group B antigen is too similar to self antigens for it to be possible to develop a safe and effective vaccine, in the way that has been done in developing first polysaccharide and subsequently far more effective conjugate vaccines against first the C, then A, C, W135 and Y strains of the pathogen.

Using a process sometimes referred to as "reverse vaccinology" - analysing the organism's DNA for potentially antigenic proteins - vaccines have been developed based on antigens which are not part of the organisms polysaccharide coating.

There are currently ([[2017]]) [https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mening-serogroup.html two such vaccines] on the market:
*Bexsero (TM) (see eg [http://vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk/menb-vaccine MenB vaccine page] from the [http://vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk/ Oxford University Vaccine Knowledge Project]
*[http://www.trumenba.com/ Trumenba (TM)] - not currently [[2017]] used in the UK.



Vaccination in the UK - a summary of when vaccines were introduced

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:04:54 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 10:04, 13 October 2017
Line 49: Line 49:
*Sep [[2013]] – [[Varicella_zoster#Immunisation|Shingles vaccine]]
*Sep [[2013]] – [[Varicella_zoster#Immunisation|Shingles vaccine]]
*[[2013]] - Children's influenza vaccination programme starts to be rolled out
*[[2013]] - Children's influenza vaccination programme starts to be rolled out
-
*[[2015]] - [[Meningitis prevention#Novel meningococcal vaccines|Bexsero (TM) meningococcal vaccine] (sometimes referred to as meningococcal B vaccine - although it is more correctly a serotype independent vaccine, which may also provide some level of protection against some other Neisseria organisms such as [[Gonorrhoea|N. gonorrhoea]]).
+
*[[2015]] - [[Meningitis prevention#Novel meningococcal vaccines|Bexsero (TM) meningococcal vaccine]] (sometimes referred to as meningococcal B vaccine - although it is more correctly a serotype independent vaccine, which may also provide some level of protection against some other Neisseria organisms such as [[Gonorrhoea|N. gonorrhoea]]).
*[[2015]]- Meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (instead of group C only vaccine)
*[[2015]]- Meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (instead of group C only vaccine)
*[[2017]] Hexavalent DTaP/IPV/Hiv/HepB vaccine introduced
*[[2017]] Hexavalent DTaP/IPV/Hiv/HepB vaccine introduced



Vaccination

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:03:54 GMT

Childhood immunisation:

← Older revision Revision as of 10:03, 13 October 2017
Line 151: Line 151:
*[[Hepatitis B]] (added to the routine infant vaccination programme in [[2017]]
*[[Hepatitis B]] (added to the routine infant vaccination programme in [[2017]]
-
(The above are protected against using [[DTaP/IPV/Hib/HepB]] vaccine ([[DTaP/IPV/Hib]] until 2017) in infancy, with [[DTaP/IPV]] or [[dTaP/IPV]] as a pre-school booster, and a further booster of [[dT/IPV]]after the age of 10 years.)  
+
(The above are protected against using [[DTaP/IPV/Hib/HepB]] vaccine ([[DTaP/IPV/Hib]] until [[2017]]) in infancy, with [[DTaP/IPV]] or [[dTaP/IPV]] as a pre-school booster, and a further booster of [[dT/IPV]] after the age of 10 years.)  
*[[Measles]]
*[[Measles]]



Vaccination in the UK - a summary of when vaccines were introduced

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:02:50 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 10:02, 13 October 2017 Line 29: Line 29: *[[Oct 1996]] – Second dose of [[MMR vaccine|MMR]] introduced *[[Oct 1996]] – Second dose of [[MMR vaccine|MMR]] introduced *Nov [[1999]]-[[2000]] – [[Meningitis_prevention#Conjugate_vaccine|Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine]] *Nov [[1999]]-[[2000]] – [[Meningitis_prevention#Conjugate_vaccine|Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine]]  +*[[2000]] - seasonal influenza for people aged 65+ *[[Nov 2001]] – Acellular [[pertussis]] booster added to pre-school DT - (3-5 year olds)   *[[Nov 2001]] – Acellular [[pertussis]] booster added to pre-school DT - (3-5 year olds)   *[[2001]] – [[Pneumococcal_disease#Prevention|Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine]] (at risk groups) *[[2001]] – [[Pneumococcal_disease#Prevention|Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine]] (at risk groups) *[[2002]] – [[Meningitis_prevention#Conjugate_vaccine|Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine]] for all under 25 year olds *[[2002]] – [[Meningitis_prevention#Conjugate_vaccine|Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine]] for all under 25 year olds *[[2003]] – [[Haemophilus influenzae type B|Hib]] catch-up for some children - given 3 component acellular pertussis in primaries *[[2003]] – [[Haemophilus influenzae type B|Hib]] catch-up for some children - given 3 component acellular pertussis in primaries -*[[2004]] – DTaP/IPV/Hib, DTaP/IPV and Td/IPV+*[[2004]] – DTaP/IPV/Hib, DTaP/IPV and Td/IPV, universal pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine *[[2005]] – Outbreak of Mumps among those who got only one [[MMR vaccine|MMR]], with or without an additional dose of [[Questions and answers about mumps and MMR|MR vaccine]] *[[2005]] – Outbreak of Mumps among those who got only one [[MMR vaccine|MMR]], with or without an additional dose of [[Questions and answers about mumps and MMR|MR vaccine]] -*July [[2005]] – Universal [[Tuberculosis#BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]] stopped - from then now just offered to targetted groups+*July [[2005]] – Universal [[Tuberculosis#BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]] stopped - since then just offered to targetted groups -*[[2006]] – Pneumococcal conjugate - (children under 2 years)  +*[[2006]] – 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) - (children under 2 years)   *[[2006]] - Hib/Men C - (booster of Hib in 2nd year of life) *[[2006]] - Hib/Men C - (booster of Hib in 2nd year of life) *July [[2007]] – [[Haemophilus influenzae type B|Hib]] catch-up (for 2-4 year olds) *July [[2007]] – [[Haemophilus influenzae type B|Hib]] catch-up (for 2-4 year olds) *Aug [[2008]] – [[MMR vaccine|MMR]] Catch-up *Aug [[2008]] – [[MMR vaccine|MMR]] Catch-up *Sep [[2008]] – [[Human papillomavirus vaccine]] - Girls only, 12-18 yrs (routinely at 12-13 years) *Sep [[2008]] – [[Human papillomavirus vaccine]] - Girls only, 12-18 yrs (routinely at 12-13 years)  +*[[...]



Vaccination

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:02:40 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 10:02, 13 October 2017 Line 149: Line 149: *[[Poliomyelitis]] *[[Poliomyelitis]] *[[Hib|Haemophilus influenzae type B]] *[[Hib|Haemophilus influenzae type B]]  +*[[Hepatitis B]] (added to the routine infant vaccination programme in [[2017]] -(The above are protected against using [[DTaP/IPV/Hib]] vaccine in infancy, with [[DTaP/IPV]] or [[dTaP/IPV]] as a pre-school booster, and a further booster of [[dT/IPV]]after the age of 10 years.)  +(The above are protected against using [[DTaP/IPV/Hib/HepB]] vaccine ([[DTaP/IPV/Hib]] until 2017) in infancy, with [[DTaP/IPV]] or [[dTaP/IPV]] as a pre-school booster, and a further booster of [[dT/IPV]]after the age of 10 years.)   *[[Measles]] *[[Measles]] Line 167: Line 168: *[[Cholera]] *[[Cholera]] *[[Hepatitis A]] *[[Hepatitis A]] -*[[Hepatitis B]]+*[[Hepatitis B]] (added to routine infant programme in [[2017]]) *[[Influenza]] *[[Influenza]] *[[Japanese encephalitis]] *[[Japanese encephalitis]] [...]



Pandemic influenza

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:50:45 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 09:50, 13 October 2017 Line 7: Line 7: *[[1957]] [[Asian influenza 1957|Asian influenza]] an H2N2 strain *[[1957]] [[Asian influenza 1957|Asian influenza]] an H2N2 strain *[[1968]] [[Hong Kong influenza 1968|Hong Kong influenza]] an H3N2 strain *[[1968]] [[Hong Kong influenza 1968|Hong Kong influenza]] an H3N2 strain -*[[1977]] [[Russian influenza|Russian flu]], so called pseudo-pandemic of an H1N1 virus that some think came from a 1950 frozen isolate due to lack of antigentic drift for decades[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=6198405  Laver WG, Webster RG, Chu CM. From the National Institutes of Health. Summary of a meeting on the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1984 Jan; 149(1):108-15.][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=672956  Nakajima K, Desselberger U, Palese P. Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950. Nature. 1978 Jul 27; 274(5669):334-9.] but it could have been a reassortment virus that had been in unknown animal reservors[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=7310382  Kozlov JV, Gorbulev VG, Kurmanova AG, Bayev AA, Shilov AA, Zhdanov VM. On the origin of the H1N1 (A/USSR/90/77) influenza virus. The Journal of general virology. 1981 Oct; 56(Pt 2):437-40.] .  +*[[1977]] [[Russian influenza|Russian flu]], so called pseudo-pandemic of an H1N1 virus that some think came from a 1950 frozen isolate due to lack of antigentic drift for decades[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=6198405  Laver WG, Webster RG, Chu CM. From the National Institutes of Health. Summary of a meeting on the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1984 Jan; 149(1):108-15.][http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=672956  Nakajima K, Desselberger U, Palese P. Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950. Nature. 1978 Jul 27; 274(5669):334-9.] but it could have been a reassortment virus that had been in unknown animal reservors[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=7310382  Kozlov JV, Gorbulev VG, Kurmano[...]



Smallpox and vaccinia

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:32:25 GMT

← Older revision Revision as of 09:32, 13 October 2017 Line 7: Line 7: The [[HIV]] epidemic has brought renewed interest in developing attenuated poxvirus vectors as future HIV vaccines[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=19786840  Esteban M. Attenuated poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC as promising vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Human vaccines. 2009 Dec; 5(12):867-71.] and perhaps the original smallpox vaccination itself actually protected against HIV[http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/11/23/abstract Weinstein RS, Weinstein MM, Alibek K, Bukrinsky MI, Beda B. Significantly reduced CCR5-tropic HIV-1 replication in vitro in cells from subjects previously immunized with Vaccinia Virus BMC Immunology 2010, 11:23doi:10.1186/1471-2172-11-23]. The [[HIV]] epidemic has brought renewed interest in developing attenuated poxvirus vectors as future HIV vaccines[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=19786840  Esteban M. Attenuated poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC as promising vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Human vaccines. 2009 Dec; 5(12):867-71.] and perhaps the original smallpox vaccination itself actually protected against HIV[http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/11/23/abstract Weinstein RS, Weinstein MM, Alibek K, Bukrinsky MI, Beda B. Significantly reduced CCR5-tropic HIV-1 replication in vitro in cells from subjects previously immunized with Vaccinia Virus BMC Immunology 2010, 11:23doi:10.1186/1471-2172-11-23].  +  +The history of smallpox and smallpox vaccination is illuminating.  +*1802 - anti-vaccination lobby already established.  +*Acts of 1840, 1841 &1853 make vaccination successively universal, free, and finally (until 1948) compulsory.  +*1901-2 London’s last major smallpox outbreak  +*Mid-1970s - complications of vaccinia outweigh benefits of vaccination. Vaccination abandoned apart from international travel requirements.  +*WHO strategy of surveillance and targeted vaccination  +*1977, Somalia - last naturally occurring case. WHO declare it eradicated in 1980.  +  + {{refsec}} {{refsec}} [[Category: Medical history]] [[Category: Medical history]] [[Category: Public health]] [[Category: Public health]] [...]