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Method for reducing hydrogen sulfide evolution from asphalt and heavy fuel oils

Tue, 30 Jun 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Hydrogen sulfide evolution from asphalt or heavy fuel oil may be reduced or eliminated using an additive to act as a scavenger. Zinc, in conjunction with an additional metal selected from Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Zr, when present in the form of nano-particles of an oxide, borate or carboxylate is an effective component is preventing or mitigating the evolution of hydrogen sulfide. The nano-particles may be used neat or as a dispersion. These metals may also be complexed and used in the form of a solution. Molybdenum, when used with one or both of Fe and Zn is also a useful in any of these forms for the same purpose.



Catalyst for metathesis of ethylene and 2-butene and/or double bond isomerization

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for the double-bond isomerization of olefins is disclosed. The process may include contacting a fluid stream comprising olefins with a fixed bed comprising an activated basic metal oxide isomerization catalyst to convert at least a portion of the olefin to its isomer. The isomerization catalysts disclosed herein may have a reduced cycle to cycle deactivation as compared to conventional catalysts, thus maintaining higher activity over the complete catalyst life cycle.



Process for the extraction of hydrocarbons from oil sands and oil shale

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Process for the extraction of hydrocarbons contained in oil sands and oil shale comprising feeding said oil sands or oil shale to a suitable apparatus in which they are heated, directly and/or by means of a suitable vector fluid, making use of solar energy collected by means of optical concentration systems.



Nano catalytic dewaxing of heavy petroleum wastes (>C-23 alkanes)

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A catalyst comprising of nano nickel-silica catalyst for dewaxing of heavy petroleum feed at a temperature 200-350° C. at 8 bar and 30 bar hydrogen pressure and in the presence of hydrogen is designed for petrochemical industries. According to a specific aspect of the invention, the nano catalyst is designed and employed to convert heavy hydrocarbon feeds of high viscosity index to low pour point and good stability in a single step.



High surface area composition for use in the catalytic hydroconversion of a heavy hydrocarbon feedstock, a method making such composition and its use

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A catalyst composition that is especially useful in the hydroconversion of pitch, micro carbon residue and sulfur contents of a heavy hydrocarbon feedstock without the excessive formation of sediment. The catalyst composition is a reasonably high surface area composition containing alumina and a low molybdenum content with a high ratio of nickel-to-molybdenum. The catalyst composition further has a unique pore distribution that in combination with the special metals loading provide for good conversion of pitch and micro carbon residue without an excessive yield of sediment.



Two-stage, close-coupled, dual-catalytic heavy oil hydroconversion process

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for the production of high yields of high quality products from heavy hydrocarbonaceous feedstock comprising a two-stage, close-coupled process, wherein the first stage comprises a thermal-catalytic zone into which is introduced a mixture comprising the feedstock, coal, dispersed catalyst, and hydrogen; and the second, close-coupled stage comprises a catalytic-hydrotreating zone into which substantially all the effluent from the first stage is directly passed and processed under hydrotreating conditions.



Upgrading of hydrocarbons by hydrothermal process

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A hydrocarbon feedstock upgrading method is provided. The method includes supplying the hydrocarbon feedstock, water and a pre-heated hydrogen donating composition to a hydrothermal reactor where the mixed stream is maintained at a temperature and pressure greater than the critical temperatures and pressure of water in the absence of catalyst for a residence time sufficient to convert the mixed stream into a modified stream. The hydrogen donating composition is pre-heated and maintained at a temperature of greater than about 50° C. for a period of at least about 10 minutes. The modified stream includes upgraded hydrocarbons relative to the hydrocarbon feedstock. The modified stream is then separated into a gas stream and a liquid stream and the liquid stream is separated into a water stream and an upgraded hydrocarbon product stream.



Oligomerisation of olefinic compounds in the presence of an activated oligomerisation catalyst

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This invention relates to the oligomerization of olefinic compounds in the presence of an activated oligomerization catalyst. The invention also extends to a particular manner for providing an activated oligomerization catalyst. According to the present invention, there is provided a process for producing an oligomeric product by the oligomerization of at least one olefinic compound, the process including (a) providing an activated oligomerization catalyst by combining, in any order, iii) a source of chromium, ιv) a ligating compound of the formula (R1)mX1(Y)X2(R2)n wherein X1 and X2 are independently an atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, oxygen, sulphur and selenium or said atom oxidized by S, Se, N or O where the valence of X1 and/or X2 allows for such oxidation, Y is a linking group between X1 and X2 which linking group contains at least one nitrogen atom which is directly bonded to X1 or X2, m and n are independently 0, 1 or a larger integer, and R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, a hydrocarbyl group, an organoheteryl group or a heterohydrocarbyl group, and the respective R1 groups are the same or different when m>1, and the respective R2 groups are the same or different when n>1, in) a catalyst activator which is an organoboron compound including a cation and a non-coordinating anion of the general formula [(R10)xL*-H]+[B(R20)4]− wherein L* is an atom selected from the group consisting of N, S and P, the cation [(R10)x L*-H]* is a Bronsted acid, x is an integer 1, 2 or 3, each R10 is the same or different when x is 2 or 3 and each is a —H, hydrocarbyl group or a heterohydrocarbyl group, provided that at least one of R10 comprises at least 6 carbon atoms and provided further that the total number of carbon atoms in (R10)x collectively is greater than 12, R20 independently at each occurrence is selected from the group consisting of hydride, dialkylamido, halide, alkoxide, aryloxide, hydrocarbyl, halosubstituted-hydrocarbyl radicals, halosubstituted-alkoxide, halosubstituted-aryloxide and a halosubstituted aromatic ring moiety with at least one halide substituent on the aromatic ring, and vi) an aliphatic solvent, and (b) contacting the at least one olefinic compound with the activated oligomerization catalyst to produce an oligomeric product.



High energy distillate fuel composition and method of making the same

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The disclosure describes a high energy density jet fuel composition, having a smoke point about 18 mm as determined by ASTM D1322 and a thermal stability of no more than 25 mm Hg as determined by ASTM D 3241, and a method for making a jet fuel composition, wherein the net heat of combustion is determined by the aromatics content, cycloparaffins content, and normal plus or iso paraffins content in the jet fuel composition.



Radio frequency heating of petroleum ore by particle susceptors

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for heating materials by application of radio frequency (“RF”) energy is disclosed. For example, the disclosure concerns a method for RF heating of petroleum ore, such as bitumen, oil sands, oil shale, tar sands, or heavy oil. Petroleum ore is mixed with a substance comprising susceptor particles that absorb RF energy. A source is provided which applies RF energy to the mixture of a power and frequency sufficient to heat the susceptor particles. The RF energy is applied for a sufficient time to allow the susceptor particles to heat the mixture to an average temperature greater than about 212° F. (100° C.). Optionally, the susceptor particles can be removed from the mixture after the desired average temperature has been achieved. The susceptor particles may provide for anhydrous processing, and temperatures sufficient for cracking, distillation, or pyrolysis.



Method for reducing the mercury content of natural gas condensate and natural gas processing plant

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for reducing the mercury content of natural gas condensate, comprising the steps of providing a nanofiltration membrane having a feed side and a permeate side; contacting the natural gas condensate with the feed side of the membrane; and obtaining a mercury-depleted natural gas condensate at the permeate side of the membrane; and a natural gas processing plant comprising a condensate workup section including a nanofiltration membrane separation unit for reducing the mercury content of natural gas condensate.



Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle, its preparation and its use in desulfurization

Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides a method of preparing an iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle, comprising the steps of: i) reacting a water-soluble ferrous salt with a water-soluble ferric salt in a mole ratio of 1:2 in the presence of a base and a citrate to give an iron oxide particle surface-coated with the citrate (c-MNP); ii) reacting the c-MNP obtained in step (i) with a thiophilic compound to give a thiophilic compound-bounded iron oxide particle surface-coated with the citrate (thiophilic-c-MNP); and iii) modifying the thiophilic-c-MNP obtained in step (ii) using a surfactant for phase transfer of the thiophilic-c-MNP from aqueous phase to organic phase. The present invention also relates to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle prepared by the above-mentioned method and the use of the nanoparticle in desulfurization. The iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of effective deep desulfurization.



Method of synthesizing low color furan diesters

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method of making low colored bis(2-ethylhexyl) furan-2,5-dicarboxylate (BEHFD) plasticizer via mild hydrogenation of highly colored BEHFD.



Methods and apparatus for controlling moisture in plant oils and liquid biofuels

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The moisture absorption capacity of biofuels can be more or less 10 times that of fossil diesel oil, causing biofuels to form acids that induce metal corrosion and form deposits in the fuel tank and pipe lines. Methods for removing moisture from stored biofuels and plant oils are described wherein glycerol is used as a solvent to extract the moisture from the bioliquid or oil, comprising the steps of placing the biofuel or oil in fluid contact with glycerol, incubating for a time, and then removing the glycerol. A cellulous ester dialysis or other semi-permeable membrane may be used to prevent the glycerol from contaminating the biofuel while allowing moisture to pass. Crude glycerol produced as a byproduct of biodiesel production may be used in the method of the disclosed invention with good result. Preferred embodiments of apparatus that employ the method of the subject invention are described.



Method and system for processing viscous liquid crude hydrocarbons

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method and system for handling viscous liquid crude hydrocarbons is disclosed. The method involves (a) solvent deasphalting at least a portion of an asphaltene-containing liquid crude hydrocarbon feedstock to form an asphaltene fraction and a deasphalted oil (DAO) fraction essentially free of asphaltenes; (b) adjusting the density of the asphaltene fraction to substantially the same density of a carrier for the asphaltene fraction; (c) forming coated asphaltene particles from the asphaltene fraction of step (b); (d) slurrying the coated asphaltene particles with the carrier; and (e) transporting the slurry to a treatment facility or a transportation carrier.



Method and system for removing hydrogen sulfide from sour oil and sour water

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to a system and method to remove hydrogen sulfide from sour water and sour oil. In particular, hydrogen sulfide is removed from sour water and sour oil without the need for special chemicals, such as catalyst chemicals, scavenger chemicals, hydrocarbon sources, or a large scale facility. The system and method in the present invention is particularly useful in exploratory oil and gas fields, where large facilities to remove hydrogen sulfide may be inaccessible. The present invention addresses the need for safe and cost effective transport of the deadly neurotoxin. Particular embodiments involve a system and method that can be executed both on a small and large scale to sweeten sour water and sour oil.



Scrubbing hydrogen sulfide from hydrotreated product

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This application provides an H2S scrubbing system, a column packed with an inert material, wherein an inert gas passes counter to a flow of a hydrotreated product containing H2S through said column. There is also provided a method for scrubbing H2S from a hydrotreated product, comprising providing a hydrotreated product containing H2S; and passing the hydrotreated product over a column packed with an inert material, wherein an inert gas passed counter to a flow of the hydrotreated product.



Demulsifying of hydrocarbon feeds

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

In various aspects, the invention provides for processing a hydrocarbon feed having hydrocarbon and emulsified aqueous components demulsifying into hydrocarbon and aqueous phases over an initial demulsification time, with an active agent to form a treated feed. The active agent has an active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component and in the aqueous component, the aqueous component has an aqueous component solubility in the hydrocarbon component. The active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component is greater than the aqueous component solubility in the hydrocarbon component. The active agent solubility in the aqueous component is greater than the active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component. The active agent solubility in the aqueous component is greater than the active agent solubility in the hydrocarbon component. A treated demulsified hydrocarbon phase separates from the active agent and the aqueous component in a modified demulsification time that is shorter than the initial demulsification time.



Integrated FCC biomass pyrolysis/upgrading

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Integrating a biomass pyrolysis and upgrading process into a fluid catalytic cracking unit. The process uses conventional FCC feed and a mixture of a solvent and biomass to produce upgraded fuel products. A slurry stream composed of solid biomass particles and a solvent is fed into an FCC riser through a slurry pump to achieve biomass pyrolysis and in situ pyrolysis oil upgrading. The catalytic cracking of the conventional petroleum feed also occurs in the riser.



Method for increasing thermal stability of a fuel composition using a solid phosphoric acid catalyst

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

This invention relates to a method for increasing thermal stability of fuel, as well as in reducing nitrogen content and/or enhancing color quality of the fuel. According to the method, a fuel feedstock can be treated with a solid phosphoric acid catalyst under appropriate catalyst conditions, e.g., to increase the thermal stability of the fuel feedstock. Preferably, the fuel feedstock can be treated with the solid phosphoric acid catalyst at a ratio of catalyst mass within a contact zone to a mass flow rate of feedstock through the zone of at least about 18 minutes to increase the thermal stability of the fuel feedstock, along with reducing nitrogen content and/or enhancing color quality.



Conversion of asphaltenic pitch within an ebullated bed residuum hydrocracking process

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for upgrading residuum hydrocarbons including: feeding pitch, hydrogen, and a partially spent catalyst recovered from a hydrocracking reactor to an ebullated bed pitch hydrocracking reactor; contacting the pitch, hydrogen, and the catalyst in the ebullated bed pitch hydrocracking reactor at reaction conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to convert at least a portion of the pitch to distillate hydrocarbons; and separating the distillate hydrocarbons from the catalyst. In some embodiments, the process may include selecting the ebullated bed pitch hydrocracking reactor reaction conditions to be at or below the level where sediment formation would otherwise become excessive and prevent continuity of operations.



Production of low cloud point distillates

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Systems and methods are provided for producing at least one low sulfur distillate fuel product with improved low temperature properties. A potential distillate fuel feed is initially hydrotreated to reduce sulfur and nitrogen levels in the feed to desired amounts. The hydrotreated effluent is then fractionated to form several fractions, including a light diesel/distillate fraction and a heavy diesel fraction. The heavy diesel fraction is then dewaxed to improve the cold flow properties of the heavy diesel fraction. The dewaxed heavy diesel fraction can be combined with the light diesel fraction, or the dewaxed heavy diesel fraction can be fractionated as well. Optionally, the heavy diesel fraction is dewaxed under conditions effective for producing a dewaxed fraction with a cloud point that is less than or equal to the cloud point of the light diesel/distillate fraction.



Process and apparatus for carbon dioxide and carbonyl sulfide capture via ion exchange resins

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for the reduction of carbon dioxide and carbonyl sulfide from various types of gas emitting sources containing carbon dioxide and/or gas or liquid emitting sources containing carbonyl sulfide, using ion exchange resin.



Process for producing olefins

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention discloses a process for producing olefins from petroleum saturated hydrocarbons. The process of the present invention comprises: contacting a preheated petroleum saturated hydrocarbons feedstock with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a dehydrogenation reaction zone of a reaction system to obtain a petroleum hydrocarbon stream containing unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds, in which the dehydrogenation reaction has a conversion rate of at least 20%; and contacting the obtained petroleum hydrocarbon stream containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds with olefins cracking catalyst in an olefin cracking zone of the reaction system to obtain a product stream containing olefins with a reduced number of carbon atoms.



Strong base amines to minimize corrosion in systems prone to form corrosive salts

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Corrosion by ammonia/amine salts in hydrocarbon streams such as distillation overhead streams that contain a mineral acid and water can be prevented, avoided or minimized by adding certain strong amines to the streams. The amines have a pKa between about 10.5 to about 12 and include, but are not necessarily limited to, dimethylamine, diethylamine, dipropylamine, diisopropyl-amine, di-n-butylamine, diisobutylamine, di-sec-butylamine, di-tert-butylamine, pyrrolidine, piperidine, and combinations thereof. If the hydrocarbon stream further includes a nitrogen-containing compound such as ammonia, a tramp and/or a residual amine which can form a corrosive salt with the mineral acid, then the added amine is a stronger base than the tramp or residual amine, if present. The amount of added amine is greater than total amount of nitrogen-containing compound, so that any corrosive salts formed are less corrosive than the salts that would otherwise form from the ammonia and/or tramp amine.



Liquid phase desulfurization of fuels at mild operating conditions

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A simple, compact process for cleansing hydrocarbon fuel such as jet fuel is disclosed. This process involves subjecting the fuel to an oxidative desulfurization process in a desulfurization reactor followed by passing the fuel through an adsorption bed. The cleansed desulfurized fuel may then be utilized directly in generation of hydrogen for fuel cell applications.



High temperature platformer

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An apparatus for reforming a hydrocarbon stream is presented. The apparatus involves changing the design of reformers and associated equipment to allow for increasing the processing temperatures in the reformers and heaters. The reformers are operated under different conditions to utilize advantages in the equilibriums, but require modifications to prevent increasing thermal cracking and to prevent increases in coking.



Methods for obtaining bitumen from bituminous materials

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method of extracting bitumen from bituminous material. In some embodiments, the method may include loading a bitumen material in a column, followed by feeding a first quantity of solvent into the column. The method may also include collecting the bitumen-enriched solvent exiting the column. A quantity of the bitumen-enriched solvent may then be fed into the column. In some embodiments, the method may include simultaneously loading bitumen material and a solvent in a column, followed by feeding additional solvent into the column. The method may also include collecting bitumen-enriched solvent exiting the column, and feeding a quantity of the bitumen-enriched solvent into the column.



Process, method, and system for removing heavy metals from fluids

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Trace element levels of mercury in crude oil are reduced by first passing the crude oil through a filtration device to generate filtered crude having a reduced concentration of mercury and a reject stream having a concentrated mercury level. In one embodiment, the filtration device is back-flushed to generate the reject stream. In another embodiment, the reject stream comprises a portion of the retentate from a cross-flow filter device. The reject stream is treated with an extractive agent selected from tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate; tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride; an oxidizing agent; an organic or inorganic sulfidic compound to extract a portion of the mercury into a water phase for subsequent removal. In one embodiment, the extractive agent is a reductant to convert non-volatile mercury into volatile mercury.



Process for hydrotreating naphtha fraction and process for producing hydrocarbon oil

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for hydrotreating a naphtha fraction that includes a step of estimating the difference between the naphtha fraction hydrotreating reactor outlet temperature and inlet temperature, based on the reaction temperature of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction and the ratio of the flow rate of the treated naphtha fraction returned to the naphtha fraction hydrotreating step relative to the flow rate of the treated naphtha fraction discharged from the naphtha fraction hydrotreating step, a step of measuring the difference between the naphtha fraction hydrotreating reactor outlet temperature and inlet temperature, and a step of adjusting the reaction temperature of the naphtha fraction hydrotreating step so that the measured difference between the naphtha fraction hydrotreating reactor outlet temperature and inlet temperature becomes substantially equal to the estimated difference between the naphtha fraction hydrotreating reactor outlet temperature and inlet temperature.



Process for reforming hydrocarbon cuts

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for reforming a feed composed of one or more hydrocarbon cuts containing 9 to 22 carbon atoms which includes, at least one first step for reforming the feed in at least one reforming unit, during which a stream of hydrogen is produced and at least one first step for distillation of the effluent from the reforming unit in the presence of a reforming catalyst in order to obtain 4 cuts. The 4 cuts are, a liquefied petroleum gas cut (LPG) (A), a C5-C8 cut: naphtha (B), a C9-C15 cut: densified kerosene (C), and a C16-C22 cut: densified gas oil cut (D). The invention also concerns the device for carrying out this process.



Process for delayed coking of whole crude oil

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An improved delayed coking process utilizing a coking unit and a coking unit product fractionating column which includes the steps of: heating a mixture of a fresh whole crude oil feedstream and the bottoms from the coking unit product fractionator in a furnace to a coking temperature in the range of 480° C. to 530° C./896° F. to 986° F.;introducing the heated mixed whole crude oil and bottoms feedstream directly into the delayed coking unit;optionally passing the vaporized liquid and gaseous coking unit product stream into a flash unit;recovering a light product gas stream that includes H2S, NH3 and C1 to C4 hydrocarbons from the flash unit;transferring the bottoms from the flash unit to the coking unit product fractionating column;recovering as separate side streams from the fractionating column naphtha, light gas oil and heavy gas oil;recycling a portion of the heavy gas oil by introducing it into the fractionating column optionally with the bottoms from the flash unit;mixing the fractionating column bottoms with the whole crude oil feedstream to form the mixed feedstream; andintroducing the mixed whole crude oil and fractionating column bottoms feedstream into the furnace.



Delayed coking process utilizing adsorbent materials

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A delayed coking process includes: a. introducing a fresh hydrocarbon feedstock containing undesirable sulfur and/or nitrogen compounds for preheating into the lower portion of a coking unit product fractionator;b. introducing at least a portion of an intermediate fraction derived from the fractionator and at least one adsorbent material that selectively adsorbs sulfur- and/or nitrogen-containing compounds into a mixing zone to form an adsorbent slurry stream;c. discharging a bottoms fraction from the fractionator;d. adding all or a portion of the slurry stream to the bottoms fraction to form a mixed coking unit feedstream;e. heating the mixed feedstream in the coking unit furnace to a predetermined coking temperature; andf. passing the heated mixed feedstream to a drum of the delayed coking to produce a delayed coking product stream while depositing the adsorbent material having adsorbed sulfur and/or nitrogen compounds with the coke in the coking drum.



Lubricant composition for an internal combustion engine and method for lubricating an internal combustion engine

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine contains a component (A) of a polyalphaolefin having a kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C. of 5.5 mm2/s or less, a CCS viscosity at −35 degrees C. of 3000 mPA·s or less and a NOACK of 12 mass % or less, and a component (B) of a mineral oil having a viscosity index of 120 or more. The component (A) is contained at a content of 10 mass % or more of a total amount of the composition.



Lubricant composition for an internal combustion engine and method for lubricating an internal combustion engine

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine contains: a base oil including a component (A) of a polyalphaolefin having a kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C. of 5.5 mm2/s or less, a CCS viscosity at −35 degrees C. of 3000 mPa·s or less and a NOACK of 12 mass % or less and a component (B) of a mineral oil having a viscosity index of 120 or more; and polyisobutylene having a mass average molecular weight of 500,000 or more. A content of the composition (A) is 25 mass % or more of a total amount of a lubricating oil.



Fuel production method, fuel production apparatus, and fuel oil

Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A fuel production method and a fuel production apparatus, for producing fuel by which the fuel efficiency can be improved and the generation of hazardous substances can be easily suppressed and which is stable, and fuel oil produced by such a method and apparatus are provided. This improves the satisfaction of users, and contributes to the prevention of environmental destruction. A fuel production method for producing fuel oil by mixing and reacting enzyme water with petroleum-based hydrocarbon oil is provided, the enzyme water being produced by mixing a natural plant enzyme, containing at least lipase, in water. The natural plant enzyme further contains cellulase. The enzyme water further contains methanol.



Hydrogen purification for make-up gas in hydroprocessing processes

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The recycle gas stream containing hydrogen that is part of the feedstream to a hydroprocessing reactor is mixed with the low purity make-up hydrogen and the sour flash gases upstream of the recycle gas compressor and compressed by the recycle gas compressor. The compressed gases pass through a methane and higher (C1+) absorber to produce a sweet hydrogen recycle gas stream that is delivered to the hydroprocessing reactor at 96-98 mol % hydrogen. The process can be used to advantage in existing process facilities to increase the hydrogen partial pressure in the feedstream to the hydroprocessor where the existing recycle gas compressor is not designed for compressing the high purity hydrogen.



Exfoliation of asphaltenes

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method for decomposing an asphaltene particle includes contacting the asphaltene particle with an intercalating agent; and reacting the intercalating agent to increase a distance between asphaltene molecules in the asphaltene particle to decompose the asphaltene particle. In a method for producing decomposed asphaltene, the method includes disposing an intercalating agent in an oil environment; contacting an asphaltene particle in the oil environment with the intercalating agent; reacting the intercalating agent to produce product molecules; and decomposing the asphaltene particle to produce decomposed asphaltene.



Process for hydrotreating inferior naphtha fraction

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a process for hydrotreating inferior naphtha fraction, comprising: (1) warming a recycle oil in a heating device; (2) mixing the inferior naphtha fraction with the recycle oil before and/or after the heating device; and (3) feeding the mixture of the inferior naphtha fraction and the recycle oil into a separating unit, wherein the gas-liquid separation is realized at least to obtain a gas phase and a liquid phase, wherein the gas phase comprises gasified inferior naphtha, wherein the gas phase enters a hydrotreating reactor to undergo hydrotreating, and wherein part of the liquid phase circulates to the heating device as the recycle oil; wherein warming of the recycle oil is controlled to ensure the temperature of gas phase from the separator at least reaches the inlet temperature of the hydrotreating reactor. Comparing with the prior art, the inventive process effectively solves the coking problem of the hydrogenating unit for inferior naphtha fraction.



Separation of components from a multi-component hydrocarbon stream which includes ethylene

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process to separate a multi-component hydrocarbon stream which includes ethylene and other components with at least some of the components being present in a number of phases, is provided. The process includes in a first flash stage, flashing the multi-component hydrocarbon stream, from an elevated pressure and temperature to a pressure in the range of 10-18 bar(a), producing a first ethylene-containing vapor stream at a pressure in the range of 10-18 bar(a) and a multi-phase stream which includes some ethylene. In a second flash stage, the multi-phase stream is flashed to a pressure of less than 6 bar(a), producing a second vapor stream at a pressure of less than 6 bar(a) and a bottoms stream. The first ethylene-containing vapor stream is removed from the first flash stage, the second vapor stream is removed from the second flash stage and the bottoms stream is removed from the second flash stage.



Adsorption of acid gases

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An adsorption process is disclosed for removal of acid gas contaminants from a liquid or gas which comprises providing an activated alumina adsorbent which is impregnated with a compound selected from the group consisting of one or more alkali metal compounds, one or more alkaline earth metal compounds, or a mixture of such compounds; contacting the liquid or gas containing acid gas contaminants with the activated alumina adsorbent to adsorb enough acid gas contaminant in the liquid or gas to lower the contaminant content of the liquid or gas, the alumina adsorbent being formed from agglomerated calcined alumina powder and provided with a mercury pore volume of pores greater than 500 angstroms at least 0.10 cc/g.



Phenol removal in paraxylene recovery process

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention is directed to purification of an aromatic hydrocarbon stream including selective removal of phenol from a process stream comprising aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures, especially aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures that contain higher-than-equilibrium paraxylene, by contact with suitable adsorbents, to provide a product stream having lower concentration of phenol than said process stream.



Process for elimination of mercury contained in a hydrocarbon feed with hydrogen recycling

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Elimination of mercury contained in a hydrocarbon feed by: a) feed 1 is mixed with a hydrogen stream 14 and a gaseous fraction 13 originating from c),b) mixture 1a contacted with a catalyst to convert mercury compounds to elemental mercury producing an effluent containing elemental mercury 6, c) effluent containing elemental mercury is cooled to between 20° C. and 80° C., then, at 1.5 MPa and 3.5 MPa and between 20° C. and 80° C., separation 10 of said effluent containing the elemental mercury into a gaseous fraction 11 and a liquid fraction 15, at least a part of said gaseous fraction 11 being recycled to step a),d) fractionation 20 of liquid fraction 15 to produce a gaseous phase 42 and a liquid phase 21, ande) contacting at least a part of gaseous phase 42 with a mercury collection material 43.



Process for the removal of sulfur compounds from hydrocarbon feedstocks

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The invention is directed to a process for the removal of contaminating sulfur compounds, more in particular thiophenic sulfur compounds, from hydrocarbon feedstocks, said process comprising contacting the feedstock in the presence of hydrogen with a sulfided nickel adsorbent, of which adsorbent the rate constant for tetralin hydrogenation activity at 150° C. is less than 0.01 l/s.g cat and wherein in said adsorbent part of the nickel is present in the metallic form.



Process for treating a hydrocarbon-containing feed

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process is provided in which a first hydrocarbon-containing composition is provided where the first hydrocarbon-containing composition comprises hydrocarbons having a boiling range from 25° C. to 538° C. and from 0.1 wt. % to 5 wt. % sulfur, where at least 40 wt. % of the sulfur is contained in hydrocarbons having a boiling point of less than 343° C. where at least 40 wt. % of the sulfur contained in hydrocarbons having a boiling point less than 343° C. is contained in benzothiophenic compounds, and the first hydrocarbon-containing compound is hydrotreated to produce a second hydrocarbon-containing compound.



Method of forming a paraffinic product by thermal cracking

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method of forming a paraffinic product that involves providing a paraffinic feed having an initial average carbon chain length of greater than 20. The paraffinic feed is a product of a gas-to-liquids process, such as a Fischer-Tropsch process. The paraffinic feed is subjected to thermal cracking at elevated temperature and elevated pressure, which results in the formation of a paraffinic product. The paraffinic product has a final average carbon chain length of less than or equal to 20. The paraffinic product is typically liquid at ambient temperature, such as at 25° C.



System and method of introducing an additive with a unique catalyst to a coking process

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Gas oil components, coking process recycle, and heavier hydrocarbons are cracked or coked in the coking vessel by injecting an additive into the vapors of traditional coking processes in the coking vessel. The additive contains catalyst(s), seeding agent(s), excess reactant(s), quenching agent(s), carrier(s), or any combination thereof to modify reaction kinetics to preferentially crack or coke these components. Modifications of the catalysts in the additive improve performance for certain desired outcomes. One exemplary embodiment of the present invention uses the olefin production capabilities from newly developed catalysts to increase the production of light olefins (e.g. ethylene, propylenes, butylenes, pentenes) for alkylation process unit feed, the production of oxygenates, and petrochemical feedstocks, such as plastics manufacture. Another exemplary embodiment of the present invention is the use of the olefin production from newly developed catalysts to improve the coker naphtha quality. A third exemplary embodiment of the present invention uses the cracking characteristics of newly developed catalysts to optimize the production of light gas oils, naphtha, and gases from the coking process.



Coal processing method by using characteristics of sub-critical and supercritical water

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A coal processing method includes adding coal powder, water and catalyst into a series of tandem reactors and processing therein, wherein the coal powder, water and catalyst are added into the first reactor of the series of tandem reactors; and the temperature and pressure of the series reactors is alternatively arranged in sub-critical state and supercritical state of water from the first reactor, the total product from the previous reactor is used as the feed of the next reactor without any further separation.



Plasma-assisted treatment of coal

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process for the plasma-assisted treatment of coal in which coal is directly converted to heavy hydrocarbons. The first step in the process is direct conversion of coal to aliphatic hydrocarbons under plasma conditions in the presence of light hydrocarbons, such as natural gas. In the second process step, the aliphatic hydrocarbons are upgraded to a liquid fuel. The energy for the process can be provided by radio frequency energy, such as microwave energy, that is powered by a renewable energy source. The process has flexibility to adjust aromatic content in the fuel to match fuel specification requirements.



Protected adsorbents for mercury removal and method of making and using same

Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method of removing mercury and/or sulfur from a fluid stream comprising contacting the fluid stream with a sorbent comprising a core and a porous shell formed to include a plurality of pores extending therethrough and communicating with the core. The core comprises a copper compound selected from the group consisting of a basic copper oxysalt, a copper oxide, and a copper sulfide.