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Membrane distillation apparatus and methods

Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Membranes for membrane distillation include at least one hollow fiber porous hydrophobic membrane, the at least one membrane including carbon nanotubes incorporated into the pore structure of the membrane. Membrane distillation systems may include a heat exchanger operably connected to a hollow fiber membrane module with one or more membranes including carbon nanotubes. Methods of solvent removal, sample preconcentration and desalination employing hollow fiber porous hydrophobic membranes with carbon nanotubes are disclosed.



Contaminant control system in an evaporative water treating system

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A contaminant control system for an evaporative water purification process as deployed in a steam assisted gravity drainage process facility for in situ heavy oil recovery, The contaminant control system is specifically designed to simultaneously control silica, hardness and oil contaminant present in the evaporator feed water to prevent fouling of heat exchange surfaces and improve system reliability and can be applied to many evaporator designs available on the market.



Method of treatment of amine waste water and a system for accomplishing the same

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed herein is a system comprising an evaporation unit comprising a first heat exchanger in fluid communication with a second heat exchanger; where the first heat exchanger is operative to heat an effluent stream comprising an amine solvent and/or amine byproducts and water and to discharge the effluent stream to the second heat exchanger; where the second heat exchanger is operative to convert the effluent stream into a distillate stream and a concentrate stream; and a reverse osmosis unit in fluid communication with the evaporation unit; where the reverse osmosis unit comprises a first reverse osmosis unit that is operative to receive the distillate stream and to separate water from byproducts of the amine solvent such that the water has a purity of greater than 95%, based on the weight of the distillate stream.



Evaporative desalination device of multi stage and multi effect using solar heat

Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An evaporative desalination device includes a multi stage vapor generator that generates vapor by passing a hot water supply pipe successively through a plurality of vapor generators to evaporate sea water inside thereof, a multi effect vapor generator that uses vapor in the respective vapor generators as heat source and forms a plurality of evaporator groups which can adjust a number of evaporators disposed inside the respective evaporator groups and produce fresh water according to amounts of supplied vapor to evaporate sea water in the evaporator groups on an outer circumference surface of an evaporation tube by heat of vapor flowing in the evaporation tube, and a discharge unit that condenses vapor in the multi effect generator by sea water to discharge fresh water in liquid state, and returns and supplies portions of discharged sea water to the multi stage vapor generator and the multi effect evaporator.



Packed bed scrubber using a fusel oil solvent

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A two stage scrubber process for ethanol fermentation has a first stage using fusel oil to remove the hazardous air pollutants and recover the majority of the ethanol. A second stage uses water as the scrubbing solvent to recover any residual ethanol that is stripped from the first stage.



Separation of components from a multi-component hydrocarbon stream which includes ethylene

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A process to separate a multi-component hydrocarbon stream which includes ethylene and other components with at least some of the components being present in a number of phases, is provided. The process includes in a first flash stage, flashing the multi-component hydrocarbon stream, from an elevated pressure and temperature to a pressure in the range of 10-18 bar(a), producing a first ethylene-containing vapor stream at a pressure in the range of 10-18 bar(a) and a multi-phase stream which includes some ethylene. In a second flash stage, the multi-phase stream is flashed to a pressure of less than 6 bar(a), producing a second vapor stream at a pressure of less than 6 bar(a) and a bottoms stream. The first ethylene-containing vapor stream is removed from the first flash stage, the second vapor stream is removed from the second flash stage and the bottoms stream is removed from the second flash stage.



Extractive distillation process for benzene recovery

Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

Recovering high purity benzene from hydrocarbon feedstock containing aromatics and non-aromatics is implemented by simple and low-cost modifications to conventional extractive distillation columns (EDCs). Methyl cyclohexane (MCH) that is generated through non-selective hydrogenation of toluene in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) units is a major contaminant in benzene production. To meet MCH specifications, often times the extractive distillation (ED) process for recovering purified benzene is operated with excessive benzene loss to the overhead raffinate stream, producing a lower quality non-aromatic product. Novel techniques (1) remove operational constrictions of the HDS unit on MCH production, thus lengthening the catalyst life and (2) allow the EDC to drive essentially any amount of MCH away from the bottom benzene product without concerns with benzene loss to the overhead raffinate stream and (3) recover benzene from the overhead raffinate stream to upgrade the quality of non-aromatic product and increase the benzene product recovery.



Controlled-gradient, accelerated-vapor-recompression apparatus and method

Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An accelerated vapor recompression apparatus 10 converts incoming flow 35a to a concentrate 35c by developing a concentration profile 146 within a tank 30 holding a liquid 23 containing dissolved solids. The resulting curve 160 of saturation temperature of the stratified liquid 23 (such as a brine 23 or other material 23) moves away from the curve 162 corresponding to fully mixed conditions. The shift 174, 180 in saturation temperature results in increased boiling without increased energy from a heater 70 or compressor 50. A method 90, 200 of control of the system provides interventions 203, 204, 205, 206 at different levels 92, 94, 96, 98 of control, ranging from mass flows 35 to work of a compressor 50, heat from a heater 70, and a predictive processing 215 of feedback 217 for controlling commands 216 algorithmically.



Rotary evaporator

Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A rotary evaporator comprising a motor, a rotary joint movably inserted to a motor rotor of the motor by a sleeve in an axial direction, a collection flask attached to the rotary joint at one end of the joint, with a condenser attached to the other end of the joint. The condenser is adapted to receive a cooling coil from an immersion cooler. The cooling coil is attached to the base unit of the immersion cooler via an insulated hose. The rotary evaporator is adapted to provide various ways to remove heat from the flask in the water bath, whether by mechanically lowering the water bath, dropping fluid from the bath into an underlying reservoir, or raising and lowering the rotary evaporator out of the bath. Where the rotary evaporator is raised and lowered, the immersion cooler can remain in place if the hose connecting the base unit to the cooling coil is sufficiently long, or the condenser includes a flexible portion that accommodates the upward and downward movement.



Processes for separation of fluoroolefins from hydrogen fluoride by azeotropic distillation

Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present disclosure relates to a process for separating a fluoroolefin from a mixture comprising hydrogen fluoride and fluoroolefin, comprising azeotropic distillation both with and without an entrainer. In particular are disclosed processes for separating any of HFC-1225ye, HFC-1234ze, HFC-1234yf or HFC-1243zf from HF.



Energy conservation in heavy-hydrocarbon distillation

Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An aromatics complex producing one or more xylene isomers offers a large number of opportunities to conserve energy by heat exchange within the complex. One previously unrecognized opportunity is through providing two parallel distillation columns operating at different pressures to separate C8 aromatics from C9+ aromatics. The parallel columns offer additional opportunities to conserve energy within the complex through heat exchange in associated xylene recovery facilities.



Method for preparing 1,3,5-trioxane

Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method for preparing 1,3,5-trioxane using a distillation tower including a reactor, a distillation section, and an extraction section. Particularly, the present invention relates to a method for preparing 1,3,5-trioxane, in which the water phase separated from the stream discharged through the extraction unit of the reaction distillation tower is used in the process of extracting 1,3,5-trioxane.



Trihalosilane refining method

Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A trihalosilane refining device and a trihalosilane refining method are provided. The trihalosilane refining device can be useful in obtaining high-purity trihalosilane from a feed containing a trihalosilane while consuming a small amount of energy.



Suspended solids separation systems and methods

Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A method that includes clarifying a thin stillage product in a mechanical processor to produce a fine suspended solids stream and a clarified thin stillage is provided. The method further includes providing the thin stillage product and the clarified thin stillage, separately or in a combined stream, to one or more evaporators to produce one or more reduced suspended solids streams, each stream having a reduced amount of suspended solids and a lower viscosity as compared to process streams having a comparable total solids content but containing a higher amount of suspended solids. The method can further included further processing of one or more of the reduced suspended solids streams to produce a bio-oil product.



Controlled-gradient, accelerated-vapor-recompression apparatus and method

Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

An accelerated vapor recompression apparatus 10 converts incoming flow 35a to a concentrate 35c by developing a concentration profile 146 within a tank 30 holding a liquid 23 containing dissolved solids. The resulting curve 160 of saturation temperature of the stratified liquid 23 (such as a brine 23 or other material 23) moves away from the curve 162 corresponding to fully mixed conditions. The shift 174, 180 in saturation temperature results in increased boiling without increased energy from a heater 70 or compressor 50. A method 90, 200 of control of the system provides interventions 203, 204, 205, 206 at different levels 92, 94, 96, 98 of control, ranging from mass flows 35 to work of a compressor 50, heat from a heater 70, and a predictive processing 215 of feedback 217 for controlling commands 216 algorithmically.



Multi-effect evaporator

Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A thermal desalination system adapted to produce distilled water from feed water which may be sea water, based on a forward feed evaporator made up of a main water feed line, a vapor feed line, a distilled water main line and any number of effect groups. The effect groups include any number of effects which in turn include vapor inlets, water inflow lines, concentrate outflow lines that drain into a common concentrate drainage line, a vapor and water outlet in fluid communication with the distilled water main line, and heat transfer means that condense part of an inlet vapor to produce the distilled water.



Alkylene oxide separation systems, methods, and apparatuses

Tue, 17 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The disclosure relates to a process for separating propylene oxide for a crude propylene oxide stream, for example an intermediate stream from a PO/TBA process. The crude propylene oxide stream can be passed through an extractive distillation column. The distillation column is operated at a pressure in a range of greater than 25 up to 50 psig, and/or at a temperature in a range of from 70 to 150 degrees Celsius using C8-C20 paraffin as extractive solvent with an overhead distillate water wash drum. The crude propylene oxide stream include from 0.001 to 0.1 wt % methanol, based on the total composition of the crude propylene oxide stream. The systems, methods, and apparatuses can produce a propylene oxide stream having less formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than the prior art.



Method for preparing 1,3,5-trioxane

Tue, 17 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method for preparing 1,3,5-trioxane using a reaction distillation tower including a reactor and integrally formed distillation and extraction sections. Particularly, the present invention relates to a method for preparing 1,3,5-trioxane characterized in that the amount of formaldehyde discharged to the outside of the system is reduced, to thereby increase the yield of 1,3,5-trioxane by recirculating a portion of the water phase, which is discharged through the top of the reaction extraction tower, to the extraction section, and thus to the upper portion of the extractor supply stream which supplies extractant to the extraction section.



Method for purifying 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention provides a method for purifying HFO-1234yf, comprising the steps of (1) cooling a liquid mixture containing HFO-1234yf and HF to separate the mixture into a upper liquid phase having a high concentration of HF and a lower liquid phase having a high concentration of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene; and (2) subjecting the lower liquid phase obtained in step (1) to a distillation operation to withdraw a mixture containing HFO-1234yf and HF from a top of a distillation column, thereby obtaining substantially HF-free HFO-1234yf from a bottom of the distillation column. According to the present invention, HF and HFO-1234yf contained in a mixture containing HF and HFO-1234yf can be separated under simple and economically advantageous conditions.



Method and device for purifying a liquid

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method for purifying a liquid comprising liquid particles and residual particles. It is hereby possible to generate substantially pure water from, for instance seawater.



Trihalosilane refining method

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDT

A trihalosilane refining device and a trihalosilane refining method are provided. The trihalosilane refining device can be useful in obtaining high-purity trihalosilane from a feed containing a trihalosilane while consuming a small amount of energy.



Method for fabricating divided wall columns

Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EST

The invention relates to a method producing a portioned column by forming a first segment and a third segment into arcuate segments, and attaching these arcuate segments to a second z-shaped segment to from two contiguous volumes with approximately semi-circular cross-sections that combine to form a partitioned, approximately cylindrical segment.



Recovery of butanol isomers from a mixture of butanol isomers, water, and an organic extractant

Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EST

A process for recovering butanol from a mixture of a water-immiscible organic extractant, water, butanol, and optionally a non-condensable gas, is provided. The butanol is selected from 1-butanol, isobutanol, and mixtures thereof. An overhead stream from a first distillation column is decanted into two liquid phases. The wet butanol phase is refined in a second distillation column; the aqueous phase is returned to the first distillation column. A portion of the wet butanol phase from the decanter is also returned to the first distillation column. The extractant may be C7 to C22 fatty alcohols, C7 to C22 fatty acids, esters of C7 to C22 fatty acids, C7 to C22 fatty aldehydes, and mixtures thereof.



Recovery of butanol isomers from a mixture of butanol isomers, water, and an organic extractant

Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EST

A process for recovering butanol from a mixture of a water-immiscible organic extractant, water, butanol, and optionally a noncondensable gas, is provided. The butanol is selected from 1-butanol, isobutanol, and mixtures thereof An overhead stream from a first distillation column is decanted into two liquid phases. The wet butanol phase is returned to the first distillation column as reflux. A bottom stream from the first distillation column is refined in a second distillation column to obtain a second overhead stream and a second bottoms stream. The extractant may be C7 to C22 fatty alcohols, C7 to C22 fatty acids, esters of C7 to C22 fatty acids, C7 to C22 fatty aldehydes, and mixtures thereof.



Trihalosilane refining method

Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EST

A trihalosilane refining device and a trihalosilane refining method are provided. The trihalosilane refining device can be useful in obtaining high-purity trihalosilane from a feed containing a trihalosilane while consuming a small amount of energy.



Levulinic acid from fungal biomass

Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

Systems and methods for producing levulinic acid from fungal biomass are disclosed. In one implementation, a method for distilling levulinic acid from a glucosamine-containing feedstock is disclosed that yields a relatively pure (e.g., 90% or greater) levulinic acid product from an otherwise problematic waste stream.



System and method for recycling high-boiling-point waste photoresist stripper

Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

In a system and method for recycling a high-boiling-point waste photoresist stripper generated in processes of manufacturing LCDs or semiconductor devices, an expensive high-boiling-point stripper solvent can be easily recycled at high yield and high-purity electronic grade. This system includes a first distillation device for removing low-boiling-point impurities, a second distillation device for recycling a stripper solvent composition while removing high-boiling-point impurities, and a third distillation device for removing trace water, thus recovering the stripper solvent composition, and further includes a fourth distillation device for additionally recycling a stripper solvent, thus additionally recovering a high-boiling-point stripper solvent, and this method includes removing low-boiling-point impurities, recycling a stripper solvent composition while removing high-boiling-point impurities, and removing trace water, thus recovering the stripper solvent composition, and further includes additionally recycling a stripper solvent.



Method for the removal and condensation of vapors

Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

A method for removal and condensation of vapors from within an enclosed space (120) is disclosed. An enclosed space (120) containing material (110) is surrounded by an insulative permeable layer (130) having a lowering temperature gradient (230) between the inner surface (220) and the outer surfaces (240). The insulative layer (130) may also be covered by an impermeable layer (140). Heating the material (110) in the enclosed space (120) causes the formation of vapors at a positive pressure within the enclosed space (120). Vapors pass through the inner surface (220) of the insulative permeable layer (130) and contact the permeable materials and are condensed by the lowering temperature within the insulative layer (130). The condensate liquid passes downwardly through the insulative layer (130) for collection. The positive pressure within the heated enclosed space (120) and the condensation and lowering of pressure and temperature within the insulative layer (130) serves to draw additional vapors from within the enclosed space (120) into the insulative layer (130) for condensation and collection.



Separation and extraction of hydrocarbons from source material

Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

Systems and methods for extracting recoverable materials from source materials are provided. Source materials are introduced into a furnace. A condition is created within the furnace in which a gaseous pressure within the furnace is less than an atmospheric pressure outside of the furnace by removing air from within the furnace with a vacuum pump. Hydrocarbons contained within the source material are separated from the source material without using a significant amount of water by heating the source material to a temperature sufficient to cause the hydrocarbons to liquefy or vaporize. The liquefied hydrocarbons or vaporized hydrocarbons are then captured.



Rotary evaporator

Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

The invention relates to a rotary evaporator comprising a rotary drive having a hub and a clamping insert with a sleeve-like basic shape, in particular a clamping sleeve, for the clamping of a steam leadthrough formed as a hollow glass shaft in the hub of the rotary drive, wherein the clamping insert has a longitudinal axis and a first and a second axial end, wherein the clamping insert has two clamping sections which are arranged spaced apart from one another in the longitudinal direction and which each have an outer cross-section tapering toward the first end and of which the clamping arrangement arranged closer to the second end has a larger maximum outer cross-section.



Process for recovery of values from a fermentation mass obtained in producing ethanol and products thereof

Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

The present invention generally relates to processes for recovery of values from a fermentation mass obtained in producing ethanol. Further, the present invention relates to processes for the recovery of values from an inorganic- and lignin-containing mass. The present invention also relates to processes for the recovery of a fraction having enhanced silica content from a silica-containing mass. Still further, the present invention relates to processes for the recovery of crude ethanol from a fermentation mass. The present invention relates to various lignin-containing products and solutions and mineral-rich products.



Method and apparatus for processing vegetable oils

Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

The present invention provides certain improvements in methods for processing vegetable oils and apparatus for carrying out such methods. One embodiment provides a method for processing a partially processed oil including glycerides and a volatilizable impurity fraction. The partially processed oil may processed by driving off a first volatiles stream comprising a portion of the glycerides and at least a portion of the volatilizable impurity fraction, leaving a deodorized oil. The first volatiles stream may be introduced into a first condensing chamber and a glyceride-rich, impurity-poor first condensate may be condensed from the first volatiles stream, leaving a glyceride-poor, impurity-rich second volatiles stream. The second volatiles stream may be passed into a second condensing chamber and a glyceride-poor, impurity-rich second condensate may be condensed from the second volatiles stream.



Apparatus and method for purifying a liquid

Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

For purifying a liquid, the liquid is caused to evaporate in a cyclone in a recirculation circuit. Vapor is discharged via a discharge channel in which a compressor is included. In a heat exchanger downstream of the compressor, supplied vapor condenses and heat thereby released is transferred to liquid in the recirculation circuit. A liquid inlet of the cyclone is placed and directed for delivering a jet having a directional component tangential with respect to an inner surface of the cyclone. The liquid inlet has a section shaped such that in operation the delivered jet is a flat jet having a cross section which in a direction parallel to a nearest generatrix of the inner surface of the cyclone is greater than in a direction perpendicular thereto. The jet contacts the inner surface of the cyclone before drop formation occurs in the jet. A method for purifying a liquid is also described.



Compact evaporator for modular portable SAGD process

Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

A modular portable evaporator system for use in a Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) systems having an evaporator, with a sump including an oil skimming weir, a short tube vertical falling film heat exchanger including an outer shell containing short tubes provided for lower water circulation rate. The system further having external to the evaporator, a compressor for compressing evaporated steam from the tube side of the heat exchanger and routing to the shell side of the same exchanger, a distillate tank to collect hot distilled water, a recirculation pump to introduce liquids from the sump into the heat exchanger and an external suction drum protecting the compressor from liquid impurities. The evaporator system receives produced water from the SAGD process into the sump and provides cleaned hot water to a boiler.



Solar distillation device

Tue, 10 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

A solar distillation apparatus utilizing a substantially vertical reactor assembly is disclosed. The reactor includes a tubular outer shell, a base, a cap, and a central tension member. The annular space between the outer tube and the central tension member forms the reactor chamber. Seawater or other feed liquid enters the reactor chamber through the base plate. Reflected or direct solar energy heats the feed liquid, generating low pressure vapor. The vapor exits the reactor through the cap structure or the base. The concentrate left behind settles by gravity to the bottom region of the reactor's liquid column. Extension tubes on the feed openings allow feed liquid to enter the liquid column above the concentrate layer and avoid excessive mixing of the feed liquid and the concentrate. The concentrate exits the reactor through one or more openings in the base.



Process to generate synthesis gas and/or liquid raw materials and/or energy materials from waste and/or biomass

Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

Process to generate synthesis gas and/or liquid raw materials and/or energy materials from waste and/or biomass by performing the following steps: a) solvolysis of the organic components of waste and/or biomass in an alkaline solution or hydrate smelter at a temperature range of 150° to 250° C. and pressure between 3 and 12 bar, whereby the organic components are converted into at least one liquid phase and the inorganic components are sedimented; b) elimination of the inorganic components from the liquid phase by physical separation methods; c) transfer of the vapors generated during the solvolysis into a rectification column, where the organic components are separated from water; and d) further separation of the organic components by rectification, extraction and sorption and/or conversion by thermal gasification into synthesis gas or burnable gas.



Water recovery system SAGD system utilizing a flash drum

Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

A water recovery process for a steam assisted gravity drainage system for a heavy oil recovery facility, the process comprising a flash drum and a flash drum heat exchanger/condenser, wherein the water recovery process receives hot water produced by a facility at a temperature above the water atmospheric boiling point and cools it to a temperature below the water atmospheric boiling point before transferring it to the remaining section of the water recovery process.



Induction heated gasifier

Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

A method of removing organic components from a mixture containing organic and inorganic components which method involves providing an induction heated screw conveyor having an auger and passing the mixture through the induction heated screw conveyor while inductively heating the auger so as to heat the mixture in the induction heated screw conveyor primarily from the center of the induction heated screw conveyor. The mixture is heated to a temperature that is sufficient to cause the organic components in the mixture to separate from the mixture as a vapor. The oxygen concentration in the induction heated screw conveyor is controlled so as to gasify the organic components. The gasified organic components are removed and the remaining inorganic components are collected.



Induction heated screw

Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:00:00 EST

A method of separating a high boiling component from a mixture containing organic and/or inorganic boiling components which method involves providing an induction heated screw conveyor having an auger and passing the mixture through the induction heated screw conveyor while inductively heating the auger so as to heat the mixture in the induction heated screw conveyor. The mixture is heated to a temperature that is sufficient to cause the boiling component(s) to separate from the mixture as a vapor and the boiling component is removed from the induction heated screw conveyor.



Method for producing base lubricating oil from waste oil

Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:00:00 EST

A method for recovering base oil from waste lubricating oil by separating base oil range constituents from a waste lubricating oil mixture, thereafter separating higher quality base oil constituents and lower quality base oil constituents from the base oil recovered from the waste lubricating oil mixture and thereafter treating the lower quality base oil constituents to produce marketable base oil. The total base oil produced from a waste lubricating oil mixture by this process is greater than the quantity producible by previous processes using only base oil separation from the waste lubricating oil mixture or processes which use only treatment of the base oil recovered from the waste lubricating oil mixture to produce the product base oil.



Process for preparing polymethylols

Tue, 13 Jan 2015 08:00:00 EST

A process is provided for recovering components from a low boiler mixture which is obtained in the distillation of hydrogenation effluents from the preparation of polymethylols, by multistage distillation of the low boiler mixture having a tertiary amine, water, methanol, a polymethylol, a methylolalkanal, an alcohol and an alkanal with a methylene group in the alpha position to the carbonyl group. A first distillation stage involves separating the low boiler mixture into a higher-boiling, predominantly water-rich fraction and into a lower-boiling aqueous organic fraction having the tertiary amine. A second distillation stage involves separating the aqueous organic fraction from the first distillation stage into a predominantly amine-containing fraction and a further amine-depleted fraction. The tertiary amine is trimethylamine or triethylamine and the bottom temperature in the second distillation stage is at least 110° C.



Dividing wall distillation column for producing high purity acrylic acid and fractional distillation method using the same

Tue, 13 Jan 2015 08:00:00 EST

There are provided a dividing wall distillation column for producing high-purity acrylic acid, and a fractional distillation method using the same. The dividing wall distillation column includes a condenser, a reboiler and a main column having a dividing wall. Here, the main column is divided into a column-top zone, an upper feed zone, an upper outflow zone, a lower feed zone, a lower outflow zone and a column-bottom zone. Accordingly, since one distillation column can be used to realize the same effect as that obtained from the use of two distillation columns, the dividing wall distillation column can have an effect of reducing the costs of equipment to produce high-purity acrylic acid, as well as an energy-reducing effect, compared to a conventional process system.



Reversibly binding resin for algal harvest and concentration

Tue, 30 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

The present invention includes a method for harvesting or separating one or more biological cells from an aqueous feed, a stream, a suspension, or any combinations thereof by providing the aqueous feed, the stream, or the suspension comprising the one or more biological cells in a tank or a vessel; providing one or more ion-exchange resins, wherein the ion-exchange resin is an anion-exchange resin; contacting the anion-exchange resin with the aqueous feed; binding the one or more biological cells to the anion-exchange resin; releasing or eluting the bound one or more biological cells by changing the pH; and collecting the released one or more biological cells to obtain a concentrated slurry or suspension of the one or more biological cells.



System and process for producing a H2-containing gas and purified water

Tue, 30 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

System and process for producing a H2-containing product gas and purified water from an integrated H2-producing reforming and thermal water purification process. Raw water, such as salt water, is heated by indirect heat transfer with reformate from the H2-producing reforming process for purifying raw water in a multiple effect distillation process.



Water purification using energy from a steam-hydrocarbon reforming process

Tue, 30 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

A process and system for producing a H2-containing product gas and purified water from an integrated catalytic steam-hydrocarbon reforming and thermal water purification process. Raw water, such as salt water, is heated by indirect heat transfer with reformate from the catalytic steam reforming process for purifying raw water in one of a multiple effect distillation process and a multi-stage flash process.



Method of increasing anhydrosugars, pyroligneous fractions and esterified bio-oil

Tue, 30 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.



Method of treating sludge using solar energy

Tue, 30 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

A method of treating sludge using solar energy is provided. The present invention utilizes a Fresnel panel frame that includes at least one Fresnel panel. The Fresnel panel may cover at least a portion of a bed cavity. An amount of waste may be placed within the bed cavity. When placed in sunlight, the heat enhanced by the Fresnel panels may heat the waste sufficiently for safe easy disposal, recycling, or for the creation of fertilizer.



Energy conservation in heavy-hydrocarbon distillation

Tue, 23 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

An aromatics complex producing one or more xylene isomers offers a large number of opportunities to conserve energy by heat exchange within the complex. One previously unrecognized opportunity is through providing two parallel distillation columns operating at different pressures to separate C8 aromatics from C9+ aromatics. The parallel columns offer additional opportunities to conserve energy within the complex.



Recovery of tetracosanol from a mixture derived from tall oil pitch

Tue, 23 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

Described is a process to obtain tetracosanol from a complex mixture derived from tall oil pitch that comprises terpenoids, rosin alcohols, rosin aldehydes, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons and stilbene derivatives. The process comprises a mixture crystallization step from hexane and a fractional distillation of the crystallized solids, which yields tetracosanol with more than 90% purity.



Process for liquid/solid separation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate fermentation broth

Tue, 09 Dec 2014 08:00:00 EST

When lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate is included in fermentation medium, the broth resulting from biocatalyst production is complex with low filterability. A heat treatment was found to increase filterability, allowing efficient separation of a liquid fraction from a solid fraction, which is further processed for water recycle and syrup production.