Tue, 30 Jun 2015 08:00:00 EDTA multi-junction solar cell having a Ge or GaAs substrate, as well as a solar cell structure having several subcells deposited on the substrate, the substrate having peripheral side faces, and the solar cell structure having a peripheral circumferential surface, which runs spaced apart from the side faces. To prevent oxidation and penetration of moisture, the circumferential surface of the solar cell structure is coated with a protective, electrically insulating first coating under essential exclusion of the upper surface facing the rays, or that without encroaching on the solar cell structure, the side faces of the substrate are coated with a protective, electrically insulating second coating or that both the side faces of the substrate as well as the circumferential surface of the solar cell structure are coated with a third coating by essential exclusion of the upper surface facing the rays.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTProvided is an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device comprising a first light emitting part on a substrate, emitting a first light of a first wavelength, wherein the first light emitting part includes a transparent first electrode, a first organic light emitting layer, and a transparent second electrode sequentially stacked on the substrate, a second light emitting part on the first light emitting part, emitting a second light of a second wavelength, wherein the second light emitting part includes a transparent third electrode, a second organic light emitting layer, and a reflective fourth electrode sequentially stacked on the first light emitting part, and a fluorescent material disposed at least one between the substrate and the first light emitting part, and between the first light emitting part and second light emitting part.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA novel method and apparatus for performing the method is disclosed the apparatus comprises a laser (17), at least one ink jet print head (14), means for holding a transparent substrate having a transparent conductive layer, means (22) for adjusting the relative positions of the laser and at least one ink jet print head to the transparent conducting layer (2) and a controller to control the laser and ink jet print head whereby in a first step to inkjet print one or more coarse metal borders (15) onto the deposited TCM layer and in a second step by means of a single laser ablation process, ablating tracks in both the metal border and underlying TCM layer to form a plurality of discrete electrical busbars (12) and optionally also to form electrodes in the remainder of the TCM layer.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides an organic thin film solar cell having a novel photoelectric conversion layer with superior conversion efficiency from light to electricity and superior carrier transportability to an electrode. The photoelectric conversion layer is arranged between a pair of electrodes at least one of which has optical transparency, and comprises a multilayer film formed by alternately laminating an electron-donating organic semiconductor thin film and an electron-accepting thin film. The electron-donating organic semiconductor thin film is formed by organic semiconductor molecules in which cyclic compounds are bound in a linear fashion.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods of forming a photovoltaic structures including nanoparticles are disclosed. The method includes electrospray deposition of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles can include TiO2 nanoparticles and quantum dots. In an example, the nanoparticles are formed on a flexible substrate. In various examples, the flexible substrate is light transparent. Photovoltaic structures and apparatus for forming photovoltaic structures are disclosed.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA thin-film solar cell includes a cell having a transparent electrode layer, a photoelectric conversion layer, and a back electrode layer stacked on a transparent insulation substrate. A plurality of cells are connected in series to constitute a cell string. A bus bar is arranged on the back electrode layer of an end cell constituting the cell string. The thin-film solar cell has a photoelectric conversion layer on a series-connection direction end of the transparent electrode layer. In plan view, a series-connection direction end of the back electrode layer at an end of the cell string and the series-connection direction end of the transparent electrode layer at the end of the cell string do not overlap, while the bus bar and the transparent electrode layer at the end cell constituting the cell string overlap at least partially. A method of fabricating the thin-film solar cell is provided.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA surface of a photovoltaic cell is coated with a solution that includes barium titanate to reduce reflection of sunlight that is incident on the surface. The solution may include a base of polydimethylsiloxane and carbon nanotubes. The process may be used in the fabrication of new photovoltaic cell assemblies, or to retrofit existing assemblies in situ.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA solar cell module includes a plurality of solar cells each comprising a substrate, an emitter region placed at the substrate, and an anti-reflection region placed on the emitter region. The anti-reflection region includes a first opening region through which part of the emitter region is exposed and one or more second opening regions through which part of the emitter region is exposed. A first electrode is connected to the exposed emitter region of the first opening region through the anti-reflection region by metal plating and a first bus bar is connected to the exposed emitter region of one or more second opening regions through the anti-reflection region by metal plating.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA photovoltaic device including a substrate; a first electrode placed on the substrate; a second electrode which is placed opposite to the first electrode and which light is incident on; a first unit cell being placed between the first electrode and the second electrode, and including an intrinsic semiconductor layer including crystalline silicon grains making the surface of the intrinsic semiconductor layer toward the second electrode textured; and a second unit cell placed between the first unit cell and the second electrode.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA solar-cell sealant that has excellent properties such as transparency, flexibility, adhesiveness, heat resistance, appearance, cross-linking characteristics, electrical characteristics, and calenderability. A solar-cell sealant that contains an ethylene/α-olefin/unconjugated-polyene copolymer satisfying requirements (a1) through (a3). Requirement (a1) is that constituent units derived from ethylene constitute 80-90 mol %, constituent units derived from C3-20 α-olefin constitute 9.99-19.99 mol %, and constituent units derived from an unconjugated polyene constitute 0.01-5.0 mol % of said copolymer. Requirement (a2) is that the MFR of said copolymer, as measured in accordance with ASTM D1238 at 190° C. under a 2.16 kg load, be at least 2 g/10 min. and less than 10 g/10 min. Requirement (a3) is that the Shore A hardness of said copolymer, as measured in accordance with ASTM D2240, be 60 to 85.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe solar cell module includes a solar panel that includes a transparent substrate and is configured by aligning solar cells, a reinforcing frame arranged on the back surface of the solar panel, and a shock absorbing unit arranged between the solar panel and the reinforcing frame, where the shock absorbing unit has the first main surface facing the solar panel, which is a flat surface, and a second main surface facing the reinforcing frame, which is a curved surface bowed in the longitudinal direction of the reinforcing frame, having an arc shape in cross section, and convexed toward the reinforcing frame side.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA nano power cell and method of use are described wherein the nano power cell absorbs electromagnetic energy is nano particles in an optical fluid that flow in microchannels of the nano power cell.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention is that of a solar energy system that uses a light-guide solar panel (LGSP) to trap light inside a dielectric or other transparent panel and propagates the light to one of the panel edges for harvesting by a solar energy collector such as a photovoltaic cell. This allows for very thin modules whose thickness is comparable to the height of the solar energy collector. This eliminates eliminating the depth requirements inherent in traditional concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems. A light guide solar panel has a deflecting layer, a light guide layer and a solar cell in optical communication with the light guide layer. The deflecting layer receives light at a first surface and inputs the light into the light guide layer. The light guide layer propagates the light to the solar cell, which is aligned generally parallel to the input surface.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTHemispheres and spheres are formed and employed for a plurality of applications. Hemispheres are employed to form a substrate having an upper surface and a lower surface. The upper surface includes peaks of pillars which have a base attached to the lower surface. The peaks have a density defined at the upper surface by an array of hemispherical metal structures that act as a mask during an etch to remove substrate material down to the lower surface during formation of the pillars. The pillars are dense and uniform and include a microscale average diameter. The spheres are formed as independent metal spheres or nanoparticles for other applications.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA photovoltaic cell comprises a top subcell having a first band gap; a middle subcell comprising a substrate and having a second band gap, wherein the substrate comprises a first side and a second side opposite to the first side; and a bottom subcell having a third band gap, wherein the top subcell is grown on the first side of the substrate and the bottom subcell is grown on the second side of the substrate, wherein the first band gap is larger than the second band gap and the second band gap is larger than the third band gap.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for fabricating a photovoltaic device includes depositing a p-type layer at a first temperature and depositing an intrinsic layer while gradually increasing a deposition temperature to a final temperature. The intrinsic layer deposition is completed at the final temperature. An n-type layer is formed on the intrinsic layer.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method of photoplating a metal contact onto a surface of a cathode of a photovoltaic device is provided using light induced plating technique. The method comprises: a) immersing the photovoltaic device in a solution of metal ions, where the metal ions are a species which is to be plated onto the surface of the cathode of the photovoltaic device; and b) illuminating the photovoltaic device, using a light source of time varying intensity. This results in nett plating which is faster in a direction normal to the surface of the cathode than in a direction in a plane of the surface of the cathode.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAccording to example embodiments, a conductive paste includes a conductive component that contains a conductive powder and a titanium (Ti)-based metallic glass. The titanium-based metallic glass has a supercooled liquid region of about 5K or more, a resistivity after crystallization that is less than a resistivity before crystallization by about 50% or more, and a weight increase by about 0.5 mg/cm2 or less after being heated in a process furnace at a firing temperature. According to example embodiments, an electronic device and a solar cell may include at least one electrode formed using the conductive paste according to example embodiments.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA conductive paste may include a conductive component and an organic vehicle. The conductive component may include an amorphous metal. The amorphous metal may have a lower resistivity after a crystallization process than before the crystallization process, and at least one of a weight gain of about 4 mg/cm2 or less and a thickness increase of about 30 μm or less after being heated in a process furnace at a firing temperature.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides a photoelectric conversion material comprising a fullerene derivative represented by the formula C60(R1)5(R2), wherein each R1 independently represents an organic group having a substituent; and R2 represents a hydrogen atom or a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C30 hydrocarbon group. Further, the present invention also provides a photoelectric conversion device having a self-assembled monomolecular film of the photoelectric conversion material, and a solar cell having the photoelectric conversion device.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure relates to gel-type polymer electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell, a dye-sensitized solar cell comprising the gel-type polymer electrolyte, and a method for manufacturing the dye-sensitized solar cell.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn adjustable photovoltaic panel mounting system that allows for variations in roofs and roof elements, while still maintaining a rigid and secure assembly. The specific location for supporting feet and structural elements of the mounting system may be varied to allow for variations in roof features and different panel configurations. The mounting mechanisms are adjustable in both a North/South and a East/West direction to provide for maximum layout flexibility.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA light guide apparatus includes a light guide layer having a top surface and a bottom surface, and a transversely oriented side-end surface that forms an output aperture of the light guide, characterized by an index of refraction, n1, and further characterized by a length dimension in an intended light propagation direction towards the output aperture, where the intended light propagation direction is a z-axis direction of a Cartesian coordinate system; and a plurality of light injection elements disposed in the form of at least one linear strip in at least one of the top and bottom surfaces of the light guide layer, wherein some of the plurality of light injection elements are disposed on one lateral side of the strip and some other of the plurality of light injection elements are disposed on an opposing lateral side of the strip at a rotation angle Δz about the y-axis.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA separate connection device (40) intended to be inserted between a metal frame (3), of an electrical component (1), and a metal supporting structure (20) in order to connect, electrically and separately, the frame to the supporting structure. The connection device (40) comprises a metal blade manufactured from spring steel which comprises two self-connecting end areas (45, 46) arranged in separate planes and comprising a set of sharp teeth (47) arranged in order to be embedded within the metal material and formed on a folded section of the metal blade so that the sets of teeth (37, 47) extend in opposite directions and in planes intended to intersect the planes of the frame (3) and of the supporting structure (20) when the connection device is mounted.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA PV panel uses an array of small silicon sphere diodes (10-300 microns in diameter) connected in parallel. The spheres are embedded in an uncured aluminum-containing layer, and the aluminum-containing layer is heated to anneal the aluminum-containing layer as well as p-dope the bottom surface of the spheres. A phosphorus-containing layer is deposited over the spheres to dope the top surface n-type, forming a pn junction. The phosphorus layer is then removed. A conductor is deposited to contact the top surface. Alternatively, the spheres are deposited with a p-type core and an n-type outer shell. After deposition, the top surface is etched to expose the core. A first conductor layer contacts the bottom surface, and a second conductor layer contacts the exposed core. A liquid lens material is deposited over the rounded top surface of the spheres and cured to provide conformal lenses designed to increase the PV panel efficiency.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA back electrode type solar cell in which a no-electrode-formed region where no electrode is placed is provided in a part of a peripheral portion of a back surface of the back electrode type solar cell such that a line connecting end portions of a plurality of electrodes to one another includes a partially inwardly recessed region and the no-electrode-formed region is located adjacent to each of an electrode for n-type and an electrode for p-type adjacent to each other, a solar cell module, a method of manufacturing a back electrode type solar cell with interconnection sheet, and a method of manufacturing a solar cell module are provided.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA crack resistant solar cell module includes a protective package mounted on a frame. The protective package includes a polyolefin encapsulant that protectively encapsulates solar cells. The polyolefin has less than five weight percent of oxygen and nitrogen in the backbone or side chain. In other words, the combined weight percent of oxygen and nitrogen in any location in the molecular structure of the polyolefin is less than five. The polyolefin also has a complex viscosity less than 10,000 Pa second at 90° C. as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) before any thermal processing of the polyolefin. The protective package includes a top cover, the encapsulant, and a backsheet. The solar cell module allows for shipping, installation, and maintenance with less risk of developing cracks on the surfaces of the solar cells.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides a dye-sensitized solar cell which enhances an area of a photo electrode by arranging metal wires on a surface of a transparent substrate or a transparent conductive layer without degrading a transparency of the solar cell, allowing the metal wires to act as a collector electrode exclusively or together with a metal electrode.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDT[Problem] To provide a photovoltaic device capable of generating power whether day or night, without affecting the appearance of a structure or reducing lighting or other functions, and able to inhibit rises in room temperature by converting thermal radiation into electrical energy. [Means to Solve Problems] Provide a photoelectric conversion element 3 with a photovoltaic device 1 on structural members 2a-2d facing the outside of a house or other structure. Power generated by the photoelectric conversion element 3 is extracted via a power extraction unit 4. The power conversion element 3 includes a semiconductor layer 11, conductive layer 20, a metal nanostructure 30 having multiple periodic structures 33, a first electrode 41 and a second electrode 42. The first and second electrodes 41, 42 are separated in the direction of the surface of the photoelectric conversion element 1 with the terminals 71, 81 of the power extraction unit 4 respectively connected.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA layered compound-metal particle composite 3 is obtained by the addition, to an organically modified layered compound 1 formed by the intercalation of organic ions between layers of a layered compound, of both an aqueous colloidal metal solution 2 in which metal particles are dispersed as a metal colloid in water, and a nonaqueous solvent which is a poor solvent for the metal colloid and has an excellent ability to swell the organically modified layered compound 1.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA solar energy collection system can include support devices made with bearings formed from sheet material. These bearings can be optionally formed so as to provide tool-less connections to their associated bearing housings. The bearings can be formed with an open configuration allowing a shaft to be inserted into an open bite of the bearing. Optionally, the bearing can be made from an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene plastic material. Additionally, two open-type bearing assemblies can be mounted axially offset and opposed to one another.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn one embodiment, harmful solar cell polarization is prevented or minimized by providing a conductive path that bleeds charge from a front side of a solar cell to the bulk of a wafer. The conductive path may include patterned holes in a dielectric passivation layer, a conductive anti-reflective coating, or layers of conductive material formed on the top or bottom surface of an anti-reflective coating, for example. Harmful solar cell polarization may also be prevented by biasing a region of a solar cell module on the front side of the solar cell.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn improved method and apparatus for thermal-to-electric conversion involving relatively hot and cold juxtaposed surfaces separated by a small vacuum gap wherein the cold surface provides an array of single charge carrier converter elements along the surface and the hot surface transfers excitation energy to the opposing cold surface across the gap through Coulomb electrostatic coupling interaction.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn organic compound and a photoelectric conversion device containing the organic compound are disclosed. The organic compound and device realize high photoelectric conversion efficiency, low dark current and high-speed responsivity. It has been found that when this organic compound and an n-type semiconductor are used in combination, high-speed responsivity can be realized while maintaining high heat resistance, an aspect of which has not been seen when the connection part between a donor part and an acceptor part is a phenylene group.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTNovel photoactive polymers, as well as related photovoltaic cells, articles, systems, and methods, are disclosed.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA resin composition, a multi-layered film, a backsheet for photovoltaic modules, a method thereof, and a photovoltaic module are provided. The multi-layered film including a coating layer including a fluorine-based polymer has an excellent durability and weather resistance, and also exhibits high interfacial adhesive strength to a substrate since the multi-layered film is formed by coating a cured product of the resin composition including the fluorine-based polymer, an acrylic polymer including a thermosetting functional group, and a heat-curing agent on the substrate. In addition, drying can be performed at a low temperature during the manufacture of the multi-layered film so that the manufacturing costs can be decreased, productivity can be increased, and the deterioration of the product due to heat modification, heat shock, and the like, can be prevented. The multi-layered film can be effectively used as a backsheet for various photovoltaic modules.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTPhoto-field-effect transistor devices and associated methods are disclosed in which a photogate, consisting of a quantum dot sensitizing layer, transfers photoelectrons to a semiconductor channel across a charge-separating (type-II) heterointerface, producing a sustained primary and secondary flow of carriers between source and drain electrodes. The light-absorbing photogate thus modulates the flow of current along the channel, forming a photo-field effect transistor.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn optoelectronic semiconductor component includes a radiation emitting semiconductor chip having a radiation coupling out area. Electromagnetic radiation generated in the semiconductor chip leaves the semiconductor chip via the radiation coupling out area. A converter element is disposed downstream of the semiconductor chip at its radiation coupling out area. The converter element is configured to convert electromagnetic radiation emitted by the semiconductor chip. The converter element has a first surface facing away from the radiation coupling out area. A reflective encapsulation encapsulates the semiconductor chip and portions of the converter element at side areas in a form-fitting manner. The first surface of the converter element is free of the reflective encapsulation.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAccordingly, a method of forming a metal chalcogenide material may comprise introducing at least one metal precursor and at least one chalcogen precursor into a chamber comprising a substrate, the at least one metal precursor comprising an amine or imine compound of an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a transition metal, a post-transition metal, or a metalloid, and the at least one chalcogen precursor comprising a hydride, alkyl, or aryl compound of sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. The at least one metal precursor and the at least one chalcogen precursor may be reacted to form a metal chalcogenide material over the substrate. A method of forming a metal telluride material, a method of forming a semiconductor device structure, and a semiconductor device structure are also described.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present teachings relate to new semiconducting polymers. The polymers disclosed herein can exhibit high carrier mobility and/or efficient light absorption/emission characteristics, and can possess certain processing advantages such as solution-processability and/or good stability at ambient conditions.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA photoelectric conversion element comprising a substrate, a first electrode, a photoelectric conversion layer comprising a semiconductor and a sensitizing dye, a hole transport layer and a second electrode, wherein the hole transport layer comprises a polymer having a repeat unit represented by Formula (1) or (2),
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThis invention is directed to a flexible solar cell photovoltaic module with high light transmittance based on modified substrate, which belongs to the field of thin-film solar cell technology. The objective of the present invention to provide a technical solution for a transparent flexible solar cell module and its fabrication method. Technical features include using a stainless steel template to mold a modified polyimide PI substrate (the PI substrate). The PI substrate has light-passing through-holes, including draining holes and convergence holes, through and distributed on the PI substrate, a conductive film layer, and various stacked photoelectric conversion film layers. The creativeness of the present invention is obvious, such as reducing the short circuit and current leakage due to crystallization of the photoelectric layer interface caused by a subsequent process of laser etching the conductive film layer, reducing the composition on the surface of the solar cell, reducing steps of the fabrication process, and lowering the production cost. Further, the present invention significantly increases the conversion efficiency and load capacity of the solar cell and the quality-cost ratio. The transparent flexible solar cell photovoltaic module also has a broad range of applications.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThis disclosure relates to electroconductive paste formulations useful in solar panel technology. In one aspect, the disclosure relates to an inorganic reaction system for use in electroconductive paste compositions, wherein the inorganic reaction system comprises a lead containing matrix composition and a tellurium containing matrix composition. In another aspect, the disclosure relates to an electroconductive paste composition comprising a conductive metal component, an inorganic reaction system and an organic vehicle. Another aspect of the disclosure relates to a solar cell produced by applying an electroconductive paste composition of the invention to a silicon wafer. Yet another aspect relates to a solar cell module assembled using solar cells produced by applying an electroconductive paste composition to a silicon wafer, wherein the electroconductive paste composition comprises an conductive metal component, an inorganic reaction system and an organic vehicle.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides a solar-cell-integrated gas production device that can generate a first gas and a second gas by utilizing an electromotive force of a solar cell, and that can supply power to an external circuit by utilizing the same solar cell. The solar-cell-integrated gas production device according to the present invention comprises: a photoelectric conversion part having a light acceptance surface and its back surface; a first electrolysis electrode provided on the back surface of the photoelectric conversion part so as to be capable of being immersed into an electrolytic solution; a second electrolysis electrode provided on the back surface of the photoelectric conversion part so as to be capable of being immersed into the electrolytic solution; and a changeover part, wherein the first electrolysis electrode and the second electrolysis electrode are provided to be capable of electrolyzing the electrolytic solution to generate a first gas and a second gas by utilizing an electromotive force generated by irradiating the photoelectric conversion part with light, and the changeover part makes a changeover between a circuit that outputs the electromotive force, generated by irradiating the photoelectric conversion part outputs the electromotive force, generated by irradiating the photoelectric conversion part with light, to the first electrolysis electrode and the second electrolysis electrode.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA semiconductor device, in particular a solar cell, comprises a semiconductor substrate having a semiconductor substrate surface and a passivation composed of at least one passivation layer which surface-passivates the semiconductor substrate surface, wherein the passivation layer comprises a compound composed of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride or aluminum oxynitride and at least one further element.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method of connecting two solar cells is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises gripping an interconnect with a head of positioning device, heating the interconnect with the head of the positioning device to between two predetermined temperatures, where one is higher than the other, positioning the interconnect so as to overlay two adjacent solar cells, coupling the interconnect to each of the two adjacent solar cells, and releasing the interconnect from the head.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed is a photovoltaic device. The photovoltaic device includes: a substrate; a first electrode placed on the substrate; a second electrode which is placed opposite to the first electrode and which light is incident on; a first unit cell being placed between the first electrode and the second electrode, and including an intrinsic semiconductor layer including crystalline silicon grains making the surface of the intrinsic semiconductor layer toward the second electrode textured; and a second unit cell placed between the first unit cell and the second electrode.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods and apparatus for converting electromagnetic radiation, such as solar energy, into electric energy with increased efficiency when compared to conventional solar cells are provided. A photovoltaic (PV) device generally includes a window layer; an absorber layer disposed below the window layer such that electrons are generated when photons travel through the window layer and are absorbed by the absorber layer; and a plurality of contacts for external connection coupled to the absorber layer, such that all of the contacts for external connection are disposed below the absorber layer and do not block any of the photons from reaching the absorber layer through the window layer. Locating all the contacts on the back side of the PV device avoids solar shadows caused by front side contacts, typically found in conventional solar cells. Therefore, PV devices described herein with back side contacts may allow for increased efficiency when compared to conventional solar cells.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTImproved silicon solar cells, silicon image sensors and like photosensitive devices are made to include strained silicon at or sufficiently near the junctions or other active regions of the devices to provide increased sensitivity to longer wavelength light. Strained silicon has a lower band gap than conventional silicon. One method of making a solar cell that contains tensile strained silicon etches a set of parallel trenches into a silicon wafer and induces tensile strain in the silicon fins between the trenches. The method may induce tensile strain in the silicon fins by filling the trenches with compressively strained silicon nitride or silicon oxide. A deposited layer of compressively strained silicon nitride adheres to the walls of the trenches and generates biaxial tensile strain in the plane of adjacent silicon fins.