Tue, 08 Dec 2015 08:00:00 ESTA method comprising applying a chemical change reagent to coal prior to combustion of the coal is provided. In some instances, the chemical change reagent can include an effective amount of a material to reduce NOx emissions, SOx emissions, or both from combustion of the coal.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA separation system and method for separating one or more solid fossil fuels from a contaminated source in a liquid medium, the system including primary separation means and secondary separation means, the primary and secondary separation means being arranged to operate with liquid media of differing specific gravities.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTUse of a reaction product of saturated or unsaturated aliphatic mono- or polycarboxylic acids with aliphatic polyamines for improving or boosting the separation of water from fuel oils which comprise additives with detergent action. A Fuel additive concentrate comprising the said reaction product, certain additives with detergent action and optionally dehazers, cetane number improvers and solvents or diluents.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods for making a fuel composition comprising contacting one or more components of a hydroprocessing feedstock, for example both a fatty acid- or triglyceride-containing component and a paraffin-rich component, with hydrogen under catalytic hydroprocessing conditions are disclosed. The methods are effective to upgrade the component(s) and provide a hydroprocessed biofuel. A representative method utilizes a single-stage process in which hydrogen-containing recycle gas is circulated through both a hydrodeoxygenation zone and a hydrocracking zone in series.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides novel techniques for controlling the output of a distillation sub-process by controlling, using model predictive control, the temperature of steam used in the distillation sub-process, wherein the steam is generated in a milling and cooking sub-process. In particular, the present techniques are presented in the context of biofuel production, wherein the temperature of a cook tube generated in a milling and cooking sub-process may be controlled to optimize the energy utilization in the ethanol/water separation of a side stripper column, which uses the cook flash steam as an energy source. However, the present techniques may also be applied to other suitable applications, such as liquor processing, where steam generated in a different process may be used in a distillation process to help separate water from the liquor.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe disclosure describes a high energy density jet fuel composition, having a smoke point about 18 mm as determined by ASTM D1322 and a thermal stability of no more than 25 mm Hg as determined by ASTM D 3241, and a method for making a jet fuel composition, wherein the net heat of combustion is determined by the aromatics content, cycloparaffins content, and normal plus or iso paraffins content in the jet fuel composition.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates generally to processes for preparing agglomerated particulate low-rank coal feedstocks of a particle size suitable for reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor and certain other gasification reactors and, in particular, for coal gasification and combustion applications. The present invention also relates to integrated coal gasification and combustion processes including preparing and utilizing such agglomerated particulate low-rank coal feedstocks.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to the use of at least 120 ppm of a nitrogen-containing detergent as a diesel fuel additive to improve the performance of a diesel engine having a high pressure fuel system.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA wax composition comprising various waxes and an organically modified polysiloxane (OMP). These materials are mixed and melted into a homogenous liquid state creating a molten blend. It is preferred that the slip agent be added to the blend at least 0.25 percent by weight, and more preferably at 0.50 percent by weight. By mixing OMP with known candle and wax potpourri waxes, the wax becomes much easier to remove from the wax container.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe moisture absorption capacity of biofuels can be more or less 10 times that of fossil diesel oil, causing biofuels to form acids that induce metal corrosion and form deposits in the fuel tank and pipe lines. Methods for removing moisture from stored biofuels and plant oils are described wherein glycerol is used as a solvent to extract the moisture from the bioliquid or oil, comprising the steps of placing the biofuel or oil in fluid contact with glycerol, incubating for a time, and then removing the glycerol. A cellulous ester dialysis or other semi-permeable membrane may be used to prevent the glycerol from contaminating the biofuel while allowing moisture to pass. Crude glycerol produced as a byproduct of biodiesel production may be used in the method of the disclosed invention with good result. Preferred embodiments of apparatus that employ the method of the subject invention are described.
Tue, 12 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTFor producing synthetic fuels, an educt mixture containing steam and oxygenates, such as methanol and/or dimethyl ether, is converted to olefins on a catalyst in a first process stage, and this olefin mixture then is divided in a separating means into a stream rich in C1-C4 hydrocarbons and a stream rich in C5+ hydrocarbons. The stream rich in C5+ hydrocarbons is divided into a stream rich in C5 and C6 hydrocarbons and a stream rich in C7+ hydrocarbons, wherein the stream rich in C5 and C6 hydrocarbons is at least partly subjected to an etherification with methanol. The ethers thus obtained are admixed to the gasoline product stream.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA process for converting triacylglycerides-containing oils into crude oil precursors and/or distillate hydrocarbon fuels is disclosed. The process may include reacting a triacylglycerides-containing oil-carbon dioxide mixture at a temperature in the range from about 250° C. to about 525° C. and a pressure greater than about 75 bar to convert at least a portion of the triacylglycerides to a hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons comprising one or more of isoolefins, isoparaffins, cycloolefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics.
Tue, 05 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA fuel production method and a fuel production apparatus, for producing fuel by which the fuel efficiency can be improved and the generation of hazardous substances can be easily suppressed and which is stable, and fuel oil produced by such a method and apparatus are provided. This improves the satisfaction of users, and contributes to the prevention of environmental destruction. A fuel production method for producing fuel oil by mixing and reacting enzyme water with petroleum-based hydrocarbon oil is provided, the enzyme water being produced by mixing a natural plant enzyme, containing at least lipase, in water. The natural plant enzyme further contains cellulase. The enzyme water further contains methanol.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA process for demineralizing coal includes the steps of forming a slurry of coal particles in an alkali solution, the slurry containing 10-30% by weight coal, maintaining the slurry at a temperature of 150-250° C. under a pressure sufficient to prevent boiling, separating the slurry into an alkalized coal and a spent alkali leachant, forming an acidified slurry of the alkalized coal, the acidified slurry having a pH of 0.5-1.5, separating the acidified slurry into a coal- containing fraction and a substantially liquid fraction, subjecting the coal-containing fraction to a washing step, particularly a hydrothermal washing step, in which the coal-containing fraction is mixed with water and a polar organic solvent or water and an organic acid to form a mixture and separating the coal from the mixture. The demineralized coal has an ash content of from 0.01-0.2% by weight and can be used a feed to a gas turbine.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for improving performance of fuel injectors, and a method for cleaning fuel injectors for an internal combustion engine. The methods include operating the engine on a fuel composition comprising a major amount of fuel and from about 1 to about 200 ppm by weight based on a total weight of the fuel of a reaction product of (i) a hydrocarbyl substituted compound containing at least one tertiary amino group and (ii) a halogen substituted C2-C8 carboxylic acid, ester, amide, or salt thereof, wherein the reaction product as made is substantially devoid of free anion species.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to alkanolamide-containing compositions, and more particularly to alkanolamide-containing compositions formed by the reaction of a fatty acid and diethanolamine (DEA) which contain low levels of undesirable by-products. Such compositions are particularly suitable for use as fuel additives.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTUse in a gas oil fuel composition, which preferably comprises a Fischer-Tropsch derived fuel, of a compound according to formula (I): wherein: R1 to R4 are each independently hydrogen or a C1-10 alkyl group, where such alkyl groups may be the same as or different from one another; and X is a nitrogen- or oxygen-containing group, for the purpose of reducing the cetane number of said fuel composition; preparation of such a fuel composition; and operating a fuel consuming system.
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA two-stage reactor is disclosed for the conversion of solid particulate biomass material. The reactor is designed to maximize conversion of the solid biomass material, while limiting excess cracking of primary reaction products. The two-stage reactor comprises a first stage reactor, in which solid biomass material is thermally pyrolyzed to primary reaction products. The primary reaction products are catalytically converted in a second stage reactor.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA compound having formula (Ph3C)mAr(OR)n, wherein Ph represents a phenyl group, Ar is an aromatic ring system having from six to twenty carbon atoms, R is C1-C18 alkyl or C7-C12 aralkyl, m is one or two, and n is an integer from one to four.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTPresent embodiments include systems for reducing moisture in a solid feed provided to a gasifier. For example, in an embodiment, a feedstock preparation system includes an aspirator having a first inlet for receiving a flow of steam, a second inlet for receiving a flow of a moist gaseous phase from a grinding mechanism configured to grind a solid fuel in the presence of a conveyance gas. The moist gaseous phase includes the conveyance gas and moisture removed from the ground solid fuel. The aspirator also includes an outlet configured to output a reduced pressure flow having the steam and the moist gaseous phase. The aspirator is configured to enhance moisture removal from the ground solid fuel to produce a dry feed of the ground solid fuel. The aspirator discharge is recycled within the process to heat the incoming dry conveyance gas and improve system efficiency.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure is directed to a middle distillate fuel composition comprising a friction modifying effective amount of a hydrocarbyl-substituted succinimide derived from maleic anhydride, polyisobutylene and ammonia; and a middle distillate fuel. A method for modifying friction in a compression engine comprising providing to the engine the disclosed fuel composition is also disclosed. Moreover, there is disclosed a method for improving fuel mileage.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods for converting petroleum based oil into fuel generally include forming a conversion mixture of an alcohol and a base, and adding the conversion mixture to petroleum based oil, such as used motor oil, to form a reaction mixture. The methods can also include adding a high nitrate compound and an amino acid to the reaction mixture and ozonizing the reaction mixture. The result of the methods can include a three phase system in which the bottom phase is asphalt oil, the middle phase is diesel fuel or jet fuel, and the top phase is sulfuric acid. The three phases can be separated to obtain the final diesel fuel or jet fuel product.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTPolytetrahydrobenzoxazines and bistetrahydrobenzoxazines, obtainable by (A) reacting at least one diamine of the formula H2N-A-NH2 with a C1- to C12-aldehyde and a C1- to C8-alkanol at 20 to 80° C. with elimination and removal of water, (B) reacting the condensation product from (A) with a phenol which bears a long-chain substituent at 30 to 120° C., and optionally (C) heating the reaction product from (B) to 125 to 280° C. The resulting polytetrahydrobenzoxazines and bistetrahydrobenzoxazines are suitable as fuel or lubricant additives, especially as detergent additives for diesel fuels.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTEmbodiments presented herein describe an apparatus and method to control the conversion of carbonaceous materials, particularly biomass and those biomass resources, into a high performance solid fuel. This method, and the apparatus described as the means to accomplish this method, provides a process having a control system that enables the system to produce a fuel of uniform quality, even with a change in biomass supply.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA process for upgrading brown coal having a first water content including subjecting the brown coal to a conditioning step which includes heating the brown coal to a first temperature to produce a conditioned brown coal having a second water content which is lower than the first water content; attritioning the conditioned brown coal to enable water to be released from the microstructure of the brown coal and thereby producing an admixture of the brown coal and released water; forming aggregates of the admixture; drying the aggregates to produce upgraded brown coal having a third water content which is lower than the second water content.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTModified solid fuel manufacturing method and modified solid fuels manufactured using the manufacturing method. When solid fuels are manufactured by crushing low grade coal, mixing the crushed low grade coal with solvent oil to prepare a slurry, heating the slurry to at least the boiling point of water to evaporate moisture included in the slurry, separating the solvent oil from the slurry to produce charcoal dust and compression compacting said charcoal dust, by heating the slurry to at least the boiling point of water, the non-volatile components included in the low grade coal are extracted with the solvent oil, the outer surface of the low grade coal and the internal surfaces of the pores are coated with the extracted non-volatile components, and the content of heavy oil added from the outside will be less than 0.5 mass % relative to the solid fuel after drying.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to the use of 1,1-diethoxyethane for increasing the knocking resistance of low-boiling gasoline with an initial boiling point (IBP) of 80° C. to 120° C. by at least 40 units (Research Octane Number).
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for marking a petroleum hydrocarbon or a liquid biologically derived fuel by adding at least one compound having formula (I), wherein R1 and R2 independently represent hydrogen or C1-C4 alkyl groups, and G represents hydrogen or at least one substituent selected from the group consisting of C1-C18 alkyl and C1-C18 alkoxy.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA compound having formula (I) wherein G represents at least one substituent selected from the group consisting of C1-C12 alkyl and C1-C12 alkoxy.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA device for preparing bio-oil, a system for preparing bio-oil and a method for preparing bio-oil using the same are provided. Biomass is supplied to an inclined portion of a reactor, and high-temperature hot sand is supplied to an upper side of the biomass supplied to the inclined portion. Then, a heater heats the inclined portion. Thus, the fast pyrolysis performance of the biomass can be enhanced, thereby increasing the yield of bio-oil. Also, combustion gas produced from the heater is supplied to the interior of the reactor, so that the interior of the reactor can be simply formed under a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Accordingly, the device for preparing bio-oil can be manufactured into a very simple structure.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention relates to methods for the conversion of lignocellulosic matter into fuel products. More specifically, the invention relates to methods for the generation of a bio-oil product from specific component(s) of lignocellulosic matter.
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA heater in a housing with an opening. The heater reacts with oxygen to produce heat and upon consumption of the oxygen, the heating reaction stops and can be restarted at a later point in time upon the introduction of additional oxygen and is used in a package for heating pre-moistened substrates such as sanitary wipes, and the like.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA multi-stage reactor system for preparing biodiesel is used to increase efficiency and yield and reduce impurities. A three-stage transesterification reaction for preparing biodiesel can include one high-shear cavitation reactor and two low-shear cavitation reactors, preferably in series, and optionally one or more separation vessels for removing waste and recycling triglyceride feedstock, catalyst and alcohol to the high-shear cavitation reactor.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention concerns a process for producing synthetic coal and aqueous liquid plant fertilizing solution products from a fermentation residue such as is left over from the corn based process of producing ethanol. The synthetic coal has a high heat value commensurate with naturally occurring coals and is lower in ash and sulfur content and thus has value as a clean burning energy source. The aqueous fertilizer includes commercially useful amounts of phosphorous, potassium and nitrogen in solution. The process of the invention is also energy efficient in that the products produced thereby involve the use of substantially less energy as compared to the traditional methods of processing fermentation residues in the corn based ethanol production industry.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn apparatus for upgrading coal comprising a baffle tower, inlet and exhaust plenums, and one or more cooling augers. The baffle tower comprises a plurality of alternating rows of inverted v-shaped inlet and outlet baffles. The inlet and outlet plenums are affixed to side walls of the baffle tower. Process gas enters the baffle tower from the inlet plenum via baffle holes in the side wall and dries the coal in the baffle tower. Process exhaust gas exits the baffle tower into the exhaust plenum via baffle holes in a different side wall of the baffle tower. Coal that enters the baffle tower descends by gravity downward through the baffle tower and enters a cooling auger, where the dried coal from the baffle tower is mixed with non-dried coal. A method of using the apparatus described above to upgrade coal.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTSystems and methods for producing engineered fuels from municipal solid waste material are described herein. In some embodiments, a method includes combining a first waste stream that includes at least one of hard plastic, soft plastic and mixed plastic with a sorbent and increasing the temperature of the combined first waste stream and sorbent to a temperature of at least about 200° C. The method further includes combining the thermally treated first waste stream and sorbent with a second waste stream that includes fiber, and compressing the combined first waste stream, sorbent, and second waste stream to form a densified engineered fuel feedstock.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTMethods for producing alcohols and oligomers contemporaneously from a hydrocarbon feed containing mixed butenes using an acid based catalyst are provided. Additionally, methods for producing fuel compositions having alcohols and oligomers prepared from mixed olefins are also provided as embodiments of the present invention. In certain embodiments, the catalyst can include a dual phase catalyst system that includes a water soluble acid catalyst and a solid acid catalyst.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for controlling the manufacture and certification of an oxygenated gasoline product is carried out by manufacturing a gasoline Basestock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB) at a refinery site in accordance with an empirical relationship, valid for at that site under typical manufacturing conditions, between (i) a property value of the BOB stream such as octane as determined by an on-site online process analyzer and (ii) the corresponding instantaneous value or FPAPV property value as determined by the test method mandated by the product specification for the final gasoline stream when blended with the required proportion of oxygenate. The quality of fit of this empirical relationship is calculated according to the standard deviation of the residuals of the relationship and a confidence level is fixed so that the final oxygenated gasoline formulated with the BOB will meet the required property specification when measured by the test method mandated by the specification. The final oxygenated gasoline blend is certified as having a property value conforming to the required specification based on the predicted property value for the finished gasoline.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThis invention relates to low sulfur marine/bunker fuel compositions and methods of making same. Contrary to conventional marine/bunker fuel compositions/methods, the inventive lower sulfur compositions/methods focus on use of mostly uncracked components, such as (cat feed) hydrotreated gasoils, and/or can also have reduced contents of residual components.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to transparent gel candle bases that may be used as a base material of transparent candles, to the transparent candles made therefrom, and to methods of making such candle bases and candles. The transparent gel candle bases of the present invention include a hydrocarbon oil and a gelling agent comprising dibutyl lauroyl glutamide and dibutyl ethylhexanoyl glutamide.
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 08:00:00 EDTA process of drying moisture containing material having a tendency to create dust when dried, said process including the steps of providing said material in a heated chamber having a steam containing atmosphere at a temperature above the dewpoint of the steam, recirculating a hot gas including a portion of the steam through said chamber in order to evaporate moisture from the material to a predetermined level of dryness.
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for obtaining diesel fuel from vegetable or animal oils through the addition of hydrogen in the presence of catalysts under suitable temperature and pressure conditions is described. The method is different from other similar methods in that it involves the use of space velocities of between 5.1 h-1 and 9 h-1, thereby enabling a reduction in the size of the reactor and in hydrogen consumption, as well as lowering construction and operating costs. The invention also relates to the products obtained using said method, which have demonstrated that in additions, even below 10%, they improve the performance of diesel engines, thereby lowering fuel consumption.
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTMeasurements are taken of moisture, BTU/lb (British Thermal Units per pound), ash, forms of sulfur, volatile material, grindability, and absorption properties of any of a wide variety of mine-run solid fuels. Using that information, a dry electromagnetic process technology has been developed that can be controlled and monitored to selectively alter and enhance metallurgical solid fuel properties. Specific changes include altering the mechanical structure and chemical composition of solid fuels such as coal, coal coke or petroleum coke, increasing the BTU/lb to optimum levels, decreasing all forms of sulfur, and decreasing ash, while maintaining the BTU/lb of the fuels. A new family of solid fuel designer coals not found in nature can be produced via these methods and apparatus.
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure is directed to the application of additives to a feed material at a location remote from an industrial facility using the feed material.
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA fuel additive and its preparation for a engine, a fuel containing the additive, a fuel additive concentrate, a method for improving performance of fuel injectors and a method for cleaning fuel injectors for an engine. The fuel additive includes a quaternary ammonium salt derived from a reaction of a hydrocarbyl substituted anhydride, a tertiary amine and a hydroxyl-containing epoxide, wherein the tertiary amine is devoid of primary and secondary amino groups.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTThis invention provides co-cultures of photosynthetic microorganisms and biofuel producing microorganisms. In certain embodiments, polysaccharide-producing, photosynthetic microorganisms are microalgae having frustules provide a substrate on which biofuel-producing microorganisms can grow. In other embodiments, the photosynthetic microorganisms produce a lipid and the non-photosynthetic microorganisms produce a solvent in which the lipid is soluble.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method that includes clarifying a thin stillage product in a mechanical processor to produce a fine suspended solids stream and a clarified thin stillage is provided. The method further includes providing the thin stillage product and the clarified thin stillage, separately or in a combined stream, to one or more evaporators to produce one or more reduced suspended solids streams, each stream having a reduced amount of suspended solids and a lower viscosity as compared to process streams having a comparable total solids content but containing a higher amount of suspended solids. The method can further included further processing of one or more of the reduced suspended solids streams to produce a bio-oil product.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for manufacturing an oxygenated gasoline-blend by blending a hydrocarbon Basestock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB) with an alcohol such as ethanol to a required octane specification first blends the BOB to an octane number, (RON+MON)/2 based on the octane sensitivity (RON−MON) of the BOB and the proportion of alcohol to be added to the BOB, such that when the BOB is blended with the specification proportion of alcohol to form the oxygenated gasoline blend, this blend will have the required octane specification. The blending of the BOB with the alcohol will typically be done at a location remote from that where the BOB is blended, e.g. at the product distribution terminal after being transported from the refinery by pipeline or tank car.
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:00:00 EDTA fuel additive imparting high lubricity to gasoline and diesel fuels while concurrently increasing miles and reducing emissions. The fuel additive is formed of a plurality of individual components having individual and a combined synergistic effect along with components increasing fuel lubricity which are mixed with a liquid fuel-soluble carrier and added to the fuel supply of internal combustion engines.