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SYNCHROTRON INJECTOR SYSTEM, AND SYNCHROTRON SYSTEM OPERATION METHOD

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A synchrotron injector system comprising a first ion source which generates a first ion, a second ion source which generates a second ion having a smaller charge-to-mass ratio than a charge-to-mass ratio of the first ion, a pre-accelerator having the capability to enable to accelerate both the first ion and the second ion, a low-energy beam transport line which is constituted in such a way to inject either the first ion or the second ion into the pre-accelerator, and a self-focusing type post-accelerator which accelerates only the first ion after acceleration which is emitted from the pre-accelerator.



Plasma-Based Light Source

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

The present disclosure is directed to plasma-based light sources. Systems and methods are described for protecting components of the light source from plasma generated debris which can include target material gas, atomic vapor, high energy ions, neutrals, micro-particles, and contaminants. Particular embodiments include arrangements for reducing the adverse effects of plasma generated ions and neutrals on light source components while simultaneously reducing in-band light attenuation due to target material gas and vapor.



Door Mounted Sanitizer Light

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A mountable multiple angle sanitizing light for a door handle with the ability to be powered by batteries or ac mains.



LASER APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ADDING CHAMBER TO LASER APPARATUS

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A laser apparatus of the present disclosure may include: a frame; a first amplifier positioned to the frame; a first input optical system positioned to the frame and configured to cause a pulse laser beam generated by an external device to enter the first amplifier; and a first output optical system positioned to the frame and configured to cause a pulse laser beam having exited from the first amplifier in a first direction to exit in a second direction that is different from the first direction.



LEVEL SHIFTER CIRCUIT AND METHOD

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A circuit includes a photodiode electrically coupled to a first node, the first node configured to be charged by a first power supply voltage. A second node is configured to be charged by a second power supply voltage lower than the first power supply voltage, a source follower transistor is electrically coupled between the second node and a column line, and a level shifter is electrically coupled between the first node and the second node.



Multiplexing of Ions for Improved Sensitivity

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Systems and methods are provided for multiplexed precursor ion selection using a filtered noise field (FNF). Two or more different precursor ions are selected using a processor. The processor calculates an FNF waveform. The calculated FNF waveform is applied to a continuous beam of ions using the processor. The processors sends information to a mass spectrometer, which includes an ion source that provides the continuous beam of ions and a first quadrupole that receives the continuous beam of ions, so that the first quadrupole applies the calculated FNF waveform to the continuous beam of ions. The first quadrupole applies the calculated FNF waveform to the continuous beam of ions by applying the calculated FNF waveform between pairs of rods or between pairs of auxinary electrodes placed between rods.



METHOD FOR ANALYZING IONIC STRUCTURE

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A method for analyzing ionic structure, including: applying a radio frequency electric field on an ion mass analyzer to cause sample ions to be excited to a motion amplitude, the motion amplitude at this moment being recorded as a primary motion amplitude; continuously feeding carrier gas into the ion mass analyzer and keeping a certain degree of vacuum in the ion mass analyzer, the sample ions being collided with the carrier gas and the motion amplitude being decreased gradually, and collecting a time domain signal of an image current generated by the sample ions during the process; and analyzing the time domain signal through a time-frequency analysis method and obtaining time-varying characteristic curves indicating corresponding relations between the motion frequencies of the ions having corresponding sizes and the collision cross sectional areas of the ions and the carrier gas, thus distinguishing among ions having different sizes.



IONIZATION APPARATUS

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

In an ion source 3 in which a repeller electrode 32 for forming a repelling electric field that repels ions toward an ion emission port 311 is provided inside of an ionization chamber 31, ion focusing electrodes 36 and 37 are respectively arranged between an electron introduction port 312 and a filament 34 and between an electron discharge port 313 and a counter filament 35. An electric field formed by applying a predetermined voltage to each of the ion focusing electrodes 36 and 37 intrudes into the ionization chamber 31 through the electron introduction port 312 and the electron discharge port 313, and becomes a focusing electric field that pushes the ions in an ion optical axis C direction. Ions at positions off a central part of the ionization chamber 31 receive the combined force of the force of the repelling electric field and the force of the focusing electric field, and move toward the ion emission port 311 while approaching the ion optical axis C. Accordingly, the amount of ions sent out from the ion emission port increases. Further, even if a charge-up phenomenon occurs, the ion trajectories less easily change, and the stability of the sensitivity can be enhanced.



COLLISION ION GENERATOR AND SEPARATOR

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

According to some embodiments, systems and methods for surface impact ionization of liquid phase and aerosol samples are provided. The method includes accelerating a liquid or aerosol sample, colliding the sample with a solid collision surface thereby disintegrating the sample into both molecular ionic species (e.g., gaseous molecular ions) and molecular neutral species (e.g., gaseous sample), and transporting the disintegrated sample to an ion analyzer. Some embodiments of the method further comprise discarding the molecular neutral species. Such embodiments transport substantially only the molecular ionic species to the ion analyzer.



BIPOLAR WAFER CHARGE MONITOR SYSTEM AND ION IMPLANTATION SYSTEM COMPRISING SAME

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A charge monitor having a Langmuir probe is provided, wherein a positive and negative charge rectifier are operably coupled to the probe and configured to pass only a positive and negative charges therethrough, respectively. A positive current integrator is operably coupled to the positive charge rectifier, wherein the positive current integrator is biased via a positive threshold voltage, and wherein the positive current integrator is configured to output a positive dosage based, at least in part, on the positive threshold voltage. A negative current integrator is operably coupled to the negative charge rectifier, wherein the negative current integrator is biased via a negative threshold voltage, and wherein the negative current integrator is configured to output a negative dosage based, at least in part, on the negative threshold voltage. A positive charge counter and a negative charge counter are configured to respectively receive the output from the positive current integrator and negative current integrator in order to provide a respective cumulative positive charge value and cumulative negative charge value associated with the respective positive charge and negative charge.



CHARGED PARTICLE BEAM SYSTEM AND METHOD OF OPERATING THE SAME

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A method of operating a charged particle beam system, the method comprises extracting a particle beam from a source; performing a first accelerating of the particles of the beam; forming a plurality of particle beamlets from the beam after the performing of the first accelerating; performing a second accelerating of the particles of the beamlets; performing a first decelerating of the particles of the beamlets after the performing of the second accelerating; deflecting the beamlets in a direction oriented transverse to a direction of propagation of the particles of the beamlets after the performing of the first decelerating; performing a second decelerating of the particles of the beamlets after the deflecting of the beamlets; and allowing the particles of the beamlets to be incident on an object surface after the performing of the second decelerating.



SAMPLE PROCESSING EVALUATION APPARATUS

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A sample processing evaluation apparatus includes a charged particle beam column that irradiates a sample with charged particle beam, a sample holder that holds both ends of the sample, and a sample stage on which the sample holder is placed, in which the sample holder is configured to rotate the sample about a rotation axis between the sample stage and the charged particle beam column.



PATTERN MATCHING USING A LAMELLA OF KNOWN SHAPE FOR AUTOMATED S/TEM ACQUISITION AND METROLOGY

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A method for automatically imaging in an electron microscope (SEM, TEM or STEM) features in a region of interest in a lamella without prior knowledge of the features to be imaged, thereby enabling multiple electron microscope images to be obtained by stepping from the first image location without requiring the use of image recognition of individual image features. By eliminating the need for image recognition, substantial increases in image acquisition rates may be obtained.



Local Alignment Point Calibration Method in Die Inspection

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A calibration method for calibrating the position error in the point of interest induced from the stage of the defect inspection tool is achieved by controlling the deflectors directly. The position error in the point of interest is obtained from the design layout database.



Electrostatic Quadrupole Deflector for Microcolumn

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is an electrostatic quadrupole deflector for a microcolumn. The deflector includes an electron beam passage hole, deflecting electrodes to which a deflection voltage is applied, and floating electrodes to which the deflection voltage is not applied. The deflector is structurally stable and has a simple driving system. The deflector has good performance and characteristics.



Micro-Electron Column Having An Electron Emitter Improving The Density Of An Electron Beam Emitted From A Nano Structure Tip

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a micro-electron column including nanostructure tips each of which has a tubular, columnar, or blocky structure ranging in size from several nanometers to dozens of nanometers. In the micro-electron column, the nanostructure tips can easily emit electrons because a high electric field is generated at the end of the nanostructure tips when a voltage is applied to the nanostructure tips, and an induction electrode is disposed between the electron emitter and a source lens so as to help electrons emitted from the electron emitter to enter an aperture of a first lens electrode layer of the source lens, thereby realizing improved performance of the micro-electron column. In the micro-electron column, the size of the nanostructure tips may be larger than that of the aperture of a source lens.



MICRO-ELECTRON COLUMN HAVING NANO STRUCTURE TIP WITH EASILY ALIGNING

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed is a micro-electron column having nanostructure tips. The micro-electro column includes an electron emission source that is provided with a plurality of nanostructure tips and emits electrons, a source lens, a deflector, and a focusing lens. The nanostructure tips of the electron emission source spread over an area that is larger than that of an aperture of a first lens electrode of a source lens, which is nearest to the electron emission source.



Toroidal Bending Magnets For Hadron Therapy Gantries

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Toroidal superconducting magnets can be used as lightweight rotating bending magnets in hadron therapy gantries. The toroidal bending magnets are self-shielded and do not require ferromagnetic material for field modification or shielding, decreasing both the magnet system weight, as well as overall gantry weight. Achromatic magnet can be made by combining two of these bending magnets. The simple geometry may allow the use of higher fields, making it attractive for carbon, as well as proton.



ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER COMPATIBLE WITH IMAGE SENSOR READOUT

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A time to digital converter (TDC) includes a synchronizer configured to receive a stop signal and a master clock signal, wherein the synchronizer is configured to generate a clock stop signal and a counter enable signal. The TDC further includes a coarse counter configured to receive the master clock signal and the counter enable signal, wherein the coarse counter is configured to generate a most significant bits (MSB) signal based on the counter enable signal and the master clock signal. The TDC further includes a delay line counter configured to receive the stop signal and the clock stop signal, wherein the delay line counter is configured to generate a least significant bits (LSB) signal based on the stop signal and the clock stop signal, and the delay line counter is further configured to perform correlated double sampling (CDS).



INCOHERENT FLUORESCENCE DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC MICROSCOPY USING TRANSMISSION LIQUID CRYSTAL LENS

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A new optical arrangement that creates high efficiency, high quality Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH) holograms using transmission liquid crystal GRIN (TLCGRIN) diffractive lenses has been invented. This is in contrast to the universal practice in the field of using a reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) to separate sample and reference beams. Polarization sensitive TLCGRIN lenses enable a straight optical path, have 95% transmission efficiency, are analog devices without pixels and are free of many limitations of reflective SLM devices. An additional advantage is that they create an incoherent holographic system that is achromatic over a wide bandwidth. Two spherical beams created by the combination of a glass and a polarization sensitive TLCGRIN lenses interfere and a hologram is recorded by a digital camera. FINCH configurations which increase signal to noise ratios and imaging speed are also described.



TERAHERTZ WAVE GENERATING ELEMENT AND TERAHERTZ WAVE DETECTING ELEMENT

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A terahertz wave generating element includes a nonlinear optical crystal generating terahertz waves by propagating light, and a coupling member propagating the generated terahertz waves. The coupling member includes a reflecting face reflecting at least part of the generated terahertz waves. The reflecting face is convex in a propagation direction of the generated terahertz waves. An angle at the coupling member side between the reflecting face and the propagation direction of the light is greater than 90 degrees−cos−1(ng/nTHz) but smaller than 90 degrees at a plane including the light propagation direction. ng represents a group refractive index of the nonlinear optical crystal at a wavelength of the light, nTHz the refractive index of the coupling member at a wavelength of the generated terahertz waves. A curvature radius of the reflecting face, in a reflection region reflecting the radius terahertz waves, is smaller the farther downstream in the light propagation direction.



HIGH ORDER FOCUS IN LASER RADAR TOOLING BALL MEASUREMENTS

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Interrogation optical beams are focused or otherwise shaped for delivery to a target that includes one or more tooling balls so as to have a beam radius of curvature corresponding to a tooling ball radius. Focus values can be stored in a look-up table and can include two beam focus conditions that produce a selected beam focus. The two beam focus conditions are associated with a common beam curvature. The focus conditions are associated with beam curvatures within and without a Rayleigh range from a beam waist.



INTEGRATED POLARIZATION SPLITTER AND ROTATOR

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

An integrated polarization splitter and rotator (PSR) employs the TE0 and TE1 modes of propagating light, rather than the TE0 and TM0 modes used in conventional prior art PSR. The integrated PSR exhibits appreciably flatter wavelength response because it does not require a directional coupler to de-multiplex incoming polarizations. The PSR allows tuning of the TM0 loss to reduce polarization dependent loss (PDL). This integrated polarization splitter and rotator is applicable to all integrated platforms including Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) and III-V semiconductor compound systems. The PSR may be very compact (12×2 μm2), and provides low loss (



SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IMPROVING ENERGY RESOLUTION BY SUB-PIXEL ENERGY CALIBRATION

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A radiation detector assembly is provided including a semiconductor detector, pixelated anodes, and at least one processor. The pixelated anodes are disposed on a surface of the semiconductor detector, and configured to generate a primary signal responsive to reception of a photon and a secondary signal responsive to an induced charge caused by reception of a photon by at least one adjacent anode. The at least one processor is operably coupled to the pixelated anodes, and configured to define sub-pixels for each pixelated anode; acquire primary signals and secondary signals from the pixelated anodes; determine sub-pixel locations for acquisition events using the primary and secondary signals; generate a sub-pixel energy spectrum for each sub-pixel; apply at least one energy calibration parameter to adjust the sub-pixel energy spectra for each pixelated anode; and, for each pixelated anode, combine the adjusted sub-pixel energy spectra to provide a pixelated anode spectrum.



GLASS CAP WIREBOND PROTECTION FOR IMAGING TILES IN AN X OR GAMMA RAY INDIRECT IMAGING DETECTOR

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Wirebond protection is provided for imaging tiles in which the imaging sensor and PCB are mounted side-by-side on a tile carrier for use in X or Gamma Ray indirect imaging detectors without use of a “glob top” encapsulant. A glass cap comprising a bead of adhesive material and a lid is formed to provide an enclosed open-air cavity around the wire bonds. As such, any expansion of the bead material does not produce mechanical stress on the wire bonds.



RADIATION DETECTOR AND DETECTION METHOD HAVING REDUCED POLARIZATION

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A radiation-sensitive detector array (100) including a first side (120), a second side (110) in opposed relation to the first side, and a detector substrate (130) positioned between the first and second sides is presented. The first side is constructed as a non-planar or uneven shape. The first side is a cathode and the second side is an anode. The cathode may be a field emission cathode (FEC) and the detector substrate may be a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector substrate. The non-planar or uneven shape may be a series of equally spaced apart protrusions, each of the protrusions being a pyramidal construction including a peak, the peak adapted and dimensioned to cause electric field lines to focus or converge thereon.



X or Gamma Ray Indirect Image Detector with Fiber Optic Plate (FOP) stand-offs and Method of Assembly

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Stand-offs are attached around the periphery of the fiber optic plate (FOP) to ensure a certain minimum thickness between the FOP and the imaging sensor to reduce shear stress and the risk of delamination due to shear stress in an X or Gamma ray detector. A coupling material fills the gap between the FOP and the imaging sensor.



ION INDUCED IMPACT IONIZATION DETECTOR AND USES THEREOF

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Disclosed are systems, devices and methodologies relating to an ion induced impact ionization detector and uses thereof. In certain implementations, the detector can include a dielectric layer having one or more wells. An anode layer defining apertures to accommodate the openings of the wells can be disposed on one side of the dielectric layer, and a cathode such as a solid resistive cathode can be disposed on the other side so as to provide an electric field in each of the wells. Various design parameters such as well dimensions and operating parameters such as pressure and high voltage are disclosed. In certain implementations, such an ion detector can be coupled to a low pressure gas volume to detect ionization products such as positive ions. Such a system can be configured to provide single ion counting capability. Various example applications where the ion detector can be implemented are also disclosed.



DOSE DISTRIBUTION MEASURING DEVICE

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention measures the dose distribution of radiation emitted from a measurement region. A dose distribution measuring device comprises a radiation detecting unit and a radiation varying unit disposed between the radiation detecting unit and a measurement region. A dose at the location of the radiation detecting unit is measured by the radiation detecting unit in a state in which the direction from which the radiation, which is to be measured by being varied by the radiation varying unit, is emitted from the measurement region onto the radiation detecting unit, is predetermined. The angular distribution of the radiation dose emitted on the radiation detecting unit from the measurement region is measured by identifying the direction and angle from which the radiation arrives from the measurement region to the radiation detecting unit and calculating the dose of the arriving radiation before varying with the radiation varying unit.



Zero Optical Path Difference Phased Array

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A zero-optical-path-length-difference optical phased array built with essentially planar photonic devices determines a direction to an incoherent optical source, such as a star. The phased array can replace a 3-dimensional star tracker with a nearly 2-dimensional system that is smaller and lighter. The zero-optical-path-length-difference phased array can be optically connected to an interferometer. Driven by a light source, the zero-optical-path-length-difference phased array can be used as an optical projector.



Sample-specific Reference Spectra Library

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A method and apparatus are provided for identifying a material with a sample-specific reference spectral list or library. A sequential approach to SEM-EDS automated mineralogy classification is carried out by performing two or more material classification analyses. A pre-classification step restricts the processing of spectra deconvolution algorithms to a subset of spectra that pass a dominant mineral criteria resulting in a significantly reduced subset of reference spectra that occur within the measured sample in pure enough form at a given minimum quantity. The following complex classification stages involving deconvolution of multiple constituents within measured spectra is based on this sample relevant subset.



METHOD FOR DETECTING TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE BASED ON PRINCIPLE OF PHASE BALANCED FREQUENCY MULTIPLICATION MODULATION

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention relates to a method for detecting time-resolved fluorescence based on a principle of phase balanced frequency multiplication modulation. A stimulating light source modulated by using a baseband signal acts on a to-be-measured target to trigger fluorescence, so that the fluorescence intensifies and decays periodically; then, a frequency-doubled square signal is used to control a sampling period and divide an ascending period of the fluorescence into two and a decay period of the fluorescence into two; after independent sampling is performed separately, sampling differences of the two parts are separately calculated and then added to obtain an intensity representative value of a fluorescence signal and to obtain a concentration value of the to-be-measured target. The method in the present invention can not only likewise cancel fluorescence interference of a substrate in a sample, but also can cancel ambient bias light, power-frequency interference of a spatial electromagnetic wave or other signals, and therefore improves signal intensity in fluorescence measurement on the detection sample, has an advantage that cannot be accomplished in a conventional time-resolved fluorescence method, and can be applied in fluorescence intensity detection of a target in fields such as biology, chemistry, and medicine.



PHASE SYNCHRONIZING PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION FLUOROMETER

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A phase synchronizing pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer having an excitation light source capable of emitting a pulse of light that will induce fluorescence in an external object. A photo detector for detecting the pulse and a circuit to synchronize a pulse of light from the excitation light source with a pulse of light from an external light source.



PHOTOTHERMAL SPECTROSCOPY SYSTEMS FOR OFFSET SYNCHRONOUS TESTING OF FLOW ASSAYS AND METHODS OF USING SAME

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Embodiments disclosed herein are directed to photothermal spectroscopy apparatuses and systems for offset synchronous testing of flow assays. Methods of using and operating such photothermal spectroscopy systems are also disclosed.



APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MEASURING DEPOSITION RATE

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

An apparatus for measuring a deposition rate includes a light source unit in a deposition region between a deposition source and a substrate in a vacuum chamber, the light source unit emits a monochromatic light toward a deposition material released from the deposition source, a photosensor unit that measures at least one of light absorption, scattering, and emission in the deposition region when light emitted from the light source unit passes through the deposition region, and a multi-pass forming unit defining a multi-pass path between the light source unit and the photosensor unit.



LIGHT DELAYING APPARATUS, LIGHT DELAYING METHOD, AND MEASURING APPARATUS USING LIGHT DELAYING APPARATUS

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A light delaying apparatus comprises: a first reflector moving along a circumference defined and turning back the light along an axis parallel to an optical axis of the light incident on the first reflector; a second reflector configured to reflect the light turned back by the first reflector such that to be coaxial with the optical axis of the light turned back by the first reflector; and an angular encoder configured to, in order to detect the position of the first reflector on the circumference, include reading patterns in which at least a part of intervals between boundaries of the reading patterns is arranged irregularly, wherein the interval between the boundaries of the reading patterns corresponds to an adjusted quantity of the light delay converted from a time interval during which a time domain response of an electromagnetic wave is measured by using the light reflected by the second reflector.



TESTING APPARATUS AND TESTING METHOD

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A testing apparatus is to test a solar cell. A movable stage has a holding surface on which the solar cell is held. A pump light irradiating unit emits pump light LP1 in a direction toward the holding surface. Four reference sample parts are provided on a part of the holding surface. The reference sample parts each radiate a terahertz wave in response to irradiation with the pump light from the pump light irradiating unit. A terahertz wave detecting unit detects the terahertz wave radiated from each reference sample part. A stage driving mechanism is a displacement mechanism that displaces an optical path of the pump light relative to the holding surface by moving the movable stage.



BIODIESEL DETECTOR

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A device and method of use are provided for measuring the concentration of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in jet fuel to a limit of detection of 1 ppm. The device measures concentration of FAME in jet fuel via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with a spectral resolution of 1 cm−1. The device can use an infrared light emitting diode (IR LED) and mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector in which the spectral output of the IR LED and the spectral response of the MCT detector is centered on the spectral absorbance of an ester bond, a defining spectral characteristic of FAME. Other IR LEDs with differing spectral outputs can be used to measure the presence and/or concentration of different analytes in different fluids.



DISPOSABLE PHOTOMETRIC MEASUREMENT TIP

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A disposable photometric measurement tip comprising a polymer tip, the polymer tip having a capillary filling channel, the capillary filing channel having an opening at a distal end of the polymer tip, a wave guide channel acting as an optical input coupling and a wave guide channel acting as an optical output coupling, each of the wave guide channels having an opening at a proximal end of the polymer tip wherein the capillary filling channel, the wave guide channel acting as an optical input coupling and the wave guide channel acting as an optical output coupling are connected to each other.



Methodology for three-dimensional morphological and quantitative determination of micro and nanocavities produced by chemical and microbiological corrosion in metallic materials

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

The present invention refers to a procedure which includes the following objectives: a) To determine the morphology of the micro and nanocavities produced by chemical and/or microbiological corrosion in metallic materials, in the space of three dimensions as well as the effective advance of corrosion, the true length of corrosion cavities and their associated parameters: corrosion vectors, corrosion intensity and determination of the cavities diameter/true length of corrosion ratio, applying scanning electron microscopy (MEB) techniques, and analytic, gravimetric and volumetric formulations;b) To quantitatively determine the rate of chemical and/or microbiological corrosion in metallic materials, through their volumetric and gravimetric properties; andc) To obtain a graphic interface to access the numeric information and the micrographs in a simple and friendly manner. More specifically, the present invention is related to the laboratory procedures, analytic expressions, devices, procedures and calculations required to characterize the micro and nanocavities of coupons and biocoupons, caused by chemical and/or microbiological pitting and uniform corrosion.



MEASURING APPARATUS AND MEASURING METHOD

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A measuring apparatus measure the amount of a metal catalyst supported on a sample that has a membrane of a metal catalyst layer containing the metal catalyst. The measuring apparatus includes a terahertz-wave emitting part that emits a terahertz wave in the range of 0.01 to 10 THz to the sample, a transmitted-terahertz-wave detection part that detects the electric field intensity of a transmitted terahertz wave that has passed through the sample, a storage that stores correlation information acquired in advance and indicating the correlation between the amount of the metal catalyst supported and the electric field intensity of the transmitted terahertz wave, and an amount-of-catalyst-supported acquisition module that acquires the amount of the metal catalyst supported on the sample, on the basis of the correlation information and the electric field intensity of the transmitted terahertz wave detected by the transmitted-terahertz-wave detection part.



DEVICE FOR DETECTING ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POSSESSING A HERMETIC ENCAPSULATING STRUCTURE COMPRISING AN EXHAUST VENT

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A device for detecting electromagnetic radiation, including a substrate; at least one thermal detector, placed on the substrate, including an absorbing membrane suspended above the substrate; and an encapsulating structure encapsulating the thermal detector, including an encapsulating layer extending around and above the thermal detector so as to define with the substrate a cavity in which the thermal detector is located; wherein the encapsulating layer includes at least one through-orifice that is what is referred to as an exhaust vent, each exhaust vent being placed so that at least one thermal detector has a single exhaust vent located facing the corresponding absorbing membrane, preferably plumb with the centre of said absorbing membrane.



DEVICE FOR DETECTING RADIATION INCLUDING AN ENCAPSULATING STRUCTURE HAVING AN IMPROVED MECHANICAL STRENGTH

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

The invention relates to a device for detecting electromagnetic radiation, comprising: a substrate;a matrix of thermal detectors, which matrix is placed on the substrate; anda detector-encapsulating structure, including an encapsulating layer extending around and above the matrix of detectors so as to define with the substrate a cavity in which the matrix of detectors is located; in which the encapsulating layer comprises at least one section, which is what is referred to as an internal bearing section, located between two adjacent detectors, and which bears directly against the substrate.



OPTICAL RECEIVING CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

An optical receiving circuit which suppresses a characteristic deterioration due to a wiring between a PD and a TIA and a method for manufacturing the optical receiving circuit are provided. A optical receiving circuit (300) comprises a photodiode (302), and a transimpedance amplifier (308) that supplies an electrical power source to the photodiode (302). The characteristic impedance of a wiring between the anode of the photodiode (302) and the transimpedance amplifier (308) is higher than the characteristic impedance of a wiring between the cathode of the photodiode (302) and the transimpedance amplifier (308).



Nucleic Acid Analysis Device and Diagnosis Method

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A nucleic acid analysis device is provided that is capable of quickly detecting device abnormalities, and the like. This device is provided with a temperature control block (1) for holding a tube (10) that includes a sample, a photometer (6), and a device diagnosis unit. The photometer (6) is provided with an LED (11) for irradiating light toward the temperature control block (1) in a state in which the tube (10) is held and a fluorescence detector (20) for receiving light emitted by the sample in response to the irradiation of light from the LED (11). The device diagnosis unit causes the LED (11) to irradiate light toward the temperature control block (1) in a state in which the tube (10) is not held, causes the fluorescence detector (20) to detect the resulting scattered light, and diagnoses the photometer (6) on the basis of the intensity of the scattered light.



ADAPTIVE DETECTION SENSOR ARRAY AND METHOD OF PROVIDING AND USING THE SAME

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

Some embodiments include a method of operating a detection sensor array. The detection sensor array has multiple detection sensors. Each detection sensor of the multiple detection sensors has an enabled state and a disabled state, and each detection sensor of the multiple detection sensors is configured to detect and identify electromagnetic radiation when in the enabled state and not to detect and identify electromagnetic radiation when in the disabled state. The detection sensor array also has a test state in which all of the multiple detection sensors operate in the enabled state when the detection sensor array is in the test state. Other embodiments of related systems and methods are also disclosed.



ILLUMINATION SENSOR FOR DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN DIFFERENT CONTRIBUTIONS TO A SENSED LIGHT LEVEL

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

An apparatus comprises a first light sensor configured with a first field of view; and a second light sensor configured with a second, narrower field of view contained within the first field of view. The first and second light sensors may be arranged to detect light reflected from an illuminated surface, wherein the first and second field of view encompass light from an electric lighting device reflected from said surface and additional light reflected from said surface, e.g. natural light; but the second light sensor is concentrated on a region on said surface so as to exclude glare from objects outside said region, whereas the first field of view extends beyond said region. An illumination level of the environment in which the apparatus is installed may be adjusted to compensate for a change in the additional light based on information distinguishing between the two sensors.



MEASUREMENT ENCODER

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

An encoder apparatus including a scale including a series of features defining at least one scale track and a readhead for reading the scale's features. The readhead includes at least one light source for illuminating the scale and at least one detector. The configuration of the at least one light source is such that there is a structure in the light projected toward the scale. The readhead is configured such that the structure is angled so that it is substantially misaligned with respect to the scale's features so as to reduce measurement error in the signal output by the readhead.



Downhole Measurement While Drilling Tool with a Spectrometer and Method of Operating Same

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A pulser assembly for a downhole measurement-while-drilling tool comprises a motor subassembly and an electronics subassembly electrically coupled to the motor subassembly. The motor subassembly comprises a motor, a motor subassembly housing that houses the motor, a spectrometer inside the motor subassembly housing and a driveshaft extending from the motor out of the motor subassembly housing for coupling with a rotor of a fluid pressure pulse generator. The spectrometer includes an optical sensor for optical communication with a lubrication liquid when the lubrication liquid is sealed inside the motor subassembly housing. The electronics subassembly comprises electronics equipment and an electronics subassembly housing that houses the electronics equipment. Optical measurements from the spectrometer may be used to determine a molecular composition of the lubrication liquid in the downhole tool.



POSITRON CT APPARATUS AND A TIMING CORRECTION METHOD

Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:00:00 EDT

A PET apparatus and a timing correction method of this invention select two target gamma-ray detectors which count coincidences, select a reference detector which is one detector out of the two selected gamma-ray detectors, select a gamma-ray detector different from the other, opposite detector, and when repeating the selection, make a time lag histogram concerning two gamma-ray detectors selected in the past a reference, and correct a time lag histogram concerning gamma-ray detectors selected this time based on the reference. By repeating an operation to make the corrected time lag histogram concerning the two gamma-ray detectors a new reference, an optimal time lag histogram can be obtained without repeating many measurements and computations.