Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn apparatus for generating extreme ultraviolet light used with a laser apparatus and connected to an external device so as to supply the extreme ultraviolet light thereto includes a chamber provided with at least one inlet through which a laser beam is introduced into the chamber; a target supply unit provided on the chamber configured to supply a target material to a predetermined region inside the chamber; a discharge pump connected to the chamber; at least one optical element provided inside the chamber; an etching gas introduction, unit provided on the chamber through which an etching gas passes; and at least one temperature control mechanism for controlling a temperature of the at least one optical element.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn operating device, in particular for electronic household appliances, includes a cover plate with an operating portion, a transmitter for emitting electromagnetic radiation, a receiver for registering electromagnetic radiation, and control electronics for evaluating measurement signals produced by the receiver. The operating portion is at least partly elastically deformable and/or movable by an action of force from the direction of a user side of the cover plate and it at least partly reflects the radiation emitted by the transmitter. The receiver is disposed and/or configured in such a way that it facilitates a spatially resolved registration of the radiation reflected by the operating portion in such a way that the control electronics can detect an actuation of the operating portion in a manner dependent on a registration location of the reflected radiation. An electronic household appliance having at least one operating device is also provided.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn electrical connector for use in electron microscopy sample holders. The electrical connector provides electrical contacts to the sample support devices which are positioned in the sample holders for electrical, temperature and/or electrochemical control.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTOne innovation includes an IR sensor having an array of sensor pixels to convert light into current, each sensor pixel of the array including a photodetector region, a lens configured to focus light into the photodetector region, the lens adjacent to the photodetector region so light propagates through the lens and into the photodetector region, and a substrate disposed with photodetector region between the substrate and the lens, the substrate having one or more transistors formed therein. The sensor also includes reflective structures positioned between at least a portion of the substrate and at least a portion of the photodetector region and such that at least a portion of the photodetector region is between the one or more reflective structures and the lens, the one or more reflective structures configured to reflect the light that has passed through at least a portion of the photodetector region into the photodetector region.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA pixel cell, and a method of use thereof, the pixel cell including: an output, a photosensor configured to generate a first measuring current in a first measurement cycle and a second measuring current in a second measurement cycle as a function of radiation, an output node, a power storage device configured so that in a first operating mode a current can be injected by the power storage device as a function of the first measuring current, and so that in a second operating mode the power storage device is configured to hold the injected current so that the injected current can be detected at the output node, and a switching unit configured to form a difference between the injected current and the second measuring current at the output node in a reading cycle and to couple the output node to the output.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn analyzer for separating ions according to their time of flight comprising two opposing ion mirrors abutting at a first plane, each mirror comprising inner and outer field-defining electrode systems elongated along an analyzer axis, the outer field-defining electrode system surrounding the inner field-defining electrode system. The outer field-defining electrode system of one mirror comprises two sections, the sections abutting at a second plane, comprising a first section between the first plane and the second plane, and a second section adjacent to the first section. The first section has at least a portion which extends radially from the analyzer axis a greater extent than an adjacent portion of the second section at the second plane. The outer field-defining electrode system comprises an exit port and the analyzer comprises a detector located downstream of the exit port.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA corona discharge ionizer device which emits ions generated by corona discharge to a gas flow to be ionized includes a discharge electrode having a pin configured tip portion. A second grid electrode positioned at a spaced distance from the discharge electrode is provided. The grid electrode is preferably formed from a sheet configured material which has at least one hole formed therein adapted and configured to permit the gas flow to pass therethrough. A power supply is coupled to the discharge electrode and grid electrode configured cause ion emission from the discharge electrode. The power supply is preferably an alternating current power supply configured to produce an alternating electric field region in close proximity to the tip portion of the discharge electrode sufficient to cause avalanche breakdown in the gas flowing in close proximity to the tip portion of the discharge electrode.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA paper cone tip, having a triangular-pyramidal shape with a vertex angle of 12.5° to 45°, and to a paper cone spray ionization mass spectrometry (PCSI MS) method using a paper cone tip, including: preparing the paper cone tip having a triangular-pyramidal shape; placing a measuring sample in the paper cone tip and locating the paper cone tip in front of a mass spectrometer; and adding a spraying solvent to the paper cone tip and applying a voltage thereto. The paper cone tip having a triangular-pyramidal shape is suitable for use in PCSI MS for the direct analysis of solid samples of raw materials, and the three-dimensional paper cone tip serves as a sample container, a solid-liquid extraction chamber, an analyte transport channel, and an electrospray tip.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA method of mass spectrometry is disclosed comprising providing a first device and a second device disposed downstream of the first device. The method further comprises introducing a potential difference between the exit of the first device and the entrance of the second device and reducing the total potential drop across the first and second devices by applying a reverse axial electric field to the first device and/or the second device. Ions are driven through the first device and/or the second device against the reverse axial electric field.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTThe present invention discloses a preparation method of plan-view TEM sample used in an integrated circuit analysis. The method comprises the steps of: providing a carrying slice, and fixing a chip containing a targeted structure sample and the carrying slice on a sample holder in a horizontal direction, and putting them in a process chamber of a FIB apparatus; cutting off a piece of chip structure containing a target structure sample by adopting a FIB; and welding the piece of chip structure on the flat and clean side of the carrying slice by using a nano-manipulator; after being taken out from the process chamber of the FIB apparatus, the carrying slice welded with the chip structure is adjusted to vertical direction, and is put in the process chamber of the FIB apparatus again; transferring and welding the chip structure on the TEM copper grid by using the nano-manipulator; and removing one layer or multiple layers above the preset target layer from the surface layer of the chip by using the FIB to obtain the desired plan-view TEM sample.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTIn the present invention, a charged particle beam device has a charged particle source (1), a first condenser lens (4) arranged downstream from the charged particle source (1), an aperture (5) arranged downstream from the first condenser lens (4), and a second condenser lens (6) arranged downstream from the aperture (5), wherein, when a sample (12) is to be irradiated at a second charged particle beam amount which is greater than a first charged particle beam amount, the first and second condenser lenses are controlled such that a charged particle beam is formed downstream from the aperture (5), and such that the focal point of the second condenser lens does not vary between the first charged particle beam amount and the second charged particle beam amount.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn apparatus to generate negative hydrogen ions. The apparatus may include an ion source chamber having a gas inlet to receive H2 gas; a light source directing radiation into the ion source chamber to generate excited H2 molecules having an excited vibrational state from at least some of the H2 gas; a low energy electron source directing low energy electrons into the ion source chamber, wherein H− ions are generated from at least some of the excited H2 molecules; and an extraction assembly arranged to extract the H− ions from the ion source chamber.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTDisclosed are methods, apparatus, systems, processes and other inventions relating to: ion sources with controlled electro-pneumatic superposition, ion source synchronized to RF multipole, ion source with charge injection, optimized control in active feedback system, radiation supported charge-injection liquid spray, ion source with controlled liquid injection as well as various embodiments and combinations of each of the foregoing.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA structure for discharging an extreme ultraviolet mask (EUV mask) is provided to discharge the EUV mask during the inspection by an electron beam inspection tool. The structure for discharging an EUV mask includes at least one grounding pin to contact conductive areas on the EUV mask, wherein the EUV mask may have further conductive layer on sidewalls or/and bottom. The inspection quality of the EUV mask is enhanced by using the electron beam inspection system because the accumulated charging on the EUU mask is grounded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn exposure apparatus comprising, a stage configured to receive a substrate, a mark array disposed on the stage and comprising a first mark and a second mark separated from each other by a first distance, a first beam irradiator configured to irradiate a first beam to the first mark, a second beam irradiator being separated from the first beam by a pitch greater than the first distance and configured to irradiate a second beam to the second mark, a detector disposed over the mark array and configured to receive a third beam reflected by the first mark and a fourth beam reflected by the second mark, and a controller configured to control the position of the stage using an output of the detector.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTOptical computing devices including an electromagnetic radiation source to emit electromagnetic radiation into an optical train; an integrated computational element (ICE) located in the optical train before or after a sample located in the optical train to generate modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical train; a broadband angle-selective filter (BASF) located in the optical train to transmit the electromagnetic radiation and/or the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical train at a target incident angle, thereby generating angle selected-modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR), and to reflect one or more stray radiation reflections at angles that are not coincident with the target incident angle; and a detector to receive the ASMR and to generate an output signal corresponding to a characteristic of the sample.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA light curtain system is configured to perform dynamic partial muting of the light curtain's beams to accommodate products of different heights. When a product enters the light curtain's protective field during muting mode, the system identifies the highest interrupted light beam, which is indicative of the product's height. The system then sets the muting height for the light curtain based on this highest interrupted beam. Beams higher than the set muting height are un-muted, while beams up to the set muting height remain muted. Both regions are actively monitored during the partial muting mode to confirm the expected non-interrupted, respectively interrupted conditions. When the product clears the light curtain, the muting height is reset, and a new muting height is set in a similar fashion when the next part enters the light curtain's protective field.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA method for forming a molded proximity sensor with an optical resin lens and the structure formed thereby. A light sensor chip is placed on a substrate, such as a printed circuit board, and a diode, such as a laser diode, is positioned on top of the light sensor chip and electrically connected to a bonding pad on the light sensor chip. Transparent, optical resin in liquid form is applied as a drop over the light sensor array on the light sensor chip as well as over the light-emitting diode. After the optical resin is cured, a molding compound is applied to an entire assembly, after which the assembly is polished to expose the lenses and have a top surface flush with the top surface of the molding compound.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn active sensing system includes an agent and at least one sensor operatively associated with the agent. The at least one sensor includes one or more emitters configured and disposed to establish a sensing zone. A conflict identification module is configured and disposed to identify one or more sensor conflict regions, and an active sensor controller is operatively connected to the at least one sensor and the conflict identification module. The active sensor controller is configured and disposed to form an adjustment zone within the sensing zone to accommodate the one or more sensor conflict regions.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA wellbore survey tool and methods for estimating a direction of highest gamma ray intensity of a gamma ray distribution are provided. The tool includes a body having a center axis. The body is configured to be placed within a wellbore. The tool further includes a plurality of gamma ray detectors within the body. Each detector of the plurality of gamma ray detectors has a direction of maximum gamma ray sensitivity with the direction having a non-zero component perpendicular to the center axis. The non-zero components of the plurality of gamma ray detectors are spaced circumferentially about the center axis.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTMethods and systems are provided for performing cathode calibration in a detector assembly. In one embodiment, a method comprises adjusting a cathode bias of a detector based on a total number of events occurring in the detector during a time period while maintaining an anode bias at a desired value, the events corresponding to photon energy detected by the detector. In this way, an automated cathode calibration procedure may be applied to calibrate the detector assembly.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA neutron scintillator excellent in neutron detection efficiency and n/γ discrimination ability, having uniform characteristics, and easily available in a large size is provided. The neutron scintillator comprises a resin composition having eutectic particles incorporated in a resin having a similar refractive index, the eutectic particles having a sphere equivalent diameter of the order of 50 to 1000 μm and being composed of lithium fluoride and an inorganic fluorescent material, such as MgF2, CaF2 or SrF2, the inorganic fluorescent material containing a lanthanoid, such as Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm or Yb, as a luminescent center atom.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA method of investigating a specimen using a tomographic imaging apparatus using a stage for producing relative motion of a source with respect to a specimen, so as to allow the source and a detector to image the specimen along a series of different viewing axes and a processing apparatus for assembling a tomographic image of at least part of the specimen. The investigation is carried out by considering a virtual reference surface that surrounds the specimen and is substantially centered thereon, considering an incoming point of intersection of each of said viewing axes with this reference surface, thereby generating a set of such intersection points corresponding to the series of viewing axes, choosing discrete viewing axes in the series so as to cause the set to comprise a two-dimensional lattice of points located areally on the reference surface in a substantially uniform distribution.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn M×N array of sensor tiles are attached to a substrate using a compliant film that includes an adhesive. A thickness of the compliant film varies depending on a thickness of the sensor tiles so that outward facing sides of the sensor tiles are coplanar.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTThere is provided in a first form, an apparatus. The apparatus includes a detector array having a plurality of elements, the detector array comprising a photosensitive material and a photosensitive region disposed about and distinct from the plurality of elements. Electrical circuitry is coupled to each of the elements of the detector array. The electrical circuitry is configured to generate a set of first signals, each first signal of the set of first signals is based on optical energy impinging on a respective one of the plurality of elements of the detector array. The photosensitive region is coupled to the electrical circuitry and the electrical circuitry is configured to generate a second signal having a first value if no portion of optical energy impinging on the plurality of elements of the detector array impinges on the region disposed about the plurality of elements of the detector array. The second signal has a second value, distinct from the first value, if a portion of an optical energy impinging on the plurality of elements of the detector array impinges on the photosensitive region disposed about the plurality of elements of the detector array, the portion of the optical energy impinging on the photosensitive region disposed about the plurality of elements exceeds a threshold energy.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTIn one aspect, a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopic tomography device includes a sample stage to support a sample. An electron beam source scans an electron beam over the sample to yield light emission by the sample. A reflective element directs the light emission by the sample to a light detector. A controller controls operation of the sample stage, the electron beam source, and the light detector. In one aspect, stage a CL spectroscopic tomography device includes an electron beam source which directs an electron beam at an object to yield an emission by the object. A detector detects the emission. A controller receives information from the detector related to the detected emission. The controller derives a two-dimensional (2D) CL map from the information related to the detected emission, and derives a three-dimensional (3D) CL tomogram from the 2D CL map.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA structure for grounding an extreme ultraviolet mask (EUV mask) is provided to discharge the EUV mask during the inspection by an electron beam inspection tool. The structure for grounding an EUV mask includes at least one grounding pin to contact conductive areas on the EUV mask, wherein the EUV mask may have further conductive layer on sidewalls or/and back side. The inspection quality of the EUV mask is enhanced by using the electron beam inspection system because the accumulated charging on the EUV mask is grounded. The reflective surface of the EUV mask on a continuously moving stage is scanned by using the electron beam simultaneously. The moving direction of the stage is perpendicular to the scanning direction of the electron beam.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTThe method is for inspecting an infrastructure having a corrugated pipe at least partially surrounded by soil. The corrugated pipe has a cylindrical wall which is corrugated along a length thereof and forming a longitudinally extending series of corrugations. The method generally has the steps of emitting, outwardly from the interior of the corrugated pipe, a beam of radiation particles directed towards a given voxel positioned beyond an inner face of the cylindrical wall and along a scanning plane parallel to an orientation of individual ones of the corrugations of the cylindrical wall; detecting backscattered photons scattered back from the given voxel and along the scanning plane; and generating inspection data based on the detected backscattered photons associated with the given voxel for use in inspecting the corrugated pipe.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTSystem and method for optical tomographic imaging optimizing analysis of time-domain data as a result of combination of lifetime multiplexing of low-cross-talk asymptotic photons with highly spatially resolved early photons. The tomographic data reconstruction employs a decay amplitude-based asymptotic approach and a matrix equation with a weight matrix that includes two different portions respectively representing time domain sensitivity functions and continuous-tomography weight matrices. System may employ a lifetime fluorescent tomography imaging system.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA system for obtaining a measurement of a species of interest. The system includes one or more reference regions, a sensor region, an exciter unit, a detector unit and a processing unit. The exciter unit exposes first and second chemical transducers in the reference and sensor regions, respectively, to an excitation light while they are exposed to reference environments and an analyte, respectively. The detector unit measures responses of the first and the second chemical transducers to the excitation light. The processing unit determines a compensation for aging of the first chemical transducer from a discrepancy between the measurements of the responses of the first chemical transducer and reference responses. The processing unit applies the compensation for aging to the measurement of the response of the second chemical transducer to obtain the measurement of the species of interest in the analyte.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTLaser-induced fluorescence based optical system and method configured to precisely quantify the relative abundances of calcium (Ca) isotopes in a sample. Optionally, a diode laser is used as a laser source, with its output frequency shifted by two electro-optical modulators to optically excite fluorescence in the calcium-containing sample. The amounts of fluorescence emitted by the various isotopes are measured and compared.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTThe present invention intends to provide a Cp2Mg concentration measuring device capable of accurately measuring the concentration of Cp2Mg to be supplied to a process chamber without being affected by spontaneous decomposition, and is adapted to measure light intensity in a predetermined wavelength band around 12.8 μm and on the basis of the light intensity, calculate the concentration of Cp2Mg in a material gas.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA measurement apparatus includes a sample stage, an excitation unit, a light receiving unit, a stimulant applying nozzle, and a spray nozzle in a measurement space inside a body case, and also includes a heating unit and a gas supplying unit. The body case includes an inner case surrounding the measurement space, and an outer case surrounding the inner case to shield the measurement space from light from the outside and seal the measurement space. The heating unit is disposed between the inner case and the outer case and adjusts temperature in the measurement space through the inner case. The gas supplying unit supplies gas having controlled temperature and humidity into the measurement space and adjusts temperature and humidity in the measurement space.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn electromagnetic wave generator includes a 2DEG plate, a first resistor, a second resistor, a source and a floating plate and a dielectric body. The 2DEG plate is configured to form a 2DEG channel. The first resistor is connected to one side node of the 2DEG plate. The second resistor is connected to an opposite side node of the 2DEG plate. The source is disposed between the second resistor and a ground and configured to apply electric power to the 2DEG plate. The floating plate is configured to generate an electromagnetic wave using electric dipoles formed by the 2DEG channel. The dielectric body is formed between the 2DEG plate and the floating plate.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA method for determining the temperature of an infrared-active gas by means of infrared spectroscopy is provided. The method comprising: radiating infrared light in a spectral range of 700 cm−1 to 5000 cm−1 originating from an infrared light source onto the gas; obtaining a first absorption-related parameter originating from measuring a first infrared absorption band of the gas, wherein the first infrared absorption band is a hot band being caused by thermal population of at least one vibrational mode of the gas; obtaining a second absorption-related parameter originating from measuring a second infrared absorption band of the gas, and calculating a ratio between the first absorption-related parameter and the second absorption-related parameter. The method is characterized in that the ratio is used to determine the temperature of the gas, wherein the ratio has a relative change of at least 0.5% per Kelvin temperature difference of the gas.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA sensing device includes a first array of sensing elements, which output a signal indicative of a time of incidence of a single photon on the sensing element. A second array of processing circuits are coupled respectively to the sensing elements and comprise a gating generator, which variably sets a start time of the gating interval for each sensing element within each acquisition period, and a memory, which records the time of incidence of the single photon on each sensing element in each acquisition period. A controller controls the gating generator during a first sequence of the acquisition periods so as to sweep the gating interval over the acquisition periods and to identify a respective detection window for the sensing element, and during a second sequence of the acquisition periods, to fix the gating interval for each sensing element to coincide with the respective detection window.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn optical sensor arrangement comprises an optical barrier which is placed between a light-emitting device and a photodetector. Herein the light-emitting device and the photodetector are arranged on a first plane and are covered by a cover. The photodetector exhibits an active zone. The optical barrier exhibits an extent along a first principal axis, which is pointing parallel to the line connecting the centers of the light-emitting device and the photodetector. Herein the extent is greater than a dimension of the active zone. The optical barrier is designed to block light emitted by the light-emitting device that otherwise would be reflected by the cover by means of specular reflection and would reach the photodetector. The optical barrier is designed to pass light emitted by the light-emitting device and scattered on or above an outer surface of the cover.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn optical detecting device includes a light source, an optical detecting component, a package structure and a light tight component. The light source outputs a sampling signal to project onto an external object. The optical detecting component is disposed by the light source and has an interval relative to the light source. The optical detecting component receives the sampling signal reflected from the external object. The package structure covers the optical detecting component and the light source, and includes an illuminating surface unit and an incident surface unit respectively corresponding to the light source and the optical detecting component, and further includes an isolation component disposed between the illuminating surface unit and the emerging surface unit. The light tight component is disposed on the isolation component to obstruct transmission path of the sampling signal from the illuminating surface unit to the incident surface without reflection by the external object.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA fiber measurement device for measuring a physical quantity by a fiber and a method for shaping a pulse of electromagnetic radiation are disclosed. The fiber measurement device comprises an electromagnetic radiation source and an adjustment unit. The electromagnetic radiation source generates at least one pulse of electromagnetic radiation as primary electromagnetic radiation to be coupled into the fiber, and an adjustment unit. The adjustment unit, prior to, during or after application of the primary electromagnetic radiation to the fiber, adjusts a shape of the at least one pulse for at least partially compensating a deviation between a target shape and an actual shape of the at least one pulse.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA proximity sensor is provided according to the embodiments of the present disclosure, comprising: a sensor chip; a light-emitting device; a substrate, the sensor chip and the light-emitting device being located on the substrate; a transparent molding material covering a light-emitting surface of the light-emitting device; and a non-transparent molding material separating the transparent molding material from the sensor chip.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn inspection apparatus includes a supporting substrate. A first sensor unit is provided on the supporting substrate, the first sensor unit comprising a first light-emitting device and a first light-receiving device which are spaced apart from each other and face each other. A second sensor unit is provided on the supporting substrate, the second sensor unit comprising a second light-emitting device and a second light-receiving device which are spaced apart from each other and face each other. The first and second light-emitting devices and the first and second light-receiving devices are disposed at a same distance from a top surface of the supporting substrate. The first and second sensor units are configured to detect whether a robot hand moves in a first direction perpendicular to the top surface of the supporting substrate.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTOne aspect of the disclosure relates to an irradiation system. The irradiation system may include: a first irradiation source coupled with a base at a first position; a second irradiation source coupled with the base at a second position; a first reflector configured to direct irradiation from the first irradiation source to a first desired focal point; and a second reflector configured to direct irradiation from the second irradiation source to the first desired focal point or a second, distinct desired focal point.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTIn a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) system, a plasma created from droplets irradiated by a laser pulse can become destabilized. The instability of the plasma can reduce the amount of EUV energy generated over time. While other systems seek to stabilize the plasma by varying a pulse width of the laser pulses, the systems and methods described herein stabilize the plasma by varying an intensity of the laser pulses. The intensity of the laser pulses is varied based on a comparison of the amount of EUV energy generated from current pulse to an expected amount of EUV energy. The intensity of the laser pulses can be varied on a pulse-by-pulse basis by an EUV controller that instructs a pulse actuator.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTIn a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) system, a droplet is irradiated by a laser pulse to produce a plasma in a chamber. This generates forces that cause the plasma to destabilize and subsequent droplets to have their flight trajectory and speed altered as they approach the plasma. This destabilization is detectable from oscillations in the amount of EUV energy generated. To reduce the oscillations by stabilizing the plasma and travel of the droplets, a proportional-integral (PI) controller algorithm is used to modify an energy of subsequent laser pulses based on the EUV energy generated in the chamber. By modifying the energy of subsequent laser pulses, the plasma stabilizes, which reduces effects on droplet flight and stabilizes the amount of EUV energy generated, allowing the plasma chamber to operate for longer intervals and to lower the amount of reserve power maintained by a laser source.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA method includes providing a target material that includes a component that emits extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light when converted to plasma; directing a first beam of radiation toward the target material to deliver energy to the target material to modify a geometric distribution of the target material to form a modified target; directing a second beam of radiation toward the modified target, the second beam of radiation converting at least part of the modified target to plasma that emits EUV light; controlling a radiant exposure delivered to the target material from the first beam of radiation to within a predetermined range of radiant exposures; and stabilizing a power of the EUV light emitted from the plasma by controlling the radiant exposure delivered to the target material from the first beam of radiation to within the predetermined range of radiant exposures.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA method includes providing a target material that comprises a component that emits extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light when converted to plasma; directing a first beam of radiation toward the target material to deliver energy to the target material to modify a geometric distribution of the target material to form a modified target; directing a second beam of radiation toward the modified target, the second beam of radiation converting at least part of the modified target to plasma that emits EUV light; measuring one or more characteristics associated with one or more of the target material and the modified target relative to the first beam of radiation; and controlling an amount of radiant exposure delivered to the target material from the first beam of radiation based on the one or more measured characteristics to within a predetermined range of energies.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTDescribed is an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generator apparatus. The EUV light generator apparatus includes a droplet nozzle, a central electromagnet including a central coil wound around the droplet nozzle, and a droplet generator including side electromagnets around the central electromagnet.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTA data transmitter includes a keyboard with keys, a digital micromirror device (DMD) having an array of micromirrors, and a light source directed towards the array of micromirrors. The keys are connected to the DMD such that each key corresponds to a separate micromirror of the array of micromirrors in order to generate a unique light pattern associated with each depressed key. An optical transmission channel is configured to receive the unique light pattern and transfer the unique light pattern to a light sensor of a computer.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTTwo gate electrodes are provided on upper and lower sides of an oxide semiconductor active layer through respective insulating films. In addition, a first read-out electrode and a second read-out electrode are provided on right and left sides of the oxide semiconductor active layer. In the optical sensor element, in a case where a voltage is applied to each gate electrode, a potential difference occurs between the first read-out electrode and the second read-out electrode, and intensity of irradiation light is detected based on a current that flows between the read-out electrodes.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:00:00 ESTAn image sensor includes a substrate including a plurality of photoelectric conversion parts and a pixel isolation trench extending from a surface of the substrate between the photoelectric conversion parts, a first fixed charge film directly on the surface of the substrate, a second fixed charge film directly on the first fixed charge film and an inner wall of the pixel isolation trench, and an insulating layer directly on the second fixed charge film, the insulating layer configured to fill the pixel isolation trench.