Tue, 26 Apr 2016 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention provides non-aqueous electrolyte solution for a lithium secondary battery, comprising an ester-based compound having a branched-chain alkyl group and an ester-based compound having a straight-chain alkyl group; and a lithium secondary battery using the same.
Tue, 12 Apr 2016 08:00:00 EDTProvided is a packaging material for electrochemical cells which has an identification mark that can be recognized from the outside and that is difficult to forge. The packaging material comprises a multilayer film which has a structure formed by laminating a base layer (11), an adhesive layer (13), a metal foil layer (12), an acid-modified polyolefin layer (14), and a heat-sealable layer (15) in this order, wherein the base layer (11) comprises both a oriented polyester film (11b) and a oriented nylon film (11e) with a printed layer (11c) provided on the surface of the oriented polyester film (11b) that faces the oriented nylon film (11e).
Tue, 05 Jan 2016 08:00:00 ESTA negative electrode active material for an electric device, including an alloy having a composition formula SixZnyAlz, where x++y=100 , 26≦x≦47, 18≦y≦44, and 22≦z≦46 are satisfied.
Tue, 01 Dec 2015 08:00:00 ESTIn a rechargeable battery, a case is combined with an upper surface of a bare cell by being fixed to a lead plate electrically coupling a protection circuit board of a protection circuit module to the bare cell. Alternatively, the case is combined with the bare cell by being fixed to the protection circuit board so as not to be separated from the bare cell, thereby improving the reliability of the products.
Tue, 20 Oct 2015 08:00:00 EDTA fuel-cell-system providing structure is provided which is capable of preventing a collision of a fuel cell with a related apparatus of the fuel cell while suppressing the increase in weight of a vehicle. A fuel cell system provided in a vehicle includes: a fuel cell unit in which a fuel cell is contained; and a related apparatus that is electrically connected to the fuel cell and that is located adjacent to the fuel cell unit. The related apparatus is arranged at a position closer to an outer surface of the vehicle than the fuel cell unit.
Tue, 11 Aug 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present invention relates to the application of a force to enhance the performance of an electrochemical cell. The force may comprise, in some instances, an anisotropic force with a component normal to an active surface of the anode of the electrochemical cell. In the embodiments described herein, electrochemical cells (e.g., rechargeable batteries) may undergo a charge/discharge cycle involving deposition of metal (e.g., lithium metal) on a surface of the anode upon charging and reaction of the metal on the anode surface, wherein the metal diffuses from the anode surface, upon discharging. The uniformity with which the metal is deposited on the anode may affect cell performance. For example, when lithium metal is redeposited on an anode, it may, in some cases, deposit unevenly forming a rough surface. The roughened surface may increase the amount of lithium metal available for undesired chemical reactions which may result in decreased cycling lifetime and/or poor cell performance. The application of force to the electrochemical cell has been found, in accordance with the invention, to reduce such behavior and to improve the cycling lifetime and/or performance of the cell.
Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:00:00 EDTThere is provided a flexible circuit board capable of preventing corrosion and elution of a conductor layer constituting a current collector even under high-temperature and high-voltage working conditions while achieving sufficient electric connection with an MEA. A flexible circuit board having a current collector of a fuel cell provided thereon includes an insulating flexible base material 1, a plurality of openings 5 that supply fuel or air, the openings 5 being provided in a specified region so as to penetrate through the flexible base material 1 in a thickness direction, a plating film 6 that constitutes the current collector, the plating film 6 being formed on front and back surfaces of the flexible base material 1 in the specified region and on inner walls of the openings 5, a surface treatment film 9 formed on the plating film 6 and having corrosion resistance higher than that of the plating film.
Tue, 30 Jun 2015 08:00:00 EDTA battery module including: a plurality of rechargeable batteries including a first terminal and a second terminal; and a connecting member electrically connecting rechargeable batteries of the plurality of rechargeable batteries through the first and second terminals, the connecting member including an access protrusion protruded toward the first terminal, and the first terminal includes a pressurizer configured to press the access protrusion toward a part of the first terminal.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTWhen a continuous short circuit occurs between both terminals of a battery pack, fault, destruction and rupture of the battery can occur. Further, when a momentary short circuit occurs, a user may continue to use, without knowing thermal and electrical damage to the batteries, and reliability for the batteries is impaired, To overcome the problem, in a battery pack configured by connecting a plurality of storage batteries in series, at least one first storage battery is included which has a low capacity compared to second storage batteries during high-rate discharge, and the first storage battery undergoes polarity inversion during external short circuit, thereby preventing the other batteries from becoming damaged. There are also included a detector that detects voltage of the first storage battery, and a fault signal generator that generates an output fault signal when a voltage detected by the detector inverses.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA belt battery charger includes a belt having a first end, a second end and an elongated central portion extending between the first and second ends. A plurality of electrically connected rechargeable batteries are carried by the central portion of the belt. A belt buckle located at the first end of the belt includes a frame that is secured to the central portion of the belt. The buckle further includes a prong in the form of an electrical connector electrically connected to the batteries and pivotally secured to the frame. The second end of the belt includes a number of spaced apart eyelets passing therethrough. The prong is shaped so as to be able to enter one of the eyelets to secure the second end of the belt to the buckle in the conventional manner. A second electrical connector is located adjacent the second end of the belt and is also connected to the batteries. One of said connectors is adapted to be connected to a cell phone for charging the same.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTDisclosed herein is a battery pack including a battery cell array including two or more battery cells, each of which has an electrode assembly of a cathode/separator/anode structure disposed in a battery case together with an electrolyte in a sealed state, arranged in a lateral direction, a protection circuit module (PCM) connected to an upper end of the battery cell array to control an operation of the battery pack, a pack case in which the battery cell array and the protection circuit module are disposed, and a plate-shaped reinforcing member mounted between the pack case and the battery cell array to increase mechanical strength of the pack case.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn ion conducting membrane for fuel cells involves coupling a compound having a sulfonic acid group with a polymeric backbone. Each of the compounds having a sulfonic acid group and the polymeric backbone are first functionalized with a halogen.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA carbon supported catalyst composition for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells is disclosed that shows a high mass activity and favorable stability and durability. The catalyst composition comprises an intermetallic phase or alloy comprising Pt and a metal selected from the group consisting of Nb, Ta, V and Mo, and comprises an oxide of the metal. The carbon supported catalyst composition can be prepared at relatively low temperature either by first depositing and heating an oxide precursor of the metal on a suitable carbon to make a hybrid support, and then depositing and heating a Pt precursor on the hybrid support, or by depositing both an oxide precursor of the metal and a Pt precursor on a suitable carbon support, and directly heating to a final temperature.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA multilayer polyelectrolyte membrane for fuel cell applications includes a first perfluorocyclobutyl-containing layer that includes a polymer having perfluorocyclobutyl moieties. The first layer is characteristically planar having a first major side and a second major side over which additional layers are disposed. The membrane also includes a first PFSA layer disposed over the first major side of the first layer and a second PFSA layer disposed over the second major side of the first layer.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA catalyst layer for a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes a plurality of agglomerates, adjacent ones of the plurality of agglomerates contacting with each other with pores provided between said adjacent ones of the plurality of agglomerates, each of the plurality of agglomerates being formed by packing a plurality of catalysts each consisting of noble metal fine particles supported on a fiber-like support material, adjacent ones of the plurality of catalysts contacting with each other with pores provided between said adjacent ones of the plurality of catalysts, and each of the plurality of catalysts contacting with a plurality of catalysts other than said each catalyst at a plurality of contact points. This allows providing a catalyst layer, a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly, and a fuel cell, each of which has compact size and excellent power generation performance, and a method for producing the same.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn a method for operating a high-temperature fuel cell, which in normal mode of generating electrical power is supplied with liquid fuel, preferably diesel oil, and is preceded on the anode side by a reformer for liquid fuel, where at least part of the hot anode exhaust gas is recirculated into the anode circuit via a recirculation line. Upstream of a compressor preceding the reformer the liquid fuel is sprayed or injected into the hot anode exhaust gas, the quantity of air needed for reforming the liquid fuel being added to the mixture of anode exhaust gas and fuel. On change-over from normal operational mode to standby mode without power generation, the supply of liquid fuel and air is stopped and the gas mixture present in the anode circuit be permanently circulated. A defined amount of air being introduced into the anode circuit in order to remove deposits and contaminations in the high-temperature fuel cell following standby operation.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTProvided is a method for shutting down an indirect internal reforming SOFC, in which a hydrocarbon-based fuel is reliably reformed, and the oxidative degradation of the anode can be prevented by a reformed gas. A method for shutting down an indirect internal reforming SOFC including a reformer; an SOFC; a combustion region for combusting the anode off-gas of the SOFC; and an enclosure for housing the reformer, the SOFC, and the combustion region, wherein the method includes causing the flow rate of a fuel supplied to the reformer to become FE from FS; and stopping the supply of the fuel to the reformer when an anode temperature becomes lower than the oxidative degradation temperature, where FE represents a flow rate of the fuel supplied to the reformer in a state in which the anode temperature is steady and lower than the oxidative degradation temperature, in which in the reformer the fuel is reformed and a reformed gas with a composition suitable to be supplied to an anode is produced, and in which an amount of the reformed gas produced is equal to or more than the requisite minimum flow rate for preventing the oxidative degradation of the anode when the anode temperature is a temperature equal to or higher than the oxidative degradation temperature, and FS represents a flow rate of the fuel supplied to the reformer at the start of the shutdown method. Also provided is an indirect internal reforming SOFC appropriate for this method.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA system for producing energy that includes infusing porous carbon particles produced by pyrolysis of carbon-containing materials with an off-eutectic salt composition thus producing pore-free carbon particles, and reacting the carbon particles with oxygen in a fuel cell according to the reaction C+O2=CO2 to produce electrical energy.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA microbial fuel cell comprising: a first cathode; at least two anodes electrically connected to each other and to the cathode in a reconfigurable manner; and a processor operatively coupled to the anodes and configured to monitor a parameter of each anode to determine if a given anode has been oxygen-contaminated, and further configured to convert an oxygen-contaminated anode into a second cathode by reconfiguring the electrical connections.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithium battery including: a positive electrode including an overlithiated lithium transition metal oxide having a layered structure; a negative electrode including a silicon-based negative active material; and an electrolyte between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, the electrolyte including an electrolytic solution including a fluorinated ether solvent in an amount of 3 vol % or more based on the total volume of the electrolytic solution.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA composite material tape and a lithium secondary battery using the same are provided. The composite material tape includes an organic base and at least one inorganic element dispersed within the organic base. The composite material tapes of the present invention exhibit improved Insulative and heat-resistant characteristics.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTElectrode protection in electrochemical cells, and more specifically, electrode protection in both aqueous and non-aqueous electrochemical cells, including rechargeable lithium batteries, are presented. In one embodiment, an electrochemical cell includes an anode comprising lithium and a multi-layered structure positioned between the anode and an electrolyte of the cell. A multi-layered structure can include at least a first single-ion conductive material layer, and at least a first polymeric layer positioned between the anode and the single-ion conductive material. The invention also can provide an electrode stabilization layer positioned within the electrode to control depletion and re-plating of electrode material upon charge and discharge of a battery. Advantageously, electrochemical cells comprising combinations of structures described herein are not only compatible with environments that are typically unsuitable for lithium, but the cells may be also capable of displaying long cycle life, high lithium cycling efficiency, and high energy density.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA method for forming a nanocomposite material, the nanocomposite material formed thereby, and a battery made using the nanocomposite material. Metal oxide and graphene are placed in a solvent to form a suspension. The suspension is then applied to a current collector. The solvent is then evaporated to form a nanocomposite material. The nanocomposite material is then electrochemically cycled to form a nanocomposite material of at least one metal oxide in electrical communication with at least one graphene layer.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTPositive electrode active material particles for lithium ion secondary batteries include: a core particle including a first olivine-structured, lithium-containing phosphate compound which includes Fe and/or Mn and Li; and a shell layer attached to the surface of the core particle. The shell layer includes a second olivine-structured, lithium-containing phosphate compound which includes Fe and/or Mn and Li. At least the core particle includes a phosphorous compound represented by the formula (1): MemPnOp, where Me is Fe and/or Mn, 0
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn energy storage composite particle is provided, which includes a carbon film, a conductive carbon component, an energy storage grain, and a conductive carbon fiber. The carbon film surrounds a space. The conductive carbon component and the energy storage grain are disposed in the space. The conductive carbon fiber is electrically connected to the conductive carbon component, the energy storage grain, and the carbon film, and the conductive carbon fiber extends from the inside of the space to the outside of the space. The energy storage composite particle has a high gravimetric capacity, a high coulomb efficiency, and a long cycle life. Furthermore, a battery negative electrode material and a battery using the energy storage composite particle are also provided.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTElectrode structures, and more specifically, electrode structures for use in electrochemical cells, are provided. The electrode structures described herein may include one or more protective layers. In one set of embodiments, a protective layer may be formed by exposing a lithium metal surface to a plasma comprising ions of a gas to form a ceramic layer on top of the lithium metal. The ceramic layer may be highly conductive to lithium ions and may protect the underlying lithium metal surface from reaction with components in the electrolyte. In some cases, the ions may be nitrogen ions and a lithium nitride layer may be formed on the lithium metal surface. In other embodiments, the protective layer may be formed by converting lithium to lithium nitride at high pressures. Other methods for forming protective layers are also provided.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn alkaline primary battery includes: a positive electrode 2 containing manganese dioxide; an alkaline electrolyte containing zinc oxide; a gelled negative electrode 3 containing zinc alloy particles, the alkaline electrolyte, and a gelling agent; and a negative electrode current collector 6 inserted in the gelled negative electrode. The gelled negative electrode 3 has a predetermined malleability such that when 4.0 g of the gelled negative electrode 3 formed into a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 15 mm is extended with 200 g of a load through 10 g of a flat plate, and then an upper surface of the extended gelled negative electrode 3 is approximated to a circle, this circle has a diameter ranging from 24 mm to 36 mm, both inclusive.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn the present invention, there is provided a battery pack including first to fifth terminal portions sequentially arrayed at one side surface of a housing, wherein the first terminal portion formed on one end side of the one side surface is a positive electrode terminal, the fifth terminal portion formed on the other end side is a negative electrode terminal, the fourth terminal portion formed adjacently to the fifth terminal portion is an ID terminal, and the fourth terminal portion and the fifth terminal portion are proximate to each other; and a guide portion for guiding the loading and unloading of the battery pack into and from a battery mounting portion is formed substantially in the center of the one side surface in array with the terminal portions, and the third terminal portion arranged centrally is formed at a position deviated toward the one end side or the other end side.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTAn electrode is provided with a metal terminal extending from a battery module main body, a bolt which has an expanded section configuring a retaining section at a rear end portion and penetrates the metal terminal upward, and an insulating body which insulates the metal terminal and the battery module case one from the other. The insulating body is provided with a drop preventing section which abuts at least a lower surface of the expanded section of the bolt and prevents the bolt from dropping from the metal terminal.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTIn a cap assembly and a rectangular type secondary battery having the cap assembly, the cap assembly includes a cap plate made of a metallic or nonmetallic material, a hollow, low-melting point glass metal tube inserted into a hole formed in the cap plate, and a metallic or nonmetallic pin inserted into the hollow glass metal tube, wherein the cap plate, the glass metal tube and the pin are atomically bonded with one another at their contact areas by high-temperature heating.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA lithium rechargeable battery including: a bare cell including an electrode assembly disposed in a pouch, the electrode assembly including two electrodes, a separator, and first and second electrode tabs that extend from the electrodes, through a first side of the bare cell; a protecting circuit board electrically connected to the first and second electrode tabs; a first lead plate connected to the protecting circuit board and the first electrode tab, and a second lead plate connected to the protecting circuit board and the second electrode tab. The protecting circuit board is provided on a second side of the bare cell, which is adjacent to the first side. The first and second lead plates are bent to extend along the first and second sides of the pouch.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA rechargeable battery includes an electrode assembly, a case, a cap assembly, and a current collecting plate. The electrode assembly includes an anode, a cathode, and a separator interposed between the anode and the cathode. The case houses the electrode assembly and has an opening and has a closed end. The cap assembly is coupled to the opening of the case, and is electrically connected to the electrode assembly. The current collecting plate is electrically connected to the anode or the cathode, and has a guide portion. The guide portion bends toward the electrode assembly to be in contact with the electrode assembly.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA battery pack, which can secure the strength of an outer case, minimize the thickness over the whole outer case and ensure a battery capacity of the battery pack, by forming a portion of a main wall of the outer case with a metal plate. The battery pack includes a core pack, a first case, and a second case. The first case has a periphery including a first resin molding part, and is configured to cover a first surface of the core pack. The second case has a periphery including a second molding part, and is configured to cover a second surface of the core pack. The first and second cases are connected with each other by a weld of the first and second molding parts.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure provides a cable-type secondary battery, comprising: an inner electrode; and a sheet-form laminate of separation layer-outer electrode, spirally wound to surround the outer surface of the inner electrode, the laminate being formed by carrying out compression for the integration of a separation layer for preventing a short circuit, and an outer electrode. According to the present disclosure, the electrodes and the separation layer are compressed and integrated to minimize ununiform spaces between the separation layer and the outer electrode and reduce the thickness of a battery to be prepared, thereby decreasing resistance and improving ionic conductivity within the battery. Also, the separation layer coming into contact with the electrodes absorbs an electrolyte solution to induce the uniform supply of the electrolyte solution into the outer electrode active material layer, thereby enhancing the stability and performances of the cable-type secondary battery.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTEmbodiments of the present invention facilitate a winding process and enable auxiliary current collectors to be securely fixed to a main current collector, thereby minimizing deformation during battery charging and discharging and maintaining sufficient strength. The jelly roll includes a first auxiliary current collector, a second auxiliary current collector, a mandrel insulating layer, and an electrode plate. The first auxiliary current collector and the second auxiliary current collector are spaced apart from each other and each has a mandrel protrusion on an opposite end portion. The mandrel insulating layer insulates the auxiliary current collectors from each other and insulates the auxiliary current collectors from an exterior. The electrode plate is formed by layering a separator, a first electrode plate, a separator and a second electrode plate and is wound on an external surface of the mandrel insulating layer.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe disclosed embodiments provide a battery pack for use with a portable electronic device. The battery pack includes a first set of cells with different capacities electrically coupled in a parallel configuration. Cells within the first set of cells may also have different thicknesses and/or dimensions. The first set of cells is arranged within the battery pack to facilitate efficient use of space within a portable electronic device. For example, the first set of cells may be arranged to accommodate components in the portable electronic device.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTApparatuses and methods of use are provided that include a battery cell comprising a flexible resistive thermal device. The resistive thermal device includes a flexible conductive circuit that is positioned on or adjacent to the surface of the battery cell. Resistance measured in the conductive circuit is correlated with a temperature of the battery cell thereby allowing control of a cooling system and/or the charging/discharging rates of the battery cell to be adjusted in response to temperature. Flexibility of the resistive thermal device also accommodates dimensional changes in the battery cell.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA battery assembly provided with an adhesive stop mechanism is disclosed. The battery assembly includes multiple battery cells, a primary retaining frame, a secondary retaining frame, two common electrodes and a bonding layer. The primary and second retaining frames are combined together to constitute accommodation chambers for housing the battery cells. The primary retaining frame includes an outer deck and a shallow deck, wherein the outer deck is formed with adhesive application pores and the shallow deck is formed with stop portions corresponding to the adhesive application pores. The adhesive composition applied through the adhesive application pores is confined by the stop portions and subsequently cured into a bonding layer that firmly holds the battery cells within the accommodation chambers.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA battery pack dehumidifier system for controlling the relative humidity within a battery pack enclosure is provided, the dehumidifier system including a desiccant that absorbs/adsorbs water vapor from the battery pack enclosure. The system heats and reactivates the desiccant at predetermined time intervals or when the humidity within the system reaches a preset level, thereby allowing the desiccant to regain its potential for absorbing/adsorbing water vapor.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA connecting structure for a secondary battery for electrically connecting a core pack where two or more unit cells are electrically connected and a protection circuit module made of the unit cells of the core pack and a PCB substrate. The connecting structure includes a metal plate having an electrode connecting unit connected to an electrode of each unit cell of the core pack and a circuit connecting unit connected to the protection circuit module; and a circuit terminal unit electrically connected to the circuit connecting unit by being located in a connection hole formed in the PCB substrate of the protection circuit module so that the upper and lower portions of the PCB substrate communicate with each other. The circuit connecting unit is coupled and electrically connected to the circuit terminal unit by means of a connection method which allows selective connection and separation.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA power storage device cell is configured to include a capacitor positive electrode, a lithium positive electrode, and a common negative electrode in which electrode layers are formed on a collector foil in which penetration holes are formed, and such that the capacitor positive electrode and the lithium positive electrode are directly connected; each of the electrode layers of the common negative electrode is formed of a carbon-based material in which graphite particles and hard carbon particles are mixed, and the proportion of the hard carbon particles in the carbon-based material is from 5% by weight to 70% by weight.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA modular, intrinsically-safe power module assembly is provided. The assembly includes a rigid conduit adapter configured to mount to a conduit of a field device. A housing, having an interior, is operably coupled to the rigid conduit adapter and is physically supported by the rigid conduit adapter. At least one non-rechargeable battery is disposed within the housing. Intrinsic safety circuitry is coupled to the at least one non-rechargeable battery, and is coupled to a connector that mates with a cooperative connector in the rigid conduit adapter.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA production method of an active material, and the active material are provided to realize an active material containing metal-containing particles and being capable of achieving satisfactory cycle performance and rate performance. The active material is produced by a method of polymerizing a mixture of a metal ion, a hydroxy acid, and a polyol to obtain a polymer, and a step of carbonizing the polymer. The active material used is one having a carbonaceous porous material, and metal particles and/or metal oxide particles supported in pores of the carbonaceous porous material, and particle diameter of the metal-containing particles are in the range of 10 to 300 nm.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA production process for composite oxide expressed by a compositional formula: LiMn1-xAxO2, where “A” is one or more kinds of metallic elements other than Mn; and 0≦“x”
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe present disclosure relates to gel-type polymer electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell, a dye-sensitized solar cell comprising the gel-type polymer electrolyte, and a method for manufacturing the dye-sensitized solar cell.
Tue, 26 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTA hybrid silencer in a fuel cell system includes an expansion chamber connected to a predetermined apparatus of the fuel cell system, where the expansion chamber reduces acoustic noise of a fluid discharged from the predetermined apparatus, a water-absorber disposed inside the expansion chamber, where the water-absorber absorbs a liquid component of a fluid which flows into the expansion chamber; and a perforated silencer which discharges the fluid from which the liquid component is removed by the water-absorber while reducing acoustic noise of the fluid discharged therefrom.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTTemperature characteristics of battery cells are detected. In accordance with one or more embodiments, an intercept frequency is detected for each battery cell, at which frequency an imaginary part of a plot of impedance values of the battery cell exhibits a zero crossing. The impedance values correspond to current injected into the cell. A temperature of the cell is determined based upon the detected intercept frequency for the cell and stored data that models operation of the cell. Various approaches are implemented with different types of circuits coupled to detect the impedance values of the respective cells.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTThe invention provides a zwitterionic-bias material for blood cell selection, being a copolymer formed by zwitterionic structural units and charged structural units wherein the zwitterionic structural unit comprises at least one positively charged moiety and one negatively charged moiety, a distance between the positively charged moiety and the negatively charged moiety is a length of 1˜5 carbon-carbon bonds, and the zwitterionic structural units and charged structural units are randomly arranged to have zwitterionic-bias.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTFuel cell membrane electrode assemblies and fuel cell polymer electrolyte membranes are provided comprising bound anionic functional groups and polyvalent cations, such as Mn or Ru cations, which demonstrate increased durability. Methods of making same are also provided.
Tue, 19 May 2015 08:00:00 EDTProvided is fuel cell system capable of eliminating any failure caused by freezing of a discharge valve during a low temperature while preventing an increase in size of the system. A fuel cell system is provided, the system including: a fuel cell; a diluter that dilutes a fuel-off gas discharged from the fuel cell with an oxidant-off gas discharged from the fuel cell to discharge the resulting gas to the outside; a fuel-off gas flow path that connects the fuel cell and the diluter; and a discharge valve that is provided to the fuel-off gas flow path to discharge a fuel-off gas flowing through the fuel-off gas flow path to the outside during a valve opening operation. In the fuel cell system, the discharge valve is integrally attached to the diluter.