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Preview: Phys.org: Cancer News

Cancer News - Health News, Medicine News, Cancer



Phys.org provides the latest news on cancer, health, medicines, cancer treatments, cancer research, cancer studies and types of cancer.



 



Study prompts new ideas on cancers' origins

Sat, 16 Dec 2017 06:25:28 EST

Rapidly dividing, yet aberrant stem cells are a major source of cancer. But a new study suggests that mature cells also play a key role in initiating cancer—a finding that could upend the way scientists think about the origin of the disease.



What does hair loss have to teach us about cancer metastasis?

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 15:13:56 EST

Understanding how cancer cells are able to metastasize—migrate from the primary tumor to distant sites in the body—and developing therapies to inhibit this process are the focus of many laboratories around the country. Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) have identified one mechanism that regulates signaling events leading to cell migration and metastasis. In the October 24, 2017 issue of Science Signaling, they showed that primary cilia act as a focal point to transmit growth signals. Furthermore, they identified a specific ceramide species (produced by ceramide synthase 4 [CerS4]) that disrupts the ability of cells to form this focal point.



Multiple myeloma survival down with high ADAR1 RNA expression

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 13:30:01 EST

(HealthDay)—Amplification of the inflammation-responsive RNA editase adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)1 gene is associated with reduced survival in multiple myeloma (MM), according to a study published online Dec. 4 in Nature Communications.



Many women report not feeling completely informed about breast cancer treatment options

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 12:20:13 EST

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States, with more than 230,000 women diagnosed annually. (Skin cancer remains the most common.) Patients often describe the process of making a treatment decision as worrisome, so one research team wanted to explore how these patients became informed about their treatment options, and why some women might feel less than completely informed.



Cancer immunotherapy may work better in patients with specific genes

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 09:23:55 EST

Cancer cells arise when DNA is mutated, and these cells should be recognized as "foreign" by the immune system. However, cancer cells have found ways to evade detection by the immune system.



A cough that won't quit—is it lung cancer?

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 09:10:01 EST

Coughing removes particles, mucus, irritants or fluids from the lungs. It may be caused by something in the air, such as cooking fumes, perfume or spices, or it may be related to congestion caused by a cold, allergies or a respiratory infection.



First-in-class ERK1/2 inhibitor safe, shows early efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumors

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 07:25:38 EST

The novel ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor ulixertinib displayed an acceptable safety profile and had clinical activity in patients whose tumors had mutations in the MAPK cell-signaling pathway, according to data from a phase I clinical trial published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.



Frequent sun exposure may cue gene fusion found in skin cancer

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 05:30:01 EST

A fusion gene is a single composite gene resulting from the combination of two formerly independent genes. Researchers from Kumamoto University, Japan have determined that a particular fusion gene is often found in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) lesions on skin exposed frequently to the sun.



Researchers develop a new generation of tumor-specific aptamer-drug conjugate

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 05:24:55 EST

The toxic nature of chemotherapy poses a great challenge to clinical treatment of cancer. A team of scholars from the School of Chinese Medicine (SCM) of Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) devoted their efforts to the development of a new generation of smart anti-cancer drug molecules. The tumour-specific aptamer-drug conjugate they developed performs well in the treatment of tumours and reduces possible toxic side-effects. The research findings were recently published in the internationally renowned academic journal Nature Communications.



ESMO publishes new position paper on supportive and palliative care

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 03:04:49 EST

ESMO, the leading professional organisation for medical oncology, published a position paper on supportive and palliative care in its leading scientific journal, Annals of Oncology today.



Scientists pinpoint gene to blame for poorer survival rate in early-onset breast cancer patients

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 03:03:51 EST

A new study led by scientists at the University of Southampton has found that inherited variation in a particular gene may be to blame for the lower survival rate of patients diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer.



Mechanism identified of impaired dendritic cell function that weakens response to cancer

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 15:39:50 EST

A new study from The Wistar Institute revealed the mechanism implicated in the defective function of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs), a specialized type of immune cells that expose the antigens on their surface to activate the T cells. The new findings explain why DCs are not effective in executing a specialized process that is required for inducing antitumor immune responses and effective cancer immunotherapy. The work was published online in Nature Communications.



Liquid biopsy results differed substantially between two providers

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 12:54:12 EST

Two Johns Hopkins prostate cancer researchers found significant disparities when they submitted identical patient samples to two different commercial liquid biopsy providers. Liquid biopsy is a new and noninvasive alternative to tumor tissue sequencing, and it is intended to specifically detect and sequence tumor DNA circulating in patients' blood. The results are used to help guide doctors to tailor the best treatment for patients at each point of their disease.



Testing the accuracy of FDA-approved and lab-developed cancer genetics tests

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 12:49:23 EST

Cancer molecular testing can drive clinical decision making and help a clinician determine if a patient is a good candidate for a targeted therapeutic drug. Clinical tests for common cancer causing-mutations in the genes BRAF, EGFR and KRAS abound, and include U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved companion diagnostics (FDA-CDs) as well as laboratory-developed tests (LDTs). LDTs are tests that have been designed and implemented in a single laboratory - some are completely homegrown while others are commercial kits, including "off label" uses of FDA-CDs (also known as in vitro diagnostics). Amid the debate about how much these tests should be regulated by the FDA, one question has gone unanswered: how well do LDTs and FDA-CDs perform? A new study published this week in JAMA Oncology, which analyzed data from almost 7,000 tests, finds that the answer is: very well and very comparably.



'Bet hedging' explains the efficacy of many combination cancer therapies

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 12:00:02 EST

The efficacy of many FDA-approved cancer drug combinations is not due to synergistic interactions between drugs, but rather to a form of "bet hedging," according to a new study published by Harvard Medical School researchers in Cell on Dec. 14.



Newest data links inflammation to chemo-brain

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 07:02:39 EST

Inflammation in the blood plays a key role in "chemo-brain," according to a published pilot study that provides evidence for what scientists have long believed.



Scientists unlock structure of mTOR, a key cancer cell signaling protein

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 06:18:39 EST

Researchers in the Sloan Kettering Institute have solved the structure of an important signaling molecule in cancer cells. They used a new technology called cryo-EM to visualize the structure in three dimensions. The detailed information provided by this image paves the way for rational drug design.



Firefighters may face higher odds for skin cancer

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 16:04:02 EST

(HealthDay)—Exposure to firefighting chemicals may be one reason why Florida firefighters have a higher-than-normal rate of skin cancer, a new study suggests.



Recommendations for genetic counseling and genetic testing for hereditary prostate cancer

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 16:00:01 EST

To date, there have been few recommendations to guide physicians about when to offer men genetic consultation for prostate cancer risk. Now, an international and inter-specialty panel of experts convened at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center (SKCC) at Thomas Jefferson University have developed a comprehensive set of recommendations. This consensus statement, published December 13th in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, will help physicians and stakeholders make sense of a rapidly evolving field of practice.



One in five young colon cancer patients have genetic link

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 15:21:54 EST

As doctors grapple with increasing rates of colorectal cancers in young people, new research from the University of Michigan may offer some insight into how the disease developed and how to prevent further cancers. Researchers found that 20 percent of young people diagnosed with colorectal cancer have an inherited genetic abnormality that predisposes to its development - a percentage exponentially higher than those diagnosed over age 50. More than half of them do not have clinical or family histories that would typically indicate the need for genetic testing.



Even smokers may benefit from targeted lung cancer treatments

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 12:42:35 EST

Smokers are less likely than non-smokers to have lung cancers caused by targetable genetic changes. But a study published this week in the journal Clinical Cancer Research shows that when they do, smokers benefit just as much as non-smokers from targeted treatments.



Triple drug treatment combo shows promise in adult leukemia

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 09:19:54 EST

A triple-drug targeted therapy approach could offer an effective new treatment option for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that reduces the risk for the long-term side effects experienced with chemotherapy and is given for a limited time, not as a daily lifetime drug therapy.



Second generation BTK inhibitor highly effective as solo therapy in adult leukemia

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 09:19:05 EST

Updated data on the first 134 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with single-agent acalabrutinib shows that the drug was well-tolerated in the majority of patients treated and responses were durable over time, according to researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James).



Targeted oral therapy combo safe, effective for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 09:18:35 EST

Acalabrutinib is a second-generation Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, a newer class of drugs shown to improve the survival of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Researchers believe that combining BTK inhibitors with an engineered CD20 antibody drug, such as obinutuzumab, could help increase the rapidity and depth of treatment response by further sensitizing cancer cells to respond to treatment with acalabrutinib.



New strategy for unleashing cancer-fighting power of p53 gene

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 09:18:00 EST

Tumor protein p53 is one of the most critical determinants of the fate of cancer cells, as it can determine whether a cell lives or dies in response to stress. In a new study published today in the journal Nature Communications, a research team from the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at Roswell Park Cancer Institute reports their discovery of a major mechanism by which cells regulate this important and multifunctional tumor suppressor, opening up new avenues for cancer research and treatment.



Molecular dissection of bile duct cancer reveals subtypes with different origins and varying potential treatments

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 07:46:44 EST

Researchers have discovered that cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a form of liver cancer also known as bile duct cancer, consists of several molecular subtypes with distinct potential therapies and prognoses.



Closing in on advanced prostate cancer

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 06:46:12 EST

In most cases, prostate cancer is cured by surgery and/or radiotherapy. However, 20 percent of patients will need treatment to remove tumour cells but this treatment ceases to be effective after two or three years and the cancer recurs. Once this stage of the disease is reached, there is no cure. A team headed by Xavier Salvatella, ICREA researcher at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), has discovered a new avenue through which to attack prostrate cancer cells that have developed drug resistance. Published in the journal Structure, the study opens up new therapeutic avenues against a disease that causes 75,000 deaths a year in Europe alone.



New discovery may enhance chemotherapy's efficiency against leukaemia

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 06:24:39 EST

In patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, cancer cells resist the effects of chemotherapy, many times resulting in disease recurrence and ultimately death. Researchers from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) João Lobo Antunes have found a mechanism through which certain types of leukaemia resist chemotherapy, thus revealing novel molecular targets that may be used to improve the efficiency of this type of treatment.



Allopurinol Rx more likely with eligibility at diagnosis

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 17:00:01 EST

(HealthDay)—Allopurinol prescribing is more likely if patients meet eligibility criteria at diagnosis, according to a research brief published in the November/December issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.



Skin cancer treatment selfie goes viral, has public health lessons

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 15:46:40 EST

You've heard of the Katie Couric effect, the Angelina Jolie effect and the Charlie Sheen effect, but could the next effect be named after you?