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Medical Xpress - latest medical and health news stories



Medical Xpress internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.



 



Artificial intelligence may help prevent physician burnout

Sat, 24 Feb 2018 06:51:24 EST

(HealthDay)—Artificial intelligence (AI), in which computers can be trained to recognize patterns in large quantities of data, may be able to reduce physicians' burdens, saving them time and energy, according to a report published in Medical Economics.



New formulated moisturizer effective for facial dermatitis

Sat, 24 Feb 2018 06:51:11 EST

(HealthDay)—Facial moisturizers with specific ingredients may be effective for treating mild-to-moderate dermatitis, according to a study published online Feb. 6 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.



Why some are still skeptical of tanning bed risks

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 17:20:01 EST

(HealthDay)—The health risks are high for young people who use tanning beds, but not all parents seem to see it that way.



Private insurance coverage of infused chemo varies by setting

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 17:10:01 EST

(HealthDay)—From 2004 to 2014, there was an increase in the provision of infused chemotherapy in hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs), which is associated with increased spending, according to a research letter published online Feb. 22 in JAMA Oncology.



Dermoscopic criteria identified for diagnosing melanoma in situ

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 17:00:01 EST

(HealthDay)—The most frequent dermoscopic criteria for melanoma in situ (MIS) are regression, atypical network, and irregular dots and/or globules, according to a study published online Feb. 21 in JAMA Dermatology.



Why is mining-related lung disease on the rise?

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:51:35 EST

The passage of critical mine health and safety legislation in the late 1960s, along with advances in technology and safety practices, helped to decrease the prevalence of lung diseases for miners. But starting in the mid-1990s, there was a significant documented increase in lung diseases among coal workers, especially among younger workers.



Emergency CT for head trauma may be overused, study shows

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:50:46 EST

Emergency patients are too often given head CT to check for skull fractures and brain hemorrhage, leading to unnecessary heath care costs and patient exposure to radiation, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2018 Annual Meeting, set for April 22-27 in Washington, DC.



Second-gen drug-eluting stents similarly effective for LMCAD

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:50:01 EST

(HealthDay)—There are few significant differences in target-vessel failure with different types of second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) for obstructive left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD), according to a study published in the Feb. 27 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.



Short-term use of IV devices is common—and risky—study shows

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:49:35 EST

Many hospital patients get medicine or nutrition delivered straight into their bloodstream through a tiny device called a PICC. In just a decade, it's become the go-to device for intravenous care.



Noted child psychiatrist Harold Koplewicz, MD, speaks out on the Parkland shooting

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:48:41 EST

Harold S. Koplewicz, MD, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology and President of the Child Mind Institute has spoken out on the Parkland shooting and the urgent need to make mental health a priority for research and action. "The national response to the tragic Parkland shooting is unfolding in a different way than those that came before. The news is focusing less on the troubled hopes, dreams, and fantasies of a killer. This takes momentum away from the cycle of violence and focuses energy where it should be: with victims, with survivors, with problem solvers. The focus is on teens around the country calling for action, and it is remarkable.



Menopausal hormone therapy tied to less pronounced kyphosis

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:47:50 EST

(HealthDay)—Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) use is associated with less pronounced kyphosis compared with never-use, according to a study published online Feb. 16 in Menopause.



Growth rates of small renal masses highly variable early on

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:45:06 EST

(HealthDay)—Among patients who opt for active surveillance of small renal masses, growth rates are highly variable early on and do not reliably predict adverse outcomes, according to a study published in the March issue of The Journal of Urology.



FDA warns heart patients about antibiotic clarithromycin

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 16:44:50 EST

(HealthDay)—The antibiotic clarithromycin (brand name: Biaxin) may increase the long-term risk of heart problems and death in patients with heart disease, according to U.S. health officials.



CDC seeking $400 million to replace lab for deadliest germs

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 15:56:38 EST

Thirteen years after building a state-of-the-art lab for the world's most dangerous germs, the nation's top public health agency is asking for more than $400 million to build a new one.



Evaluation of I-TOPP examines outcomes of transdisciplinary doctoral training program

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 15:53:48 EST

Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has doubled in 2- to 5-year-olds and tripled in children aged 6 to 11 years. To address this public health concern, in 2011, the USDA funded the Illinois Transdisciplinary Obesity Prevention Program (I-TOPP), a joint doctoral/Masters of Public Health (MPH) degree program, at the University of Illinois with the goal of training future leaders to address the problem of childhood obesity.



Study explores emerging role of NAD+ in innate and adaptive immune responses

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 15:51:05 EST

Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have discovered a new cellular and molecular pathway that regulates CD4+ T cell response—a finding that may lead to new ways to treat diseases that result from alterations in these cells. Their discovery, published online in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, shows that administering nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a natural molecule found in all living cells, shuts off the capacity of dendritic cells and macrophages to dictate CD4+ T fate. Researchers found that NAD+ administration regulated CD4+ T cells via mast cells (MCs), cells that have been mainly described in the context of allergy, exclusively.



Dementia increases the risk of 30-day readmission to the hospital after discharge

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 14:12:07 EST

About 25 percent of older adults admitted to hospitals have dementia and are at increased risk for serious problems like in-hospital falls and delirium (the medical term for an abrupt, rapid change in mental function). As a result, older adults with dementia are more likely to do poorly during hospital stays compared to older adults without dementia.



Study: Police use of force is rare, as are significant injuries to suspects

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 14:04:52 EST

Police officers rarely use force in apprehending suspects, and when they do they seldom cause significant injuries to those arrested, according to a multi-site study published in the March issue of the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.



Young children use physics, not previous rewards, to learn about tools

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 14:00:03 EST

Children as young as seven apply basic laws of physics to problem-solving, rather than learning from what has previously been rewarded, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.



US hospitals testing experimental therapies to prevent two common bacterial infections

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:52:43 EST

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is supporting U.S. clinical sites participating in two ongoing international Phase 2 clinical trials evaluating investigational antibody-based therapies aimed at preventing potentially antibiotic-resistant infections. By aligning the NIAID Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) with a large international consortium leading the effort, the U.S. investigators hope to enroll 30 adult patients from 15 intensive care units in the trials. NIAID is supporting the domestic sites with a grant to Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, which is part of the ARLG—a clinical research consortium working to reduce the impact of antimicrobial resistance. The larger international trials are supported by MedImmune, the global biologics research and development arm of AstraZeneca, based in Gaithersburg, Maryland, and the Brussels-based Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking and the Combatting Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe (COMBACTE) consortium.



New device for low-cost single-cell analysis identifies fibroblast subtypes in rheumatoid arthritis patients

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:50:28 EST

Single-cell analysis holds enormous potential to study how individual cells influence disease and respond to treatment, but the lack of cost-effective and user-friendly instrumentation remains challenging. As described in a study published today in Nature Communications, researchers at the New York Genome Center (NYGC) and New York University (NYU) have taken steps to facilitate broad access to single-cell sequencing by developing a 3D-printed, portable and low-cost microfluidic controller. To demonstrate the utility of the instrument in clinical environments, the researchers deployed the device to study synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS).



Nasty flu season showing signs of winding down in US

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:48:57 EST

Could this nasty flu season finally be winding down?



Impact of misunderstanding genetic tests for heart conditions

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:41:45 EST

University of Sydney researchers are raising concerns over the need for informed decision making for genetic testing after a study published today finds patients at risk of inherited heart disease do not always understand test results or the impact results will have on their life.



Researchers use a molecular Trojan horse to deliver chemotherapeutic drug to cancer cells

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:35:13 EST

A research team at the University of California, Riverside has discovered a way for chemotherapy drug paclitaxel to target migrating, or circulating, cancer cells, which are responsible for the development of tumor metastases.



Complex inhalers prevent patients from taking medicine

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:33:54 EST

Respiratory disease patients with arthritis could struggle to manage their conditions because their inhalers are too fiddly for them to use, University of Bath research has found.



Ice chips only? Study questions restrictions on oral intake for women in labor

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:31:45 EST

At most US maternity units, women in labor are put on nil per os (NPO) status—they're not allowed to eat or drink anything, except ice chips. But new nursing research questions that policy, showing no increase in risks for women who are allowed to eat and drink during labor. The study appears in the March issue of the American Journal of Nursing.



Screening for fracture risk in postmenopausal women is cost-effective

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:30:32 EST

A recent Journal of Bone and Mineral Research analysis indicates that screening for fracture risk in older postmenopausal women is a good use of healthcare resources—in other words, it's cost-effective.



More than 200 million medication errors occur in NHS per year, say researchers

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 10:25:17 EST

A study has revealed an estimated 237 million medication errors occur in the NHS in England every year, and avoidable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause hundreds of deaths.



Study: Tinder loving cheaters—dating app facilitates infidelity

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 10:24:13 EST

The popular dating app Tinder is all about helping people form new relationships. But for many college-aged people, it's also helping those in relationships cheat on their romantic partners.



How can oil technology help heart patients?

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 10:22:08 EST

Restricted blood flow in the coronary arteries can result in a heart attack. A narrowing in the arteries providing oxygen to the heart can therefore be deadly. Today, doctors examine patients using a catheter to determine whether an obstructive coronary artery disease is present or not. New technology can make it possible to evaluate the severity of blood vessel narrowings without inserting a catheter.