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New WWF guide aims to reduce desire for ivory

2017-01-24Tue, 24 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000

(image) In the global effort to address elephant poaching and the broader scourge of wildlife crime, greater attention has been focused on consumption of illegal and unsustainable wildlife products, the driver of most poaching. Conservationists are redoubling efforts to reduce demand for ivory and other products. With the stakes so high and the prognosis for elephants, rhinos and other wildlife so dire if we falter, we must widen our search for solutions. This requires venturing into disciplines beyond the domain of traditional conservation — and tapping into novel sources of inspiration and expertise to probe the complex, nuanced nature of this demand.

In an effort to tackle the challenge of "desire reduction" of consumers, WWF commissioned a guide, Reducing Desire for Ivory: A Psychosocial Guide to Address Ivory Consumption that presents a new lens through which to view conservation campaigns and their audiences taking on complex dimensions (psychological, cultural, social, and emotional) of ivory consumption.

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Tightening the Net: Towards a Global Legal Framework on Transnational Organized Environmental Crime

2015-04-13Mon, 13 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0000

Transnational organized environmental crime constitutes a global and escalating threat. It allows international networks of individuals and corporations to thrive and eventually disturb not only biodiversity but also the global economy and security. In addition to severe environmental consequences, the laundered money generated by such activities disrupts the world's economies, fostering corruption and challenging political stability. Emblematic of the dark side of globalization, organized criminal groups engage in highly profitable illicit markets such as illegal trade in protected species of fauna and flora, illegal logging and fishing, unlawful transportation and dumping of hazardous waste, and illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances. An urgent need to reflect on current global legal frameworks  While the international community increasingly acknowledges the seriousness of the issue and multiple mechanisms and tools are being used to combat it, current strategies remain insufficient to tackle this escalating problem. This global and complex challenge can only be addressed via a holistic approach involving different stakeholders at multiple levels, including local communities, and fostering efforts on several fronts including political commitment, law enforcement, prevention and cultural change through education (especially to curb demand for wildlife products). Without losing sight of this broad context, this report by the Gobal Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime and WWF focuses on a specific aspect: the analysis of the current legal approaches and their improvement. Presenting a global legal review, this report analyses the international legal frameworks currently available to combat transnational organized environmental crime, and explores potential ways to strengthen the current situation. Indeed, extant legal tools appear as a loose net of international, national and local laws that often fail to work together efficiently. Inconsistencies and remaining loopholes create havens for organized criminal groups and transit hubs for their illicit activities. The main legal weakness is the fact that international treaties still fail to address environmental crime as a form of transnational organized crime. Instead, they either focus on conservation or international trade aspects. The analysis highlights that the only global treaty that could provide the needed criminal perspective is the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC). However, many forms of environmental crime fall outside its scope because its application relies on national laws. Indeed, UNTOC is only applicable if national laws reach the UNTOC application threshold (which is the establishment by national laws of a maximum criminal penalty of at least four years of imprisonment) otherwise it is not applicable. Unfortunately many countries do not yet criminalize the activities that constitute forms of transnational organized environmental crime, they often prohibit them as illegal or unlawful but it is not the same as legally defining them as criminal. In addition, where the criminal approach does exist, the UNTOC application threshold is not always reached. These observations are a starting point for a much needed discussion on the potential improvement of global legal frameworks. This report also raises the possibility of a new international legal framework dedicated to transnational organized environmental crime. [...]

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Conservation Action Plan for Western Great Apes (2015-2025)

2015-03-31Tue, 31 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000

Most of the world's gorillas and about one-third of all chimpanzees live in Western Equatorial Africa. The Endangered central chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes and the Critically Endangered western lowland gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla inhabit the rainforest of six countries: Angola (Cabinda enclave), Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo.These great apes are undergoing a dramatic decline due to poaching, disease and habitat loss, driven by demands for bushmeat, a lack of law enforcement, by corruption, and by increased access to their once-remote habitat. More recently the forest itself has come under threat from the expansion of industrial agriculture, which will result in massive losses of great ape habitat unless rapid, targeted action is taken. Conservation strategies and actions must be designed to respond to these pressures to maintain great ape populations at their present numbers.This document is the product of the second regional workshop on conservation planning for the two subspecies of great ape, which brought together senior representatives of the wildlife authorities in the six range states, protected area managers, NGOs, scientists, wildlife health experts, industry representatives and donors. These stakeholders assessed great ape conservation needs for the next 10 years, building on an action plan published in 2005, to develop a new plan of action that will serve as a guide for range-state governments, donors and conservation organisations to target conservation investment in the region.New survey data, collected between 2003 and 2013, were used to verify, refine and re-assess priority areas for great ape conservation. Statistical modelling of the survey data was used to create predicted density maps for the entire geographic range of central chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas. Priority landscapes were then delineated using a decision support tool and a suite of criteria that included the presence of an existing or planned protected area and a minimum population target of 2,000 great apes (gorillas and chimpanzees combined). The results produced 18 priority conservation landscapes (see Table 1), six of which were classified as being of exceptional priority as they each harbour more than 5% of the total number of great apes in the region (i.e., 5% of the global population of western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees). One landscape was classified as an 'Ebola recovery priority' and another was classified as a 'survey priority'. The total area of the 18 landscapes is 51% of the range of these two taxa, but holds over 77% of the individual great apes. Protected areas alone hold only 21% of these great apes, further underlining the need for effective management and protection of large areas outside formally protected areas in order to maintain their populations.The action plan lays out a conservation strategy for gorillas and chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa. This geographic range covers 655,800 km2 and the suitable habitat grades from gallery forests at the savannah edge through swamp, lowland terra firma and submontane forests. Low birth rates, long periods of infant and juvenile dependence, and late age of maturity mean that great apes are slow to recover from population reduction events when compared to the faster- breeding ungulates and smaller primates with which they co-exist.Since they are threatened with extinction, great apes are completely protected by national and international laws in all countries of their range, and it is, therefore, illegal to kill, capture or trade in live apes or their body parts. Nonetheless, chimpanzees and gorillas are killed by opportunistic poachers, typically to supply an illegal and elitist commercial trade in bushmeat 'delicacies'.Poaching and disease have been responsible for considerable declines in great ape populations in the region over the last few decades. Of particular note in Africa was the loss of over 90% of the great apes in[...]

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Illegal Take and Trade of Marine Turtles in the Indian Ocean Region

2015-03-06Fri, 06 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000

Over recent years, the national and international illegal trade in marine turtles and their derivatives has been largely under-reported by the 35 Signatory States of the Indian Ocean South East Asia Marine Turtle Memorandum of Understanding (IOSEA MoU), despite indications that the illegal trade in the region was expanding.A ground-breaking report on the "Illegal Take and Trade of Marine Turtles in the IOSEA Region" was produced in 2014. It examined the key patterns and trends since the year 2000, and reviewed measures taken by governments, intergovernmental bodies and NGOs to tackle the issue. And its findings highlight the scale of the trade. Trade in South East Asia The consumption of turtle meat reportedly occurs in 75% of IOSEA Signatory States, while trade in turtle shells is mainly restricted to East Asian countries.The direct exploitation of turtles – for their meat, eggs or shells – is largely concentrated in the Coral Triangle region, which includes the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste.Within the Coral Triangle region, much of the poaching appears to occur in Indonesian waters. In 2012, the country's authorities warned that international trafficking of marine turtles was on the rise nationwide due to increasing demand from East Asian countries.ProFauna Indonesia estimated that around 1,115 green turtles were being poached every year in southeast Sulawesi alone in 2008, while a study from 2011 predicted that current poaching levels would lead to the extinction of the Aru green turtle population within two generations. Poaching in Malaysia and trade from there to China and Japan seem equally severe with 342 whole turtles seized between 2000 and 2008. Exact figures are, however, unavailable, as reporting in the region is weak.As for eggs, Kalimantan in Indonesia stands out as a regional hotspot for egg collection, with significant amounts being exported to the Malaysian provinces of Sabah and Sarawak, where eggs are reportedly sold openly without controls.Poaching of green and hawksbill turtles in the Coral Triangle appears to be perpetrated mainly by Chinese and Vietnamese turtle fisheries.Following the contraction of the large-scale wholesale export market in Viet Nam – after a domestic ban was enacted in 2002 – much of the Vietnamese turtle catch is reportedly traded directly at sea in exchange for commodities brought from Hainan.The main regional trade route for whole turtles and turtle derivatives seems to originate in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. The products are shipped mostly to East Asia, where demand is reportedly on the rise – both Chinese demand for turtle meat and medicine, and Japanese and Taiwanese demand for traditional crafts made of turtle scute. From 2000 to 2008, over 9,180 marine turtle derivatives were reportedly traded between the two regions.As of 2006, Japan remained the world's principal importer of raw scutes used for the production of bekko. Surveys conducted in 2004 among traders and artisans found that levels of tortoiseshell stocks and sales were not diminishing, possibly due to illegal importation from Indonesia and other Asian countries, such as Papua New Guinea, transiting through Singapore. The volume of trade to Japan is difficult to estimate due to the nature of the goods traded and to the fact that some bekko stocks may have remained from earlier imports.Trade in Africa Green and hawksbill turtles are also targeted by local poachers, particularly in the Western Indian Ocean off Kenya, Madagascar, and Mozambique. Indeed, emerging commercial activities based on marine turtle exploitation were recently reported in both Mozambique and Madagascar.A study carried out in southwest Madagascar in 2010 estimated that between 10,000 and 16,000 turtles were being caught annually by Vezo turtle fishermen using modern methods. But widespread poaching at sea was also reported in the north in 2012.Drivers [...]

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Law enforcement against forest crime in the Eastern Plains Landscape of Cambodia 2006-2011

2012-07-30Mon, 30 Jul 2012 00:00:00 +0000

(image) The Eastern Plains Landscape of north eastern Cambodia is recognized as being of critical importance for biodiversity conservation. Covering a huge area, this largely forested habitat supports globally significant populations of Asian elephant and banteng as well as other endangered species such as eld's deer, gaur, white-shouldered ibis and vultures. However, this habitat is coming under increasing pressure due to uncontrolled logging, hunting for trade and land conversion.

The Royal Government of Cambodia through the Ministry of Environment and the Forestry Administration have the mandate to manage and protect these area. A key element of that protection is the implementation of law enforcement to which WWF have been giving strong support as well as complementing other WWF initiatives on community engagement and biodiversity research. This report highlights the results and achievements of that enforcement effort over a six year period and shows the considerable progress that has been made whilst also suggesting what else needs to be done in the future.

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Wild Mekong: New species in 2010 from the forests, wetlands and waters of the Greater Mekong, Asia's land of rivers

2011-12-12Mon, 12 Dec 2011 00:00:00 +0000

A new monkey, a self-cloning skink, five carnivorous plants, and a unique leaf warbler are among the 208 species newly described by science in the Greater Mekong region during 2010. In total 145 plants, 28 reptiles, 25 fish, 7 amphibians, 2 mammals and 1 bird have been discovered in the last year.

This rate of discovery marks Asia's land of rivers as one of the last frontiers for new species discoveries on our planet.

The Greater Mekong region of Southeast Asia through which the Mekong river flows comprises the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and China (including Yunnan province). The region is home to some of the planet's most endangered and charismatic wild species including tiger, Asian elephant, Mekong dolphin and Mekong giant catfish, in addition to hundreds of newly discovered species.

Between 1997 and 2009 an incredible 1,376 species were discovered by science across this region alone.

However, while these discoveries highlight the unique biodiversity of the Greater Mekong they also reveal the fragility of this region's diverse species and habitats. The plight of the wild tiger, whose numbers have dropped by a dramatic 70 percent in a little over a decade, and the extinction of the Javan rhino in Vietnam during 2010 are urgent reminders that biodiversity is still being lost at an alarming rate from man-made

Rapid, unsustainable development and climate change impacts are profoundly affecting biodiversity and ecosystem services and consequently the millions of people who depend on them. The Greater Mekong region is warming and experiencing more extreme floods, droughts and storms as a result of shifting rainfall patterns. These changes are exacerbating agricultural expansion and unsustainable infrastructure pressures on natural ecosystems and the services they provide.

Today the Greater Mekong region is an integral part of one of the top five most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world.

The central importance of the region's shared natural resources cannot be overstated. The economic and social development of the Greater Mekong depends on the continued productivity of its inter-connected ecological systems. Only intact, healthy, and diverse natural ecosystems can provide the resilience to ensuing climate change while ensuring continued access to water, energy, food, commodities, and livelihoods for over 300 million people.

Sound regulatory frameworks implemented via harmonized policies across the Greater Mekong will help the region's countries adequately address complex, challenging, regional-scale issues like habitat loss and fragmentation, unsustainable natural resource use, and climate change. Addressing these challenges requires stronger regional collaboration at the broader, ecosystem scale; countries cannot effectively solve these problems thinking only within their own borders. Regional collaboration needs high levels of political support. It also needs to be formalized through a regional agreement that is supported by an effective institutional framework mechanism. Only this can ensure future security for the millions of people that rely upon the Greater Mekong system.

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INFOGRAPHIC: Marine turtles in the Coral Triangle

2011-07-21Thu, 21 Jul 2011 00:00:00 +0000

Marine turtles are to the Coral Triangle what jewels are to a crown: both indispensable and marvelous. In the case of turtles, they are also highly vulnerable.

Check out this infographic to discover the simple aspects of turtles' life cycle, and the threats they face in the ocean.

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WWF study shows decline in Fiji marine turtle shell trade

2010-12-01Wed, 01 Dec 2010 00:00:00 +0000

Suva, Fiji - The marine turtle derivatives trade in Fiji is showing a marked decrease compared to previous years, a new report from WWF South Pacific says. The result of four years of surveys conducted in all municipal markets around Viti Levu, Turtle shells and derivatives looks at the trade in marine turtles shells, products and other species in Viti Levu, Fiji's largest island. It reveals that while sea turtles face many threats in the wild, their biggest challenge comes from human demand for subsistence and traditional products derived from their shells. The report specifies that Fiji's Turtle Moratorium needs to be amended if this iconic species is to survive. For example, the Moratorium currently allows exemptions if turtle shells or their derivatives are used as ceremonial tokens of appreciation or for other traditional purposes. Capacity to monitor the number of turtles captured and the trade for its meat, shell or eggs also needs further strengthening, the report says, to guarantee the long-term survival of Fiji's threatened marine turtles.   Awareness campaigns have been effective for consumers and vendorsHowever, an increase in awareness campaigns developed by government, NGOs, and media over the past few years have had a positive impact on conservation, with more people now taking action to protect Fiji's threatened marine turtle populations.  Lead author and WWF South Pacific marine species officer Merewalesi Laveti highlights in the report that the enforcement of the Endangered and Protected Species Act (1998) and the extension of the turtle moratorium have further enhanced the protection and conservation of marine turtles."A total of 102 traders were extensively interviewed for this report and they have indicated the lack of demand from consumers for turtle derivatives", she said. "Consumers who had an interest in turtle derivatives have made a shift to wooden artefacts."  Results from the survey also indicate a change in vendor behaviour, which has been brought about thanks to ongoing campaigns to raise public awareness on Fiji's endangered marine turtles.  "The change in vendor behaviour shows that the Endangered Species Protection Act and the Turtle Moratorium have been effective in enforcing laws on the ground and increasing levels of public awareness."Black market remains an unknown quantityThe report shows that the 57 turtle shells sold in the markets from 2006 to 2008 decreased to none in 2009. However, this figure does not reflect the level of underground trading in black markets. "Instances where the derivatives were found, dealers explained that the items were on the shelves from previous years. This is an achievement that would not have been possible without effective partnerships," Laveti said.Other species of concern remain on the shelvesWhile there has been a noticeable decline in the sales of turtle shells and derivatives, the sale of other species – which the report calls "species of special concern" – continued to sell in larger volumes in fish and municipal markets around Fiji. Species falling into this category include the near threatened juvenile Black tip shark and the endangered Hammerhead shark, which are usually sold for food. The report says this illustrates a lack of enforcement on fishing size limits as well as general awareness on what species need to be protected.In most cases fish species of special concern tend to be ignored by traders and continue to appear in markets due to consumer demand. Continuing to work with other stakeholders to protect marine turtles and other species of concernThe WWF South Pacific species programme works closely with the Fiji Sea Turtle Steering Committee (FSTSC) to improve awareness on the need for conservation and protection of the sea. Composed of turtle conservation stakeholders, the steering committee is also looking [...]

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Turtle Shells and Derivatives

2010-11-25Thu, 25 Nov 2010 00:00:00 +0000

The declining marine turtle populations in Fiji has become a growing concern over recent years. Unlimited exploitation of marine turtles for both subsistence and traditional purposes have imposed a threat to these vulnerable turtle populations.

Vei tayaki (1995) explained that the use of marine turtles in traditional occasions is unlimited where the number of tur tles exploited represents the success per catch per effort in a village setting.

A few studies have illustrated the use of marine turtles in Fiji. According to Guinea (1993), a tortoise industry was thriving in Fiji in the early 1940s. In 1998, Fiji became a signatory country to the Convention on International Trading of Endangered Wild flora and fauna (CITES). Fiji later enforced the Endangered and Protected Species Act (1998) and a second Turtle Moratorium (2004 -2008) after the first from 1995 - 2000. In September 2009, a third Moratorium was endorsed and is in effect from 2009 - 2018. These policies and associated regulations contribute to the implementation of Fiji's commitments to CITES at local level and further enhances the protection and conservation of marine turtles.

A lack of dedicated research aimed at quantifying the illegal use of marine turtles in Fiji has been one of the many factors hindering informed decision making in the conservation and management of marine turtles. In response to this a survey initiated by the Department of Environment and monitored by the Institute of Marine Resources aimed to identify the efficacy of the legally binding regulations in place. The survey was initially conducted in December 2006 with a follow up assessment in April 2007.

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Save the Whale, Save the Southern Ocean

2010-06-21Mon, 21 Jun 2010 00:00:00 +0000

The Southern Ocean is critical to ensuring the recovery and viability of the great whale populations in the southern hemisphere.

It provides the feeding grounds needed to sustain most southern hemisphere great whales – which coastal communities from Australia to Latin America to Africa are reliant upon for livelihoods and income derived from whale watching tourism.

After rampant commercial whaling in the twentieth century brought most great whale species in the Southern Ocean close to extinction, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) established the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary in 1994, recognising the critical importance of protecting whales in this special place.

Since the inception of the sanctuary, threats to whales in the Southern Ocean have broadened to include climate change, ship strikes, the potential of over-fishing and acoustic and chemical pollution. If whales in the southern hemisphere are to fully recover, the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary must be fully respected by all contracting governments to the IWC.

WWF therefore urges all contracting governments to the IWC to reject any proposal that would set catch limits for whaling in the Southern Ocean.

Download the report: Save the Whale, Save the Southern Ocean 2.65 MB pdf

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WWF positions for SBSTTA-14, Nairobi May 10-21 2010

2010-05-06Thu, 06 May 2010 00:00:00 +0000

Herewith find WWF's Positions and corresponding recommendations to the 14th meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which will be held in Narobi from May 10-21, 2010.

WWF calls on Parties at SBSTTA-14 to ensure that COP decisions will include:
  •  an ambitious set of goals and targets in the new Strategic Plan for the next decade which will focus on key threats to biodiversity loss, increase sustainable use practices and enhance benefit sharing implementation,
  •  a Joint Programme of Work of the CBD with UNFCCC and UNCCD which will improve linkages and explore co-benefits between the conventions, set governance principles and ensure biodiversity is protected and not adversely affected by climate change and UNFCCC work,
  • strengthened thematic programmes of work on Protected Areas and on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity,
  • an ambitious strategy for resource mobilization to increase financing for biodiversity by development of innovative financing mechanisms, establishing clear targets and mechanisms for funding from governments and the private sector, as well as eliminating harmful subsidies,
  • practical steps to integrate biodiversity and ecosystem services into key sectors, such as finance and development, by taking into account the recommendations of The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity for Policy Makers Report (TEEB).

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NGOs joint position on CBD Strategic Plan

2010-04-28Wed, 28 Apr 2010 00:00:00 +0000

The Conference of the Parties (COP) at its ninth regular session, in adopting Decision IX/9 on the revision of the Strategic Plan of the Convention after 2010, invited Parties and observers to submit further views on the revision and updating of the Strategic Plan.

This paper is a response from Birdlife International, Conservation International, Countdown 2010, IUCN-World Commission on Protected Areas, The Nature Conservancy, the Wildlife Conservation Society and WWF to the notification issued by the CBD Secretariat on 7th July 2008. The views expressed in this submission relate primarily, but not exclusively, to the 'Mission' of the Strategic Plan which encompasses the '2010 Biodiversity Target' as well as the 'Framework for Evaluation of Progress' adopted by COP 8 decision VIII/15 in 2006 to measure the level of achievement of the 2010 Biodiversity Target.

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Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool

2009-09-18Fri, 18 Sep 2009 00:00:00 +0000

The Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool (PA-BAT) is designed to fill an important gap in the toolbox of protected area agencies and conservation institutions, by providing a methodology to collate and build information about the overall benefits from protected areas.

As pressures on protected areas continue to develop over time, and demand for land and water, and for management resources, is increasingly stretched, park managers need to have arguments for protection in place and backed by a solid body of data collected over time.

This need is recognized explicitly in the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas, for example in paragraph 3.1.2: "Conduct national-level assessments of the contributions of protected areas, considering as appropriate environmental services, to the countrys economy and culture, and to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals at the national level; and integrate the use of economic valuation and natural resource accounting tools into national planning processes in order to identify the hidden and non-hidden economic benefits provided by protected areas and who appropriates these benefits. "

The PA-BAT aims to help collate information on the full range of current and potential benefits of individual protected areas. It is a contributory methodology for the overall Arguments for Protection series, but is also hopefully a stand-alone tool that will be of wider use to the protected areas community.

Although developed primarily for use in protected areas, the tool could have wider application, for example in assessing wider benefits of forest management units, agricultural landscapes or areas set aside for recreation.

The main audience for this report is protected area managers and authorities, but it should also be useful for anyone interested in finding out about the range of benefits that protected areas provide.

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Defining and estimating global marine fisheries bycatch

2009-04-15Wed, 15 Apr 2009 00:00:00 +0000


Unselective fishing catches non-target organisms as 'bycatch'—an issue of critical ocean conservation and resource management concern. However, the situation is confused because perceptions of target and non target catch vary widely, impeding efforts to estimate bycatch globally. To remedy this, the term needs to be redefined as a consistent definition that establishes what should be considered bycatch. A new definition is put forward as: 'bycatch is catch that is either unused or unmanaged'. Applying this definition to global marine fisheries data conservatively indicates that bycatch represents 40.4 percent of global marine catches, exposing systemic gaps in fisheries policy and management.

: DAVIES RWD, et al. Defining and estimating global marine fisheries bycatch. Marine Policy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2009.01.003.

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WWFolio Bolivia Nº 15

2008-10-27Mon, 27 Oct 2008 00:00:00 +0000

Le presentamos nuestra edición informativa de octubre de 2008. En este número usted podrá leer sobre:

  • La conservación es una disciplina de emergencia
  • Un enfoque ecor-regional transfronterizo para el Cerrado-Pantanal
  • Chichi Grillo y Rosa la Mariposa nos llevan a conocer y valorar la vida en el Pantanal boliviano
  • El trabajo de las artesanas del Pantanal boliviano
  • Contaminación por mercurio en el Iténez
  • Problemática del mercurio
  • NUESTROS SOCIOS: El Instituto de Investigación para el Desarrollo (IRD) en Bolivia
  • Comunidades del Área Protegida Iténez hacia un futuro más sostenible
  • La Fuerza Naval de Bolivia y el Proyecto Centinela Ambiental
  • PUBLICACIONES VIVAS: Visión de Conservación de la Biodiversidad del Corredor Amboró-Madidi
  • Las instituciones públicas y su compromiso con la conservación de los bosques
  • La FTN Bolivia y la promoción de la oferta forestal certificada de Bolivia
  • 4 de septiembre: Día Nacional de las Áreas Protegidas en Bolivia
  • Becas Príncipe Bernhard
  • Generando resultados de conservación a gran escala

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Lifting the lid on Italy's bluefin tuna fishery

2008-10-07Tue, 07 Oct 2008 00:00:00 +0000

This WWF-commissioned report, researched and compiled by independent consultancy ATRT, contains the first in-depth analysis of the role of Italy in the bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean. Its findings confirm the widely held view that Italy is among the main culprits in the region for overfishing and violation of the fishery's management rules. In April 2008 WWF released a report quantifying for the first time the fishing overcapacity of industrial fleets targeting the stock in the Mediterranean . That study identified Italy as the leader in overcapacity among EU member states, with an estimated catch capacity for the industrial purse seine fleet twice the national quota allocated to it. The study pointed to the likely underreporting of real catches in the last years, coupled with a systematic violation of international management rules and the overshoot of national quotas. To ascertain the performance of the Italian bluefin tuna fishing industry during the crucial 2008 fishing season, the authors of this report have combined a thorough analysis of trade information with extensive field work. The latter has included the monitoring of Italy's fleet at sea in real time, as well as the field analysis (through aerial surveys) of bluefin tuna biomass caged in every farm based in Italy, Croatia and Malta. This colossal undertaking has generated the most comprehensive picture yet of the role played by Italian interests in the Mediterranean bluefin tuna fishery, including the extent of compliance (or lack thereof) with international management rules agreed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT, the body tasked with sustainably managing the fishery) and the EU.This WWF study is all the more relevant now, when the Italian government holds the view that the EU's decision to close the purse seine fishery two weeks early (15 June 2008) resulted in the Italian purse seine fleet falling short of fulfilling its quota for the year (which even led Italian interests to the extreme step of taking the European Commission to the European Court of Justice). The current report reviews data for 2007 and demonstrates that Italy's overshoot of the bluefin tuna national quota for 2007 amounted to a minimum of 1,653 tonnes, more than five times as much as the officially recognized overshoot of 327 tonnes. It also highlights the serious inconsistencies in the register of the fleet targeting bluefin tuna, with a broad mismatch of records between ICCAT, the EU and national fleet registers. Up to 163 purse seine vessels would have been active in the Mediterranean bluefin tuna fishery in 2008, according to the crosscheck between the relevant official registers. A total of 15 purse seine flotillas, or fishing groupings, were identified to be operating during the 2008 fishing season, including in partnership with other Libyan, Turkish and possibly Algerian vessels. The latter were identified as having been involved in an illegal operation of paper-quota transfer between Algerian and Turkish vessels during the 2008 fishing season.The report includes extensive field information proving that Italian airports have played a key role during 2008 as a hub for illegal aerial spotting activities in central Mediterranean waters. Additionally, Italian spotter planes have operated (with others, such as US, French and Swiss) in support of the illegal activities of Italian purse seiners.A total of 5 farms based in Italy were identified as active in 2008, containing an estimated biomass of 2,410 tonnes of live tuna (equivalent to an estimated weight at input of 2,241 tonnes). This tuna was caug[...]

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Exploratory co-management interventions in Kuiburi National Park, Central Thailand, including human-elephant conflict mitigation

2008-09-03Wed, 03 Sep 2008 00:00:00 +0000

John W.K. Parr (Corresponding Author)
Supol Jitvijak, Saowanee Saranet and Songsak Buathong

Co-management is a developing field of protected area management. Increasingly, the practice is to involve local communities and other stakeholders in protected area planning and management. In many countries,
management boards, co-management structures and other participatory mechanisms are being created.

This paper reports on promoting co-management involving participatory management planning at Kuiburi National Park, Central Thailand, through the establishment of two working groups, namely a core management planning team comprising park personnel (charged with plan implementation), operating in parallel with a park management board working group (local people and other stakeholders).

These institutional bodies participated in a park management planning process, which was fuelled by socio-economic data focusing on the high profile human-elephant conflict in the buffer zone. The initiative led to a major rethink on participatory management planning by the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation. The process also led to some valuable recommendations for elephant-wildlife mitigation, both at Kuiburi and the international context.

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Common Ground - Reducing human wildlife conflict

2008-05-13Tue, 13 May 2008 00:00:00 +0000

The WWF report 'Common Ground' (PDF - 3.74MB) assesses cases of Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC), focusing on elephants as a flagship of these conflicts. Often the scale of the damage that can be caused by them, and the fact that they can injure or even kill humans, makes them the species that communities most fear.Although the dynamics and drivers of HWC can be very different wherever it occurs, there are themes in the studies that can be used to compose a 'Common Ground' or a basic list of solutions available and tested. Here are some of them:Scale of the problemCommon Ground found the most serious conflict and harm to both human communities and elephants resulted from unplanned and unregulated development.  In Namibia, elephant related conflict costs communal farmers around $US 1 million a year, while in some Nepalese communities it can be up to around a quarter of the household incomes of poor farming families.  The most significant consequence of the conflict was loss of human life, but other considerable, costs of human wildlife conflict go largely uncounted – for instance, in Nepal, men in elephant-ravaged villages faced difficulties in marrying as women as scared to move to villages where elephants are a problem.  In some areas, retaliatory killing of elephants was a major threat to already vulnerable elephant populations.Effective land use planning can reduce HWCIn Nepal, the study compared communities with high levels of wild elephant damage with an area where the conflict costs were at half those levels, and found that the less damaged area had more forest cover in edge areas and less fragmented forests overall. Further analysis revealed that the level of habitat fragmentation was actually more influential in determining the amount of crop loss than the amount of forest coverage itself - although there are many other factors which play a part. In Namibia levels of crop damage were closely related to the distance of farms from wildlife areas, with farms immediately adjacent to unfenced wildlife habitat being "a drain on the national economy".  Human wildlife conflict in just one region of Namibia was estimated as causing annual losses of US$700,000 to the national economy.  Therefore effective structures and planning process that ensure new agricultural developments are places as far away from wildlife habitat as possible will reduce HWC and ensure greater profitability for the agricultural enterprise.Community Based Natural Resource ManagementThe report also found that an effective way to manage HWC was to give rights over wildlife to local communities, thus enabling local communities to benefit from neighbouring wildlife.  Economic analysis in Namibia demonstrated that these communities were able to generate more income from wildlife than they suffered from wildlife losses.  In Nepal, communities which received benefits from wildlife and wildlife habitat showed a much greater tolerance towards elephants than communities receiving no benefits.A united effortIn order to be truly effective, prevention of Human Wildlife Conflict has to involve the full scope of society: international organizations, governments, NGOs, communities, consumers and individuals.  Drivers of the problem are not just local, but can be regional or even international.  In Namibia for example, international agreements between Europe and Africa artificially enhance the economic viability of the livestock sector compared to other land-uses and add to wildlife conflict pressures.Innovative financial solutionsIn ma[...]

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The 2010 Biodiversity target in EU Development Cooperation

2008-04-29Tue, 29 Apr 2008 00:00:00 +0000

In 2001, EU Heads of State and Government meeting at the EU's Spring Summit in Gothenburg, made a commitment to "halt the decline of biodiversity by 2010". In 2002, on the occasion of the Sixth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and, subsequently, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), world leaders agreed to "the achievement by 2010 of a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity".

The aim of this paper is to provide a brief analysis of the progress made by the EU towards the 2010 Biodiversity Target in its external development co-operation policy with a focus on policies and programmes for Africa Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and Asia and Latin America (ALA) countries. Progress made is assessed in light of the political commitments and instruments adopted and their implementation. Whilst acknowledging the importance of the development aid delivered through bilateral relations, the paper focuses on the initiatives and undertakings made by the European Commission in its development cooperation policy to foster the achievement of the 2010 Biodiversity target outside Europe.


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