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Preview: WWF - Publications on or about the conservation of the marine environment

WWF - Publications on or about the conservation of the marine environment



News, publications and job feeds from WWF - the global conservation organization



 



REPORT: Protecting EBSAs and opportunities for the IMO

2016-02-05Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0000

(image) The use of Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) for informing designation of IMO Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs)

The document highlights the potential for the use of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) criteria to aid in the review of existing or identification of potential Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs). The aim being to enhance the PSSA designation process and afford protection to EBSAs (or EBSA features) from international shipping activities when needed and to identify potential to share data and avoid replication of effort. A comparative analysis of their criteria, a spatial analysis of present co-occurrence, and a mapping of global shipping density data onto current EBSA distribution was undertaken in this report commissioned by WWF and undertaken by Southampton Solent University.  The report highlights that both EBSAs and PSSAs share common features around ecological sensitivity and analysis of global shipping density data suggested that there are areas that may be 'at risk' from shipping activity and are defined as ecologically significant. In view of this the report suggests that when considering potential PSSAs in future that interested parties should be directed to consider the existence of EBSAs and utilise commonality of scientific criteria and data, where available to support the designation of new PSSAs and to review the effectiveness of existing PSSA APMs.
 


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REPORT: Living Blue Planet Report: Species, Habitats and Human Well-being

2015-09-27Sun, 27 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) Populations of fish critical to human food security are in serious decline worldwide with some at risk of collapse according to the Living Blue Planet Report. The report finds that much of the activity threatening the ocean is avoidable and solutions do exist to turn the tide.

The updated study of marine mammals, birds, reptiles and fish shows that populations have been reduced on average by half globally in the last four decades, with some fish declining by close to 75 percent. The latest findings spell trouble for all nations, especially people in the developing world.

To reverse the downward trend, global leaders must ensure that ocean recovery and coastal habitat health feature strongly in the implementation of the UN's sustainable development goals that will be formally approved later this month. Negotiations on a new global climate deal are also an important opportunity to forge agreement in support of ocean health.


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STUDY: Understanding and valuing marine ecosystem services in the Northern Mozambique Channel

2015-09-01Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) The Northern Mozambique Channel (NMC) region is one of world's outstanding terrestrial and marine biodiversity areas and a biological reservoir for the entire coastal area of East Africa. The coastal communities and economies of the countries and islands bordering the channel are intimately dependent on its marine and coastal resources, through fishing, tourism and other economic activities, making their management and protection of key importance.

In the NMC region, valuing ecosystem services can help bring together national and sectoral policies in a regional context, and safeguard the natural capital that underpins the economies of all countries. The study by Nunes and Ghermandi (2015) compiled and synthesized data on marine ecosystem services to help identify key ecosystem values of the NMC.

Though data on ecosystem services in the Western Indian Ocean is relatively rudimentary, the authors compiled statistics in six key sectors across three ecosystem service groups: cultural (coastal tourism, coastal recreation), provisioning (fishery and mariculture), and regulating services (carbon sequestration and coastal protection).


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STUDY: Economic valuation of the ecosystem services of the Sargasso Sea

2015-09-01Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) The Sargasso Sea ecosystem generates a variety of goods and services that benefit people. These goods and services, often referred to as ecosystem services, provide some outputs that are directly commercially important (e.g., commercial fish stocks, wildlife viewing that supports tourism) and some that are both commercially important and that provide important recreational opportunities (e.g., recreational fishing).

The Sargasso Sea ecosystem also provides ecological functions that are essential in the support of human life (e.g., oxygen production and carbon capture and storage). High-seas ecosystems, like that of the Sargasso Sea, abound in genetic diversity and biological compounds that may yield new chemical and medicinal products.

Some ecosystem services in the Sargasso Sea may be harvested directly (e.g., fish or seaweed). In other cases, ecosystem functions provided by the Sargasso Sea may act as only an intermediate element in the production of ecosystem services, for instance when Sargassum supports part of the life cycle of organisms that ultimately benefit people far from the region (e.g., eels spawned in the Sargasso Sea are harvested in North America and Europe).

The Sargasso Sea ecosystem is part of larger oceanic processes whose ecological and environmental outcomes may affect human well-being globally (e.g., carbon sequestration).

This report provides a variety of measures of the Sargasso Sea's economic value and impact, especially net and gross revenues associated with ecosystem services supported by the sea. Measures of net revenues capture the net benefit of a resource to society. Gross revenues capture important measures of economic activity and impact. Gross revenues support local taxes, income, and jobs.


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INFOGRAPHIC: Ecosystem services of the Sargasso Sea

2015-09-01Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) The study links the ecological health of the Sargasso Sea to relevant economic sectors using existing data. This includes ecosystem services that are enjoyed directly within the Sargasso Sea.

The health of the Sargasso Sea provides a foundation for economic activities outside of the area. Species of economic interest, such as eel, billfish, whales and turtles rely on the Sargasso Sea for spawning, maturation, feeding and critical routes for migration.


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BRIEF: Principles for a Sustainable Blue Economy

2015-06-08Mon, 08 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) During the past few years, the term "Blue Economy" or "Blue Growth" has surged into common policy usage, all over the world. For some, Blue Economy means the use of the sea and its resources for sustainable economic development. For others, it simply refers to any economic activity in the maritime sector, whether sustainable or not.

Despite increasing high-level adoption of the Blue Economy as a concept and as a goal of policy making and investment, there is still no widely accepted definition of the term. To fill this gap in shared understanding about what characterizes a sustainable Blue Economy, and to help ensure that the economic development of the ocean contributes to true prosperity, today and long into the future, WWF has developed a set of principles.


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REPORT: Marine Protected Areas: Smart Investments in Ocean Health

2015-06-05Fri, 05 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) Expanding ocean protection could return an increase in jobs, resources and services that far outweigh the costs, according to an analysis of new research commissioned by WWF on marine protected areas. The analysis comes months before governments make critical decisions that will direct the fate of the ocean for generations to come.

The analysis shows that every dollar invested to create marine protected areas – commonly known as MPAs – is expected to be at least tripled in benefits returned through factors like employment, coastal protection, and fisheries.

The new analysis is based on a WWF-commissioned study produced by Amsterdam's VU University, modelling MPA expansion at both the 10 per cent and 30 per cent target levels. The report found that increased protection of critical habitats could result in net benefits of between US$490 billion and US$920 billion accruing over the period 2015-2050. WWF recommends 30 per cent global coverage of MPAs by 2030 in order to secure the most complete benefits for people and the ocean.

Existing protected areas in regions like the Mediterranean, the Coral Triangle and coastal Africa, demonstrate how people can benefit from increased ocean protection. Locally managed marine areas in Fiji demonstrate that MPAs can reduce poverty, strengthen governance and benefit human health and gender equality.

"Real-world examples prove that marine protected areas work; solid economic analysis shows that they are well worth it. Increasing investment in protected areas is a wise choice for communities, governments, businesses and financial institutions interested in the bottom-line and securing a sustainable blue economy," said Lambertini.

This year is particularly important for the ocean. In September, governments will meet to agree on a set of goals as part of the UN post-2015 sustainable development agenda. WWF's analysis recommends that the agreement include strong targets and indicators for the ocean, and commitments to coherent policy, financing, trade and technology frameworks to restore and protect ocean ecosystems. The global climate conference later in the year to forge a new global agreement on climate change is another critical opportunity to commit the action, resources, and leadership necessary that can contribute to ocean health.

The new analysis on marine protected areas is among WWF ocean research under discussion at this week's World Ocean Summit 2015. WWF's participation at the event, organized by The Economist in Cascais, Portugal, highlights the need to safeguard the ocean's health and economic well-being and that protecting ocean habitat is an essential foundation of the blue economy.


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REPORT: Reviving the Ocean Economy: The case for action - 2015

2015-04-23Thu, 23 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) The value of key ocean assets is conservatively estimated in the report to be at least US$24 trillion. If compared to the world's top 10 economies, the ocean would rank seventh with an annual value of goods and services of US$2.5 trillion.

The report, produced in association with The Global Change Institute at the University of Queensland and The Boston Consulting Group (BCG), is the most focused review yet of the ocean's asset base. Reviving the Ocean Economy reveals the sea's enormous wealth through assessments of goods and services ranging from fisheries to coastal storm protection, but the report also describes an unrelenting assault on ocean resources through over-exploitation, misuse and climate change.
 


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INFOGRAPHIC: How well managed marine protected areas support fisheries in the tropics

2015-04-22Wed, 22 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0000

(image) There is growing scientific evidence that marine protected areas can enhance catches for fishers. This infographic illustrates how these areas can help fish and other marine species to recover and to replenish adjacent fishing grounds.


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Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Wild Seafood Sustainability Certification Remains Best In Class

2012-09-06Thu, 06 Sep 2012 00:00:00 +0000

Gland, Switzerland – A new independent, global analysis of wild-capture seafood sustainability certification schemes, released today at the 10th International Seafood Summit in Hong Kong, found that the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) remains most compliant with international sustainability criteria. These criteria not only measure the status of the stocks but also the environmental footprint of the fishery, the efficacy of the management system across all levels and the transparency, professionalism and independence of the certification process. Comparison of Wild Capture Fisheries Certification Schemes, an update of a previous report commissioned by WWF and developed by Accenture Development Partnerships in 2009, evaluated four certification programmes (the two highest scoring programmes in the 2009 report plus two new schemes) on their conformance with WWF's sustainability criteria. The four programmes include Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, Friend of the Sea, Iceland Responsible Fisheries and the MSC. Growing demand for seafood worldwide is placing extreme pressure on the world's fisheries, about one-third of which have been pushed beyond or well-beyond their sustainable limits, while only one in five have any opportunity for development, according to the recently published FAO report, State of the World Fisheries & Aquaculture 2012. Pollution, poorly planned development, and the effects of climate change have also contributed to the degradation of the ocean environment, placing further pressure on our seafood sources. "Given the urgency of challenges facing the world's fisheries and current confusion surrounding the meaning of different ecolabels, it is important to get a clear, independent assessment of their certifications to help consumers make informed choices," said Alfred Schumm, leader of WWF's Global Smart Fishing Initiative. "This report demonstrates that MSC, while still improving, is clearly the best programme to drive uptake of sustainable seafood in the market and protect fisheries and their surrounding ecosystems, because its score greatly exceeds the other schemes."The report builds on a previous study conducted by Accenture that benchmarked 17 on-pack wild-capture seafood sustainability certification programmes and seafood ecolabels. Today's report includes an updated and enhanced analysis of four certification programmes to account for recent changes in the programmes and to further evaluate how they are being implemented. The updated criteria for this assessment include new validation and priority ecological indicators for WWF. The report notes that none of the standards analysed are in complete compliance with WWF's sustainability criteria. The MSC proved to be most compliant with a score of 93 per cent while the other programmes fell far short with scores of 46 per cent to 54 per cent, particularly on implementation procedure and transparency (publicly available information) within the standard setting process. "It's one thing to look good on paper, it's another to have a lasting, positive impact on marine ecosystems," said Schumm. "This report brings much needed rigor to the evaluation of how these programmes are being implemented in the real world. To date, the MSC still stands out as best in class to maintain healthy fish stocks and reduce ecosystem impacts of fisheries. Nevertheless, WWF will be pushing for improvements to ecosystem impacts."  [...]


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Reforming EU Fisheries Subsidies

2011-10-07Fri, 07 Oct 2011 00:00:00 +0000

In times of financial austerity, the ineffectiveness of fisheries aid is brought into sharp focus as is the overall cost to society of both fisheries subsidies and broader fisheries management failures.

The European Commission and EU decision-makers have an unparalleled opportunity in the ongoing CFP reform process and the preparations for the next EU budget period 2014-2020 to take effective and necessary steps in order to meet the goals of increasing resource efficiency and halting biodiversity loss by 2020. Anything less will contribute to the continued decline of European and global marine and freshwater ecosystems as well as the European fisheries sector.

WWF along with Greenpeace, Oceana, OCEAN 2012, BirdLife Europe and Seas at Risk produced a joint discussion paper looking at the failed promises to reduce fleet overcapacity  during the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy in 2002.


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INFOGRAPHIC: Marine turtles in the Coral Triangle

2011-07-21Thu, 21 Jul 2011 00:00:00 +0000

Marine turtles are to the Coral Triangle what jewels are to a crown: both indispensable and marvelous. In the case of turtles, they are also highly vulnerable.

Check out this infographic to discover the simple aspects of turtles' life cycle, and the threats they face in the ocean.


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No increase in blind spending. NGOs & OCEAN2012 oppose increase fuel subsidies to fisheries sector

2011-05-11Wed, 11 May 2011 00:00:00 +0000

Selected Members of the EU Parliament have called for an increase op possible de minimis aid to the fisheries sector, mainly to provide fuel subsidies to the fisheries sector at a time of rising fuel prices. This is in strong contradiction with the EU's commitment to eliminate environmentally harmful subsidies but, more importantly, granting more public money to the fisheries sector without a clear link to delivering public goods would send a perverse signal during the discussion on the new Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). NGOs and the OCEAN2012 coalition oppose an increase of the de minimis ceiling. To read more, download the full position paper.


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Europe's fish stocks are in trouble. Do citizens care?

2011-04-12Tue, 12 Apr 2011 00:00:00 +0000

On 12 April 2011, WWF launched the results of an EU citizen's poll on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) at the European Parliament. The poll is timely - it comes as the European Commission is about to handover its reform proposal to the European Parliament and Member States for approval.

Citizens from 14 EU countries were asked what they thought about sustainable fish and Europe's fisheries policy. The poll results are impressive, especially for Southern European countries.

WWF presented the results of the poll to MEPs showing them their constituents care about sustainable fish and CFP reform. WWF also sent fish cards to MEPs to post onto a 'sea board' to help 'repopulate' the seas.- a way to show their constituents that they are listening and that they also support an ambitious reform.

width="425" scrolling="no" height="355" frameborder="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" src="http://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/embed_code/7603323">What European Citizens want from the Common Fisheries Policy


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WTO Fisheries Subsidies Negotiations: Which Way Forward?

2011-02-08Tue, 08 Feb 2011 00:00:00 +0000

WWF issues a statement reacting to the proposals submitted by WTO member states at the beginning of the year. WTO negotiations are gearing up once more following a renewed mandate issued by G20 leaders in Seoul, Korea late last year and echoed in various fora.

Read the full statement >>


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WWF study shows decline in Fiji marine turtle shell trade

2010-12-01Wed, 01 Dec 2010 00:00:00 +0000

Suva, Fiji - The marine turtle derivatives trade in Fiji is showing a marked decrease compared to previous years, a new report from WWF South Pacific says. The result of four years of surveys conducted in all municipal markets around Viti Levu, Turtle shells and derivatives looks at the trade in marine turtles shells, products and other species in Viti Levu, Fiji's largest island. It reveals that while sea turtles face many threats in the wild, their biggest challenge comes from human demand for subsistence and traditional products derived from their shells. The report specifies that Fiji's Turtle Moratorium needs to be amended if this iconic species is to survive. For example, the Moratorium currently allows exemptions if turtle shells or their derivatives are used as ceremonial tokens of appreciation or for other traditional purposes. Capacity to monitor the number of turtles captured and the trade for its meat, shell or eggs also needs further strengthening, the report says, to guarantee the long-term survival of Fiji's threatened marine turtles.   Awareness campaigns have been effective for consumers and vendorsHowever, an increase in awareness campaigns developed by government, NGOs, and media over the past few years have had a positive impact on conservation, with more people now taking action to protect Fiji's threatened marine turtle populations.  Lead author and WWF South Pacific marine species officer Merewalesi Laveti highlights in the report that the enforcement of the Endangered and Protected Species Act (1998) and the extension of the turtle moratorium have further enhanced the protection and conservation of marine turtles."A total of 102 traders were extensively interviewed for this report and they have indicated the lack of demand from consumers for turtle derivatives", she said. "Consumers who had an interest in turtle derivatives have made a shift to wooden artefacts."  Results from the survey also indicate a change in vendor behaviour, which has been brought about thanks to ongoing campaigns to raise public awareness on Fiji's endangered marine turtles.  "The change in vendor behaviour shows that the Endangered Species Protection Act and the Turtle Moratorium have been effective in enforcing laws on the ground and increasing levels of public awareness."Black market remains an unknown quantityThe report shows that the 57 turtle shells sold in the markets from 2006 to 2008 decreased to none in 2009. However, this figure does not reflect the level of underground trading in black markets. "Instances where the derivatives were found, dealers explained that the items were on the shelves from previous years. This is an achievement that would not have been possible without effective partnerships," Laveti said.Other species of concern remain on the shelvesWhile there has been a noticeable decline in the sales of turtle shells and derivatives, the sale of other species – which the report calls "species of special concern" – continued to sell in larger volumes in fish and municipal markets around Fiji. Species falling into this category include the near threatened juvenile Black tip shark and the endangered Hammerhead shark, which are usually sold for food. The report says this illustrates a lack of enforcement on fishing size limits as well as general awareness on what species need to be protected.In most cases fish species of special concern tend to be ignored by traders and continue to appear in markets due to consumer demand. Continuing to work with other stakeholders to protect marine turtles and other species of concernThe WWF South Pacific s[...]


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BROCHURE: WWF Coral Triangle programme

2010-11-21Sun, 21 Nov 2010 00:00:00 +0000

WWF has been pioneering conservation in the Coral Triangle for more than twenty years, collaborating with businesses, NGO, government agencies and communities.

Today, we are aboard 30-foot fishing vessels giving training on how to dehook caught turtles, meeting with heads of state to secure funding and catalyze governmental support for the Coral Triangle Initiative, and signing deals with some of the leading seafood businesses in the region to help them capitalize on more sustainable ways of doing business.


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Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy: WWF's recommendations for the European Union's external fleet

2010-11-04Thu, 04 Nov 2010 00:00:00 +0000

Fishing outside EU waters by EU vessels should be firmly anchored in the 2012 revision of the Common Fisheries Policy. This is to ensure consistency and clarity on the standards of behaviour for EU vessels wherever they fish.

Check out WWF's recommendations to improve the rules that apply to EU activities, to ensure sustainable fisheries abroad.


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Brazil, China, Mexico and India's proposal on special and differential treatment for developing countries on fisheries subsidies

2010-05-17Mon, 17 May 2010 00:00:00 +0000

This document is intended to follow up on the latest contributions by Developing Country Members regarding the special and differential treatment issue (S&DT) and the applicable controls in the future disciplines on fisheries subsidies.


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