Subscribe: PLoS ONE Alerts: New Articles
http://www.plosone.org/article/feed;jsessionid=3D4D4B74A16C588AA9DC58F1C2ECE714
Preview: PLoS ONE Alerts: New Articles

PLOS ONE Alerts: New Articles



accelerating the publication of peer-reviewed science



Updated: 2018-04-25T19:26:18Z

 



(XML) Correction: Sequence variation in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-2 is associated with virulence causing severe and cerebral malaria

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Hathairad Hananantachai, Uranan Tumkosit, David Saunders, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul

(image)






(XML) The chloroplast genome of Cerasus humilis: Genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Xiaopeng Mu, Pengfei Wang, Junjie Du, Yu Gary Gao, Jiancheng Zhang

Cerasus humilis is endemic to China and is a new fruit tree species with economic and environmental benefits, with potential developmental and utilization applications. We report the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. humilis. Its genome is 158,084 bp in size, and the overall GC content is 36.8%. An inverted repeats (IR) of 52,672 bp in size is separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 86,374 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 19,038 bp. The chloroplast genome of C. humilis contains 131 genes including 90 protein-coding genes, 33 transfer RNA genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA genes. The genome has a total 510 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Of these, 306, 149, and 55 were found in the LSC, IR, and SSC regions, respectively. In addition, a comparison of the boundaries of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions of ten other Prunus species exhibited an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with slight variations in the IR boundary region which included gene deletions, insertions, expansions, and contractions. C. humilis lost the ycf1 gene at the IRA/SSC border and it has the largest ycf1 gene at the IRB/SSC border among these Prunus species, whereas the rps19 gene was inserted at the IRB/LSC junction. Furthermore, phylogenetic reconstruction using 61 conserved coding-protein genes clustered C. humilis with Prunus tomentosa. Thus, the complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. humilis provides a rich source of genetic information for studies on Prunus taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolution, as well as lays the foundation for further development and utilization of C. humilis.(image)



(XML) Haptoglobin and hemopexin inhibit vaso-occlusion and inflammation in murine sickle cell disease: Role of heme oxygenase-1 induction

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by John D. Belcher, Chunsheng Chen, Julia Nguyen, Fuad Abdulla, Ping Zhang, Hao Nguyen, Phong Nguyen, Trevor Killeen, Sylvia M. Miescher, Nathan Brinkman, Karl A. Nath, Clifford J. Steer, Gregory M. Vercellotti

During hemolysis, hemoglobin and heme released from red blood cells promote oxidative stress, inflammation and thrombosis. Plasma haptoglobin and hemopexin scavenge free hemoglobin and heme, respectively, but can be depleted in hemolytic states. Haptoglobin and hemopexin supplementation protect tissues, including the vasculature, liver and kidneys. It is widely assumed that these protective effects are due primarily to hemoglobin and heme clearance from the vasculature. However, this simple assumption does not account for the consequent cytoprotective adaptation seen in cells and organs. To further address the mechanism, we used a hyperhemolytic murine model (Townes-SS) of sickle cell disease to examine cellular responses to haptoglobin and hemopexin supplementation. A single infusion of haptoglobin or hemopexin (± equimolar hemoglobin) in SS-mice increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the liver, kidney and skin several fold within 1 hour and decreased nuclear NF-ĸB phospho-p65, and vaso-occlusion for 48 hours after infusion. Plasma hemoglobin and heme levels were not significantly changed 1 hour after infusion of haptoglobin or hemopexin. Haptoglobin and hemopexin also inhibited hypoxia/reoxygenation and lipopolysaccharide-induced vaso-occlusion in SS-mice. Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin blocked the protections afforded by haptoglobin and hemopexin in SS-mice. The HO-1 reaction product carbon monoxide, fully restored the protection, in part by inhibiting Weibel-Palade body mobilization of P-selectin and von Willebrand factor to endothelial cell surfaces. Thus, the mechanism by which haptoglobin and hemopexin supplementation in hyperhemolytic SS-mice induces cytoprotective cellular responses is linked to increased HO-1 activity.(image)



(XML) The ecological services of plant communities in parks for climate control and recreation—A case study in Shanghai, China

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Zhigang Li, Dan Chen, Shize Cai, Shengquan Che

Mitigating extreme heat in urban areas is beneficial and sometimes critical to human health. Thriving plant communities in community parks play an important role in mitigating extreme heat through providing cooling effect, while inevitably affecting how people perceive the benefits of using community parks for recreation. Thus, the impacts of plant communities on the thermal environment should be quantified to determine the optimal structure of the plant community. The goal would be to harmonize the functions of improving the thermal environment with the preferences people have related to the recreational benefits of plant communities with various levels of vegetation density. In this paper, the correlations between the structural characteristics of plant communities and their function in mitigating the thermal environment were investigated on calm summer days in Xincheng Central Park, Minhang District, Shanghai, China. In addition to analyzing the plant communities present and their effects on the park microclimate, a questionnaire was employed to determine the plant community preferences of recreational park users. The results showed that plant communities could reduce the air temperature by 1.23–2.42 °C and increase the relative humidity by 2.4–4.2% during the daytime. The microclimate conditions in plant communities with varying vegetation densities were significantly different. The canopy density and leaf area index primarily controlled the temperature reduction, while the canopy density and total canopy cover ratio primarily controlled the increase in humidity; meanwhile, these correlations varied at different times of the day. Moreover, most of the park users preferred a moderately dense plant community which met their environmental perceptions for recreation in parks. Age or education level variables of park users would also predict preferences for different plant community densities. Ultimately, one plant community pattern with appropriate canopy density (60%), leaf area index (≥3) and canopy cover ratio (total 0.80–1.20, with 0.6–0.75 for trees and 0.20–0.45 for shrubs/woodland area) was recommended, which would harmonize the functions of the mitigation of the thermal environment with most people’s perception of a desirable vegetation density.(image)



(XML) The influence of alendronate and tooth extraction on the incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw among osteoporotic subjects

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Wei-Yih Chiu, Wei-Shiung Yang, Jung-Yien Chien, Jang-Jaer Lee, Keh-Sung Tsai

Background

Although bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) develops mainly after tooth extractions (TEs), the strength of the association between them and how the existence of the disease among bisphosphonate (BP)-treated osteoporotic patients exposed to TE remain uncertain.

Methods

A nationwide retrospective cohort study investigated the influence of alendronate and TE on the development of ONJ.

Results

Incidence of ONJ following long-term alendronate therapy was 262/100,000 person-years, while no event developed in the control group on raloxifene. Overall prevalence of ONJ in osteoporotic subjects receiving alendronate was estimated at 0.34% which rose to 2.16% after TE. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for the potential confounders, showed TE (adjusted odds ratio, 9.60 [4.33–21.29]), drug duration exceeding 3 years (3.00 [1.33–6.76]), and concomitant rheumatoid arthritis (4.94 [1.64–14.90]) were independent predictors of ONJ.

Conclusions

This article strengthens the relationship between ONJ and BPs. Among osteoporotic patients exposed to alendronate, TE confers a 9.6-fold increased risk for ONJ and it should be performed with caution irrespective of drug duration.

(image)



(XML) Freshwater reservoir offsets and food crusts: Isotope, AMS, and lipid analyses of experimental cooking residues

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by John P. Hart, Karine Taché, William A. Lovis

Freshwater reservoir offsets (FROs) occur when AMS dates on charred, encrusted food residues on pottery predate a pot’s chronological context because of the presence of ancient carbon from aquatic resources such as fish. Research over the past two decades has demonstrated that FROs vary widely within and between water bodies and between fish in those water bodies. Lipid analyses have identified aquatic biomarkers that can be extracted from cooking residues as potential evidence for FROs. However, lacking has been efforts to determine empirically how much fish with FROs needs to be cooked in a pot with other resources to result in significant FRO on encrusted cooking residue and what percentage of fish C in a residue is needed to result in the recovery of aquatic biomarkers. Here we provide preliminary assessments of both issues. Our results indicate that in historically-contingent, high alkalinity environments <20% C from fish may result in a statistically significant FRO, but that biomarkers for aquatic resources may be present in the absence of a significant FRO.(image)



(XML) Vitexin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by controlling the Nrf2 pathway

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Ying Lu, Ting Yu, Jingyao Liu, Lina Gu

Background

A major feature of acute lung injury (ALI) is excessive inflammation in the lung. Vitexin is an active component from medicinal plants which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the pathophysiological processes in ALI. In the current study, we investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of Vitexin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI.

Methods

ALI was induced by LPS intratracheal instillation in C57BL/6 wild-type mice and Nrf2 gene knocked down (Nrf2-/-) mice. One hour before LPS challenge, Vitexin or vehicle intraperitoneal injection was performed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues were examined for lung inflammation and injury at 24 h after LPS challenge.

Results

Our animal study’s results showed that LPS-induced recruitment of neutrophils and elevation of proinflammatory cytokine levels were attenuated by Vitexin treatment. Vitexin decreased lung edema and alveolar protein content. Moreover, Vitexin activated nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and increased the activity of its target gene heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The LPS-induced reactive oxygen species were inhibited by Vitexin. In addition, the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat PYD-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was suppressed by Vitexin. However, these effects of Vitexin were abolished in the Nrf2-/- mice. Our cell studies showed that Vitexin enhanced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 activity. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1β productions were reduced in Vitexin-treated cells. However, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA in RAW cells reversed the benefit of Vitexin.

Conclusions

Vitexin suppresses LPS-induced ALI by controlling Nrf2 pathway.

(image)



(XML) Decision making process and factors contributing to research participation among general practitioners: A grounded theory study

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Seng Fah Tong, Chirk Jenn Ng, Verna Kar Mun Lee, Ping Yein Lee, Irmi Zarina Ismail, Ee Ming Khoo, Noor Azizah Tahir, Iliza Idris, Mastura Ismail, Adina Abdullah

Introduction

The participation of general practitioners (GPs) in primary care research is variable and often poor. We aimed to develop a substantive and empirical theoretical framework to explain GPs’ decision-making process to participate in research.

Methods

We used the grounded theory approach to construct a substantive theory to explain the decision-making process of GPs to participate in research activities. Five in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted among 21 GPs. Purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling were used to attempt saturation of the core category. Data were collected using semi-structured open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked prior to analysis. Open line-by-line coding followed by focus coding were used to arrive at a substantive theory. Memoing was used to help bring concepts to higher abstract levels.

Results

The GPs’ decision to participate in research was attributed to their inner drive and appreciation for primary care research and their confidence in managing their social and research environments. The drive and appreciation for research motivated the GPs to undergo research training to enhance their research knowledge, skills and confidence. However, the critical step in the GPs’ decision to participate in research was their ability to align their research agenda with priorities in their social environment, which included personal life goals, clinical practice and organisational culture. Perceived support for research, such as funding and technical expertise, facilitated the GPs’ participation in research. In addition, prior experiences participating in research also influenced the GPs’ confidence in taking part in future research.

Conclusions

The key to GPs deciding to participate in research is whether the research agenda aligns with the priorities in their social environment. Therefore, research training is important, but should be included in further measures and should comply with GPs’ social environments and research support.

(image)



(XML) Effects of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and tocilizumab on the glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; an observational study

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Yukimi Otsuka, Chikako Kiyohara, Yusuke Kashiwado, Takuya Sawabe, Shuji Nagano, Yasutaka Kimoto, Masahiro Ayano, Hiroki Mitoma, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Yojiro Arinobu, Hiroaki Niiro, Koichi Akashi, Takahiko Horiuchi

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with inflammation. We tried to investigate the influence of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) and tocilizumab (TCZ) on the glucose metabolism of RA patients. RA patients in whom treatment with TNFi or TCZ was initiated from 2008 to 2015 were studied based on their medical records. We analyzed patients whose glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured both before and 3 months after the initiation of these biologic agents. The association between HbA1c reduction and the treatment was evaluated. From 971 cases treated with these biologic agents, 221 cases whose medical records of HbA1c were available, were included (TNFi, n = 154; TCZ, n = 67). Both the TNFi and TCZ groups had significantly lower HbA1c values at 1 month and 3 months after the initiation of treatment (TNFi, p<0.001; TCZ, p<0.001). Although the pretreatment HbA1c values did not differ (TNFi, 6.2%; TCZ, 6.2%; p = 0.532), the 3-month treatment HbA1c values were lower (TNFi, 6.1%; TCZ, 5.8%; p = 0.010) and the changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) were greater (TNFi, 0.1%; TCZ, 0.4%; p<0.001) in the TCZ group. The reduction of HbA1c—defined by the achievement of a ΔHbA1c of ≥0.5%—was associated with baseline diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, baseline diabetes treatment, hospitalization, medical change during the observation period, and TCZ. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, TCZ was associated with the reduction of HbA1c in comparison to TNFi (adjusted OR = 5.59, 95% CI = 2.56–12.2; p<0.001). The HbA1c levels in RA patients were significantly lower after the initiation of TNFi or TCZ. Our study suggests that TCZ decreases the HbA1c levels in RA patients to a greater extent than TNFi.(image)



(XML) "That's what you do for people you love": A qualitative study of social support and recovery from a musculoskeletal injury

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Khic-Houy Prang, Sharon Newnam, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

Background

Social support has been identified as a significant factor in facilitating better health outcomes following injury. However, research has primarily focused on the role of social support from the perspective of the person experiencing an injury. Limited research has examined the experiences of the family members and friends of a person with injury. This study aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of social support and recovery following a transport-related musculoskeletal injury (MSI) in a population of injured persons and their family members and friends.

Methods

This study was conducted using a phenomenological qualitative research design. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten persons with MSI, recruited via the Transport Accident Commission (TAC) in Victoria, Australia. Seven family members and friends were also interviewed. The data was analysed using constant comparative method and thematic analysis.

Results

Several themes were identified including: (1) key sources and types of support received, (2) relationship development and (3) challenges of providing and receiving support. Participants with MSI reported stories about how the social network provided emotional and tangible support. Family members and friends confirmed the supportive acts provided to the participants with MSI. Positive iterative changes in relationships were reported by the participants with MSI. Participants with MSI, their family members and friends described several difficulties including loss of independence, feeling like a burden, and the impact of caring on health and well-being.

Conclusions

The role of social support is complex given the multitude of people involved in the recovery process. The findings of this study suggest that persons with MSI may benefit from support groups and maintenance of existing support networks. Furthermore, family members and friends engaged in the recovery process may benefit from support in this role.

(image)



(XML) Executive function impairments in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relevance of clinical variables and body mass index

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Cristina Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara, María José Fernández-Serrano, Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso, Stefan Duschek

Background

Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI).

Methods

Fifty-two FMS patients and 32 healthy controls completed a battery of 14 neuropsychological tests. Clinical interviews were conducted and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale and Oviedo Quality of Sleep Questionnaire were presented.

Results

Patients performed poorer than controls on the Letter Number Sequencing, Arithmetic and Similarities subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale, an N-back task, a verbal fluency task, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, the Inhibition score of the Stroop Test, the Inhibition and Shifting scores of the Five Digits Test, the Key Search Test and the Zoo Map Task. Moreover, patients exhibited less steep learning curves on the Iowa Gambling Task. Among clinical variables, BMI and pain severity explained the largest proportion of performance variance.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated impairments in executive functions of updating, shifting inhibition, decision making and planning in FMS. While the mediating role of pain in cognitive impairments in FMS had been previously established, the influence of BMI is a novel finding. Overweight and obesity should be considered by FMS researchers, and in the treatment of the condition.

(image)



(XML) Epicardial and visceral adipose tissue in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis in a Chinese population

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Nang Ei Ei Khaing, Tai E. Shyong, Jeannette Lee, Cinnie Yentia Soekojo, Alvin Ng, Rob M. Van Dam

Background

Body fatness is associated with risk of coronary heart disease and it has been postulated that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may have a particularly detrimental effect because of its localized toxic effects. We therefore aimed to examine the association between EAT and coronary artery calcification and compared this with associations for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and other regional fat depots.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study of 487 Chinese participants aged 50 years old and above, living in Singapore. Participants, free from known diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases, completed interviews, a health screening to evaluate obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors, and computed tomography scans of the abdomen and coronary arteries. Associations between regional fat depots and subclinical atherosclerosis defined as CAC> = 100 were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was highly correlated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (Pearson r = 0.72) and trunk fat mass (r = 0.66). The age and sex-adjusted odd ratio (OR) (in 1-SD increase) of subclinical atherosclerosis was 1.28 (1.01–1.61) for EAT and 1.40 (1.04–1.88) for VAT. These associations were weaker and non-significant after adjusting for markers of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Total body fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, and leg, arm and trunk fat mass were not significantly associated with atherosclerosis.

Conclusion

VAT and EAT showed similar associations with coronary artery calcification and the associations could be mediated by traditional risk factors in this ethnic Chinese population.

(image)



(XML) Characterization of recent and minimally passaged Brazilian dengue viruses inducing robust infection in rhesus macaques

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Maria Beatriz Borges, Renato Sergio Marchevsky, Ygara S. Mendes, Luiz Gustavo Mendes, Ana Claudia Duarte, Michael Cruz, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Pedro Fernando C. Vasconcelos, Marcos Freire, Akira Homma, Sally Mossman, Edith Lepine, Yannick Vanloubbeeck, Clarisse Lorin, Marie-Pierre Malice, Elena Caride, Lucile Warter

The macaque is widely accepted as a suitable model for preclinical characterization of dengue vaccine candidates. However, the only vaccine for which both preclinical and clinical efficacy results were reported so far showed efficacy levels that were substantially different between macaques and humans. We hypothesized that this model’s predictive capacity may be improved using recent and minimally passaged dengue virus isolates, and by assessing vaccine efficacy by characterizing not only the post-dengue virus challenge viremia/RNAemia but also the associated-cytokine profile. Ten recent and minimally passaged Brazilian clinical isolates from the four dengue virus serotypes were tested for their infectivity in rhesus macaques. For the strains showing robust replication capacity, the associated-changes in soluble mediator levels, and the elicited dengue virus-neutralizing antibody responses, were also characterized. Three isolates from dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 4 induced viremia of high magnitude and longer duration relative to previously reported viremia kinetics in this model, and robust dengue virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Consistent with observations in humans, increased MCP-1, IFN-γ and VEGF-A levels, and transiently decreased IL-8 levels were detected after infection with the selected isolates. These results may contribute to establishing a dengue macaque model showing a higher predictability for vaccine efficacy in humans.(image)



(XML) Survival predictors in anuric patients on peritoneal dialysis: A prospective, multicenter, propensity score-matched cohort study

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Ja-Yong Park, Jang-Hee Cho, Hye Min Jang, Yon Su Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Chul Woo Yang, Nam-Ho Kim, Ji-Young Choi, Sun-Hee Park, Chan-Duck Kim, Yong-Lim Kim

Prevalent anuric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients usually have higher mortality than PD patients with residual urine volume. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of survival in anuric PD patients. Anuric PD patients (n = 505, <100 mL of daily urine) enrolled in Korean nationwide prospective cohort were analyzed. Survived and non-survived anuric PD patients were compared by propensity score matching analysis with a ratio of two to one. The propensity method was used to adjust for patient age, dialysis duration, and presence of diabetes. Among the total anuric PD patients, non-survived patients showed a significantly older age, higher incidence of diabetes, coronary artery disease, and arrhythmia, and lower serum creatinine and albumin. After propensity score matching, multivariate Cox regression analysis for patient survival showed a decreasing risk as serum albumin increased (HR = 0.347, p = 0.0094). Analysis using the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve showed that survival could be predicted with a sensitivity of 59.4% and a specificity of 63.2% using a cutoff value of 3.6 g/dL of serum albumin in unmatched total PD patients. The beneficial impact of high albumin level on death was significantly greater for patients with older age (≥50 years), no diabetes, low ultrafiltration (UF) volume (<1000 mL/day), and low levels of serum creatinine (<10 mg/dL), total cholesterol (<177.5 mg/dL), ferritin (<100 ng/mL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (<0.1 mg/dL). Survival in anuric PD patients was associated with age, comorbidities, and nutritional factors such as creatinine and albumin. After adjustment by propensity score matching, serum albumin level was an independent predictor for survival in anuric PD patients.(image)



(XML) Enhanced production of polysaccharides and triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies on induction with signal transduction during the fruiting stage

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Liyun Ye, Shengrong Liu, Fan Xie, Lili Zhao, Xiaoping Wu

Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been widely used in East Asia for the treatment of various diseases. The pharmacological activity of this fungus is primarily attributable to the polysaccharides and triterpenoids. In this study, to obtain the fruit bodies with improved content of active constituents, we examined the effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium ion on the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and triterpenoids by spraying the chemicals during the fruiting. To explore the underlying mechanisms for the variation, the transcripts of related genes involved in the polysaccharide and triterpenoid biosynthesis were measured. Results showed that Ca2+ had no effect on production of polysaccharides and triterpenoids, whereas SA increased triterpenoid content by 23.32%, compared to the control, but it had little influence on polysaccharide production. Interestingly, the combined induction increased polysaccharide and triterpenoid content by 9.02% and 13.61%, respectively, compared to the control. Under Ca2+ induction, the transcript of ugp gene in the polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway up-regulated in all three stages (mycelium, primordium, and fruit body), while pgm and gls gave no response in the mycelium and primordium stages, and up-regulated in the fruit body stage. Differently, six key triterpenoid biosynthetic genes including hmgr, hmgs, mvd, fps, sqs, and ls did not respond to the induction. In the case of SA and combined induction, pgm and ugp were up-regulated in all three stages, while gls showed an increased expression in the primordium stage and no response in other stages. The six triterpenoid biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in all three stages. The present study provides a useful approach to producing G. lucidum fruit bodies with high polysaccharide and triterpenoid content. This is important to the G. lucidum industry.(image)



(XML) Proline oxidase controls proline, glutamate, and glutamine cellular concentrations in a U87 glioblastoma cell line

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Pamela Cappelletti, Elena Tallarita, Valentina Rabattoni, Paola Campomenosi, Silvia Sacchi, Loredano Pollegioni

L-Proline is a multifunctional amino acid that plays an essential role in primary metabolism and physiological functions. Proline is oxidized to glutamate in the mitochondria and the FAD-containing enzyme proline oxidase (PO) catalyzes the first step in L-proline degradation pathway. Alterations in proline metabolism have been described in various human diseases, such as hyperprolinemia type I, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/Di George syndrome, schizophrenia and cancer. In particular, the mutation giving rise to the substitution Leu441Pro was identified in patients suffering of schizophrenia and hyperprolinemia type I. Here, we report on the expression of wild-type and L441P variants of human PO in a U87 glioblastoma human cell line in an attempt to assess their effect on glutamate metabolism. The subcellular localization of the flavoenzyme is not altered in the L441P variant, for which specific activity is halved compared to the wild-type PO. While this decrease in activity is significantly less than that previously proposed, an effect of the substitution on the enzyme stability is also apparent in our studies. At 24 hours of growth from transient transfection, the intracellular level of proline, glutamate, and glutamine is decreased in cells expressing the PO variants as compared to control U87 cells, reaching a similar figure at 72 h. On the other hand, the extracellular levels of the three selected amino acids show a similar time course for all clones. Furthermore, PO overexpression does not modify to a significant extent the expression of GLAST and GLT-1 glutamate transporters. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the proline pathway links cellular proline levels with those of glutamate and glutamine. On this side, PO might play a regulatory role in glutamatergic neurotransmission by affecting the cellular concentration of glutamate.(image)



(XML) One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and genetic variants in relation to colorectal cancer risk by KRAS and BRAF mutation status

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Robin Myte, Björn Gylling, Jenny Häggström, Jörn Schneede, Anna Löfgren-Burström, Jeroen R. Huyghe, Göran Hallmans, Klaus Meyer, Ingegerd Johansson, Per Magne Ueland, Richard Palmqvist, Bethany Van Guelpen

Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, intracellular reactions involved in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, likely increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, results have been inconsistent. To explore whether this inconsistency could be explained by intertumoral heterogeneity, we evaluated a comprehensive panel of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to the risk of molecular subtypes of CRC defined by mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes. This nested case-control study included 488 CRC cases and 947 matched controls from two population-based cohorts in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. We analyzed 14 biomarkers and 17 SNPs in prediagnostic blood and determined KRAS and BRAF mutation status in tumor tissue. In a multivariate network analysis, no variable displayed a strong association with the risk of specific CRC subtypes. A non-synonymous SNP in the CTH gene, rs1021737, had a stronger association compared with other variables. In subsequent univariate analyses, participants with variant rs1021737 genotype had a decreased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.50, 1.05), and an increased risk of BRAF-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.30), with weak evidence for heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0.01). This subtype-specific SNP association was not replicated in a case-case analysis of 533 CRC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (P = 0.85). In conclusion, we found no support for clear subtype-specific roles of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and SNPs in CRC development, making differences in CRC molecular subtype distributions an unlikely explanation for the varying results on the role of one-carbon metabolism in CRC development across previous studies. Further investigation of the CTH gene in colorectal carcinogenesis with regards to KRAS and BRAF mutations or other molecular characteristics of the tumor may be warranted.(image)



(XML) Development and validation of a dementia screening tool for primary care in Taiwan: Brain Health Test

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Ping-Huang Tsai, Jian-Liang Liu, Ker-Neng Lin, Chiung-Chih Chang, Ming-Chyi Pai, Wen-Fu Wang, Jen-Ping Huang, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Pei-Ning Wang

Objectives

To develop a simple dementia screening tool to assist primary care physicians in identifying patients with cognitive impairment among subjects with memory complaints or at a high risk for dementia.

Design

The Brain Health Test (BHT) was developed by several experienced neurologists, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists in the Taiwan Dementia Society. Validation of the BHT was conducted in the memory clinics of various levels of hospitals in Taiwan.

Participants

All dementia patients at the memory clinics who met the inclusion criteria of age greater or equal to 50 years were enrolled. Besides the BHT, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating were used to evaluate the cognition state of the patients and the severity of dementia.

Results

The BHT includes two parts: a risk evaluation and a cognitive test (BHT-cog). Self or informants reports of memory decline or needing help from others to manage money or medications were significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Among the risk factors evaluated in the BHT, a total risk score greater or equal to 8 was defined as a high risk for dementia. The total score for the finalized BHT-cog was 16. When the cutoff value for the BHT-cog was set to 10 for differentiating dementia and a normal mental state, the sensitivity was 91.5%, the specificity was 87.3%, the positive predictive value was 94.8%, and the negative predictive value was 80.1% The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve between dementia and healthy subjects was 0.958 (95% CI = 0.941–0.975).

Conclusions

The BHT is a simple tool that may be useful in primary care settings to identify high-risk patients to target for cognitive screening.

(image)



(XML) Commensurate incidence and outcomes of liver enzyme elevation between anti-tumor necrosis factor users with or without prior hepatitis B virus infections

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Ying-Ming Chiu, Mei-Shu Lai, K. Arnold Chan

Background and objective

Potential hepatoxicity is an important clinical concern when administering immunosuppressive therapies to patients infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF) increase the likelihood of hepatitis consequent to HBV reactivation, but reported risks and outcomes vary. We determined the risks of liver enzyme elevation in anti-rheumatic drug users from an HBV-endemic region with differing HBV serostatus.

Methods

We established retrospective cohorts with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis who: 1) received anti-TNF agents from 1 January 2004 to 30 June 2013; 2) received care from 1 June 2011 to 30 June 2013 but only ever used conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Serology results defined three subgroups: HBV surface antigen positive (HBsAg+), HBsAg negative/HBV core antibody positive (HBsAg−/HBcAb+), or uninfected. We compared incidences of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) exceeding twice the upper reference limit between HBV serostatus subgroups in each treatment cohort.

Results

Among 783 patients treated with anti-TNF (n = 472) or DMARDs only (n = 311), HBsAg−/HBcAb+ anti-TNF users had incidence of ALT elevation commensurate with uninfected counterparts (6.1 vs. 6.0/100 person-years), compared to 19.6/100 person-years in HBsAg+ patients (standardized rate ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.2); none effected had severe or fatal hepatitis and ALT levels in all HBsAg−/HBcAb+ patients remained stable, mostly normalizing spontaneously, or after moderating treatment. Patterns of of ALT elevation associated with differing HBV serostatus in the DMARD cohort, resembled those in anti-TNF users.

Conclusions

In this large HBV-endemic cohort, the absolute incidence of ALT elevation in anti-TNF users was more than three-fold higher in HBsAg+ patients than in uninfected counterparts; however, no such association was evident in patients with HBsAg−/HBcAb+ serotype, whose risk and outcomes of liver enzyme elevation were similar to uninfected patients, suggesting that anti-TNF use by HBsAg−/HBcAb+ patients is probably safe.

(image)



(XML) A molecular dynamics study of adenylyl cyclase: The impact of ATP and G-protein binding

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Elisa Frezza, Juliette Martin, Richard Lavery

Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the biosynthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and play an important role in many signal transduction pathways. The enzymatic activity of ACs is carefully controlled by a variety of molecules, including G-protein subunits that can both stimulate and inhibit cAMP production. Using homology models developed from existing structural data, we have carried out all-atom, microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations on the AC5 isoform of adenylyl cyclase and on its complexes with ATP and with the stimulatory G-protein subunit Gsα. The results show that both ATP and Gsα binding have significant effects on the structure and flexibility of adenylyl cyclase. New data on ATP bound to AC5 in the absence of Gsα notably help to explain how Gsα binding enhances enzyme activity and could aid product release. Simulations also suggest a possible coupling between ATP binding and interactions with the inhibitory G-protein subunit Gαi.(image)



(XML) Site-specific glycosaminoglycan content is better maintained in the pericellular matrix than the extracellular matrix in early post-traumatic osteoarthritis

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Simo P. Ojanen, Mikko A. J. Finnilä, Aino E. Reunamo, Ari P. Ronkainen, Santtu Mikkonen, Walter Herzog, Simo Saarakkala, Rami K. Korhonen

Introduction

One of the characteristics of early osteoarthritis (OA) is the loss of fixed charged density (FCD) of glycosaminoglycans in the superficial zone of articular cartilage. However, possible local changes in the FCD content of the pericellular matrix (PCM) are not fully understood. Hence, our aim was to investigate the effect of unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rabbit knees on estimated FCD in the PCM compared to that in the ECM, and relate these results with cell morphology.

Methods

Articular cartilage samples were collected from ACLT, contralateral and intact control knee joints from lateral and medial femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, and from the femoral groove and patella. Histological samples were prepared and stained with Safranin-O to estimate the FCD content around the chondrocytes in the PCM and the ECM with digital densitometry.

Results

As a result of ACLT, the greatest decreases in the FCD content of the PCM were observed in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle (p = 0.02), medial tibial plateau (p = 0.002) and patellar (p < 0.001) cartilage. The normalized FCD content of the PCM compared to the surrounding ECM was increased most in the femoral condyles (p < 0.01) and medial tibial plateau (p = 0.02) cartilage. The high normalized FCD content of the PCM in the superficial zone of lateral femoral condyle cartilage was consistent with the round cell morphology in that location.

Conclusions

In conclusion, we suggest that certain sites in the knee joint, particularly the lateral femoral condyle cartilage, experience less FCD loss in the PCM than in the ECM in early post-traumatic OA, which could lead to altered cell shape.

(image)



(XML) Modeling the temporal periodicity of growth increments based on harmonic functions

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by José Angel Hidalgo-de-la-Toba, Enrique Morales-Bojórquez, Sergio Scarry González-Peláez, J. Jesús Bautista-Romero, Daniel Bernardo Lluch-Cota

Age estimation methods based on hard structures require a process of validation to confirm the periodical pattern of growth marks. Among such processes, one of the most used is the marginal increment ratio (MIR), which was stated to follow a sinusoidal cycle in a population. Despite its utility, in most cases, its implementation has lacked robust statistical analysis. Accordingly, we propose a modeling approach for the temporal periodicity of growth increments based on single and second order harmonic functions. For illustrative purposes, the MIR periodicities for two geoduck species (Panopea generosa and Panopea globosa) were modeled to identify the periodical pattern of growth increments in the shell. This model identified an annual periodicity for both species but described different temporal patterns. The proposed procedure can be broadly used to objectively define the timing of the peak, the degree of symmetry, and therefore, the synchrony of band deposition of different species on the basis of MIR data.(image)



(XML) Mismatch negativity reflects asymmetric pre-attentive harmonic interval discrimination

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Luise Wagner, Torsten Rahne, Stefan K. Plontke, Nico Heidekrüger

Objective

Western music is based on intervals; thus, interval discrimination is important for distinguishing the character of melodies or tracking melodies in polyphonic music. In this study the encoding of intervals in simultaneously presented sound is studied.

Study design

In an electrophysiological experiment in 15 normal-hearing non-musicians, major thirds or fifths were presented in a controlled oddball paradigm. Harmonic intervals were created by simultaneously presented sinusoidals with randomized root frequency. Mismatch negativity (MMN) responses were measured with an EEG recording. The discrimination index was calculated in a psychoacoustic experiment.

Results

A clear MMN response was found for the major third but not for the fifth. The neural generators were located within the auditory cortices. Psychoacoustically, no evidence was found that the subjects were able to detect the deviants.

Conclusions

We conclude that pre-attentive discrimination of harmonic interval size is, in principle, possible in listeners without musical training although simultaneous presentation makes it harder to distinguish compared to non-overlapping intervals. Furthermore we see a difference in the response to infrequent dissonant stimuli in consonant standard stimuli compared to the opposite, rare consonant stimuli in dissonant standard stimuli.

(image)



(XML) Influence of beta-blocker therapy on the risk of infections and death in patients at high risk for stroke induced immunodepression

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Ilko L. Maier, Johannes C. Becker, Johanna Rosemarie Leyhe, Marlena Schnieder, Daniel Behme, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Jan Liman

Background

Stroke-induced immunodepression is a well characterized complication of acute ischemic stroke. In experimental studies beta-blocker therapy reversed stroke-induced immunodepression, reduced infection rates and mortality. Recent, heterogeneous studies in stroke patients could not provide evidence of a protective effect of beta-blocker therapy. Aim of this study is to investigate the potential preventive effect of beta-blockers in subgroups of patients at high risk for stroke-induced immunodepression.

Methods

Data from a prospectively derived registry of major stroke patients receiving endovascular therapy between 2011–2017 in a tertiary stroke center (University Medical Center Göttingen. Germany) was used. The effect of beta-blocker therapy on pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis and mortality was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

Three hundred six patients with a mean age of 72 ± 13 years and a median NIHSS of 16 (IQR 10.75–20) were included. 158 patients (51.6%) had pre-stroke- and continued beta-blocker therapy. Beta-blocker therapy did not reduce the incidence of pneumonia (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.31–1.92, p = 0.584), urinary tract infections (OR 1.51, 0.88–2.60, p = 0.135), sepsis (OR 0.57, 0.18–1.80, p = 0.334) or mortality (OR 0.59, 0.16–2.17, p = 0.429). Strokes involving the insula and anterio-medial cortex increased the risk for pneumonia (OR 4.55, 2.41–8.56, p<0.001) and sepsis (OR 4.13, 1.81–9.43, p = 0.001), while right hemispheric strokes increased the risk for pneumonia (OR 1.60, 0.92–2.77, p = 0.096). There was a non-significantly increased risk for urinary tract infections in patients with beta-blocker therapy and insula/anterio-medial cortex strokes (OR 3.12, 95% CI 0.88–11.05, p = 0.077) with no effect of beta-blocker therapy on pneumonia, sepsis or mortality in both subgroups.

Conclusions

In major ischemic stroke patients, beta-blocker therapy did not lower post-stroke infection rates and was associated with urinary tract infections in a subgroup with insula/anterio-medial strokes.

(image)



(XML) Bacillus megaterium strains derived from water and soil exhibit differential responses to the herbicide mesotrione

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Tatiane Dobrzanski, Fernanda Gravina, Bruna Steckling, Luiz R. Olchanheski, Ricardo F. Sprenger, Bruno C. Espírito Santo, Carolina W. Galvão, Péricles M. Reche, Rosilene A. Prestes, Sônia A. V. Pileggi, Francinete R. Campos, Ricardo A. Azevedo, Michael J. Sadowsky, Flávio L. Beltrame, Marcos Pileggi

The intense use of herbicides for weed control in agriculture causes selection pressure on soil microbiota and water ecosystems, possibly resulting in changes to microbial processes, such as biogeochemical cycles. These xenobiotics may increase the production of reactive oxygen species and consequently affect the survival of microorganisms, which need to develop strategies to adapt to these conditions and maintain their ecological functionality. This study analyzed the adaptive responses of bacterial isolates belonging to the same species, originating from two different environments (water and soil), and subjected to selection pressure by herbicides. The effects of herbicide Callisto and its active ingredient, mesotrione, induced different adaptation strategies on the cellular, enzymatic, and structural systems of two Bacillus megaterium isolates obtained from these environments. The lipid saturation patterns observed may have affected membrane permeability in response to this herbicide. Moreover, this may have led to different levels of responses involving superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and enzyme polymorphisms. Due to these response systems, the strain isolated from water exhibited higher growth rates than did the soil strain, in evaluations made in oligotrophic culture media, which would be more like that found in semi-pristine aquatic environments. The influence of the intracellular oxidizing environments, which changed the mode of degradation of mesotrione in our experimental model and produced different metabolites, can also be observed in soil and water at sites related to agriculture. Since the different metabolites may present different levels of toxicity, we suggest that this fact should be considered in studies on the fate of agrochemicals in different environments.(image)



(XML) Computer-assisted teaching of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: Learning curve for condylar positioning

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Charles Savoldelli, Emmanuel Chamorey, Georges Bettega

Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is a widely-performed procedure in orthognathic surgery for the correction of dentofacial deformity. Condylar positioning is a critical step during BSSO to maximize functional and morphological results. The unsuitable positioning of condyles represents one of the causative mechanisms that may induce temporomandibular joint noxious effects after BSSO. Repositioning devices can assist surgeons in maintaining the preoperative condylar position; however, empirical repositioning methods based on experience gained are still commonly used. Trainee learning curves are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of computer-assisted surgery in the acquisition of condylar positioning skills. Forty-eight patients underwent BSSO performed by six maxillofacial trainees (four junior residents and two senior experienced residents). A condyle positioning system (CPS) was used by a senior surgeon to record a condylar position score during the procedure. Firstly, scores were recorded when the trainee manually positioned the condyle without access to the CPS score (phase 1) and then when the trainee positioned the condyle and performed osteosynthesis with visual access to the CPS score (phase 2). Six parameters describing condylar three-dimensional motions were assessed: translational motion from top to bottom (TB), back to front (BF), and left to right (LR), axial rotation (AR), sagittal rotation (SR), frontal rotation (FR), and a total score (TS). There were no significant differences between junior and senior residents in condyle positioning without access to the CPS. Condyles were significantly better positioned during phase 2 with access to the CPS (p<0.001). Over time, use of the CPS (phase 2) produced significantly quicker improvements in scores (p = 0.042). For those teaching surgeries to trainees, computer-assisted devices can potentially result in more rapid learning curves than traditional “observations-imitation” models. Use of a CPS by trainees facilitated condylar repositioning that resulted in an accurate occlusal result and avoidance of adverse effects on the temporomandibular joint.(image)



(XML) Differential processing of nociceptive input within upper limb muscles

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Nathanial R. Eckert, Brach Poston, Zachary A. Riley

The cutaneous silent period is an inhibitory evoked response that demonstrates a wide variety of responses in muscles of the human upper limb. Classically, the cutaneous silent period results in a characteristic muscle pattern of extensor inhibition and flexor facilitation within the upper limb, in the presence of nociceptive input. The aims of the current study were: 1) to primarily investigate the presence and characteristics of the cutaneous silent period response across multiple extensor and flexor muscles of the upper limb, and 2) to secondarily investigate the influence of stimulation site on this nociceptive reflex response. It was hypothesized that the cutaneous silent period would be present in all muscles, regardless of role (flexion/extension) or the stimulation site. Twenty-two healthy, university-age adults (14 males; 8 females; 23 ± 5 yrs) participated in the study. Testing consisted of three different stimulation sites (Digit II, V, and II+III nociceptive stimulation) during a low intensity, sustained muscle contraction, in which, 7 upper limb muscles were monitored via surface EMG recording electrodes. Distal muscles of the upper limb presented with the earliest reflex onset times, longest reflex duration, and lowest level of EMG suppression when compared to the more proximal muscles, regardless of extensor/flexor role. Additionally, the greatest overall inhibitory influence was expressed within the distal muscles. In conclusion, the present study provides a new level of refinement within the current understanding of the spinal organization associated with nociceptive input processing and the associated motor control of the upper limb. Subsequently, these results have further implications on the impact of nociception on supraspinal processing.(image)



(XML) Comparison of acupuncture and other drugs for chronic constipation: A network meta-analysis

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Lingping Zhu, Yunhui Ma, Xiaoyan Deng

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of acupuncture, sham acupuncture and drugs in the treatment of chronic constipation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of acupuncture and drugs for chronic constipation were comprehensively retrieved from electronic databases (such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang Database, VIP Database and CBM) up to December 2017. Additional references were obtained from review articles. With quality evaluations and data extraction, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed using a random-effects model under a frequentist framework. A total of 40 studies (n = 11032) were included: 39 were high-quality studies and 1 was a low-quality study. NMA showed that (1) acupuncture improved the symptoms of chronic constipation more effectively than drugs; (2) the ranking of treatments in terms of efficacy in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome was acupuncture, polyethylene glycol, lactulose, linaclotide, lubiprostone, bisacodyl, prucalopride, sham acupuncture, tegaserod, and placebo; (3) the ranking of side effects were as follows: lactulose, lubiprostone, bisacodyl, polyethylene glycol, prucalopride, linaclotide, placebo and tegaserod; and (4) the most commonly used acupuncture point for chronic constipation was ST25. Acupuncture is more effective than drugs in improving chronic constipation and has the least side effects. In the future, large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to prove this. Sham acupuncture may have curative effects that are greater than the placebo effect. In the future, it is necessary to perform high-quality studies to support this finding. Polyethylene glycol also has acceptable curative effects with fewer side effects than other drugs.(image)



(XML) Invasion of sorghum in the Americas by a new sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari) superclone

2018-04-25T21:00:00Z

by Samuel Nibouche, Laurent Costet, Jocelyn R. Holt, Alana Jacobson, Adrian Pekarcik, Joëlle Sadeyen, J. Scott Armstrong, Gary C. Peterson, Neal McLaren, Raul F. Medina

In the United States (US), the sugarcane aphid (SCA) Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was introduced in the 1970s, however at that time it was only considered a pest of sugarcane. In 2013, a massive outbreak of M. sacchari occured on sorghum, resulting in significant economic damage to sorghum grown in North America including the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. The aim of the present study was to determine if the SCA pest emergence in American sorghum resulted from the introduction of new genotypes. To this end we used microsatellite markers and COI sequencing to compare the genetic diversity of SCA populations collected in the Americas after the 2013 SCA outbreak on sorghum (during 2013–2017) to older samples collected before the pest outbreak (during 2007–2009). Our results show that the SCA outbreak in the Americas and the Caribbean observed since 2013 belong to populations exhibiting low genetic diversity and consisting of a dominant clonal lineage, MLL-F, which colonizes Sorghum spp. and sugarcane. The comparison of MLL-F specimens collected post-2013 with specimens collected in Louisiana in 2007 revealed that both populations are genetically distinct, according to COI sequencing and microsatellite data analyses. Our result suggest that MLL-F is a new invasive genotype introduced into the Americas that has spread rapidly across sorghum growing regions in the US, Mexico, Honduras and the Caribbean. The origin of this introduction is either Africa or Asia, with Asia being the most probable source.(image)