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Diabetes Pathophysiology

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PDGF-BB Carried by Endothelial Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Diabetes


Endothelial cell–derived extracellular vesicles (CD31EVs) constitute a new entity for therapeutic/prognostic purposes. The roles of CD31EVs as mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are investigated herein. We demonstrated that, unlike serum-derived extracellular vesicles in individuals without diabetes, those in individuals with diabetes (D CD31EVs) boosted apoptosis resistance of VSMCs cultured in hyperglycemic condition. Biochemical analysis revealed that this effect relies on changes in the balance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signals: increase of bcl-2 and decrease of bak/bax. D CD31EV cargo analysis demonstrated that D CD31EVs are enriched in membrane-bound platelet-derived growth factor-BB (mbPDGF-BB). Thus, we postulated that mbPDGF-BB transfer by D CD31EVs could account for VSMC resistance to apoptosis. By depleting CD31EVs of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) or blocking the PDGF receptor β on VSMCs, we demonstrated that mbPDGF-BB contributes to D CD31EV–mediated bak/bax and bcl-2 levels. Moreover, we found that bak expression is under the control of PDGF-BB–mediated microRNA (miR)-296-5p expression. In fact, while PDGF-BB treatment recapitulated D CD31EV–mediated antiapoptotic program and VSMC resistance to apoptosis, PDGF-BB–depleted CD31EVs failed. D CD31EVs also increased VSMC migration and recruitment to neovessels by means of PDGF-BB. Finally, we found that VSMCs, from human atherosclerotic arteries of individuals with T2D, express low bak/bax and high bcl-2 and miR-296-5p levels. This study identifies the mbPDGF-BB in D CD31EVs as a relevant mediator of diabetes-associated VSMC resistance to apoptosis.

Excitatory GABAergic Action and Increased Vasopressin Synthesis in Hypothalamic Magnocellular Neurosecretory Cells Underlie the High Plasma Level of Vasopressin in Diabetic Rats


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased plasma levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), which may aggravate hyperglycemia and nephropathy. However, the mechanisms by which DM may cause the increased AVP levels are not known. Electrophysiological recordings in supraoptic nucleus (SON) slices from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats and vehicle-treated control rats revealed that -aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions generally as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the AVP neurons of STZ rats, whereas it usually evokes inhibitory responses in the cells of control animals. Furthermore, Western blotting analyses of Cl transporters in the SON tissues indicated that Na+-K+-2Cl cotransporter isotype 1 (a Cl importer) was upregulated and K+-Cl cotransporter isotype 2 (KCC2; a Cl extruder) was downregulated in STZ rats. Treatment with CLP290 (a KCC2 activator) significantly lowered blood AVP and glucose levels in STZ rats. Last, investigation that used rats expressing an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion gene showed that AVP synthesis in AVP neurons was much more intense in STZ rats than in control rats. We conclude that altered Cl homeostasis that makes GABA excitatory and enhanced AVP synthesis are important changes in AVP neurons that would increase AVP secretion in DM. Our data suggest that Cl transporters in AVP neurons are potential targets of antidiabetes treatments.

Defective Amplifying Pathway of {beta}-Cell Secretory Response to Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: Integrated Modeling of In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence


In vivo studies have investigated the role of β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D), whereas in vitro research on islets has elucidated key mechanisms that control the insulin secretion rate. However, the relevance of the cellular mechanisms identified in vitro (i.e., the triggering and amplifying pathways) has not been established in vivo. Furthermore, the mechanisms underpinning β-cell dysfunction in T2D remain undetermined. We propose a unifying explanation of several characteristic features of insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo by using a mathematical model. The model describes the triggering and amplifying pathways and reproduces a variety of in vitro and in vivo tests in subjects with and without T2D, identifies the mechanisms modulating first-phase insulin secretion rate in response to basal hyperglycemia or insulin resistance, and shows that β-cell dysfunction in T2D can be explained by an impaired amplifying pathway with no need to postulate defects in intracellular calcium handling.