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Collection of Papers Midwifery





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Sat, 09 Jun 2012 08:07:00 +0000

 FACTORS DESCRIPTION OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BPM pregnancy exercise Nanik Sulistyowati, Amd.Keb DS. WARUNGERINGKEC. KEDUNGPRINGLAMONGAN                                                                    CHAPTER 1                                                              INTRODUCTION1.1 Background Problem         All contain some risk of pregnancy for the mother or baby and it is important to prevent, detect and manage complications become life-threatening emergencies (WHO, 2003). During pregnancy maintenance efforts and increase maternal health requires extra attention. Matters that require attention, among others, nutrition, preparation of lactation, regular prenatal care, improved personal and environmental hygiene, sexual life, rest and sleep, stop harmful habits affect health and the fetus (such as smoking) carry out the movement and pregnancy exercise (MOH, 1992).       Pregnancy exercise is exercise performed during pregnancy in order to prepare for the physical and mental health of pregnant women, with the hope of the birth process will run smoothly and safely. Pregnancy exercise workout is done on a regular basis either at home or place of exercise in leisure time pregnant women can lead to the physiological delivery as long as no pathological conditions that accompany pregnancy. Pregnant women who perform regular pregnancy exercise during pregnancy has been reported to provide benefits at the time of delivery is in the active stage (stage II) becomes shorter, prevent and reduce the incidence of breech position insinden sectio Caesaria. (Daily Independent Voice, 2008)      Based on research in 2003 showed that Supriadmaja long confinement in cases that do not perform pregnancy exercise was 15.1% and in cases that do gymnastics pregnancy was 1.9%. Confinement time in the pregnancy exercise group were statistically smaller than the group that was not pregnancy exercise. Long second stage of labor in women who have pregnancy exercise was statistically shorter when compared with women who are pregnant do not do gymnastics. (Andrew, 2008)       Based on the initial survey the number of pregnant women in BPM Nanik S. Amd.Keb in 2012 as many as 10 people. Of the number of pregnant women are 60% who do not perform pregnancy exercise. So there are many women who have not been doing gymnastics pregnant because of ignorance.Some factors that can affect pregnant women in making pregnancy exercise include: Age, Education, Employment, Environmental, Social and Cultural Experience and Knowledge. (Nursalam, 2003)Age is counted from the time of birth (Nursalam, 2003). Age is just the start or enter a period of marriage and pregnancy whether a person in maturity in dealing with the issue or problem, in this case deal with pregnancy and the changes during pregnancy. And vice versa with less than 16 years of age then the chances of maturity of mind and behavior are less well in advance to deal with changes and adaptations during pregnancy.        All planned educational efforts to influence other people, both individuals, families or communities, so they do what is expected by the perpetrator (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo, 2003). The higher the education the more knowledge and more aware of the conditions they experienc[...]



MIDWIFERY CARE ON Ny. "S" G1 P1000 UK 15 WEEKS PHYSIOLOGICAL

Thu, 12 Jan 2012 04:06:00 +0000

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.1 BackgroundDevelopment in the health sector is shown to improve the quality of human resources and quality of life and life expectancy. Improved quality of life needs to start from early that since being in the womb. Therefore, a healthy pregnancy greatly affects the potential of offspring in the future successor. (Manuaba: 1998).Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is one of the most sensitive factor which describes the health of mothers and children. MMR and IMR in Indonesia is still very high, as evidenced by the presence of maternal mortality vary widely from 5 to 100,000 per live births. And perinatal mortality which ranged from 25 to 750 per live births. Maternal mortality should be reduced to 225 per live births and infant deaths should be reduced to 49.8 per 1,000 live births.Therefore, antenatal testing should be done to ensure that once the mother and fetus at regular intervals and to find out how early when there are deviations or abnormalities found with the aim that can pregnant women through pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum well and safe and healthy babies .Regular prenatal care which followed technically be controlled by each MCH program implementers in the field so that the quality of service can be guaranteed. If in pregnant women with primigravida / multigravida, generally a lot of problems associated with pregnancy because of a lack of knowledge of mothers about the pregnancy. It is therefore important for pregnant women to carry out checks because of possible high risk can be found.1.2 Objectives1.2.1 General PurposeAfter studying about 'Obstetric Care in Ny. "S" GIIIP2002 UK 20 Sunday H / Q / IU / My mother and fetus baikdengan SPR 2 ", it is expected that students get real experience in providing midwifery care in accordance with the standard.1.2.2 Specific ObjectivesAfter learning about midwifery care in Ny. "S" GIIIP2002 UK 20 Sunday H / Q / IU / My mother and fetus baikdengan SPR 2 ", students are expected to be able to:1.Melaksanakan assessment on the client2.Menginterpretasi client data base3.Antisipasi potential problem on the client4.Mengidentifikasi immediate needs of the client5.Membuat care plan would do6.Melaksanakan care planned7.Mengevaluasi midwifery care that has been done1.3Metode Discussion1.3.1 The method of this paper is the literature in the form of case study that is looking for a clear picture and midwifery process that occurs at this time.1.3.2 Data collection techniques: interviews / anamnesa, examination, assessment of medical records and literature.1.4 Systematics of WritingIn midwifery care is structured as follows:CHAPTER I: Introduction of Background, Objectives, Methods Discussion, Writing and Systematics.CHAPTER II: Review of TheoryCHAPTER III: Case OverviewCHAPTER IV: DiscussionCHAPTER V: ClosingREFERENCESCHAPTER 2REVIEW OF THEORY2.1 CONCEPT OF PREGNANCY2.1.1 Understanding1) Pregnancy is the process of growth and development of the fetus from the time of conception and lasts until the beginning of labor (Kasdu, 2004).2) The period of pregnancy at the beginning of conception to the birth of the fetus. The duration of normal pregnancy is 280 days (9 months 7 days) was calculated from the first day of last menstrual period (Saifuddin, 2006: 89).3) Pregnancy is meeting the egg with sperm followed by nidasi or conception (Mochtar Rustam, 1998: 17)2.1.2 Terms - the terms of pregnancy1) A healthy sperm can live in a woman's body 24-72 hours (1-3 days) and normal numbers.2) A healthy egg can live 48 hours and can be fertilized 12-18 hours after ovulation.3) The meeting of egg and sperm cells4) The ovaries and uterus of healthy5) The existence of the hormonal system2.1.3 Physiology of PregnancyThe process of pregnancy is an ongoing chain and consists of:1) Ovulation2) Migration of spermatozoa and ova3) The conception and growth of the zygote4) Nidasi (implantation) of the uterus5) The establishment of the placenta / placentation6) Grow the placenta / placentationEvery m[...]



INCEST

Thu, 01 Dec 2011 04:51:00 +0000

  MARRIAGE OF INCEST             Inbreeding is prohibited by sexual contact because of family ties. Sexual contact can occur between father and daughter, mothers with sons, between brothers and sisters, men with men (homosexual), certain cousin, stepfather and daughter, and many more are forbidden by the religion and culture. For example where a fellow cousin's father were both brothers, in some cultures this is not problematic, but in other cultures it is forbidden. However, if this remains the case then there has been incest.             Incestuous sexual contact can be prohibited in culture, may also be prohibited in health. Prohibition in culture caused by several things that happens depends on the culture of each, which is sometimes difficult to understand why this could occur. However, incest can happen because of turmoil in the relationship between one another in a family. For example, the brothers who had long been separated, which then met and married but do not know if they are actually brothers.             Sexual contact between a stepfather and stepson actually does not cause medical problems, but can cause family problems. Sexual contact between cousins ​​can cause certain medical problems. Some sexual contact or marriage between cousins ​​was allowed because of the particular culture used to live in an area where they are difficult to penetrate the border area to get married with another family away from the place. To give the opportunity of marriage to members area then allowed to marry for certain cousins.             Genetically, 25% of children will experience the result of incest congenital abnormalities. Most likely once this is found in the common ancestor of man, that it is culturally forbidden. Incest can occur because of a deliberate intent to do though have been known to violate the law. For example, sexual contact between the father and his stepson. Everyone knows that the behavior is strictly forbidden but done well. TYPE - TYPE OF INBREEDING Incest is divided into 2 (two) types, namely: 1. Incest which is voluntary (without coercion) Sexual relations that do occur because of elements as they liked. 2. Incest coercive Intercourse as an element of compulsion, for example in girls threatened with death by his father for refusing to serve the sexual appetite. Incest communities like this in more familiar with the rape of incest. CAUSES OF INBREEDING             There are several causes or triggers of incest. The root cause is none other and is due to the influence of structural aspects, namely the situation in an increasingly complex society. The complexity of the situation led to powerlessness on individual self. Especially when he was a man (in fact is likely to be considered and consider themselves more powerful) will be very shocked, and cause mental-psychological imbalance. In such helplessness, in the absence of faith as a force for internal / spiritual, someone will be governed by primitive urges, the sexual urges or aggressiveness. The structural factors include: (1) Cultural Conflicts.             Social change happens so quickly in line with technological developments. Communication tools such as radio, television, VCD, HP, newspapers, and magazines have been entered into all corners of Indonesia. Along with it goes also new cultures which actually does not fit with the culture and local norms. People easily get a sex crime news through television shows and written in newspapers and magazines. Also information and experience of pornography and various types of media. As a result, television, VCD, and news in newspapers or magazines that often feature i[...]



ASFIKSI

Wed, 16 Nov 2011 07:39:00 +0000

Asfiksi is objec where newborn babies can not breathe spontaneously and regularly. Infants with a history of fetal distress before birth, will generally experience asfiksi at birth.CAUSE ASFIKSI1. Mother factor     a. Preeclampsia and eclampsia     b. Abnormal bleeding (placenta previa or placenta solusio)     c. Parturition or parturition long jams     d. Severe infections (malaria, syphilis, tuberculosis, HIV)     e. More than 42 weeks gestation2. Cord factor     a. coil cord     b. short cord     c. umbilical cord knot     d. umbilical cord prolapse3. of factors baby     a. premature infants (less than 37 weeks)     b. labor with the action (breech, twins, shoulder dystocia, vacuum extraction, forceps extraction)     c. congenital abnormalities (congenital)     d. amniotic fluid mixed with meconium (greenish color)SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ASFIKSI1. Not breathing or gasping breath - breath2. Bluish skin color3. convulsions4. impairment of consciousness[...]



Labor Pain (hypnotherapy)

Thu, 03 Nov 2011 09:36:00 +0000

understanding of hypnotherapyHypnotherapy is a therapeutic technique of mind using hypnosis. While hypnosis can be defined as the science to give suggestions or commands to the subconscious mind. People who are expert in using hypnosis to therapy called "hypnotherapist".Hypnotic birthing is a normal mental preparation before delivery. You will learn how to prepare patients (pregnant women) so she can give birth normally without pain. Hypnotic birthing womb can be started from the age of 5 months upwards. Can be done privately with a patient or together with a lot of pregnant women at once. Hypnotic birthing usually takes only two meetings, one meeting one hour. After that, the patient you are ready to give birth without pain.According to the laws of physiology, all natural body function that should be achieved without risk or pain. Childbirth is a natural body function. For women who are healthy and normal baby, should be able to give birth naturally without pain. However, because most women who gave birth to feel scared, anxious and tense, then the pain does not mean it should be very heavy.If a woman can be relaxed and calm during childbirth, she could give birth not only smoothly, he also did not feel anything. Hypnosis to help pregnant women through childbirth with anesthesia bring calm and mentally. Birth of normal and without pain is not only useful for the mother. Babies who are born also gain a huge advantage because he can be born without a "violent". In other words, there was no trauma in the birth process. A study proves that infants are born without trauma have a higher IQ, better health, higher self-confidence, and more to successful life.Women in rural China and some parts of India can give birth to very easy and absolutely painless. Pregnant women in the area who are working in the fields, if the bears but need shelter under a tree, holding her shawl, rest a little, and gave birth to him so easily without assistance. Babies come out not because of a natural impulse, but because the contractions are not painful. After delivery, they are quite a short break, about 5 to 10 minutes. After that they can directly perform activities as usual. They do not feel the slightest pain in childbirth.Why did they do it? Because that's the reality of childbirth is known by women in the area. They did not feel scared because it was never intimidated. While generally the modern woman of small already "scared" that delivery was very painful. Almost all the women of today must have heard about it from parents, family, friends, television or other information media. And because so many people say that giving birth is painful, without conscious women of today believe that they will feel pain when giving birth. The result they become frightened and tense during labor.Fear, anxiety and tension during labor could be eliminated with hypnosis. In addition, hypnosis can also bring a proven mental anesthetic can relieve pain without drugs. Actually, mental anesthesia techniques can be applied in many fields of medicine such as surgery for small / large without chemical anesthesia, eliminating chronic pain, tooth extraction, and so on. Within 8 hours of training, we only focus Hypnotic discuss birthing and Circumcision Without Pain as additional material.What is the difference between Hypnotherapy and Stage Hypnosis?Although both use hypnosis as a means, hypnotherapy is very different from stage hypnosis (hypnosis to show or a game like that you see on TV). In stage hypnosis hypnotized subjects for humorous given temporary command, for example, subjects instructed not get up from my seat, forgot his own name, hallucinations, seeing something that really does not exist and such.While in hypnotherapy, clients aim is to solve problems or improve their own capabilities, which result from hypnotherapy is expected to last for ever. Thus the techniques used were different. In hypnotherapy you can not just sit quie[...]



PLACENTA DISORDERS

Sat, 29 Oct 2011 16:06:00 +0000

GREAT DISORDERS, FORM, AND WEIGHT            Form a normal placenta is flat and round. 15-20 cm diameter and 1.5 to 3 cm thick. Placenta at term pregnancies weighs heavily 1/6x child or ± 500 grams.                        The placenta is large and heavy once found in erythroblastosis, syphilis, and kidney disease.Various kinds of placenta, namely:1. Fenestrate the placenta, the placenta is perforated in the middle.2. Bilobata placenta, the placenta is composed of two lobby.3. Suksenturiata placenta, in addition to the placenta, there are additional small placenta   which connect with the actual placenta by blood vessels, the incidence of 3%. This incident is important because these additional placenta may be left on the release of the placenta and menebabkan bleeding.We can find additional placenta left behind by carefully examining the fetal membranes. If there are holes in the membrane near the edge of the placenta, and on the edge of this hole there are blood vessels are torn then the placenta should be additional alleged.4. Membranasea placenta, placental width and a thin covering almost the entire surface of the chorion. Apparently the blood of so well that tuft-tuft decidua chorion in kapsularis not die but grow steadily.Membranasea placenta can cause antepartum haemorrhage and the difficulties the third stage because the placenta is thin it is difficult regardless.5. Sirkumvalata placenta, the fetal surface near the edge of the placenta there is a white ring. White ring marks the edge of the placenta, while the outer adjacent tissue consists of villi that arise laterally beneath the decidua, so instead of villus stake.            Alleged that the chorion frondosum too small and to make ends meet, the villi invade the decidua into the outside surface of the chorion frondosum.            Is placenta sirkumvalata menibulkan clinical symptoms, is unclear. According to some investigators it may cause bleeding and abortion.INSERTION PLACENTA DISORDERS             The placenta is usually attached to the rear or the front wall of the uterus near the fundus. Tuft-tuft invade into the uterine wall until the top of startum kelapisan spongiosum.             If a low placental implantation, ie the lower uterine segment and cover part or all of the ostium internum, the placenta is called placenta praevia (prae = before; vias = path; means in front of or blocking the birth canal birth canal).             When the tuft-tuft chorion invade the uterine wall deeper than necessary, the placenta called placenta accreta. According to the raid inside wall of the uterus by placenta accreta tuft tuft-divided into: 1. Placenta accreta, tuft penetrates desiduasampai associated with the myometrium. 2. Placenta increta, jonjot0jonjot up into the layer of myometrium. 3. Placenta percreta, tuft-tuft penetrates the myometrium to reach perimetrium and sometimes also through perimetrium, and cause uterine rupture.             Placenta accreta is complete, the entire surface of the placenta is attached firmly to the uterine wall and there are some in some places it firmly attached to the uterine wall. Placenta accreta cause complications in the third stage because of the difficulty separated from the uterine wall.             Placenta accreta should not be removed manually, as easily cause perforation. Common therapy is hister[...]



DISCOMFORT ABOUT NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PREGNANT WOMEN

Fri, 28 Oct 2011 13:31:00 +0000

1.1 BackgroundNausea and vomiting is one of the earliest symptoms, most common and most cause of stress associated with pregnancy. However, obstetric physicians and general practitioners consider nausea and vomiting was merely a symptom fisioligis, and a problem that often makes them feel powerless to help overcome them. Nausea and vomiting often done because it is considered as a normal consequence of the early kahamilan without a negligible impact caused severe in women and their families.Women have emphasized that part of their satisfaction with care in early pregnancy is related to their perceptions of health professionals believe that the pain they suffered, not ignore or assume they are acting too much like pain, nausea is a symptom that is said by the patient (subjective) and if the symptoms are causing stress in women, he is entitled to be given the best possible way to overcome these symptoms. Due to underestimation rassa felt nausea and vomiting during pregnancy women proved to contribute in improving the emotional tension, psychological stress and undue delays in menumukan proper treatment, especially if the condition becomes pathological (Munch 2000).Experience nausea or vomiting in early pregnancy is common among expectant mothers. Symptoms are also called 'morning sickness' is not yet known for certain causes by experts, but often attributed to various factors such as the increase of various hormones and psychological influences.Medically this condition can be attributed to several things such as increase in the hormone Human Chorionic Gonodotropin (hCG) rapidly in early pregnancy as the development of the placenta. The increase in the hormones estrogen and progesterone in early pregnancy is also stated as one cause of nausea and feeling like vomiting and sense of taste and smell became more sensitive in early pregnancy.Vomiting during early pregnancy is sometimes frustrating experience that pregnant women indeed have been specially designed for the defense of the fetus, to protect the structure of genes, especially in early pregnancy is commonly referred to as the first trimester, because of this very vulnerable period to the toxin slightest.Vomiting is a traumatic experience for most of the people, but behind it we should be grateful peritiwa of this natural way of cleansing our bodies of poisons and toxins that will harm our body.  DEFINITIONS NAUSEA VOMITINGunderstanding Nausea Nausea is a feeling of consciously recognized on the occurrence of excitation is not realized at the center in the medulla oblongata muntag or in areas close to the vomiting center (Dayton, 1996) Definition of Vomiting Vomiting is a complex series of movements to remove the intestinal contents of the intestinal tract when one of its parts become irritated or distension. Understanding Nausea Vomiting Nausea (nausea) and vomiting (emisis gravidarum) are symptoms of a reasonable and often get in pregnancy trimester I. Nausea usually occurs in the morning, but it can also arise at any time and at night. Symptoms - these symptoms about 6 weeks of the first day of last menstrual period and lasts for 10 weeks (prawiroharjo, 2005)Nausea or vomiting Morning sickness is actually a condition that is specifically designed as a protective mechanism for women who are pregnant seed that is not too often exposed to the toxin derived from the environment that could threaten the life of the fetus. So women become more sensitive to substances that will go into his body at the beginning of seed growth in the womb.Morning sickness is the effect of an increase in pregnancy hormones, especially the hormone HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin). This hormone increases dramatically at the beginning of pregnancy to the formation of the placenta (placenta) as a center for fetal nutrition during a cozy space called the mother's womb.Emesis gravidarum or comm[...]



Urine catheterization (Urine Catheterization Procedures in Men)

Thu, 27 Oct 2011 08:31:00 +0000

1. UnderstandingUrinary catheterization is the inclusion of rubber or plastic tube through the urethra into the bladder kemihkateterisasi-man2. Destinationa. Eliminating bladder distensionb. Obtain a urine specimenc. Assessing the amount of residual urine, if the bladder is not able to fully emptied3. Preparationa. Preparation of patients1) Saying hello therapeutic2) Introduce yourself3) Explain to the client and family about the procedure and purpose of the action to be implemented.4) The explanation given to understand the client / family5) During the communication language used is clear, systematic and non-threatening.6) The client / family are given the opportunity to ask for clarification7) Privacy of communication for valued clients.8) Showing patience, empathy, courtesy, and attention and respect during communicate and take action9) Make a contract (time, place and action to be performed)b. Preparation tools1) Body instrument contains:a) Poly catheter according to the size of a fruit (mature clients who first mounted the catheter is usually used no. 16)b) Urine sterile bag 1 piecec) Tweezers anatomy 2 piecesd) Duk sterilee) Kassa fed sterile jelly2) Sterile Gloves3) Cotton sublimat in a closed com4) Perlak and pengalasnya 1 fruit5) Sampiran6) Liquids aquades or Nacl7) Plaster8) Cut verband9) Bent 1 piece10) Korentang in place4. Procedurea. Patients were given an explanation of the procedures to be performed, then the tools brought to the clientb. Attach sampiranc. Wash handsd. Attach pengalas / waterproof below the buttocks cliente. Bottom of the client's clothing dikeataskan / removed, with the client supine position. Legs slightly opened. Crooked buttocks placed near the clientf. Open the tub of instruments, disposable sterile gloves, sterile plug, then clean with a cotton sublimat genitalia tool by using tweezers.g. Clean the genitalia by the way: The penis is held by non-dominant hand penis cleaned using cotton sublimat by the dominant hand in a circular motion from meatus out. Actions can be done several times until clean. Put the tweezers in the benth. Take the catheter is then spread with jelly. Insert the catheter into the urethra is approximately 10 cm slowly with tweezers until the urine out. Enter Nacl fluid / aquades 20-30 cc of written or appropriate size. Pull the catheter slightly. If at the time the catheter was withdrawn restrained mean catheter has entered the bladderi. Remove the bump, connect the catheter with a urine bag. Tie side of the bedj. Catheter fixationk. Remove the glovesl. Clients trimming backm. Trimming tool backn. Washing handso. Implement documentation:1) Record the actions taken and outcomes and client response in the client record sheet2) Record the date and time of action and the name of the nurse who did and signature / initials on a sheet of client records[...]



Premature rupture of membranes

Thu, 27 Oct 2011 08:26:00 +0000

DefinitionPremature rupture of membranes (PROM) is defined as the membranes rupture prematurely gave birth. This can occur in late pregnancy or childbirth long before his time. KPD KPD preterm is before 37 weeks gestation. KPD KPD stretching is occurring more than 12 hours of giving birth prematurely.KPD incidence ranging 5-10% of all births, and preterm PROM occurs in about 1% of all pregnancies. KPD 70% of cases occur in term pregnancies. KPD is a cause of premature births by 30%.Figure 1. Broken membranesCauseIn most cases, the cause has not been found. Mentioned factors have a connection with the KPD history of preterm birth, smoking, and bleeding during pregnancy. Some risk factors of the KPD:   1. Cervical incompetence (cervical)   2. Polyhydramnios (excess amniotic fluid)   3. KPD history of previous   4. Abnormality or damage to membranes   5. Twin pregnancy   6. Trauma   7. Cervix (cervical) are short (<25mm) at 23 weeks gestation   8. Infections such as bacterial vaginosis in pregnancyFigure 2. Rahim cervical incompetenceSigns and SymptomsSigns that happens is the amniotic fluid seeps out through the vagina. The smell of sweet-smelling amniotic fluid and do not like the smell of ammonia, the liquid may still seeping or dripping, with a characteristic pale colors and stripes of blood. This fluid will not stop or dry as it continues to be produced until the birth. But when you sit or stand, head of the fetus which is usually located under the "prop" or "clogging" leak for a while.Fever, vaginal spotting a lot, abdominal pain, increased fetal heart rate quickly is a sign of infection occurs.InvestigationsDirect examination of the fluid that seeps can be done with nitrazine paper, this paper measures the pH (acid-base). normal pH of the vagina is 4 to 4.7 while the pH of amniotic fluid is 7.1 to 7.3. The test can have false positive results if there is involvement of trichomonas, blood, semen, cervical mucus, and urine. Examination by ultrasonography (USG) can be used to confirm the amount of amniotic fluid contained in the womb.Complications KPDComplications most often occurs in the KPD before 37 weeks' gestation is respiratory distress syndrome, which occurs in 10-40% of newborns. The risk of infection increases the incidence of KPD. All pregnant women with preterm PROM should be evaluated for possible occurrence of chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the chorion and amnion). Besides events umbilical cord prolapse or discharge may occur in the KPD.The risk of disability and increased fetal mortality in preterm PROM. Pulmonary hypoplasia is a fatal complication that occurs in preterm PROM. It happened nearly 100% when preterm PROM occurs at gestational age less than 23 weeks.Figure 3. Rope discharge NavelHandling Membranes in Glass Houses   1. If there is seepage or flow of fluid from the vagina, immediately contact your doctor or health care workers and be prepared to go to the Hospital   2. Use sanitary napkins (not tampons) for absorption of water coming out   3. Vaginal area should be as clean as possible to prevent infection, do not sexual intercourse or bath   4. Always clean from front to back to avoid infection from the rectum   5. Do not attempt to perform the checks in his ownTherapyIn the event of rupture of membranes, then immediately go to the hospital. The obstetrician will discuss the treatment plan that will be done, and it depends on how gestational age and signs of infection occur. The risk of preterm birth is the second biggest risk of infection due to premature rupture of membranes. Examination of the fetal lung maturity should be performed primarily at 32-34 weeks of gestati[...]



Labor

Thu, 27 Oct 2011 08:17:00 +0000

Definition1. Inpartu- Is a woman who was in a state of labor(Sarwono, 2002)- Labor that begins when the uterus to contract and cause changes in the cervix (opening and thinning)(APN, October 2004)   1. Labor- It is a series of events that ended with infants spending enough or nearly enough month month, in accordance with the expenditure placenta and fetal membranes of the mother's body(Sastrawinata, 1983)- Is the process of spending the products of conception (fetus and uri), which had just months or can live outside of the relationship through the birth canal with the assistance or without assistance (Individual Strength).(Manuaba, 1998)ConclusionInpartu is a woman who was in a state of the uterus to contract during labor which will lead to changes in the cervix (thinning mendatardan)Labor is a series of events spending the products of conception (fetus and uri), which had just months or can live outside the womb of tubuhibu through the birth canal or by other means with or without assistance2.1.2 How deliverya. Normal parturition (normal) is also called spontaneous parturition is the birth of a baby in the back where the mother's head with his own power, without the aid of tools, and not injure the mother and baby which generally lasts less dari24 hoursb. Extraordinary parturition (normal Ab) is a vaginal delivery with the aid of tools or through the abdominal wall with operasicaesar(Mochtar Rustam, 1998)2.1.3 Another term that has to do with parturitiona. According to the old (age) pregnancy* Abortion (miscarriage) is the cessation of pregnancy before the fetus can live (viable), fetal weight below 1000 grams, pregnancy under 28 weeks old* Partu prematurus is pesalinan of the conceptus at 28-36 weeks gestation, the fetus can be alive but premature, fetal weight between 1000-2500 grams* Maturus or parturition at term, (quite a month) is parturition at 37-40 weeks of pregnancy / fetus is mature, weight above 2500 grams* Maturus post parturition (serotinus) is labor that occurs two weeks or more of the estimated parturition time, called post mature fetus* Parturition presipitatus is rapid parturition* Parturition experiment is an assessment of the progress of labor to obtain evidence about the presence or absence of disroporsi sefatoedvikb. According to the mode of delivery* Normal parturition (normal) is also called spontaneous parturition, is the birth of a baby in breech position head with his own mother without the aid of power tools and do not injure the mother and baby are generally lasts less than 24 hours* Parturition unusual (abnormal) is a vaginal delivery with the aid of tools or through the abdominal wall with the operation of Caesarea (Synopsis I, p. 91)* Maternity recommendation is labor does not start by itself, but the new administration took place after the breakdown of membranes pitocin or prostaglandin2.1.4 The causes that give rise to laborHow the birth is not known with certainty, giving rise to several theories related to the onset of his strengths, namely:   1. Strain theory- The muscles of the uterus has the ability to stretch to a certain extent- After passing the contraction limit so that labor can begin   1. Theory of progesterone decrease- The process of aging placenta terjadimulai pregnant 28 weeks of age, where there is accumulation of connective tissue, blood vessels are narrowed and clogged- The production of progesterone declines, so the muscles of the uterus is more sensitive to oxytocin- As a result, the muscles begin to contract the uterus after a decline in progesterone levels reached a certain   1. The theory of internal oxytocin- Oxytocin is secreted in glands- Changes in the balance of estrogen and progesterone can alter the sensitivity [...]