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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY



All about science, technology and scientific research



Updated: 2017-07-31T15:57:30.269-07:00

 



Philosophy as a science

2015-01-09T07:53:37.635-08:00

Philosophy is considered a science but it is difficult to say, when one has to compare with an ordinary science, for example biology, or chemistry. This is a question that turns into a burning problem among the scientists and linguists all over the world.

Can philosophy be a science? What does philosophy operate with? It operates with categories, which can be as wide and as interchangeable as one can only imagine. Ordinary science operates with definitions, which are quite limited in their field of research. Ordinary science uses terms and laws of that very science to continue the research, uniting with the others in very rare cases. Philosophy gets into the sense of every science trying to achieve results.

We also can not call philosophy a supra-science, for it also uses hypothesis and arguments to state the opinion. But there is the obvious thing: there are now laws in philosophy and never will be, for the science changes with the age, the needs, beliefs and requirements of the citizens. To prove your opinion, you can write the definition essay and state all the facts and arguments you know to prove one way or another. This is also a nice way to research the problem and see what the solution is. But you have to research it carefully; otherwise definition essays will not be fruitful.
As all sciences philosophy has gone through its stages of development. Some scientists believe that the crib of philosophy was mythology and religion. If to see the principles of life and some primitive morals stated in some myths we may see that the statement is quite true and philosophy still continues to develop out of social beliefs and ideas. Philosophy is a science which is obligatory learned by every college student in order for him to establish his own philosophy of life. It is quite exciting to find answers to ever existing questions: who am I? What do I know? What can I know? What am I destined to do? Here is one more interesting observation.
You can see that all famous philosophers were researching other science fields also. For example, Freud, Yung, Kafka and others were doing research in linguistics and social sciences. Their numerous creations are the pride of human history for they revealed some secrets that remained undiscovered for a long time before their great contributions.

There are so many currents and branches, so many schools of philosophy that it is hard to decide, which one do you prefer and agree with. This much depends on the country, family, society you live in. This is one more difference between philosophy and other natural sciences. The law is stable for any country; gravity exists in India, same as in Brazil. Philosophy is a hard science, for it is very difficult to understand the sense of the dogma reading it only once. It is of course, not easy, but gives credit for you if you get interested and somewhere, being at the social event you quote one of the famous doctors of philosophy and make a great impression of an educated and intelligent personality.




Always Look On The Bright Side Of Life

2015-01-09T07:45:13.819-08:00

I was always somebody who felt quite sorry for myself, what I had not got compared to my friends, how much of a struggle my life seemed to be compared to others. I was caught up in a web of negativity and needed someone or something to help me to escape.
During an afternoon at work one day, aged around twenty one, a colleague I was working with started to talk to me. What he said was quite upsetting and disturbing, however would have a profound effect on my future. He said to me:

"Your quite a depressive person, aren't you?"

"Am I?"

I said in a shocked voice as I believed I was no different to anybody else. He continued:

"Yes you are. You very rarely smile, you are negative about most issues and you always seem to be carrying the world on your shoulders".

This man was aged around fifty three and continued:

"I used to be like you and then I was given some advice, of which I am now going to relay to you. When you feel down, depressed or sorry for yourself, read the newspapers or watch the news on the television. You may then realise that you are in fact one of the lucky ones."

I listened and thought about what he had said. I had never been a big reader or watcher of the news, but decided to start. The advice was totally correct, the news from around the world and even my own country was quite shocking. I realised that the worries I had were actually quite trivial and that I needed to cherish everyday and start to look on the bright side of life.

Stephen Hill



The Basics of Western Astrology Explained

2015-01-07T11:52:48.720-08:00

This article covers the basics of Astrology and how they are inter-related. Astrology is defined as 'the art or practice of determining the supposed influences of the planets and their motions on human affairs and human disposition'. From this practice a horoscope can be produced -  a diagram (or chart) of the relative positions of planets and signs of the Zodiac at a specific time, usually the time of birth. A forecast can then be produced.The Zodiac:Western Astrology originated way back, around 500 BC, with a concept called the Zodiac being developed. This comprised of an imaginary sphere surrounding the earth, which followed the path of the Sun through the constellations during the year. The Zodiac was split into twelve sections, each named after the specific constellation noted in that area.Elements:Many ancient philosophies used a set of classical elements to explain the way nature behaved. Each sign was connected to one of the classical elements (fire, earth, air, or water) and was also related to a region of focus; social, personal or universal.* Water signs are related to growth processes, identification and emotion. In tandem with the other elements, water feels that fire will make it boil, air will evaporate it, but earth will shape and channel it.* Fire signs are related to action, passion, and energy. In tandem with the other elements, fire feels that earth will smother it, water will drown it, but air will fan and enliven it.* Air signs are related to thought, perspective and communication. In tandem with the other elements, air feels that water will obscure it, earth will suffocate it, but fire will inspire and uplift it.* Earth signs are related to sensation, stability, and practicality. In tandem with the other elements, earth feels that air will dry it, fire will dry it, but water will refresh and nourish it.Modalities:Each sign is connected to one of three modalities; cardinal (sometimes referred to as movable), fixed, and mutable.There are four quadrants following the order of the zodiacal signs, with three signs in each. Each quadrant describes a season, beginning with a cardinal sign, continuing to a fixed sign, and ending with a mutable sign.Modalities and Related Zodiac Signs:* Mutable signs are related to adaptability, resourcefulness and holism. They are Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces.* Fixed signs are related to determination, focus and individuality. They are Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius.* Cardinal signs are related to creativity and initiation. They are Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn.Summary of Zodiac Sign Characteristics:* Aries (cardinal, fire, personal): defensive, energetic, head down, assertive, impulsive.* Taurus (fixed, earth, personal): patient, indulgent, resourceful, thorough, devoted.* Gemini (mutable, air, personal): quick, logical, inquisitive.* Cancer (cardinal, water, personal): clinging, protective, sensitive.* Leo (fixed, fire, social): theatrical, generous, proud.* Virgo (mutable, earth, social): critically, practical, efficient.* Libra (cardinal, air, social): lazy, co-operative, fair.* Scorpio (fixed, water, social): anxious, passionate, sensitive.* Sagittarius (mutable, fire, universal): careless, free, straightforward.* Capricorn (cardinal, earth, universal): suspicious, prudent, cautious.* Aquarius (fixed, air, universal): detached, democratic, unconventional.* Pisces (mutable, water, universal): distracted, imaginative, sensitive.[...]



Comment On the Importance of Human Life

2015-01-07T11:44:01.070-08:00

The preservation of human life is the ultimate value, a pillar of ethics and the foundation of all morality. This held true in most cultures and societies throughout history.On first impression, the last sentence sounds patently wrong. We all know about human collectives that regarded human lives as dispensable, that murdered and tortured, that cleansed and annihilated whole populations in recurrent genocides. Surely, these defy the aforementioned statement?Liberal philosophies claim that human life was treated as a prime value throughout the ages. Authoritarian regimes do not contest the over-riding importance of this value. Life is sacred, valuable, to be cherished and preserved. But, in totalitarian societies, it can be deferred, subsumed, subjected to higher goals, quantized, and, therefore, applied with differential rigor in the following circumstances:  1.. Quantitative - when a lesser evil prevents a greater one. Sacrificing the lives of the few to save the lives of the many is a principle enshrined and embedded in activities such as war and medicinal care. All cultures, no matter how steeped (or rooted) in liberal lore accept it. They all send soldiers to die to save the more numerous civilian population. Medical doctors sacrifice lives daily, to save others.It is boils down to a quantitative assessment ("the numerical ratio between those saved and those sacrificed"), and to questions of quality ("are there privileged lives whose saving or preservation is worth the sacrifice of others' lives?") and of evaluation (no one can safely predict the results of such moral dilemmas - will lives be saved as the result of the sacrifice?).  2.. Temporal - when sacrificing life (voluntarily or not) in the present secures a better life for others in the future. These future lives need not be more numerous than the lives sacrificed. A life in the future immediately acquires the connotation of youth in need of protection. It is the old sacrificed for the sake of the new, a trade off between those who already had their share of life - and those who hadn't. It is the bloody equivalent of a savings plan: one defers present consumption to the future.The mirror image of this temporal argument belongs to the third group (see next), the qualitative one. It prefers to sacrifice a life in the present so that another life, also in the present, will continue to exist in the future. Abortion is an instance of this approach: the life of the child is sacrificed to secure the future well-being of the mother. In Judaism, it is forbidden to kill a female bird. Better to kill its off-spring. The mother has the potential to compensate for this loss of life by bringing giving birth to other chicks.  3.. Qualitative - This is an especially vicious variant because it purports to endow subjective notions and views with "scientific" objectivity. People are judged to belong to different qualitative groups (classified by race, skin color, birth, gender, age, wealth, or other arbitrary parameters). The result of this immoral taxonomy is that the lives of the "lesser" brands of humans are considered less "weighty" and worthy than the lives of the upper grades of humanity. The former are therefore sacrificed to benefit the latter. The Jews in Nazi occupied Europe, the black slaves in America, the aborigines in Australia are three examples of such pernicious thinking.  4.. Utilitarian - When the sacrifice of one life brings another person material or other benefits. This is the thinking (and action) which characterizes psychopaths and sociopathic criminals, for instance. For them, life is a tradable commodity and it can be exchanged against inanimate goods and services. Money and drugs are bartered for life.[...]



Althusser - Competing Interpellations and the Third Text

2015-01-07T11:38:58.284-08:00

With the exception of Nietzsche, no other madman has contributed so much to human sanity as has Louis Althusser. He is mentioned twice in the Encyclopaedia Britannica as someone's teacher. There could be no greater lapse: for two important decades (the 60s and the 70s), Althusser was at the eye of all the important cultural storms. He fathered quite a few of them.This newly-found obscurity forces me to summarize his work before suggesting a few (minor) modifications to it.(1) Society consists of practices: economic, political and ideological.Althusser defines a practice as:"Any process of transformation of a determinate product, affectedby a determinate human labour, using determinate means (of production)"The economic practice (the historically specific mode of production) transforms raw materials to finished products using human labour and other means of production, all organized within defined webs of inter-relations. The political practice does the same with social relations as the raw materials. Finally, ideology is the transformation of the way that a subject relates to his real life conditions of existence.This is a rejection of the mechanistic worldview (replete with bases and superstructures). It is a rejection of the Marxist theorization of ideology. It is a rejection of the Hegelian fascist "social totality". It is a dynamic, revealing, modern day model.In it, the very existence and reproduction of the social base (not merely its expression) is dependent upon the social superstructure. The superstructure is "relatively autonomous" and ideology has a central part in it - see entry about Marx and Engels and entry concerning Hegel.The economic structure is determinant but another structure could be dominant, depending on the historical conjuncture. Determination (now called over-determination - see Note) specifies the form of economic production upon which the dominant practice depends. Put otherwise: the economic is determinant not because the practices of the social formation (political and ideological) are the social formation's expressive epiphenomena - but because it determines WHICH of them is dominant.(2) People relate to the conditions of existence through the practice of ideology. Contradictions are smoothed over and (real) problems are offered false (though seemingly true) solutions. Thus, ideology has a realistic dimension - and a dimension of representations (myths, concepts, ideas, images). There is (harsh, conflicting) reality - and the way that we represent it both to ourselves and to others.(3) To achieve the above, ideology must not be seen to err or, worse, remain speechless. It, therefore, confronts and poses (to itself) only answerable questions. This way, it remains confined to a fabulous, legendary, contradiction-free domain. It ignores other questions altogether.(4) Althusser introduced the concept of "The Problematic":"The objective internal reference ... the system of questionscommanding the answers given"It determines which problems, questions and answers are part of the game - and which should be blacklisted and never as much as mentioned. It is a structure of theory (ideology), a framework and the repertoire of discourses which - ultimately - yield a text or a practice. All the rest is excluded.It, therefore, becomes clear that what is omitted is of no less importance than what is included in a text. The problematic of a text relates to its historical context ("moment") by incorporating both: inclusions as well as omissions, presences as much as absences. The problematic of the text fosters the generation of answers to posed questions - and of defective answers to excluded questions.(5) The task of "scientific" (e.g., Marxist) discourse, of Althusserian critical practice is to deconstruct the problematic, to read through ideology and evidence the real conditions of existence. This is a "symptomatic reading" of TWO TEXTS:"It divulges the undivulged event in the text that it read[...]



Fact and Truth

2015-01-07T11:33:56.085-08:00

Thought experiments (Gedankenexperimenten) are "facts" in the sense that they have a "real life" correlate in the form of electrochemical activity in the brain. But it is quite obvious that they do not relate to facts "out there". They are not true statements.But do they lack truth because they do not relate to facts? How are Truth and Fact interrelated?One answer is that Truth pertains to the possibility that an event will occur. If true – it must occur and if false – it cannot occur. This is a binary world of extreme existential conditions. Must all possible events occur? Of course not. If they do not occur would they still be true? Must a statement have a real life correlate to be true?Instinctively, the answer is yes. We cannot conceive of a thought divorced from brainwaves. A statement which remains a mere potential seems to exist only in the nether land between truth and falsity.  It becomes true only by materializing, by occurring, by matching up with real life. If we could prove that it will never do so, we would have felt justified in classifying it as false. This is the outgrowth of millennia of concrete, Aristotelian logic. Logical statements talk about the world and, therefore, if a statement cannot be shown to relate directly to the world, it is not true.This approach, however, is the outcome of some underlying assumptions:First, that the world is finite and also close to its end. To say that something that did not happen cannot be true is to say that it will never happen (i.e., to say that time and space – the world – are finite and are about to end momentarily).Second, truth and falsity are assumed to be mutually exclusive. Quantum and fuzzy logics have long laid this one to rest. There are real world situations that are both true and not-true. A particle can "be" in two places at the same time. This fuzzy logic is incompatible with our daily experiences but if there is anything that we have learnt from physics in the last seven decades it is that the world is incompatible with our daily experiences.The third assumption is that the psychic realm is but a subset of the material one. We are membranes with a very particular hole-size. We filter through only well defined types of experiences, are equipped with limited (and evolutionarily biased) senses, programmed in a way which tends to sustain us until we die. We are not neutral, objective observers. Actually, the very concept of observer is disputable – as modern physics, on the one hand and Eastern philosophy, on the other hand, have shown.Imagine that a mad scientist has succeeded to infuse all the water in the world with a strong hallucinogen. At a given moment, all the people in the world see a huge flying saucer. What can we say about this saucer?  Is it true?  Is it "real"?There is little doubt that the saucer does not exist. But who is to say so? If this statement is left unsaid – does it mean that it cannot exist and, therefore, is untrue? In this case (of the illusionary flying saucer), the statement that remains unsaid is a true statement – and the statement that is uttered by millions is patently false.Still, the argument can be made that the flying saucer did exist – though only in the minds of those who drank the contaminated water. What is this form of existence? In which sense does a hallucination "exist"? The psychophysical problem is that no causal relationship can be established between a thought and its real life correlate, the brainwaves that accompany it. Moreover, this leads to infinite regression. If the brainwaves created the thought – who created them, who made them happen? In other words: who is it (perhaps what is it) that thinks?The subject is so convoluted that to say that the mental is a mere subset of the material is to speculateIt is, therefore, advisable to separate the ontological from the epistemological. But which is which? Facts are determined epistemolo[...]



Beyond the Naked Eye

2014-11-12T08:25:42.810-08:00

It’s hard to say when in our lives each of us become aware of this thing called “astronomy”.  But it is safe to say that at some point on our lives, each and every one of us has that moment when we are suddenly stunned when we come face to face with the enormity of the universe that we see in the night sky.  For many of us who are city dwellers, we don’t really notice that sky up there on a routine basis.  The lights of the city do a good job of disguising the amazing display that is above all of our heads all of the time.So it might be that once a year vacation to a camping spot or a trip to a relative’s house out in the country that we find ourselves outside when the spender of the night sky suddenly decides to put on it’s spectacular show.  If you have had that kind of moment when you were literally struck breathless by the spender the night sky can show to us, you can probably remember that exact moment when you could say little else but “wow” at what you saw.That “Wow” moment is what astrology is all about.  For some, that wow moment becomes a passion that leads to a career studying the stars.  For a lucky few, that wow moment because an all consuming obsession that leads to them traveling to the stars in the space shuttle or on one of our early space missions.  But for most of us astrology may become a pastime or a regular hobby.  But we carry that wow moment with us for the rest of our lives and begin looking for ways to look deeper and learn more about the spectacular universe we see in the millions of stars above us each night.To get started in learning how to observe the stars much better, there are some basic things we might need to look deeper, beyond just what we can see with the naked eye and begin to study the stars as well as enjoy them.  The first thing you need isn’t equipment at all but literature.  A good star map will show you the major constellations, the location of the key stars we use to navigate the sky and the planets that will appear larger than stars.  And if you add to that map some well done introductory materials into the hobby of astronomy, you are well on your way.The next thing we naturally want to get is a good telescope.  You may have seen a hobbyist who is well along in their study setting up those really cool looking telescopes on a hill somewhere.  That excites the amateur astronomer in you because that must be the logical next step in the growth of your hobby.  But how to buy a good telescope can be downright confusing and intimidating.Before you go to that big expense, it might be a better next step from the naked eye to invest in a good set of binoculars.  There are even binoculars that are suited for star gazing that will do just as good a job at giving you that extra vision you want to see just a little better the wonders of the universe.  A well designed set of binoculars also gives you much more mobility and ability to keep your “enhanced vision” at your fingertips when that amazing view just presents itself to you.None of this precludes you from moving forward with your plans to put together an awesome telescope system.  Just be sure you get quality advice and training on how to configure your telescope to meet your needs.  Using these guidelines, you will enjoy hours of enjoyment stargazing at the phenomenal sights in the night sky that are beyond the naked eye.[...]



Astronomy or Astrology?

2014-11-12T08:11:22.378-08:00

Have you ever finally just gave in to the temptation and read your horoscope in the newspaper on Sunday morning?  Sure, we all have. For most of us, it’s a curiosity, an amusement to see what they say our day will be like based on the sign of the zodiac that we were born under. Sometimes we forget that this little diversion is actually part of an ancient science called astrology that has had a powerful effect on many cultures dating back to centuries before Christ.That is not to say that astrology is a dead art today.  It is easy to find astrology advocates in every town, advertising in the newspaper and on television trying to convince us that they can tell our fortune, our future and help cure our ills by exploring the mysteries of astrology.When you are a lover of astronomy, the confusion between astronomy and astrology by those who don’t really understand the differences can get pretty aggravating.  And in early civilizations, the two disciplines were not separate.  Astrology was just the religious side of the science of astronomy.  So what changed?The most significant shift that set in motion the separation of the two lines of thought began in the first century when Ptolemy wrote the very first book on astronomy called the Tetrabiblos.  In it, he began to suggest that astronomy should be considered a separate science from astrology.  It was quite a revolutionary book because it also was the first scientific document to suggest that the earth was not the center of the universe and that astronomy should be focused strictly on the observation and recording of events in the cosmos.Over the next 2000 years, we have come a long way.  Not only has science and religion completely gone their separate ways since Ptolemy but the science of astronomy makes tremendous strides every year that are so phenomenal, Ptolemy would be truly astounded.Probably the biggest point of diversion between a student of astrology and astronomy is the belief that the position of the stars has meaning over the events on our lives.  Of course, we do know that the weather and tides and other important aspects of our lives are affected by the stars, planets and heavenly bodies, particularly the moon.  But these things are happening because of completely explainable scientific laws in motion, not because of mystical forces at work.What can we, as devotees of astronomy conclude about the close relationship between astrology and astronomy?  Well, for sure we want to be able to explain to anyone who is confused by the similarity in the words what the differences are.  We do not want to see the two approaches to the stars and planets to become confused again.  But we should do all we can do keep that distinction clear without becoming skeptical or demeaning towards those who may still hold to the teachings of astrology.It is important to remember that what is part of a person’s religious life has a level of sacred belief to the one holding it.  And it is not respectful to scoff at such things.  If for no other reason than out of respect for the ancient origins of astronomy, we should give courtesy who still are exploring whether astrology has any validity for them.If we can treat each discipline with respect but maintain the separation that must exist between astrology and astronomy, there is no reason both approaches to our admiration of the galaxies cannot coexist in peace and harmony.  And for our purposes as astronomers, that harmony will allow us plenty of freedom to enjoy our quest for knowledge for many more centuries to come.  And who knows, you might still like to read the horoscope on Sunday morning every so often.[...]



Astronomy Binoculars – A Great Alternative

2014-11-12T08:07:14.233-08:00

It seems from the moment you begin to take your love of astronomy seriously, the thing that is on your mind is what kind of telescope will you get.  And there is no question, investing in a good telescope can really enhance your enjoyment of your new passion in astronomy. But don’t be too hasty to keep up with the big wigs in the astronomy clubs that have advanced telescopes.  There is another alternative that can give you most of the advantages of a telescope and some extra flexibility and reduced cost to boot.That alternative is a good pair of astronomy binoculars.  Mostly we think of binoculars as the thing you use to see the football game when you have to sit in the cheap seats.  But if you do some homework and had a good grasp on what your stargazing objectives are, the advantages of astronomy binoculars over an entry level telescope can be pretty convincing.* As a rule, they are cheaper.  So you can get a lot of good stargazing at much less of an investment.  You can always spend more money later but for now, this may be just the solution for you.* There are not so many accessories.  To own and operate a telescope takes a lot of orientation to how to set up and use the device.  Beyond that, tuning it for optimum view and diagnosing it when you have problems can sometimes make the telescope more of the passion than stargazing itself.* It is much easier to use.  If you have not bought a telescope yet, you may have seen telescope owners going through a laborious set up and break down discipline for each use.  This is time they are not looking at the stars.  The binocular users are happily stargazing as this goes on.* Binoculars are lightweight and portable.  Unless you have the luxury to set up and operate an observatory from your deck, you are probably going to travel to perform your viewings.  Binoculars go with you much easier and they are more lightweight to carry to the country and use while you are there than a cumbersome telescope set up kit.So give the binocular option some consideration.  To make the most effective choice, however, here are a few facts about astronomy binoculars that will help you evaluate which ones are best for you…Binoculars have two lens sets, one at the end of the eyepiece and a set right next to your eyes.  The ones closest to the eye are called the ocular lenses which magnify the image (make it bigger).  The ones closest to the sky are called the objective lenses and the size of these lenses will determine how much sky you can see at once.  So anytime you are evaluating binoculars, there are two numbers associated with the set.  So if the binoculars have a rating of 15-40, that means that the ocular lenses magnify 15 times and the later number is a relative number to how much of the sky you can see.  The higher the second number, the more you can see.  The explanation is simple.  The bigger the lens, the more light it lets in.  But be aware that the bigger the second number, the larger, heavier and more cumbersome the binoculars will be.You will have to balance these two numbers with both your budget and what you want the binoculars to do for you.  If you decide to go with a lower power binoculars, you could become frustrated with what you can see and you may have to take your eyes away from the view to get your orientation and consult the star map more often because your range of vision is so limited.There will also be a temptation to buy a set of binoculars that have zoom functions and other features that will allow you to use it for other purposes such as hunting, whale watching or seeing the football game from the cheap seats.  While this is good economy, those functions will get in the way when you are using the binoculars for astronomy.  [...]



Asteroids

2014-11-12T08:02:29.672-08:00

There is a lot of exciting stuff going on in the stars above us that make astronomy so much fun.  The truth is the universe is a constantly changing, moving, some would say “living” thing because you just never know what you are going to see on any given night of stargazing.But of the many celestial phenomenons, there is probably none as exciting as that time you see your first asteroid on the move in the heavens.  To call asteroids the “rock stars” of astronomy is simultaneously a bad joke but an accurate depiction of how astronomy fans view them.  Unlike suns, planets and moons, asteroids are on the move, ever changing and, if they appear in the night sky, exciting and dynamic.Like rock stars, asteroids have been given their fair share of urban myth and lore.  Many have attributed the extinction of the dinosaurs to the impact of a huge asteroid on the earth.  This theory has some credibility and, if it is true, it evokes some pretty startling images and foreboding fears in the current reining species on earth, the human race.The fact that asteroids are fast moving space debris only makes their movement and activity more interesting and exciting.  Unlike a moon, planet or star, the odds that an asteroid could hit the earth are entirely reasonable and in fact, there are many documented cases of small asteroids making it through our atmosphere and leaving some pretty impressive craters in the earth’s surface.Popular culture has happily embraced the idea of an asteroid impact.  The idea has spawned many a science fiction story adding the idea that alien life forms may ride asteroids to our world and start a “war of the worlds” situation.  But by far, the most talked about concept that has captured the imagination and the fears of science fiction fans and the general public is of another asteroid hitting the earth that could wipe out life as allegedly happened to the dinosaurs.  In fact, the movie “Armageddon” was based on this idea and the concept that somehow mankind could avert that catastrophe with technology.But probably the best way to calm our fears and replace science fiction with science is with understanding and knowledge.  The truth is, there has been a lot of study of asteroid activity and the serious scientific community has gained significant knowledge of these amazing celestial bodies.  A number of probes to asteroids have been conducted which have given us a wealth of information about their composition and how we might predict their behavior. We now know that the majority of asteroids we get to witness come from an asteroid belt that exists between Mars and Jupiter.  It is from this community of asteroids that many of the notable asteroids emerged.  Scientists have gained significant knowledge about the composition of asteroids and separated them into classes including class S which comes of the part of the belt that is closest to Mars, classes C, D and V which are classified by composition and a class called “Centaurs” whose flight patterns take them closer to Jupiter and Uranus.Some of the probes NASA has conducted on near flying asteroids have performed some pretty amazing studies of these eccentric celestial bodies.  In 1994 the Galileo probe got within 1000 miles of the asteroid Ida and discovered that Ida actually had its own moon. Other probes have fired impactors into asteroids and even landed on an asteroid to produce some amazing scientific data for us.  There is much to learn about asteroids in our love of astronomy and that knowledge only makes our enjoyment of seeing them in the cosmos even more exciting.[...]



Leonhard Euler a greatest mathematician

2013-04-14T16:41:51.750-07:00

Leonhard Euler was one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. His numerous works (over 900 publications) in many areas had a decisive influence on the development of mathematics, an influence that is felt to this day.Euler was born in Switzerland, in the town of Basel, on the 15th of April 1707, in the family of a pastor. At that time, Basel was one of the main centres of mathematics in Europe. At the age of 7, Euler started school while his father hired a private mathematics tutor for him. At 13, Euler was already attending lectures at the local university, and in 1723 gained his masters degree, with a dissertation comparing the natural philosophy systems of Newton and Descartes. On his father's wishes, Euler furthered his education by enrolling in the theological faculty, but devoted all his spare time to studying mathematics. He wrote two articles on reverse trajectory which were highly valued by his teacher Bernoulli. In 1727 Euler applied for a position as physics professor at Basel university, but was turned down.At this time a new centre of science had appeared in Europe - the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. As Russia had few scientists of its own, many foreigners were invited to work at this centre - among them Euler. On the 24th of May 1727 Euler arrived in Petersburg. His great talents were soon recognised. Among the areas he worked in include his theory of the production of the human voice, the theory of sound and music, the mechanics of vision, and his work on telescopic and microscopic perception. On the basis of this last work, not published until 1779, the construction of telescopes and microscopes was made possible.In his study of colour effects, Euler hoped to make use of the observation of the conjunction of Venus and the moon, due to take place on the 8th of September 1729. However, no such effects were observed during this conjunction, and Euler was forced to wait for the eclipse of the sun which would take place in 1748. He observed this eclipse in Berlin, where he moved in 1741. Here he worked in the Berlin Academy of Sciences and was appointed as head of the Berlin Observatory, and was also tutor to the nieces of King Frederich II of Prussia.Observations of the eclipse of the sun made by scientists of the day led them to believe that the moon did not contain sufficient atmosphere to provide the effects of diffraction or refraction. Only Euler was able to detect the moon's atmosphere. And in 1761, when Venus passed over the face of the sun, he detected the atmosphere of Venus.Euler's works were not devoted solely to the natural sciences. A true renaissance man, he also involved himself in the philosophical debates of the day, and triumphantly declared himself a firm believer in the freedom of the will. Such views won him few friends in Germany, and the book in which he thus expressed himself was published for the first time in Russia, where Euler returned in 1766. Here he found many who agreed with his views, among them enemies of the views of Leibnitz and Voltaire.In 1763 Catherine II came to the throne. She carried out reforms in the Academy of Sciences and aimed to make it a more prestigious institution. When Euler returned to Petersburg with his two elder sons they were given a two-storey house on the banks of the Neva and Euler given a position at the head of the Academy of Sciences.At the time of his return to Petersburg Euler had already reconsidered his views on the atmosphere of planets. The work of Lomonosov and Bernoulli in this field led him to conclude that the atmosphere on the Earth and on other planets must be considerably more transparent than he had thought. Euler took a very active role in the observation of the movement of Venus across the face of the sun, despite the fact that at this time he was nearly b[...]



Clinical Research in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

2012-11-26T05:48:33.354-08:00

Mankind has forever been taming and controlling many forms of life to serve human purposes. This dates back to basic agriculture and animal farming, where humans created controlled environments to domesticate animals and cultivate plants for nourishment, industry, and eventually medicine.With these older processes, we did not do much to actually alter the biological organisms we worked with.With advancements in technology, we have learned to biologically alter or modify living organisms to further advance our capacities to feed ourselves and heal ourselves, among other things. This process is known as biotechnology, or biotech for short. It is responsible for many of our greatest achievement in understanding, controlling and treating many medical conditions in the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the complexity and sophistication of this field, it requires extensive clinical research in order to avoid many unpredictable and potentially harmful negative consequences.Clinical research for biotechnological pharmaceuticals must undergo several extensive phases, all with varying numbers of trial participants, doses, and lengths of time for the trial. Some common phases include pure lab trials, trials on non-human subjects, like animals, small-dose trials on healthy participants, and full-dose trials on participants for whom the trial is aimed to help. Due to these strict procedures for clinical research in biotechnology, much has been learned in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries that have helped develop medicine that is proven to be effective and safe. Here are some examples of bio technologically-produced products:- Monoclonal antibodies- Chimeric antibodies- Fusion proteins- Microorganisms- Synthetic insulins- Synthetic antibioticsThese various developments are used in an extremely diverse spectrum of treatments, from cancer, hepatitis B and C, arthritis, hemophilia, multiple sclerosis, coronary disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, and even cerebrovascular disease such as stroke, and this is only naming a few.So what is the difference between normal pharmaceuticals and biotechnological pharmaceuticals? The difference isn't just the level of technological sophistication. One of the main differences is actually size. Biotechnological drugs are made up of much larger molecules than regular pharmaceutical drugs. Because of this, the process of having them locate and bind with molecules in the body is much more difficult than orally-taken smaller molecules in traditional pharmaceuticals. This is one reason why clinical research procedures for biotechnological pharmaceuticals is far more extensive than non-biotech ones.Working in biotechnology requires highly-trained and skilled professionals who take the synthesis of biology and technology extremely seriously. Clinical research training is often the first step to understanding the complexity and seriousness of this modern marriage of two sciences. Being part of a team from the conception of a theory, through its phases, to the completed manufacturing of a new organism made to serve mankind is a great responsibility, and with great rewards not only for the researcher, but for the health of the entire population.Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/7367594[...]



A miraculous herbal solution against hair loss

2012-05-25T14:33:02.417-07:00


Nettle plants (used as root nettle - and leaves - extract - a powder or pill capsules /) is a great addition to hair and skin conditions. It is particularly rich in minerals and vitamins, are explicitly recommended for hair, skin and nail health.

It also has anti-androgenetic properties (certainly as much as better-known Saw Palmetto) as well as fighting properties against seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: the perfect combination of healthy hair. Nettle root extracts contain the highest amount of anti-DHT factor. As you know, DHT is a hormone that amasses around hair follicles on your scalp and "starve" it to death until it died. " Dosage: 2-4 capsules per day (400mg per tablet).

nettle root extracts have also been used in other forms of communication, oil and wine products (very useful). Soap and detergent extracts containing nettle root face, for example, useful for your acne in its properties that kill bacteria and soothing. nettle root extracts have anti-inflammatory properties.

If you have dry dandruff and hair weak, you can begin using nettle oil (extra virgin olive oil and nettle root extract transmission of your herbalist) apply it to your scalp as directed on the bottle, cool far from it into your scalp until absorbed. An hour later, you can shampoo your hair.

If you are only interested in its anti-DHT properties, you may want to combine with nettle extract Saw Palmetto, Burdock root oil or bananas. The combination will be one of those forces will push the follicles are in the Telogen phase (when the hair started falling out).

Nettle root extract is useful in women as their hair loss is due to either Telogen effluvium (when more hair has suddenly entered the Telogen phase, usually due to some imbalance), or by too much DHT on your scalp (androgenetic alopecia, the most common hair conditions). It is equally useful in men and can be used as Propecia (or Finasteride) is used by male patients.




3rd eye mystery

2012-05-25T02:47:47.306-07:00


In ancient times, the ancient East, said that the energy emitted from the central parts of man, which the center is the "third eye". So the third eye image is shown on the forehead of the statue of the deity, ancient sculptures in Buddhist temples.
Oriental legend said that the eyes see through all that is God is offering to the gods so that they have extraordinary powers (psychic ability) to see through objects invisible.

A few years ago, world opinion coil on a teacher phenomenon of Americans have a third eye in the back of the neck, and she had long hair covering. Childhood, classmates have for her is Cyclops (a giant eye - the character in Greek mythology).

Dr. Pravdivtsev have discovered mysterious third eye through some experiments can generate bioenergy front forehead. He believes that the third eye can be found in its infancy, but the eye will go away when the baby continues to grow. It left only the heart of the brain (epiphysis) in front of the cerebellum pituitary.

Epiphysis have similar characteristics such as eyes, under the control of the pituitary gland and the eyeball, which means it also has a glass and the color perception function. Epiphysis to the past with cherries, but in their evolution thousands of years, epiphysis was smaller pea due to lack of activity. Epiphysis can have a direct relationship with the special abilities of man.
Ability third eye located in the parietal or occipital bone at the top of the wall from centuries ago.

The eye is very useful for some special purpose. Third eye as a focusing lens maximum transmitted information it receives, to help people monitor a comprehensive around. But during evolution, the eye has moved deep into the brain. So that in works of art, painted Indians third eye in the forehead - the center is capable of information in foreign especially feel invisible. Someone actually capable of penetrating the body such as X-rays.

Researchers famous Russian Voronezh Anatoly Rodionov proved, some gas is abundant, often with vibrant biological field, in some certain conditions the magnetic field can become "the third eye ". He said most people can understand the mysterious third eye. It is important to recognize and exploit the maximum bioenergy sources are subtle, refined but not visible to the naked eye, can help people control the body energy. Voronezh University has applied diagnostic methods through the image in order to train teaching professionals in a new field of biological science, to apply to soil studies, biology, philosophy and psychology school ...



Manage pain, fatigue with food

2012-05-11T10:14:13.442-07:00


Sometimes back pain, leg pain, muscle aches may make you not want to get out of bed every morning. Certain food supplements can help alleviate the pain.



The magnesium-rich grains, minerals help reduce muscle pain in animal studies.

Ginger is one of the "drug" the best pain relief. Ginger contains gingerol substances, paradol, shogaol and zingerone, which is a good analgesic ingredients. Drink ginger tea in the winter to reduce the pain, body aches periodically.

Art is also spices analgesic effect. This is due to the curcumin in technology, which reduces the excruciating pain.

When referring to work against pain, olive oil is considered a drug. Olive oil is rich in antioxidant polyphenols help reduce the pain mechanisms in the body. Olive oil is a good food substitute butter, which is rich in saturated fat may weaken bones and cause pain. But remember, use olive oil to be careful because each tablespoon of oil to provide 120 calories.

Salmon is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin D, good painkiller. Fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids other tuna, but tuna is not good food for people having problems with uric acid. So it is better to choose salmon.

Almonds are rich sources of omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidant substances help to control pain.

Strawberries contain more vitamin C, an antioxidant substances have good analgesic properties. Some studies show that vitamin C may help people feel less pain after a fracture or undergoing orthopedic surgery.


Green vegetables, like spinach, spinach is not only a high iron content but also contains vitamin K to help maintain bones and joints strong. One study showed that older people if there is high concentration of vitamin K in the blood are less likely to have arthritis than those with low vitamin K levels. However, vitamin K clotting effect, so if you are taking blood thinners, consult your doctor before increasing intake of vitamin K.

The dairy products like yogurt and cheese can help relieve pain. They contain two nutrients that strengthen bone calcium and vitamin D. Vitamin D can reduce chronic pain, according to many studies.

Resveratrol in wine, grapes and grape juice usually have analgesic effects similar to aspirin, according to some studies. You can add resveratrol to the body by using a little wine, eat red grapes or grape juice sipping.



Galaxy S3 had serious competitor

2012-05-07T11:25:16.652-07:00



Following Samsung unveiled the Galaxy S3 blockbuster, LG is trying to restore his position in the communications sector by product launches smart phone with his first 2 GB RAM.


Korean manufacturers are competing fiercely. While Samsung released on 3/5 at London Galaxy S3 his blockbuster debut, the LG website LTE2 Optimus your smartphone.


LG did not disclose more technical features of the phone company's first intelligent, according Optimu site. This product is compatible with 4G networks, Wi-Fi and NFC. Manufacturers also say to the 2150 mAh battery is equipped with more than 4 times the durability compared to Optimus LTE. "


According to rumors, LTE2 battery standard WPC production helps wireless charger. This smartphone is also equipped with a Qualcomm Snapdragon processor S4, dual core. But most surprising is 2GB RAM. Storage not have any smart phone integration makes this product more applications use, such as games.

Samsungva LG also competing on the screen. If Galaxy S3 is equipped with Samsung's Super AMOLED 4.8 inch screen, the LG has selected the first version of "True HD IPS" for your screen, this version from 4.5 and 5 inch. LG's smartphone will run the newest version of Android, Ice Cream Sandwich.

The LG has announced its products will be on shelves in Korea in mid-May this year. The company did not disclose the price and time LTE2 business world. But the Samsung Galaxy S3 will be available in Europe from 29/5 to cost around 649 Euro.




iPad is just Apple's plan B

2012-05-07T10:20:21.141-07:00


- Prior to that, "apple defect" had planned to produce an ultra-slim tablet slightly, but due to problems from the component supply partners Sharp, the plan went bankrupt.


 iPad is 'king' environmental destruction
 RO rumored Apple iPad production of 6 million cheap
 8 points users are not happy about the new iPad

iPad third generation is still "king" on the tablet market now, thanks to design ultra-sharp screen Retina, even though this product is slightly thicker and heavier than iPad 2. This aroused much suspicion from the user, by Apple over the years always trim traditional thin (or remain) design after each product release.

Recently, Raymond Soneira, founder, and CEO of DisplayMate Technologies spoke to disclose third-generation iPad is "plan B" of Apple, and "plan A" is an ultra-thin products "They had planned to use a new technology called IGZO from Sharp, the technology that allows them to use the transistor circuit as well as much smaller."

The circuit transistor and a tiny light will easily washed over, meaning that Apple can save the amount of LEDs to use, helping the computer screen thinner. However, some fault lines of the Sharp has made IGZO screen technology is not available right time, and Apple was forced to return to using traditional technology Amorphous Silicon.

"Density Amorphous Silicon ppi screen are pushed higher than ever, but the light passing through it is quite weak. Thus, Apple was forced to double the amount of LEDs and increase the size of the battery to 70%, "says Soneira explains the new iPad thicker than iPad 2.

Richard Shim, an analyst at Display Search also agree with that view: "Technology can IGZO brighter screen, meaning that you do not need to use multiple LEDs and pin-size on screen Amorphous Silicon. "

However, if the product review on the actual consumption of the new iPad, with 11.8 million units shipped iPad (including iPad 2) in the quarter I/2012 and 3 million units 3 days after launch, obviously, it's not a bad plan B.



Perfume: fir to replace ambergris

2012-04-27T13:55:20.254-07:00


An alternative to ambergris, prized whale intestinal concretion in the manufacture of luxury perfumes, would have been discovered by Canadian researchers.


Extract from a gene tree and introduced into yeast could soon replace ambergris, whales intestinal concretion used in the manufacture of luxury perfumes, according to the work of Canadian researchers. For centuries, this odorant and blackish, produced by sperm whales to protect their intestinal walls, is prized by perfumers as it prevents odors to dissipate.

Ambergris: a rare and expensive substance

Scientists have long sought an alternative to this substance industrial rare, expensive-about $ 10,000 per kilogram, considered a "factor in the whaling," says Joerg Bohlmann, a professor at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. According to the researcher, the molecule of cis-abienol, found in pine or sage leaves, could replace the ambergris in making perfumes because it also has the property to sustain the smell. But isolating the substance remained difficult and expensive.

A gene tree as an alternative

"We have now discovered a gene tree that is more efficient to produce these natural properties, thereby producing a cheaper and sustainable," said Bohlmann who published with his colleague Philipp Zerbe, his discovery in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

According to Bohlmann, the balsam fir gene introduced into yeast allow the large scale production of cis-abienol to replace ambergris in making perfumes. "If you ask people whether they prefer to wear perfume with vomit whale or tree resin, they are unlikely to choose the first option," joked the researcher. The University of British Columbia will allow a biotech company to commercialize this discovery, he said.



spatial origins , First Omega in Space

2012-04-27T12:51:16.515-07:00

To commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the first steps of man on the moon, the home of luxury watches Omega released a limited edition Speedmaster "First Omega  in Space".



This chronograph design subtly vintage is probably a favorite of the French, but also all fans around the world because it carries the memory of the greatest achievement of humanity: that of our natural satellite, the Moon.

But be careful: careful observation of this version of the famous Speedmaster chronograph allow true connoisseurs to put this reissue from watch products put into production by the Omega factory in Bienne before 1963.

Because the model presented here does not offer this middle-flowing characteristic for protecting the pushers and the crown-appeared after that date. This fabulous timepiece is the extrapolation of an instrument that belongs to the fantastic story of the conquest of space, without being part of the official program of NASA, as this timer is the official watch of this organization the 1 March 1965, after successfully undergoing a battery of tests ruthless.

In fact, it incorporates the features of the room as astronaut Walter M. Schirra carried personally, in the space capsule Sigma 7 Mercury-Atlas program 8, launched on 3 October 1962. To commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of this historic first flight, Omega offers this reference numbered edition, with a sapphire crystal showing the exact profile of the period, made ​​Hesalite (scratched Plexiglas). It beats to the rhythm of the caliber 1861, extrapolation of the reference cal. 861 intended, in 1968, to replace the Lemania caliber 321, which powered the original model.



Rice strongest tsunami Results plants resistant to salt

2012-01-30T04:12:49.769-08:00


Were obtained from rice plants resistant to salt and the rice fields suitable for this Japanese tsunami of March 2011 have sprayed salt water and mud, making them unsuitable for cultivation.


The result, described in the journal Nature Biotechnology, is due to a research team led by Japanese and British Ryohei Terauchi, IWA Biotechnology Research Centre.

The rice plants were obtained using a new method called Mut Map, which allows to obtain plants with the desired characteristics in a more 'fast. ''By working with a species already 'is already used by farmers' adapted to local conditions, the method will allow 'to develop new varieties' suitable to the crops in a year, rather than 5 or 10'', said one of the authors, Sophien Kamoun, the Sainsbury Laboratory, UK.

The researchers worked with a variety 'of very fine rice, called Hitomebore, which is grown in northern Japan. At first, trees were obtained with specific genetic mutations in order to obtain desired characteristics, such as the ability 'to produce more beans' large, resistance to drought' and salt. The genetic mutation, and 'was obtained by treating the plants with an agent that causes mutation. The plant achieved and 'was then crossed with wild species of the variety' Hitomebore. From the progeny from the crossing, and 'was then produced for self-pollination (the process in which the pollen falls from the male to the female of the same flower), a second generation of plants suitable for cultivation.

It is estimated that the tsunami of 11 March 2011 has inundated with salt water over 20,000 acres of rice fields in northern Japan and the hope of researchers and 'the new rice obtained can be used just for these fields.



First 3D image of a protein Now it is easier to observe the structure

2012-01-30T04:04:10.584-08:00


It 'was made ​​the first 3D image of a single protein, which allows us to observe the structure with unprecedented detail.
With an electron microscope that operates at very low temperatures, the researchers of the Laboratory Berkeley, California, published in the journal PLoS ONE image 'naked' of a single protein.

Keeping the sample at very low temperatures, the researchers were able to''take''la'foto a single molecular structure. It 'the first time that this is because so far the 3D images were always obtained with collages of information on thousands or millions of samples of the same type of molecule. What was achieved in this way was a kind of molecule 'average'.

The new technique, called by the same researchers ipet (electron tomography of individual particles), allows you to view the image of individual proteins.

In this way, said Ren Gang, one of the authors of the study, it becomes possible to observe''the personality of the individual molecules with a depth considered unthinkable until now.''Analyze the structure makes it possible to understand the individual flexibility of these structures, observe the moving parts and thus better understand the mechanisms of interaction between biological molecules.



Discovered 11 new planetary systems

2012-01-30T03:51:51.755-08:00


The hunter of planets, NASA's Kepler space telescope, discovered in the Milky Way 11 new planetary systems that host a total of 26 planets.

They are found in the Milky Way and all orbit very close to their host stars, closer than the distance between Venus Fifteen of these from the Sun 'alien worlds' have size between the Earth and Neptune, others have a radius larger than Jupiter. Further observations will be needed, say experts, to determine which of these planets are rocky like Earth and what instead, they often atmospheres of gas like Neptune.

Some have orbits very fast, takes six days to complete one rotation around the star, some take 143 days. ''Before the Kepler mission, we knew about extrasolar 500''noted Doug Hudgins, who works at NASA's Kepler mission. ''Now - he added - in just two years by setting a bit of heaven, not much 'bigger than a fist, Kepler has discovered more than 60 planets and most' of 2,300 candidates planets.

This tells us that our galaxy is full of planets orbits of all sizes.'' Kepler planet candidates identified by measuring repeatedly dimming of more than 150,000 stars to detect when a planet passes in front of the star, a technique known as transits. ''Confirmation that the small decrease in brightness of the star is due to a planet requires further observations and analysis of long''said Eric Ford, University of Florida and among the authors of the discovery



Nutrition and Anti-Aging : The protective factors

2012-01-26T10:33:21.778-08:00

Several epidemiological studies have highlighted such as vegetables and fruit contain protective factors mainly antioxidant and therefore able to protect the body from oxidative damage related to the action of free radicals. This resulted in the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables or supplemented with antioxidants, posters obvious benefits of some forms of cancer - lung, esophagus, stomach, colorectal, ovarian, breast - and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease . Not only.Recent studies have emphasized that the recovery of particular eating habits combined with the targeted use of specific supplements of omega-3 is also able to exert an effective action of secondary prevention in patients with diseases of its own apparatus cardio-vascular system.There are qualitative and quantitative requirements and quality of nutrients, which should be simultaneously present in the body in their right proportions, are the foundation of millions of biochemical reactions that occur constantly in our bodies every day.In this context it is essential make targeted and sufficient amount of body protein (protein) and lipids (fats), especially unsaturated, both necessary for growth and muscle tone, hormonal secretions, for the optimization of cognitive skills and memory, for the maintenance of the same mood.Antioxidants exert their activities by exerting an effect of preventing the formation of free radicals and / or neutralizing those already formed. A varied diet rich in fruits and vegetables can supplement the natural antioxidant defenses (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase) and helps to preserve the health of the organism. In figurative terms we can say that maintain oxidative balance the scales, which brings a plate of risk factors and protective factors on the other.The protective factors are:Carotenoids: alpha and beta carotene, lycopene, lutein, respectively abundant in carrots, leafy greens, peppers, tomatoes, melons, in broccoli and green leafy vegetables.flavonoids: flavonols, anthocyanins and tannins, respectively, abundant in black and green tea and olive oil, red wine, blood orange, strawberry, green tea.Vitamins: C, E, and those belonging to group B, respectively abundant in citrus fruits, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, strawberries, and in olive oil, asparagus, avocados, whole grains, green vegetables and cucumbers in.Trace elements: selenium, zinc, respectively abundant in spinach, broccoli, cabbage, onions, mushrooms in spinach and Brussels sprouts.Coenzyme Q, gamma-linolenic acid , extracted lipids specific supplements. In fact, when free radicals reach levels well above the norm, it becomes advisable to also use proper integration, consisting of a pool of antioxidants on the side of repairers of cell membranes, so that the remedy may involve peroxidation.If we therefore identify food sources more "useful" and "beneficial" for the human body in perspective antioxidant, the first place put blueberries, kale, beet in second place: orange, brussel sprouts, grapefruit, Kiwi, third place: spinach, tomatoes, cucumbers, apricots, melon, onion.Again we emphasize quality in a few simple "rules" nutritionally correct: Fruits and vegetables in abundance,drastically reduce the intake of dairy products containing high percentages of saturated fats,avoid all foods containing saturated fats pre-(learn to read labels!)Avoid chocolate: contains saturated fats, cakes attention to commercial / industrial (b[...]



Skin Care, Stretch Marks How to remove stains

2012-01-26T09:35:32.551-08:00

The skin plays a very important role with regard to the protection of our body, is actually a protective barrier against the attacks coming from the outside world to access them because this very carefully.Here are the main functions of the skin: maintaining regular body temperature through sweating, in fact, most of the heat (80%) produced by the body is lost through the skin.Thanks to its flexibility allows us to "absorb" and rubbing several small strokes and above all we can, through perspiration, the elimination of waste produced by the body.Last but not least, through its nerve endings, allows us to get in touch with the outside world through touch, allowing us to experience the various sensations of heat, cold and pain.During the day, so while we are awake, the skin protects us from the sun and pollution, while, when we sleep, it regenerates its own cells.Skin Care and Vitamin AThe skin of a person young person completely renewed in about a month, but over time the skin loses firmness, can no longer take care of itself and its rate of regeneration it is very compromised. This slowdown is the root cause of the formation of wrinkles and dark spots that are formed usually on the face and hands. Many people find the presence of spots on the skin especially at the end of summer, because exposure to the sun, which this season is more prolonged and frequent, increases the risk of the occurrence of skin spots, especially with the ' advancing age.The formation of spots is due to an irregular production of melanin , a pigment responsible for skin color, production of which increases according to the stimuli it receives from outside, as in the case of ultraviolet rays, because this pigment has the duty to protect dal'esposizione sunlight.Normally the skin, once darkened, if not more exposed to the sun, back light, but sometimes, for reasons not yet known, this mechanism does not work perfectly and that's that form stains.An important role for the care and healthy skin is coated by vitamin A, in addition to the known benefits to the eye, vitamin A also has a great influence on the growth of the skin.A deficiency of this vitamin makes the skin dry and accentuates the presence of wrinkles. Vitamin A, found especially in carrots, spinach, cantaloupe and promotes the work of the cells thus improving health status. Not only. It is able to activate the production of collagen , a protein that gives elasticity to the skin and most particularly lightens the color of the skin, softening of old age or dark spots caused by the sun, ultimately, collagen smooths wrinkles, improves the process epithelial cell renewal improving the skin's appearance.Why is it important to take care of the skinThe skin tissue that covers the entire body (the skin is the largest organ of our body) performs important operations in terms of health and for this reason that must be monitored in the same manner as other organs. The skin should not be neglected, because in addition to protect us, is also a good indicator as to the functioning of our body, with good reason the skin can be considered the mirror that reflects the state of health of a person. In fact, changes in skin color, we can provide useful information about the state of general health, as well as the change in temperature, the appearance of lesions, sweating are all warning signs that may indicate the presence of various diseases .Treatments and Skin CareAs for the stains, in some [...]



Endocrinology

2012-01-25T14:02:13.215-08:00



The endocrinology specialty is that branch of medical science that deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of the endocrine glands.

The endocrine glands are the pituitary gland (or pituitary gland), which is considered the mother of all glands gland, located in the base of the brain, with its hormones or Tropin, regulates the functional mechanism of almost all the glands the organism. In short, we say that is the functional unit of all biological phenomena body.
Another gland, the thyroid is very important, with its hormones, or "tyrosine", regulates the metabolism of the whole organism.

Important is the adrenal gland (gland or adrenal cortex), which regulates the body's salt-water metabolism and interferes with the development of adrenal hormones in the sexual sphere and tone the body.

More important are the parathyroid glands, four in number, within the thyroid gland, which regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

Endocrine gland in the male is the testis, which in addition to the function of producing sperm, processes the hormones that regulate sexual function and the mechanism of erection. It must be said that testosterone secreted by the testes takes on the tone of the body and prevents the depressive state of the organism.

In women, an important gland Endocrine is the ovary, which regulates the female hormones and ovulatory function for human reproduction. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas (which secretes insulin to prevent diabetes) and breast (gland deputy breastfeeding).
The doctor endocrinologist specialist deals with the study, diagnosis of all abnormalities and diseases of all endocrine glands, it intervenes to correct hormonal imbalances that are the basis of the following alterations.

Hypothalamic-pituitary disease
Thyroid disease
Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Graves' disease
Diseases of the parathyroid
Adrenal disease
Cushing's Syndrome
Addison's disease
Endocrine Obesity
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine hypertension
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Osteoporosis and metabolic bone
Endocrine pancreas