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The new revolution of the nanotechnology makes everything possible

Updated: 2018-03-05T15:26:10.732-08:00


known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (Acknowledgements - References)


AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by NANOSAFE (Risk Assessment in Production and Use of Nanoparticles with Development of Preventive Measures and apply Codes) project funded by the eu Community below the "Competitive and property Growth" Programme, Contract G1MA-CT-2002-00020. Full report are often found at http:/ / imperia/ md/ content/ tz/ zuknftigetechnologien/ 11.pdfReferencesFeynman R: There's plenty of room at the bottom.Science 1991, 254:1300-1301. Ball P: Roll-up for the revolution.Nature 2001, 414:142-144. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Salata OV: Application of nanoparticles in biology and medicine.J of Nanobiotechnology 2004, 2:3. BioMed Central Full Text Mazzola L: Commercializing nanotechnology.Nature Biotechnology 2003, 21:1137-1143. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Paull R, Wolfe J, Hebert P, Sinkula M: Investing in nanotechnology.Nature Biotechnology 2003, 21:1134-1147. Publisher Full Text Return to textNanoBusiness Alliance [] webcite2003.Luther W, ed: Industrial application of nanomaterials – chances and risks.Future Technologies 2004, 54:1-112. UK Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering: Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties.[] webciteFinal Report 2004. Anon: Nanotech is not so scary.Nature 2003, 421:299. UK report: More Hits Than Misses on Nanotech[] webciteAction Group on Erosion, Technology and Concentration (ETC) 2004. Nemmar A, Vanbilloen H, Hoylaerts MF, Hoet PH, Verbruggen A, Nemery B: Passage of intratracheally instilled ultrafine particles from the lung into the systemic circulation in hamster.Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001, 164:1665-1668. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Xiang JJ, Tang JQ, Zhu SG, Nie XM, Lu HB, Shen SR, Li XL, Tang K, Zhou M, Li GY: IONP-PLL: a novel non-viral vector for efficient gene delivery.J Gene Med 2003, 5:803-817. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Brown DM, Donaldson K, Borm PJ, Schins RP, Dehnhardt M, Gilmour P, Jimenez LA, Stone V: Calcium and ROS-mediated activation of transcription factors and TNF-alpha cytokine gene expression in macrophages exposed to ultrafine particles.Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2004, 286:L344-353. PubMed Abstract |Publisher Full Text Zheng M, Jagota A, Strano MS, Santos AP, Barone P, Chou CG, Diner BA, Dresselhaus MS, Mclean RS, Onoa GB, Samsonidze GG, Semke ED, Usrey M, Walls DJ: Structure-based carbon nanotube sorting by sequence-dependent DNA assembly.Science 2003, 302:1543-1548. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Moolgavkar SH, Brown RC, Turim J: Biopersistence, fiber length, and cancer risk assessment for inhaled fibers.Inhal Toxicol 2001, 13:755-772. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Lippmann M: Effects of fiber characteristics on lung deposition, retention, and disease.Environ Health Perspect 1990, 88:311-317. PubMed Abstract Moore MA, Brown RC, Pigott G: Material properties of MMVFs and their time-dependent failure in lung environments.Inhal Toxicol 2001, 13:1117-1149. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Oberdorster G: Determinants of the pathogenicity of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF).Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2000, 73:S60-S68. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Oberdorster G: Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles.Int Arch Occup Env[...]

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (7. Differences in conditions between the lung and intestinal tract & 8. Conclusions)


7. Differences in conditions between the lung and intestinal tractAlthough the contact with nanomaterials within the lungs and enteric tract shows several similarities vital variations between inhalation and bodily function of nanomaterials exist from the pharmacology purpose of read. within the enteric tract a fancy mixture of compounds – like secreted enzymes, eaten food, bacterium of the gut flora, etc – is gift, which may act with the eaten nanomaterial. Non-specific interaction usually reduces the toxicity of the eaten material. it's been delineated  that in vitro particles area unit less cytotoxic once treated in an exceedingly medium with high macromolecule content. within the lungs, secretion or wetting agent is gift, within which antioxidants area unit gift, however these is simply neutral once a high variety of aerobic  compounds is indrawn.The transit through the enteric tract may be a comparatively quick method, the continual decay and renewal of the epithelial tissue makes positive that nanomaterials won't stay long within the enteric tract. The presence of solid material within the lumen of the intestines won't mechanically induce associate inflammatory response. indrawn materials < ten micrometer and > five micrometer won't enter the alveolar areas of the lungs, and thus these are cleared simply in healthy persons via the muco-ciliary escalator. Particles that area unit smaller than five micrometer can deposit within the alveolar area via Brownian movement. within the alveoli, water insoluble materials will solely be removed via activity by macrophages or different cells, or via transportation through the epithelial tissue to the interstitium or circulation. These processes area unit usually amid the onset of (persistent) inflammation. The particles themselves will – counting on the physical-chemical characteristics of the fabric – stay for an extended amount within the alveoli.In the enteric tract, the eaten materials area unit stressed from acidic (stomach) to basic conditions. The shift in hydrogen ion concentration markedly changes the solubility and also the ionic state of the fabric via dynamical the surface characteristics. within the lungs, the surroundings of the lumen is a lot of constant.7. Differences in conditions between the lung and intestinal tractParticles within the nano-size vary will actually enter the frame via the lungs and also the intestines; penetration via the skin is a smaller amount evident. it's attainable that some particles will penetrate deep into the corium. the probabilities of penetration rely upon the scale and surface properties of the particles and conjointly on the purpose of contact within the respiratory organ, intestines or skin. when the penetration, the distribution of the particles within the body may be a robust perform of the surface characteristics of the particles. A crucial size would possibly exist on the far side that the movement of the nanoparticles in components of the body is restricted. The pharmaco-kinetic behaviour totally different|of various} sorts of nanoparticles needs elaborated investigation and a information of health risks related to different nanoparticles (e.g. target organs, tissue or cells) ought to be created. The presence of the contaminates, like metal catalysts gift in nanotubes, and their role within the determined health impacts ought to be thought-about beside the health effect of the nanomaterials.The magnified risk of cardiorespiratory diseases needs specific measures to be taken for each recently created nanoparticle. there's no universal "nanoparticle" to suit all the cases, every nanomaterial ought to be treated severally once health risks area unit expected. The take a look ats presently accustomed test the protection of materials ought to be applicable to spot venturous nanoparticles. verified otherwise, it'd be a challenge for business, legislators and risk assessors to construct a collection of high outturn and low value tests for nanoparticles while not reducin[...]

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (5. Skin & 6. Body distribution and systemic effects of particulates)


5. SkinSkin is a crucial barrier, protective against insult from the surroundings. The skin is structured in 3 layers: the stratum, the derma and therefore the body covering layer. The outer layer of the stratum, the stratum (SC), covers the whole outside of the body and solely contains dead cells, that area unit powerfully keratinized. for many chemicals the SC is that the rate-limiting barrier to transdermic absorption (penetration). The skin of most class species is, on most components of the body, lined with hair. At the sites, wherever hair follicles grow, the barrier capability of the skin differs slightly from the "normal" stratified squamous stratum. Most studies regarding penetration of materials into the skin have focussed on whether or not or not medicine penetrate through the skin victimisation completely different formulations containing chemicals and/or particulate materials as a vehicle. the most sorts of particulate materials ordinarily used are: liposomes; solid poorly soluble materials like TiO2 and chemical compound particulates and submicron emulsion particles like solid lipoid nanoparticles. The penetration of those particulate carriers has not been studied intimately.TiO2 particles area unit usually employed in sunscreens to soak up lightweight|ultraviolet illumination|UV|actinic radiation|actinic ray} light and so to safeguard skin against sunburn or genetic injury. it's been reportable by Lademann et al in [82] that micrometer-sized particles of TiO2 get through the human stratum and even into some hair follicles – as well as their deeper components. However, the authors failed to interpret this observation as penetration into living layers of the skin, since this a part of the vesicle channel (the acroinfundibulum) is roofed with a stratum corneum barrier too [82]. a unique interpretation has been steered in an exceedingly recent review by Kreilgaard [83], United Nations agency argued that "very little titanium oxide particles (e. g. 5–20 nm) penetrate into the skin and might act with the immune system". Tinkle et al [84] incontestible that zero.5- and 1.0 micrometer particles, in conjunction with motion, penetrate the stratum of human skin and reach the stratum and, sometimes, the dermis. The authors hypothesised that the lipoid layers at intervals the cells of the stratum type a pathway by that the particles will move [85] into the skin and be phagocytized by the Langerhans cells. during this study the penetration of particles is restricted to particle diameter of one micrometer or less. all the same, alternative studies reportable penetration through the skin victimisation particles with diameters of 3–8 micrometer [86,87,82] however solely restricted penetration was found usually clustered at the follicle (see above).Penetration of non-metallic solid materials like perishable poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles, one to ten micrometer with a mean diameter of four.61 ± 0.8 micrometer was studied once application on to porcine skin. the quantity of microparticles within the skin attenuate with the depth (measured from the airside towards the body covering layer). At one hundred twenty micrometer depth (where viable derma present) a comparatively high variety of particles was found, at four hundred micrometer (dermis) some micro-particles were still seen. At a depth of five hundred micrometer no microparticles were found [88]. within the skin of people, United Nations agency had AN impaired humour evacuation of the lower legs, soil microparticles, oftentimes zero.4–0.5 micrometer however as larger particles of twenty five micrometer diameter, were found within the within the derma of the foot in an exceedingly patient with endemic hypertrophy. The particles area unit seen to be within the phagosomes of macrophages or within the protoplasm of alternative cells. The failure to conduct bodily fluid to the node produces a permanent deposit of silicon dioxide within the dermal tissues (a parallel is drawn with similar d[...]

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (3. Lung & 2. 4. Intestinal tract)


3. Lung3.1 Inhalation and pneumonic clearing of insoluble solidsThe morbific effects of indrawn solid material rely totally on achieving a sufficient  respiratory organ burden [15]. The respiratory organ burden is decided by the rates of deposition and clearance. Logically, for any mud or fibre, a steady-state dose level are going to be achieved once the rates acquire balance. this is often solely true once the solid material doesn't interfere with the clearance mechanisms. In relevance the burden the chemical and physical properties of the fabric itself square measure vital in so far as they influence deposition and clearance rates. Spherical solid material will be indrawn once its mechanics diameter is a smaller amount than ten micrometer. The smaller the particulates the deeper they'll travel into the respiratory organ, particles smaller than two.5 micrometer can even reach the alveoli. Ultrafine particles (nanoparticles with associate mechanics diameter of but one hundred nm) square measure deposited chiefly within the alveolar region. Fibres square measure outlined as solid materials with a length to diameter quantitative relation of a minimum of 3:1. Their penetration into the respiratory organ depends on the mechanics properties. Fibres with alittle diameter can penetrate deeper into the lungs, whereas terribly long fibres (>>20 micron) square measure preponderantly stuck within the higher airways [16-21].The mucociliary escalator dominates the clearance from the higher airways; clearance from the deep respiratory organ (alveoli) is preponderantly by scavenger cell bodily process. The mucociliary escalator is associate economical transport system pushing the secretion, that covers the airways, along side the treed solid materials towards the mouth. The bodily process of particles and fibres ends up in activation of macrophages and induces the discharge of chemokines, cytokines, reactive element species, and different mediators; this may end in sustained inflammation and eventually fibrotic changes. The bodily process potency will be plagued by the (physical-chemical) characteristics of the solid material (see below); furthermore, fibres too long to be phagocytized (fibres longer than the diameter of the alveolar macrophage) can solely be cleared terribly slowly.Laboratory exposure studies have shown that if the indrawn concentrations square measure low, specified the deposition rate of the indrawn particles is a smaller amount than the mechanical alveolar macrophage-mediated clearance rate within the respiratory organ, then the retention 0.5 time is concerning seventy days (steady-state respiratory organ burden throughout continuous exposure). If the deposition rate of the indrawn particles exceeds this clearance rate, the retention 0.5 time is considerably accrued, reflective associate impaired or prolonged alveolar macrophage-mediated clearance perform with continued  accumulation of respiratory organ burden (overload). indrawn fibres, that square measure persistent within the alveoli, will move with the pneumonic animal tissue cells or perhaps penetrate the alveolar wall and enter the respiratory organ tissue. These fibres square measure typically represented as being within the "interstitial" wherever they'll lie between or among the cells creating up the alveolar walls. Bio-persistent solid materials, actually those particles containing agent substances or amphibole fibres or silicon oxide, that stay for years within the lungs, increase the chance of developing cancer.3.2 Deposition and clearing of solid nanomaterialsIt has been rumored recently that nanotubes show a symbol of toxicity [22], confirmed in 2 freelance publications by Warheit et al [23] and Lam et al [24], that incontestible the pneumonic effects of single walled cabon nanotubes in vivo once intratracheal instillation, in each rats and mice. each teams rumored tumour formation, and a few opening inflammation. The analysis cluster of Warheit [...]

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (1. Introduction & 2. General background)


AbstractManmade nanoparticles vary from the well-established multi-ton production of smut and treated silicon oxide for applications in plastic fillers and automobile tyres to mcg quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences square measure experiencing large investment worldwide, there\'ll be an extra rise in shopper merchandise counting on technology. whereas advantages of technology square measure wide heralded, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use within the shopper and industrial merchandise square measure simply setting out to emerge. This review provides comprehensive analysis of information offered on health effects of nanomaterials.1. IntroductionScientists world-wide square measure continued to find distinctive properties of everyday materials at the sub micrometer scale [1,2]. This size domain is best called nano- (a billionth) meter area. This novel material properties common discernible solely at the nano-scale dimensions have already found their 1st business applications [3]. for instance, nanomaterials square measure gift in some sunblockers toothpaste, paint and health tools and even food merchandise. Manmade nanoparticles ranges from the well-established multi-ton production of smut and treated silicon oxide for applications in plastic fillers and automobile tyres to mcg quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences square measure experiencing large investment worldwide [4,5], there\'ll be an extra rise in shopper merchandise counting on technology [6].Did you know about the wunderkind nanotechnology in pharmaceutics: Creating multifunctional nanocarriersWhile advantages of technology square measure wide heralded, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use within the shopper and industrial merchandise square measure simply setting out to emerge [7,8]. each pioneers of technology [9] and its opponents [10] square measure finding it extraordinarily onerous to argue their case as there\'s restricted info offered to support one facet or the opposite. it\'s been shown that nanomaterials will enter the shape through many ports. Accidental or involuntary contact throughout production or use is possibly to happen via the lungs from wherever a speedy translocation through the blood stream is feasible to alternative important organs [11]. On the cellular level a capability to act as a factor vector has been incontestable  for nanoparticles [12]. smut nanoparticles are concerned in meddlesome with cell signalling [13]. there\'s work that demonstrates uses of DNA for the dimensions separation of carbon nanotubes [14]. The DNA strand simply wraps around it if the tube diameter is true. whereas wonderful for the separation functions it raises some issues over the results of carbon nanotubes coming into the shape.In this review we have a tendency to summarise the noted facts regarding nanomaterial hazards, discuss the potential entry points of nanoparticles into the shape, explore their probably pathways within the body and analyse printed experimental results on the bioactivity of nanomaterials.2. General backgroundHuman skin, enteral tract and lungs square measure continually in direct contact with the atmosphere. Whereas skin acts as a barrier, lungs and enteral tract additionally enable transport (passive and/or active) of assorted substances like water, nutrients or chemical element. owing to that truth they\'re probably to be a primary port of entry for nanomaterials journey into the shape. Our data during this field primarily comes from drug delivery (pharmaceutical research) and pharmacological medicine (xenobiotics) studies. The functions of the human skin as a strict barrier  and no essential parts square measure obsessed through the skin (except radiation necessary to make up alimentation D). The lungs exchange chemical element and carbonic acid g[...]

nanotechnology Soldiers - how worried should we be?


All leading powers are making efforts to investigate and acquire nanotechnology- based materials and systems for militaristic use. Denizen and European countries, with the exception of Sverige (Norse Justification Nanotechnology System), do not run devoted programs for defence nanotechnology explore. Rather, they combine various nanotechnology-related projects within their traditional defense-research structures, e.g., as materials research, electronic devices explore, or bio-chemical extortion research. Not so the U.S. soldierly. Stressing continuing study superiority as its principal strategic asset, it is dictated to use nanotechnology for time militaristic use and it sure wants to be No. 1 in this expanse. The U.S. Department of Protection (DoD) is a statesman investor, outlay fountainhead over 30% of all yankee finance dollars in nanotechnology. Of the $352m spent on nanotech by the DoD in 2005, $1m, or roughly 0.25%, went into investigate treatment with potentiality welfareAnnual DoD investment in nanotechnology; 2006 estimated. (Source data: DoD "Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Programs", May 8, 2006) Proposed and actively pursued personnel nanotech programs screening a wide grasp of applications to improve the execution of existing systems and materials and estimate new ones. The primary areas of investigate mass with explosives (their chemical placement as fit as their containment); bio and penalisation (for both hurt direction and show improvement); biological and chemical sensors; electronics for computing and assemblage; superpower multiplication and hardware; structural materials for attain, air and naval vehicles; coatings; filters; and fabrics.Structure of the DoD Nanotechnology Program In the mid-1990s the DoD identified nanotechnology as one of six "Strategic Explore Areas" (the else fivesome beingness ergonomics sciences, humanlike show sciences, accumulation ascendency, multifunction materials, feat and driving sciences). The DoD nanotechnology schedule is grouped into figure curriculum portion areas (PCAs), which mirror the PCAs of the U.S. Nationalistic Nanotechnology Start (NNI): PCA 1: fundamental nanoscale phenomena and processesPCA 2: nanomaterialsPCA 3: nanoscale devices and systemsPCA 4: instrumentation research, metrology, and standards for nanotechnologyPCA 5: nanomanufacturingPCA 6: major research facilities and instrumentation acquisitionPCA 7: societal dimensions Active half of the DoD's nanotech promotion goes to Authority (Squad Progressive Research Projects Office), with the pose roughly evenly division between Service, Blue and Air Penetrate. Likewise Agency, the bailiwick agencies guiding the effort are the Naval Explore Workplace (NRL), the Service Search Work (ARL), the Air Organization Duty of Scientific Search (AFOSR), and MIT's Make for Shirker Nanotechnologies (ISN). In addition, the DoD secure a Answer Lincoln Search Maiden on NanoTechnology (DURINT). The DURINT papers is planned to raise U.S. universities' capabilities to fulfil basal study and field search and associated education#arti-main img,#arti-main div{float:right;} Most of the DoD dollars spent to date have gone into basic research and engineering. Insofar as these engineering and materials aspects of military nanotechnology incorporate engineered nanomaterials, there are near-term issues that need to be discussed and resolved: the potential toxicity of such materials (which applies to all engineered nanomaterials, not just those for military use), their impact on humans and the environment, and if and how release of such nanomaterials into the environment through military use could exceed release from non-military uses. While very active in developing nanotech applications, the military is much more passive in assessing the risks and is content to monitor what other agencies do. An Army document (pdf download 496 KB) states that “A key component of the lea[...]

Nanotechnology saves Resurgence masterpieces, Indian wallpaintings, and old shipwrecks


Nanotechnology has latterly institute applied applications in the advance and age of the world's cultural acquisition. Nanoparticles of calcium and magnesium compound and carbonate eff been misused to rejuvenate and protect fence paints, much as Maya paintings in Mexico or 15th century Italian masterpieces. Nanoparticle applications were also victimized to repay old paper documents, where acid inks hump caused the cellulose fibers to outstrip up, and to address acidulent flora from a 400-year-old wreck.Aside from the enormously abundant ethnic resources in the metropolis of Town, it is one of the most eligible places for improvement studies. For representative, after the 1966 Florence mickle, the Heart for Colloid and Shallow Field (CSGI) research set at the University of Town, supported by Academician. Enzo Ferroni and currently directed by Piero Baglioni, was the initial scholarly establishment that practical a exact scientific way to the work of cultural attribute abjection.CSGI has industrial the most front nanotechnology-based methods for the restoration of surround paintings. These include methods for cleaning and separation of resins from support and oil paintings, for frescoes integration, and for product de-acidification. Currently these methods are victimised in more parts of the world.Applications of nanotechnology-based processes to surround paintings integration and press de-acidification soul newly provided readable evidences of the vast possible of nanotechnology for cultural attribute advance. Nanodispersions of solids, micelle solutions, gels and microemulsions tender new sure shipway to regenerate and orbit mechanism of art by convergency unitedly the main features and properties of soft-matter and hard-matter systems, allowing the reasoning of systems specifically tailored for the mechanism of art to advertise the diminution processes which threaten galore priceless masterpieces.Nanotechnology remodeled paintingsThe difference between pre- & post-restoration using nanoparticle-based methods on Italian wall paintings. (Source: Baglioni, P., R. Giorgi & C. C. Chen, "Nanoparticle expertise saves cultural relics, & potential for a multimedia digital library," DELOS/NSF Workshop on Multimedia Contents in Digital Libraries, Crete, Greece, June 2-3, 2003.)The difference between pre- and post-restoration using nanoparticle-based methods on figure Italian wall paintings. (Thing: Baglioni, P., R. Giorgi and C. C. Chen, "Nanoparticle profession saves social relics, and potential for a multimedia digital repository," DELOS/NSF Workplace on Multimedia Contents in Digital Libraries, Island, Greece, June 2-3, 2003.)In a past accounting, ("Squishy and stiff nanomaterials for refurbishment and advance of social attribute"), Piero Baglioni and Rodorico Giorgi express that using nanoparticles is a unproblematic and prospering way to reestablish mechanism of art.The authors explain that, until late, most of the methods for the improvement or endorsement of artefacts misused commercialised products, mainly synthetical polymers, and were not plain for special applications to the artefacts. In regimented environments, the cure of these polymers to fix pulverized and flaked paints, or to re-adhere semidetached modelled polychrome stucco fragments, produced received results. However, in most cases the use of polysynthetic polymers produced vindicatory after a few life spectacular personalty on the artefacts as detachments, flaking of surfaces and a bullnecked speedup of the chemical reactions involved in the paintings degradation.Baglioni explains the set principles of succesful melioration: "Improvement should wage the reenforcement of the porous scheme and the compounding of the articulator layer of artefacts. A few bladelike principles can be reasoned to show the most fit improvement method: 1) the management should be correctable so that one can reve[...]

my toothpaste with Nanotechnology?


Imagine a toothpaste that not only seeks out but actually repairs destroy to tooth enamel. For those who dread their annual visit to the dentist, this may sound like science fiction. For people in Japan, it is a reality. Using nanoparticles, Japan's Sangi Company, Ltd., has sold over 50 million tubes - & continues to expand its line of products containing nanoparticles. Scientists have learned to synthesize hydroxyapatite, a key part of tooth enamel, as nanosized crystals. When nano-hydroxyapatite is used in toothpaste, it forms a protective film on tooth enamel, & even restores the surface in damaged areas. Availability of similar products that claim to actually repair cavities is around the corner.Toothpaste is among consumer products that contain nanoparticlesUnlikely as it seems at first blush, the $200 billion global cosmetics industry is of the major players in the emerging field of nanotechnology. According to the Centre for the Study of Environmental Change at Lancaster University in Britain, the cosmetics industry already holds the largest number of patents for nanoparticles - & be it toothpaste, sunscreen, shampoo, hair conditioner, lipstick, eye shadow, after shave, moisturizer or deodorant, the industry is leading the way. reason for this is the very marketable area of anti-aging products. In 2004, the marketplace for these youth-promising skin care treatments was estimated at US$9.9 billion worldwide. New advances by nanotechnology are expected to drive that number up significantly. Take L'Oreal, which ranks sixth among nanotechnology patent holders in the U.S., with  200 nanotechnology patents according to Boston-based UTEK-EKMS, Inc. The cosmetics giant has developed a polymeric nanocapsule which guides active ingredients in to the lower layers of skin, increasing their efficacy. Although these fountain of youth products may be the most marketable & most profitable, L'Oreal & its competitors are also introducing nanoproducts that have been engineered to produce dramatic results of a different sort, such as eye shadow with more vivid colors & iridescent or metallic effects.For years, the cosmetics industry has made a great deal of money by promotion beauty products. People require these things & cosmetics companies provide them - simple supply & demand. The issue with nanoengineered products is that no knows whether they are safe.Nanoparticles can feign very antithetical chemical, corporeal and begotten properties than their normal-sized counterparts. This, coupled with the fact that these tiny particles can be absorbed finished the cutis or indrawn, is causing operative concern about the country of nanoparticles, especially those victimized in informal toiletries.Tho' there is no expressed inform that nanocosmetics pose a health hazard, origin studies inform there may be large seek of nanoparticles temporary through the rind, into the bloodstream, and accumulating in paper and meat. It is believed that hearty wound provides an decent roadblock against particle sorption; nonetheless scraped, and plane flexed, pare may countenance particles to follow the body.A assemble of researchers led by the Neurotoxicology Discord at EPA's (Environmental Endorsement Bureau) National Welfare and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory in the U.S. jazz studied the force of titania (titanium pollutant nanoparticles) in walk cells. The researchers rumored ("Metal Whitener (P25) Produces Activated Oxygen Species in Immortalized Intelligence Microglia (BV2): Implications for Nanoparticle Neurotoxicity") that the nanoparticles, which are currently victimized in sunblock products, falsify the cells' mean greeting to adventive particles. Rather than releasing a have of chemicals - oxidizable gas species (ROS) - to protect the mentality, the nanoparticles stimulate a slower resign of ROS, which cou[...]

nanotechnology startling landscapes


The nanoworld cannot be portrayed with a camera, nor can it be seen even with the most powerful optical microscope. Only special instruments have access to images of the nanoworld. A fascinating new exhibition "Blow-up: images from the nanoworld" in Modena/Italy shows the work of scientists associated with the National Middle on Nanostructures & Biosystems at Surfaces in Modena, France, headed by Elisa Molinari. The images have been manipulated in a variety of ways by photographer, Lucia Covi. Covi is sensible to the aesthetic paradigms of scientists: her gaze thus grasps essential aspects of the portrayed objects & lets her shine them with a brand spanking new light, as they are revealed now. This exhibition brings to the public images that are usually available to few, because they stay confined in the research laboratories, on the scientists' desks. The images are stills that, over time, have been put together from different framings, & that they can look at thanks to the mediation of machines. A number of them represent exceptional events, outstanding results that ended on the cover of scientific journals. Others were born from everyday research. All of them show a landscape that is being unraveled by scientists, scenery that is different from the they can see in the media, largely obtained through computer graphics & "artistic" interpretations, when not directly borrowed from science fiction.  Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) makes use of nanoscale metal tips to scan a surface. Here, a standard tip has been modified & sharpened to increase its precision. The tip in the midst of this structure measures a few tens of nanometers. (Picture: G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena; P.Gucciardi, CNR-IPCF, Messina. Artwork: Lucia Covi) Developing new instruments to be able to "see" at the nanoscale is a research field in itself. Shown here is the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM), of the foremost tools for imaging, measuring & manipulating matter at the nanoscale. Here, a platinum electrode measuring hundredth of a nanometer has been deposited on the tip of this pyramid formed AFM tip by focused ion beam (FIB) deposition. (Picture: C. Menozzi, G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)Top view of a hole carved in a polyethylene surface. During a series of experiments the use of a FIB has proven to be very versatile and capable of carving various materials, including plastic. (Image: G.C. Gazzadi, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of quantum dots fabricated through electron beam lithography & later dry-chemical etching on a quasi bidimensional layer (GaAl heterostructure). These structures are used to study the behavior of electrons, which are confined in to small spaces – approximate. ten electrons per dot. The diameter of each quantum dot is 200 nm (which means that a billion of these structure basically fit on the tip of your finger). (Picture: C.P. Garcia, V. Pellegrini , NEST (INFM), Pisa. Artwork: Lucia Covi)SEM picture of a micron sized trench (10x 20x14 µm3) in a Cu/SiO2/Si multilayer, obtained through FIB milling. The precision of this method allows the visualization of ultrathin (tens of nanometers) layers. (Picture: G.C.Gazzadi, S.Frabboni, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)SEM picture of a work sample on a magnesium oxide surface using FIB. The diameter of the hole measures approximate. three µm. (Picture: G.C. Gazzadi, A. Spessot, S3 (INFM-CNR), Modena. Artwork: Lucia Covi)Tiny spaces have formed inside titanium dioxide nanocrystals, as shown in this SEM picture. The square structure of these inside spaces, which measure between twenty nm & 40 nm, is due to the crystalline structure of the material. (Picture: L. Nasi, IMEM (CNR), Parma. Artwork: Lucia Co[...]

Gecko nanotechnology


Animals that cling to walls & walk on ceilings owe this ability to micro- & nanoscale attachment elements. The highest adhesion forces are encountered in geckos. A gecko is the heaviest animal that can 'stand' on a ceiling, with its feet over its head. This is why scientists are intensely researching the adhesive technique of the small hairs on its feet. On the sole of a gecko's toes there's some billion small adhesive hairs, about 200 nanometers in both width & length. These hairs put the gecko in direct physical contact with its surroundings. The shape of the fibers is also significant; for example, spatula-shaped ends on the hairs provide strong adhesion. Researching how insect & gecko feet have evolved to optimize adhesion strength is leading to bio-inspired development of artificial dry adhesive systems. Potential applications range from protective foil for delicate glasses to reusable adhesive fixtures - say goodbye to fridge magnets, here comes the hairy stuff, which will also stick to your mirror, your cupboard & your windows.Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Stuttgart/Germany have explored the bizarre adhesion force of gecko feet for some time now. Back in 2004 they found that there exists an optimal shape of the contact surface of the tip of such hairs which gives rise to optimal adhesion to a substrate by molecular interaction forces ("Shape insensitive optimal adhesion of nanoscale fibrillar structures"). The nanoscale fibrillar structures in the hairy attachment pads of beetle, fly, spider & gecko. The density of surface hairs increases with the body weight of animal, & the gecko has the highest density among all animal species. (Picture: Max Planck Institute for Metals Research/Gorb)  For macroscopic objects, such optimal shape design tends to be unreliable because the adhesion strength is sensitive to small geometrical variations. It is shown that this limitation can be remedied by size reduction.The key finding of this research is that there exists a critical contact size around 100 nanometers below which optimal adhesion can be reliably achieved independent of small variations in the shape of the contact surface. In general, optimal adhesion can be achieved by a mix of size reduction & shape optimization. The smaller the size, the less significant the shape.This result provides a believable explanation why the characteristic size of hairy attachment systems in biology fall in a narrow range between a few hundred nanometer & a few micrometers & suggests a few useful guidelines for designing adhesive structures in engineering.Continuing this research, in 2005 the Max-Planck researchers discovered that the adhesiveness of geckos increases with the amount of humidity ("Evidence for capillarity contributions to gecko adhesion from single spatula nanomechanical measurements" & "Resolving the nanoscale adhesion of individual gecko spatulae by atomic force microscopy").Its foot's adhesive method, whose branches become increasingly smaller over levels, allows the gecko to stick to any ceiling & walk with its feet over its head. Until then, scientists were uncertain as to what mechanism was responsible for the extreme adhesive ability of the gecko. What was clear is that the adhesive method was in other words, that it functioned without secreting anything of its own. In lieu, it makes use of water, which is present as a narrow film on every terrestrial surface.The researchers found that as humidity increases, the capillary forces strengthen & that ultra-thin water layers, like those between a gecko spatula & a substrate, influence the strength of adhesive forces.Copying the biological adhesive mechanism, the Max-Planck scientists used the insights gained from their years of [...]

nanotechnology's Sizing up the science, politics and business of


#arti-main img,#arti-main div{float:left;} nanotechnology's Sizing up the science, politics and business.Nano-this and nano-that. Nanotechnology moves in to the public consciousness. This-nanotrend. has assumed "mega" proportions: Patent offices around the globe are swamped with nanotechnology-related applications; investment advisors compile nanotechnology stock indices and predict a coming boom in nanotechnology stocks with estimates floating around of a trillion-dollar industry within ten years; pundits promise a new world with radically different medical procedures, manufacturing technologies and solutions to environmental problems; nano conferences and trade shows are prospering all over the world; scientific journals are awash in articles dealing with nanoscience discoveries and nanotechnology breakthroughs. Nanotechnology has been plagued by lots of hype, but cynicism and criticism have not been far behind. The media can run amok when news about potential health issues with nanoproducts surface (as recently happened with a product recall for a toilet cleaner in France). These discussions around nanotechnology epitomize the contemporary processes of making the future present. An fascinating approach to dealing with the shortage of consensus in the views on nanotechnology identifies four main nodes of nanotechnology discourse and describes these "islands" of discussion, examines their interactions and degrees of isolation from each other.In a recent paper in the journal Futures ("A map of the nanoworld: Sizing up the science, politics, & business of the infinitesimal") attempts to identify how scientists, policymakers, entrepreneurs, educators, & environmentalists have drawn boundaries on issues relating to nanotechnology; describes concisely the perspectives from which these boundaries are drawn; & explores how boundaries on nanotechnology are marked & negotiated through contestations of power among various nodes of nanotechnology discourse.The method of demarcating boundaries starts with the definition of nanotechnology. Preliminary conceptions of nanotechnology were far more radical than currently realized & even thought about realizable by lots of technoscientists. Molecular manufacturing, self-replicating miniature robots, etc., were conceived of as constituting what their proponents call true nanotechnology. But there is a immense gap between the basic nanostructured materials being manufactured today & the potential of productive nanosystems.Debashish Munshi, Associate Professor in Management Communication at the Waikato Management School in Hamilton, New Zealand, & lead author of the paper, explains to Nanowerk that the authors' analysis of tshe literature on nanotechnology reveals the following five nodes of societal discussion on nanotechnology:(1) technoscientists, especially those either working on or supervising some nanotechnological application who, almost invariably, tend to glorify nanotechnology; (2) leaders of business and industry who want to cash in on the projected benefits by developing a market for nanotechnology-driven products; (3) official or quasi-official bodies that generate a significant amount of literature; (4) social science and humanities researchers who tend to focus on the social, economic, political, legal, religious, philosophical, and ethical implications of nanotechnolgy; (5) fiction writers with imaginative scenarios, both utopian and dystopian; (6) political activists, particularly those with an environmental worldview, who tend to extend to nanotechnology the issues long raised by them with regard to biotechnology; (7) journalists and popular science writers who report on current events, perspectives, and funding regimes relating to the field; and (8) John Q. and J[...]

nanofabrication of armor Nature's bottom-up


#arti-main img,#arti-main div{float:left;} nanofabrication of armor Nature's bottom-up .Seashells are natural armor materials. The necessity for toughness arises because aquatic organisms are subject to fluctuating forces & impacts in the work of motion or through interaction with a moving surroundings. Nacre (mother-of-pearl), the pearly internal layer of plenty of mollusc shells, is the best example of a natural armor material that exhibits structural robustness, despite the brittle nature of their ceramic constituents. This material consists of about 95% inorganic aragonite with only a few percent of organic biopolymer by volume. New research at the university of South Carolina reveals the toughening secrets in nacre: rotation & deformation of aragonite nanograins absorb energy in the deformation of nacre. The aragonite nanograins in nacre are not brittle but deformable. The new findings may lead to the development of ultra-tough nanocomposites, for example for armor material, by realizing the rotation mechanism.Super-tough and ultra-high temperature resistant materials are in critical need for applications under extreme conditions such as jet engines, power turbines, catalytic heat exchangers, military armors, aircrafts, and spacecrafts. Structural ceramics have largely failed to fulfill their promise of revolutionizing engines with strong materials that withstand very high temperature. The major problem with the use of ceramics as structural materials is their brittleness. Although many attempts have been made to increase their toughness, including incorporation of fibers, whiskers, or particles, and ZrO2 phase transformation toughening, currently available ceramics and their composites are still not as tough as metals and polymers. The brittleness of ceramic materials has not yet been overcome. It has proven difficult to solve this problem by conventional approaches. On the other hand, Nature has evolved complex bottom-up methods for fabricating ordered nanostructured materials that often have extraordinary mechanical strength and toughness. One of the best examples is nacre. It has evolved through millions of years to a level of optimization not currently achieved in engineered composites.This material has a brick-and-mortar-like structure with highly organized polygonal aragonite platelets of a thickness ranging from 200 to 500 nm and an edge length about 5 µm sandwiched with a 5-20 nm thick organic biopolymer interlayer, which assembles the aragonite platelets together. The combination of the soft organic biopolymer and the hard inorganic calcium carbonate produces a lamellar composite with a 2-fold increase in strength and a 1000-fold increase in toughness over its constituent materials.Such remarkable properties have motivated many researchers to synthesize biomimetic nanocomposites that attempt to reproduce nature’s achievements and to understand the toughening and deformation mechanisms of natural nanocomposite materials. Dr. Xiaodong Li, who heads the Nanostructures and Reliability Laboratory at the University of South Carolina, and his team have published papers that examine the role of nanostructures in the brilliant properties of nacre. In a first paper (" Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Characterization of a Natural Nanocomposite Material: The Shell of Red Abalone"), the group reported the discovery of nanosized grains (particles) in nacre. However, the functionality of these aragonite nanograins was entirely unknown. Subsequently, lots of research groups asked: What roles do the nanoscale structures play in the inelasticity and toughening of nacre? Can they learn from this to produce nacre-like nanocomposites?In a recent follow-up paper, Li and his group now reveal the functionality of these[...]

the wunderkind nanotechnology in pharmaceutics: Creating multifunctional nanocarriers


#arti-main img,#arti-main div{float:left;} the wunderkind nanotechnology in pharmaceutics: Creating multifunctional nanocarriers.The last few years saw tremendous progress in the use of nanoparticles to enhance the in vivo efficiency of many drugs. Currently used pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties, such as for instance increased longevity in the blood, specific targeting to certain disease sites, or enhanced intracellular penetration. Some of these pharmaceutical carriers have already made their way into clinics, while others are still under preclinical development. In the next phase of developing nanocarriers, researchers are intrigued by the possibility to synthesize pharmaceutical nanocarriers that possess not only one but several properties. Such particles can significantly enhance the efficacy of many therapeutic and diagnostic protocols. A brandnew review paper considers current status and possible future directions in the emerging area of multifunctional nanocarriers with primary attention on the combination of such properties as longevity, targetability, intracellular penetration and contrast loading.Vladimir P. Torchilin, Distinguished Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Director of the Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Nanomedicine at Northeastern University, described to Nanowerk how such nanocarriers would work: "One may want to have a drug-loaded nanocarrier demonstrating the following set of properties: (a) prolonged circulation in the blood; (b) ability to accumulate – specifically or non-specifically – in the required pathological zone, (c) responsiveness to local stimuli, such as pH and/or temperature changes, resulting, for example, in accelerated drug release, (d) allow for an effective intracellular drug delivery and further to individual cell organelles, and (e) bear a contrast/reporter moiety allowing for the real-time observation of its accumulation inside the target. Some other, more exotic properties can be added to the list, such as magnetic sensitivity." In order to prepare such a smart multifunctional pharmaceutical nanocarrier, chemical moieties providing certain required individual properties have to be simultaneously assembled on the surface of the same nanoparticle. Moreover, these individual moieties have to function in a certain coordinated way to provide a desired combination of useful properties.Torchilin cautions that systems like these still represent quite a challenge to researchers. The schematic structure of the assembly of the multifunctional pharmaceutical nanocarrier. 1 – Traditional “plain” nanocarrier (a – drug loaded into the carrier); 2 – targeted nanocarrier or immunocarrier (b – specific targeting ligand, usually a monoclonal antibody, attached to the carrier surface); 3 – magnetic nanocarrier (c – magnetic particles loaded into the carrier together with the drug and allowing for the carrier sensitivity towards the external magnetic field and its use as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging); 4 – long-circulating nanocarrier (d – surface-attached protecting polymer (usually PEG) allowing for prolonged circulation of the nanocarrier in the blood); 5 – contrast nanocarrier for imaging purposes (e – heavy metal atom – 111In, 99mTc, Gd, Mn – loaded onto the nanocarrier via the carrier-incorporated chelating moiety for gamma- or MR imaging application); 6 – cell-penetrating nanocarrier (f – cell-penetrating peptide, CPP, attached to the carrier surface and allowing for the carrier enhanced uptake by the cells); 7 – DNA-carrying nanocarrier such as lipoplex or polyple[...]

Community Members Euronanoforum in Hungary Attracts 1200 Nanotechnology


1200 members of the nanotechnology community from over 50 countries gathered in Budapest, Hungary, for days of presentations, networking & inspiration in the work of EuroNanoForum 2011. The event was supported by the European Commission & Hungarian National Innovation Fund, & was organised by the National Innovation Office in partnership with Spinverse under the auspices of the Hungarian Presidency.The event was also able to contribute to the continued discussion about the future of nanotechnology both in terms of the continued work to support Key Enabling Technologies & the Common Strategic Framework. An industrial panel in the work of the closing plenary discussed ways in which public funding could contribute to the whole innovation pipeline, from research through demonstration to commercialisation & deployment.The event drew together nanotechnologies which could contribute to the solution of grand challenges, including renewable energy, ageing populations, & resource efficiency. Presenters described hundreds of solutions such as nanoparticle-based cancer therapies, retinal & cochlear implants, nanomaterials for improving energy density of batteries & mass production of flexible solar cells, & materials to improve the performance & energy efficiency of electronics. A plenary presentation on the potential applications of graphene also underlined the fact that nanotechnology is being constantly expanded by new developments & discoveries.The event hosted a venture capital session, where leading investors from Europe gave awards for start-up companies. The winner of Best Start-up Award was Nanoference from Denmark with its ambitious, disruptive business plan based on scientific discovery. Skeleton Technologies from Estonia got a special mention for a very well structured pitch. General observation from the session was that Europe is walking short of venture capital funds. More public funding & tax policies were expected to speed up growth of European start-ups. Research funding needs to be complemented with instruments that support also product development & business development.Athanasios Skouras from University of Patlas received the EuroNanoForum 2011 award for the best poster introduced by a young researcher. An exhibition accompanied the event, at which 60 organisations introduced themselves. The best exhibitors, as voted for by attendees included NanoNext, the Netherlands nanotechnology network, the NMPTeAM network of national contact points, & Estonian electrospinning pioneer Esfil Tehno. A matchmaking event on 1st June also saw 425 meetings happen, stimulating networking for know-how transfer & for new project consortia.Pekka Koponen, CEO of Spinverse, added that "the high interest in this event, & the number of exhibitors, industrial participants & close to market nanotechnology developments confirm our own research which shows that nanotechnology has become highly relevant for competitiveness & growth.""This event has exceeded our expectations, & they were delighted to be able to host so plenty of members of the European nanotechnology community. Simultaneously this was a great opportunity to present Hungarian nanotechnology research activities & results to the European nanotechnology community. They hope the developments & discussions that have taken place in the work of this event will bear fruit for Europe in the coming years," commented Gyorgy Meszaros, President of the National Innovation Office of Hungary.[...]

Researchers Create Improved Sodium-Manganese Oxide Re-chargeable Batteries Using Nanomaterials


A team of scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the Department of Energy are working together with researchers from the Wuhan University in China to manufacture electrodes using nanomaterials that can function well with sodium.

The electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries consist of manganese oxide. When batteries are charged or in use, the atoms present in this metal oxide form numerous tunnels and holes and enable the free movement of lithium ions. The free motion of lithium ions allows the battery to either retain power or release it. Replacing the lithium ions with sodium ions is challenging. Sodium ions are 70% larger than lithium ions and do not accommodate well in the crevices.

Researchers tried to make larger holes in manganese oxide with the use of nanomaterials. These materials are about a million times smaller than a dime.

The team combined different types of atomic building blocks of manganese oxide of which block had atoms that arranged themselves in pyramids and the other block atoms that formed an octahedron and predicted that the resultant material would have huge S-shaped tunnels and little five-sided tunnels for ions to pass. Following the mixing, the team subjected the materials to temperatures from 450°C to 900°C. Next, they observed the materials and evaluated the most effective type of treatment.

With the help of a scanning electron microscope, the team found that the quality of material differed at different temperatures. When manganese oxide was treated at 750°C, it created the most effective crystals. When heated to 600°C, the nanowires featured pockmarks that could obstruct the sodium ions, but the 750°C-treated wires appeared even and crystalline.

The electrode was dipped in electrolyte comprising sodium ions enabling the electrodes to generate a current. They charged and discharged the new battery cells continually. The peak capacity was recorded as 128 mA/g of electrode in the coursework of discharge of the new battery cell.

Finally, the team charged the experimental battery cell at various speeds to choose the time it takes to take up electricity. The faster the battery got charged, the lesser electricity it could retain. Thus, it was established that the rate at which sodium ions diffused in to the manganese oxide restricted the capacity of the battery cell.

To Enforce Government Regulations Research Focuses on Health Hazards due to Nanomaterials


Occupational health and safety professional of the Southeastern Louisiana University is citing the gap in knowledge for state agencies to regulate the use of nanomaterials. Precautionary measures must be taken to deal with safety and health issues that arise owing to usage of nanomaterials of dimensions smaller than the width of a human hair.

The Assistant professor of occupational safety, health, and surroundings of southeastern Louisiana University, Ephraim Massawe, is inquiring in to the information and technical requirements of the country's state agencies and programs. They has started analyzing the nano-enhanced technologies and work practices implemented at several superfund sites of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Louisiana Board of Regents is supportive of the research work by providing grants at a value of very $110,000 for a three-year period.

Engineered nanoparticles have been used in several commercial and non commercial applications such as in medicine, manufacturing, and environmental remediation.

Massawe said that the manner in which nanomaterials may react with the environment and the human body is yet to be discovered. They said that animal studies recommend that definite nanomaterials may contribute to pregnancy complications and lung diseases. A complete survey will be conducted on state agencies and programs to set up the scientific information and technical requirements for regulatory and oversight purposes. The information collected will help state agencies and programs to manage the environmental and occupational exposures to nanomaterials.

The nanotechnology field is in its preliminary stages, Massawe said, and enforcement and regulations concerning the manufacture, disposal, and use of nanomaterials are in their evolution stage. They said that nanomaterials are currently used to eliminate harmful wastes such as organic contaminants. They is also studying the treatment process of dangerous wastes, the nature of nanomaterials used in treatment, the practices used to handle them and the sources of potential emission. They conducted this study along with specialists from the EPA, the national institute for occupational safety and health and the United Nations.

Massawe will study closely the use of definite engineered nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide and their usage in tidy up activities at EPA Superfund sites. They said it is important to know how they are being handled in these sites and whether they may contaminate the air and pose as a health hazard to the nearby community. It is also feasible that they may enter water systems and turn out to be a threat for public health.

Nanopositioning Systems New Featuring Details Catalog by PI


PIs New Nanopositioning Systems Catalog

Physik Instrumente (PI), a company that manufactures high-accuracy motion-control devices and nanopositioning stages for semiconductor, bio-medical, nanotechnology and imaging applications, introduces a nanopositioning catalog.
The catalog consists of 160 pages and concentrates on nanopositioning systems based on piezo-flexure that can cover tiny distances as tiny as an atom diameter repetitively. It explains in detail about the ways to get multi-axis movement such as serial and parallel kinematics. Serial Kinematics is an simple and cost-effective process when compared to parallel kinematics. The catalog covers both XY and XYZ stages and tip/tilt platforms necessary for imaging, adaptive optics, nanometrology, scanning microscopy, and laser beam steering.

The company also manufactures piezo motors, piezo nanopositioning systems and actuators for a broad range of applications. The catalog offers details about piezo nanopositioning and scanning systems.

The catalog also features ceramic precision linear motors, innovative hybrid systems, and parallel kinematic positioners that are dual-axis systems with six-axis hexapods. A specific section of the catalog elaborates on digital nanopositioning controllers. This section explains about the application necessary, discusses interfacing options and various digital servo control algorithms and models to accomplish high levels of linearity in dynamic and static applications.

What is Nanotechnology?


Despite unprecedented government funding and public interest in nanotechnology, few can exactly define the scope, range or potential applications of this know-how. of the most pressing issues facing nanoscientists and technologists today is that of communicating with the non-scientific community. Because of decades of speculation, a few myths have grown up around the field, making it difficult for the general public, or indeed the business and financial communities, to understand what is a essential shift in the way they look at our interactions with the natural world. This editorial attempts to address a quantity of these misconceptions, and report why scientists, businesses and governments are spending giant amounts of time and funds on nanoscale research and development.1. IntroductionTake a random choice of scientists, engineers, investors and the general public and ask them what nanotechnology is and you will receive a range of replies as broad as nanotechnology itself. For plenty of scientists, it is nothing startlingly new; after all they have been working at the nanoscale for plenty of years, through electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopies or basically growing and analysing narrow films. For most other groups, however, nanotechnology means something far more ambitious, miniature submarines in the bloodstream, little cogs and gears made out of atoms, space elevators made of nanotubes, and the colonization of space. It is no wonder people often muddle up nanotechnology with science What is nanotechnology?two. What is the nanoscale?Although a metre is defined by the International Standards Organization as `the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum in the coursework of a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second' and a nanometre is by definition 10- 9 of a metre, this does not help scientists to communicate the nanoscale to non-scientists. It is in human nature to relate sizes by reference to everyday objects, and the commonest definition of nanotechnology is in relation to the width of a human hair.Regrettably, human hairs are highly variable, ranging from tens to hundreds of microns in diameter (10-6 of a metre), depending on the colour, type and the part of the body from which they are taken, so what is necessary is a standard to which they can relate the nanoscale. than asking someone to imagine a millionth or a billionth of something, which few sane people can accomplish with ease, relating nanotechnology to atoms often makes the nanometre simpler to imagine. While few non-scientists have a clear idea of how giant an atom is, defining a nanometre as the size of ten hydrogen, or three silicon atoms in a line is within the power of the human mind to grasp. The exact size of the atoms is less significant than communicating the fact that nanotechnology is dealing with the smallest parts of matter that they can manipulate.two. Science fictionWhile there is a often held belief that nanotechnology is a futuristic science with applications 25 years in the future and beyond, nanotechnology is anything but science fiction. In the last 15 years over a dozen Nobel prizes have been awarded in nanotechnology, from the development of the scanning probe microscope (SPM), to the discovery of fullerenes. According to CMP Científica, over 600 companies are currently active in nanotechnology, from little venture capital backed start-ups to a quantity of the world's largest corporations such as IBM and Samsung. Governments and corporations worldwide have ploughed over $4 billion in to nanotechnology in the last year alone.  every univer[...]

Back To Original Shape After Being Crumpled? Breakthrough Produces Metal Rubber Flexible Metal Sheets Snap by Nanotechnology


once its started, nothing will makes it stop, the nano even comes to Produces Metal Rubber Flexible Metal Sheets


Metal rubber is narrow and can be twisted, folded, or crumpled up, and then immediately snaps back to its original shape. It also conducts electricity like solid metal. This of work has all sorts of industrial applications, including use in consumer electronics, military and aircraft industries, and medical technologies as well. It also has applications in robotics, where metal rubber could be used for robotic skin or flexible circuits. It may even be useful for generating artificial muscles.

A breakthrough in material science has produced a highly pliable metallic substance called "metal rubber." This has been developed by a company called NanoSonic, and is the product of nanotechnology fabrication processes.

While I am not a gigantic fan of the over-hyped nanotechnology field, this particular product of nanotechnology looks promising. A material such as this might potentially revolutionize flexible circuits and make all electronics, whether in robots, medical devices, or airplanes, far more resilient and resistant to fatigue.

Nanotech will kill cancer cells by the Heat treatment



The Treatment No Mater it comes from the Nanotech or else, but the Nano can give you a hand with the cancer cells

The testes -- always a few degrees cooler than the remainder of the body -- are an ideal location for cancer cells, but proof suggests those cells die when they try to spread to other locations around the body.

Testicular cancer patients have a higher survival rate than other cancer patients because the cancer cells are sensitive to body heat, leading the researchers at Johns Hopkins University to conclude heat therapy could be a viable treatment for cancer.

"We tried to put our heads together about what they know about the differences between testicular and other cancers." Getzenberg said in the Journal of the American Medical Association. "There is an fabulous difference in treatment success, and they desired to come up with a simple idea that has a biological basis."

This leads Professor Robert Getzenberg and his colleagues to think the cancer cells would reply well to heat treatment in what they call the "Lance Armstrong effect," after the seven-time Tour de France winner who famously beat testicular cancer. Getzenberg and the other scientists are now experimenting with other heat-based methods of weakening cancer cells.

"These nanoparticles exist now and can be used in the body. The advantages are you don't must put them in every cell as long as you are getting a warming surroundings," Getzenberg said.

The issue with heat therapy would be targeting the cancer cells without doing any damage to the healthy cells. But nanotechnology could permit researchers to make use of ion particles on malignant cells directly by developing them to be drawn to specific markers on the surface of a cancer cell. Five times they bond with the cancer cells, the nanoparticles can be heated using a magnetic field.

Ed Yong, cancer information officer at Cancer Research UK, added, "Nanotechnology is a thrilling new field of science and it is set to play an increasing role in detecting and treating cancers."

But consumer health advocate Mike Adams disagrees. "You don't require nanotechnology or other technical hocus pocus to generate heat and damage cancer cells," they explains. "Just engage in regular physical exercise that makes you hot and produces a healthy sweat. Lance Armstrong didn't beat testicular cancer with nanotechnology, they beat it by pumping his legs on a bicycle."

food industry workers may exposure Nanotech ingredients to unknown health risks



The Nanotech still new after all, and Human's an enemy to what he's ignorant

According to Andrew Maynard, editorial author and chief science advisor to the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, an estimated three million workers will produce about $2.6 trillion worth of nanotechnology manufactured foods a year by 2015. They also quoted other research that predicted nanotechnology would be worth $16.4 billion to the food industry by 2010. According to the Project on Emerging Nanotechnology's online database, there's over 300 nanotechnology products already on the market, including foods, food packaging and dietary supplements.

A study recently published by the British Occupational Hygiene Society suggests that workers who manufacture nanotech foods -- foods containing nanoparticles that are expected to behave in a specific manner -- may be exposed to unknown health risks.

Maynard also complained that, while companies spend upward of $1 billion yearly on nanotech research, they only spend about $11 million on safety studies.

"The presence of engineered nanomaterials in the workplace today poses as an immediate challenge to how occupational safety and health is managed," Maynard said. "So far, they have a variety of red flags that indicate some engineered nanomaterials might present a new or unusual health hazard."

Studies of rats have found that discrete, nanometer-diameter particles could crossing the animals' blood-brain barrier in to the brain itself. Until the effects on humans are known, Maynard suggested nanotechnology businesses initiate "control banding", which would involve making a nanomaterial "impact index" template to assess appropriate risk control guidelines. The index would measure the risk of individual products based on particle size, shape and activity, as well as the amount of material and dustiness.

"This is still very much at the conceptual stage," said Maynard. "But unconventional issues require unconventional solutions, and these in turn will need a serious investment in relevant nanotechnology risk research.

Make Solar Electricity Cheaper Than Coal with Nanosolar


What makes you believe that you cant saving big money and your free to use your Electricity ?
everything is possible with the nanotech

"It's 100 times thinner than existing solar panels, and they can deposit the semiconductors 100 times faster," said Nanosolar's cofounder and chief executive officer, R. Martin Roscheisen. "It's a combination that drives down costs dramatically."

A new combination of nano and solar expertise has made it feasible for solar electric generation to be cheaper than burning coal. Nanosolar, Inc. has developed a way to produce a kind of ink that absorbs solar radiation and converts in to electric current. Photovoltaic (PV) sheets are produced by a machine similar to a printing press, which rolls out the PV ink onto sheets about the width of aluminum foil. These PV sheets can be produced at a rate of hundreds of feet per minute.

Because of their light weight and flexibility, the PV sheets (dubbed PowerSheets) are much more versatile than current PV panels, which must be mounted on sturdy surfaces like roofs or the ground. In addition, because there is no silicon used in the production of the sheets, they cost only 30 cents per watt of power produced.

Traditional PV cells cost about $3 per watt, while burning coal costs about $1 per watt.

Nanosolar is ramping up production of its PowerSheets at factories in San Jose, New york, and Berlin, and expects to have them commercially available before the finish of the year. The excitement around the PowerSheets is so strong that the company already has a to year backorder, and the company has raised over $150 million from venture capitalists, including Google cofounders Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

"This is the first time that they can actually drop the cost of solar electricity down to a level that would be competitive with grid electricity in most industrialized nations," said Nanosolar co-founder Brian Sager.

"Solar panels have not been popular to the American people because they have been pricey. That is what we are changing now," Roscheisen said.

too secretive nanoparticles Food industry


The industry is "very reluctant to put its head above the parapet and be open about research on nanotechnology," said study chairperson Lord John Krebs.

The food industry is being secretive about the extent to which it's adopted nanotechnology, according to a document by the United Kingdom's House of Lords Science and Expertise Committee.

"They got their fingers burnt over the use of GM crops and so they require to keep a low profile on this issue. They think that they ought to adopt exactly the opposite approach. In case you require to build confidence you ought to be open than secretive."

Nanotechnology refers to the practice of manipulating particles on the scale of one-billionth of a meter. Particles of this size behave in a fundamentally different fashion than they do on the more familiar scale, producing a wide range of novel applications. Because nanoparticles are not currently regulated any differently than larger particles, they are already making their way in to consumer products, from sunscreens and cosmetics to clothing and sporting goods. Their industrial and medical makes use of are also being explored.

It is "regrettable that the food industry [is] refusing to discuss its work in the area," the document says.

The food industry is inquiring in to ways that nanotechnology can be used for applications such as flavor or even nutritional enhancement, but has taken advantage of the regulatory loophole to keep these practices secret.

"We are not clear what is out there in use at the moment," Krebs said.

According to the Project on Emerging Nanotechnolgies, there's at least 84 food-related products making use of nanotechnology already. Yet due to industry secrecy, such numbers are necessarily speculative and probably underestimates.

The document estimates that the nanotechnology market will balloon from its current value of $410 million to over $4.1 billion in the next years.

treasure of the green nanotechnology might be in Cinnamon


(NaturalNews) Gold nanoparticles, so brilliantly tiny they can not be seen by the bare eye, are used in electronics, healthcare products and as pharmaceuticals in some cancer treatments. Regrettably, the positive applications of gold nanoparticles come with a downside -- producing the nanoparticles requires very poisonous chemicals and harmful acids. And, because the nanotechnology industry is expected to produce giant quantities of nanoparticles in the immediate future, serious concerns are being raised over the environmental impact of the global nanotechnological revolution and its current need for poisonous materials.

But now University of Missouri (UM) scientists have found a way to make "green" nanotechnology by replacing all of the poisonous chemicals necessary to make gold nanoparticles. How can this be accomplished? By using a spice present in most kitchens -- cinnamon.

There is another benefit, . "Our gold nanoparticles are not only ecologically and biologically benign, they are also biologically active against cancer cells," Dr. Katti announced in a statement to the media.

For their study, which was recently published in the journal Pharmaceutical Research, MU scientist Kattesh Katti, professor of radiology and physics in the School of Medicine and the College of Arts and Science, senior research scientist at the University of Missouri Research Reactor and director of the Cancer Nanotechnology Platform, and his research team combined gold salts with cinnamon and stirred the mixture in water to synthesize gold nanoparticles. This new method not only makes use of no poisonous materials, but it doesn't need any electricity, either.

While conducting their research, the scientists discovered that natural phytochemicals in cinnamon are released when the nanoparticles are created -- and these phytochemicals combined with gold nanoparticles form a promising treatment for cancer. That is because the phytochemicals are carried by the gold nanoparticles in to cancer cells and assist in the destruction or imaging of malignancies.

"From our work in green nanotechnology, it is clear that cinnamon -- and other species such as herbs, leaves and seeds -- will serve as a reservoir of phytochemicals and has the capability to convert metals in to nanoparticles," Dr. Katti said in a statement to the media. "Therefore, our approach to 'green' nanotechnology creates a renaissance symbolizing the indispensable role of Father Nature in all future nanotechnological developments."

Dr. Katti, who is the editor of The International Journal of Green Nanotechnology, added that as more makes use of for nanotechnology are created, it is crucial that scientists find ways to establish a workable connection between nanotechnology and green science.

"Nano-Foods" will be soon near your house


    Imagine that your going someday to buy for Nanofoods


most of this research is going on in secret because of fears over how the public will reply. Like genetically-modified organisms (GMs), nano-modifying food involves literally changing its molecular properties, which has never been proven safe. So naturally, consumers are likely to reject NM food if given the choice.
 The scientific community has an five times again caught food-tampering fever. Recent reports indicate that food scientists are busy developing nanoparticle-modified (NM) food that could day finish up on your dinner plate -- and you may never even know it. By shifting around nanoparticles, food scientists say that fat-free foods can taste likes full-fat foods, and they can be programmed to digest more slowly--two changes that some say may help reverse the obesity epidemic.

"These particles could be hazardous and they must know more about their effects both in the body and in the environment," said Frans Kampers, coordinator of research on food nanotechnology at Wageningen and Research Middle in the Netherlands. "Since these particles are small, they canâ ¦enter cells or even the nucleus of a cell if they have the right characteristics." 

The said objective of nanotechnology research in food is to generate foods that behave differently than actual ones in terms of digestion, assimilation, taste and nutritional value. By altering the "nano-structure" of food, so to speak, NM food can be programmed to make people feel fuller faster, for example. And nutrients in food may even be nano-encapsulated to release at timed intervals to specific parts of the body.

Although NM food has yet to see the light day, the European Union (EU) is already taking proactive steps to make positive that, if it does make it to consumers, NM food will at least be regulated and labelled. Thus, the EU has developed a research project called NanoLyse to address the "very limited knowledge [that is] available on the potential impact of engineered nanoparticles on consumers' health."