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Strengthen bones meds and esophageal cancer

Sun, 05 Sep 2010 14:48:00 +0000

Those who follow the long-term treatment with drugs to strengthen bones shows an almost double risk of developing esophageal cancer, a study conducted by a team of researchers at Oxford University.

The study involved about 80,000 patients and took place over seven years.
Results showed that the number of people who used drugs to strengthen bones (by mouth) and have developed esophageal cancer was 1.93 higher than the number of people who have not used such drugs.

Although the results of this research suggests that drugs against osteoporosis may have an influence on the development of cancer, more studies are needed to determine the exact role and mechanism of such effect.

Researcher Jane Green said that those following treatment with drugs against osteoporosis do not have to worry; the risk of developing esophageal cancer is quite low and can be neglected.





Vitamin D Plus Calcium Does Not Cut Breast Cancer Risk..?

Sat, 24 Jul 2010 01:47:00 +0000

Some earlier research has suggested that vitamin D and calcium supplements might reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, as well as improve outcomes for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

The very large study reviewed here found that post-menopausal women who took vitamin D and calcium supplements had the same risk of developing breast cancer as women who took a placebo (dummy pill). So vitamin D and calcium supplements didn't seem to reduce breast cancer risk in this study.

These results are from a large study called the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). More than 36,000 post-menopausal women took part in the WHI. The WHI looked at many aspects of women's health, including bone health, cardiovascular health, and cancer risk.

Half of the women in the WHI took vitamin D and calcium supplements. The women took 400 IU (international units) of vitamin D per day and 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day. The other half of the women took placebo pills that looked like the supplements. The women were followed for about 7 years.

The vitamin D and calcium supplements didn't reduce breast cancer risk. The number of women who developed either invasive or non-invasive breast cancer was the same in both the supplement group and the placebo group.

The vitamin D and calcium supplements didn't influence breast cancer prognosis or outcome. Among the women who developed breast cancer, the stage of the cancer at diagnosis and survival during and after treatment were the same in both the supplement and the placebo group.

The researchers think that more research is needed before we're absolutely sure that vitamin D and calcium supplements don't lower breast cancer risk. It might be that a higher daily dose of vitamin D could lower risk. Even though vitamin D and calcium supplements didn't lower risk in this study, taking these two supplements can be important to maintain bone health. If you're a post-menopausal woman, you might want to ask your doctor whether vitamin D and calcium supplements make sense for you.

articles source :

Coffee Drinking Does Not Raise Breast Cancer Risk

Fri, 04 Jun 2010 01:53:00 +0000

The large study reviewed here offers a reassuring message for coffee drinkers: caffeine, even in large amounts, doesn't increase breast cancer risk. These results add to other research that also has found no link between caffeine and breast cancer risk.

The researchers looked at the health information of more than 39,000 women who participated in the Women's Health Study. None of the women had been diagnosed with breast cancer when the study started. Questionnaires asked the women about their diets, including how much caffeine they consumed each day. Most of the caffeine came from coffee, but tea, diet and regular cola, and chocolate also added to daily caffeine consumption:

* 24% of the women never drank coffee
* 33% of the women drank two to three cups of coffee per day
* 15% of the women drank at least four cups of coffee per day

The researchers compared the caffeine intake of women who developed breast cancer to the caffeine intake of women who didn't develop breast cancer. The analysis found no link between overall breast cancer risk and caffeine intake. The way the caffeine was consumed (in coffee, tea, cola, or chocolate) also didn't have any effect on risk.

The results did show a slight increase in the risk of hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer among women who consumed the largest daily amounts of caffeine, but the researchers said this increase was likely due to chance and not due to caffeine consumption.

The researchers also found slight increases in risk among women with a history of non-cancerous breast disease who consumed large amounts of caffeine daily. Still, this increase also was likely due to chance and not due to caffeine consumption.

While there seems to be no link between caffeine and breast cancer risk, other diet and lifestyle choices can affect your risk of breast cancer. Visit the Lower Your Risk section to learn about diet and lifestyle options to keep your risk as low as it can be.
artcles soource from :

Family history raises breast cancer risk for life

Mon, 24 May 2010 02:01:00 +0000

This very large research study done in Sweden found that the sisters of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher than average risk of breast cancer. This increased breast cancer risk lasts a lifetime.

These results are important because some doctors thought that a sister of a woman diagnosed with breast cancer was at higher risk only when she was about the age when her sister was diagnosed.

Though sisters of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a lifetime increased risk of disease, the researchers found that the amount of increased risk changed over time. Between ages 20 and 40, sisters of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a nearly 6.5 times higher than average risk of breast cancer. After age 50, this risk drops to about double the average risk of breast cancer. This pattern was the same no matter how old the first sister in the family was when diagnosed with breast cancer.

These results are credible because the researchers looked at medical information from more than 16,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer and almost 24,000 sisters of these women. The medical information included more than 40 years of health care records for these women. Sweden has a national health care system with standard ways of keeping medical records, which makes it possible to do research like this.

If you're a woman whose sister has been diagnosed with breast cancer (if you've been diagnosed, pass this on to your sisters), you might want to consider:

* Talking to your doctor about whether a breast cancer screening plan for high risk women risk makes sense for you. This might mean starting screening before the usual starting age of 40. The study reviewed here found that sisters had the highest risk when they were between ages 20 and 40. Your screening plan might include breast ultrasound and MRI, as well as mammograms.
* Sticking to your screening plan as you get older because your increased risk of breast cancer lasts a lifetime.
* Talking to your doctor about whether genetic testing for abnormal breast cancer genes makes sense based on your sister's history and other family medical history.
* Doing all that you can to keep your breast cancer risk as low as it can be. While you can't change your genes, you can make healthy diet, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can lower your risk.
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treatment of cancer-compliance in patients undergoing therapy or treatment process is determining the healing ... ..

Sat, 24 Apr 2010 00:59:00 +0000

Many of the impact caused cancer disease. The first impact of course because the number of deaths it causes is very high. Both costs incurred for the treatment process is also not small. As where we know that the drugs needed for treatment and surgery performed on patients healing process certainly is not small. With regard to the drugs we know that more than 90 of the Indonesian medicinal raw materials to be imported from other countries, and this of course I make drug prices become very expensive. Cancer treatment process itself takes a long time. Usually consists of several cycles that must be passed by the patient. Here again the problem will arise about patient compliance in following the therapy process.

The success of the healing process is supported by how fast the disease is detected and the extent of patient compliance in undergoing the process of therapy or treatment. The faster the cancer is detected (early stage), the higher the level of success to achieve healing. This success is also directly proportional to the level of patient adherence to follow the process of therapy. The process of cancer development is divided into four stages / phases. Phase I is the phase where the cancer is still localized to one part of the body, such as the one titi in breast, lung, and others. In phase II cancer has begun to develop in parts of the body becomes more widespread. Phase III development, even worse. Phase II and III of its development process is still in one organ of the body. Phase IV is the most dreaded phase in which the cancer has spread, or in terms of experiencing health-organ metastasis to other body organs. In this last phase of the healing process becomes very difficult. Usually treatment efforts aimed at reducing the level of pain alone or improve the quality of life of patients. Many patients who come to the hospital has entered the final stages of this disease.

Factor of patient compliance in undergoing the treatment process is also very decisive recovery. Disin Compliance includes adherence to follow the treatment schedule is usually already determined in accordance with the selected treatment protocol. This treatment protocol usually consists of several cycles such as five cycles. The distance between one cycle to the next cycle also depends on the protocol selected. There is a distance of 1 month and so forth. Compliance in following the process that should be considered by the patient or patient's family. This treatment cycle should be followed through to completion should not cut off. Cancer cells are cells very quickly to the development far exceeds the body's cells are normal. If the process does not complete treatment, the cells can grow again into more. Disobedience against this treatment cycle could have been caused by the cost factor. Because the cost of cancer treatment is not small, so that the community develops a memplesetkan slogan cancer with dry bag. That is indeed a disease that makes wealth we have depleted to treatment.

cervical cancer patients who died in the world as much as 600 people per day.

Sat, 24 Apr 2010 00:30:00 +0000

Teenage women have a risk of cervical cancer due to transmission of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Three out of four cases of new HPV infections occur in women aged 15 to 25 years.

The number of patients who died of cervical cancer in the world as many as 600 people per day. In Indonesia, 20 women die every day due to this cancer. Meanwhile, worldwide an estimated 630 million women suffer from cervical cancer.

At age 20's, women's bodies are very susceptible to HPV and the body is not possible to clean the virus. "So cancer may develop later in life," said Dr. Melissa Luwia of Indonesia in the discussion Cancer Foundation campaign and efforts to address cervical cancer in Lumire Hotel Jakarta, Monday, April 12, 2010.

The study reveals, HPV infections occur in the first two-three years after sexually active. The findings of the cases, about 50 percent of women who suffer from cervical cancer aged 35-55 years.

However, due to an infection that occurs when a young age. Transmission of HPV not only through sexual intercourse, but all activities that allow for sex contacts.

Cervical cancer is caused by high risk HPV in the cervix that connects the genitals and womb. If not immediately detected at an early stage, will develop into precancerous cells and cancer. Meanwhile, low-risk HPV types typically cause genital warts (genital warts) which grows in the genital area.

For parents with young teenage girls, better pay attention to prevention of cervical cancer early. Doctor Melissa says its prevention, among others, perform routine checks to determine the health of genitals and vaccine delivery.

Breast Cancer and Vitamin D

Mon, 05 Apr 2010 09:37:00 +0000

A recent study by U.S. scientists has shown that almost 70% of women living with breast cancer who participated in the study show a deficiency of vitamin D in the body.

Although according to the U.S. Institute of Medicine of the optimal amount of vitamin D in the body should be about 32 nanograms per milliliter of vitamin D, results have shown much smaller amounts of about 27 nanograms per milliliter.

These results are not surprising, as other previous studies have shown that most people have studied various nutrient deficiencies in the body, but cautions that women suffering from breast cancer are more exposed, as if their vitamin D deficiency has a high greater danger. Vitamin D deficiency, aggravated due to chemotherapy and other treatments followed may have adverse effects on sick: increased fatigue, muscle pain, bone less strong (increased risk of fractures), heart rhythm disturbances, low body immunity, sleep irregularities, sudden changes of mood, depression.

Vitamin D has an important role for calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the body, produces vitamin D deficiency and deficiencies of calcium and phosphorus, the drawbacks caused by them.

Consequently, it is necessary to administer additional vitamin D women suffering from breast cancer and follow strict level of this vitamin in their body.

Vitamin D can be obtained either by sunlight (beware duration of exposure) and in various foods: fish oil, fish, eggs (yolk), milk, cereals.





cancer treatment side effects like hair loss

Wed, 24 Mar 2010 01:32:00 +0000

Other factors that also may factor cauAnother May Also Cause That Often patients are reluctant to continue treatment because of side effects caused by the use of cancer drugs cause discomfort That Often Sometimes. Indeed, cancer drugs, is recognized as one of the drugs have many side effects. Some cans That Arise effects like hair loss, decreased endurance, thrush, nausea, vomiting and so forth. Enough complaints of side effects experienced by patients with high prevalence. We Are But faced with a condition to select the benefits and harms. For the case of cancer treatment benefits far outweigh the inconvenience caused by drug side effects.

Breast cancer in younger women

Wed, 24 Feb 2010 00:55:00 +0000

Younger Women Need Mammograms TooAge-related recommendations for annual mammogram screenings are usually made by government-backed researchers and advisors. These recommendations don’t restrict women from getting mammograms. Instead they recommend the age at which their research shows annual mammogram screenings should begin. In the U.K. the recommended age is 50. It’s a little better in the U.S. where the recommended age is 40.These age recommendations have actually had an unintended consequence. They’ve led many younger women to believe that they’re “too young to get breast cancer.” But this simply isn’t true. More and more non-menopausal women in their thirties and forties are being diagnosed with breast cancer.Many of these diagnoses are made after the onset of symptoms. Unfortunately, that’s usually when breast cancer is more difficult to treat. Had these women started screening for breast cancer sooner, some of their cancers may have been detected earlier.Breast cancer doesn’t discriminateYoung women everywhere need to know that when it comes to breast cancer, age doesn’t matter. But because younger women aren’t routinely screened for breast cancer, many learn of their cancer after it has advanced to a later stage. As a result, too many young women are dying from the disease. Sadly, breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women between the ages of 35 and 54.Even when they realize that they’re not too young to get breast cancer many women still forgo regular mammogram screenings primarily because of the cost. A mammogram costs about £200 (or about $290) and for older women, the cost is typically covered by NHS or in the U.S. by health insurance. Usually the only time a younger woman’s mammogram is free is when her GP orders it after a lump has been found or when the procedure is covered by a corporate screening program.Another complicating factor is that younger women’s breasts usually are denser. Dense tissue is a risk factor for developing breast cancer, and the tumors that develop in dense breast are often more aggressive. Lumps or abnormalities in dense breast tissue are better detected using newer digital mammography, but digital mammography costs even more than traditional film mammography.All of this should be reason enough to convince policymakers to lower the age recommendations so that younger women have the same access to this potentially life- saving screening. But lowering the recommended age will cost money – lots of it – and that’s something most governments simply can’t afford.Breast cancer a global problemOn a separate but related note, 2008 statistics compiled by the U.N. cancer research agency show that worldwide, breast cancer was the second most common form of cancer, with 1.38 million new cases diagnosed that year.A diagnosis of breast cancer is upsetting at any age. Fortunately, earlier breast cancer detection usually translates into more treatment options, less surgery and better survival rates. And those may be the best reasons women have to continue fighting for access to low- or no-cost annual mammograms regardless of age.source from :[...]

world cancer day-cancer ranked first as the cause of death

Fri, 05 Feb 2010 01:55:00 +0000

Cancer Day is celebrated worldwide on the basis of WHO's calendar every year on February 4. This celebration was necessary given the current cancer remains a serious problem throughout the world both in countries that have developed, especially in countries that are still developing. According to latest data released by WHO in 2004, cancer ranked first as the cause of death with the number of deaths reached 7.4 million people or 13% of total deaths. Among the number of lung cancer deaths, stomach, liver, colon cancer, and breast cancer ranked highest. When viewed from the male gender on the type of cancer that most high frequency is a cancer of the lung, liver, colorectal, esophageal, and prostate, whereas in women with breast cancer, lung, stomach, colorectal and cervical cancer .. Based on research, in fact 30% of deaths caused by this disease can be prevented by proper treatment and care. The number of cancer patients is expected to increase from year to year with an estimated total of 12 million souls in 2030 the WHO also says every year there are 6.25 million new people who are suffering from cancer

What is ORAC?

Sat, 09 Jan 2010 09:47:00 +0000

Free radicals have an important role in large number of biological processes, some of which are necessary for life, such as the intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytic cells such as granulocytes and macrophages. Free radicals have also been implicated in certain cell signaling processes. Many diseases have their origin in inadequate free radicals activity in the body. Many forms of cancer are thought to be the result of reactions between free radicals and DNA, resulting in mutations that can adversely affect the cell cycle and potentially lead to malignancy. Some of the symptoms of aging such as atherosclerosis are also attributed to free-radical induced oxidation of many of the chemicals making up the body. In addition free radicals contribute to alcohol-induced liver damage, perhaps more than alcohol itself. Radicals in cigarette smoke have been implicated in inactivation of alpha 1-antitrypsin in the lung. This process promotes the development of emphysema.

Knowing this, there was developed a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples. The method is called ORAC – an acronym for Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. It has been discovered that a small group of super foods have up to twenty times the antioxidant power of other foods. This is why everybody recommends us to eat vegetables and fruits. It is recommended that we eat foods containing at least 3,000 ORAC units a day.

Here is a table containing some foods and their ORAC score.






Cervical Cancer II - symptoms, treatment, conclusion

Sat, 02 Jan 2010 10:32:00 +0000

The main symptoms of cervical cancer are lack of appetite, weight loss, unjustified fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, bleeding and vaginal discharge. Pain and spills that accompany intercourse can also be signs of cervical cancer. HPV infection may be present for a long period without presenting any symptoms.

There are two main types of cervical cancer, but many other cancers may have their origin in the cervical area: melanoma, sarcomas and lymphomas. The main types of cervical cancer are cervical cancer with adenocarcinoma and cervical cancer with squamous cells.

In terms of infection, it must be said that there are over 250 types of HPV virus, types 16 and 18 are responsible for most cases - more than 70%.

There are two major types of treatments, depending on the stage of disease progression. In the early phase of the faction to perform surgical resection of tumor, in advanced stages is radiation therapy and chemotherapy. There is the possibility of combination therapy with Cisplatin (click to see how Cisplatin works) and Hycamtin for cases where the disease is in stage IV B. The rate of survival 5 years after the discovery of disease is good, around 80-90% for cases detected in stage I and 50 -65% for cases detected in stage II. Forecast is much reduced in cases where the disease was discovered late and there are developed metastatic tumor formations. There are also cases where the disease disappears without treatment from the body by the power struggle was self-defense. Therefore it is recommended to follow all the prescriptions for a healthy life.

A few conclusions
As is known, it is much easier to prevent than to cure a disease. Many lives can be saved if a few simple things are taken care of: carrying a healthy life (with a diet low in meat and high in vegetables and fruits, daily consumption of at least 2 liters of good, clean water, respect the hours of rest), making periodic tests to detect disease (Babes-Papanikoli - at least once per year- and other tests) - which should begin within 2-3 years from the beginning of active sexual life (but not later than the age of 21 years), beginning of sexual life at an age appropriate and finding a stable sexual partner.





Cervical Cancer - Introduction

Fri, 01 Jan 2010 11:43:00 +0000

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer affecting the cervix or a certain area of it. Cervical cancer is the fifth type of cancer as number of deaths. Uterine tumor is generally made up of squamous cells, similar to those affecting the head, throat or anus. There are several types of uterine cancer, according to image cancer cells seen through a microscope.

Cervical cancer may have more cause, but the largest number of cases occurs in the cervix following infection with certain strains of human papilloma virus (HPV). The risk is greater for women who have sex with many partners (be they men or women). Other possible cause of cervical cancer are other infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and other infections (including HIV infection), inadequate nutrition, hormonal contraception, multiple pregnancies, family history (genetic factors). List risk factors in uterine cancer could not exclude smoking; it is a risk factor in almost any type of cancer.

The choice of conduct to prevent cervical cancer is vital that potential victims of this disease to focus their efforts on things that you can control: quitting smoking or avoiding habit of the addiction, deviant sexual behavior and avoid choosing a partner Sexual stable, choosing a balanced diet rich in vegetables and fruits. Men and they have an important role in terms of protecting their partners. It appears that circumcision decreases the risk for partner level. (I wonder why God asked the Jews to make circumcision.).

Women can significantly increase your chances of doing a form of uterine cancer or to detect disease in early form, thus saving lives and participating in monitoring programs. There are no exact figures at this point, but it seems that monitoring saves thousands of lives every year.

Incidence of cervical cancer dropped significantly after the appearance of the cervico-vaginal cytology test. It was invented by Georgios Papanikolaou and Aurel Babes (I’m proud to say this is a Romanian scientist), independent of this other. It is a screening method, providing high sensitivity and specificity, invented to detect cellular changes in the uterine cervix.

To be continued





Ways to fight lung cancer

Thu, 10 Dec 2009 15:47:00 +0000

Fighting with the disease - pulmonary cancer - may be taken in a few ways: surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and a combination of these methods of treatment. The decision must be made only by doctors, depending on many factors: tumor location, degree of evolution, the general condition of the patient.

Like in other cancers, doctors can follow a path of direct fight with the disease or a palliative way, in case the chances of cure are very low and action is taken to apply treatments to relieve suffering that come with illness. It can make several types of treatment at the same time, the situation in which the second is as an adjunct treatment for essential treatment to enhance its effects as much as possible. Example: after surgical removal of the tumor is treated with chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells in the body and thereby prevent relapse.

Surgical removal of the tumor is typically used in stage I or II disease, when cancer cells are localized in the lungs sin u were still widespread in the body. Surgical removal works well in 10-35% of cases, but the method does not exclude the reappearance of the disease. The method can be applied if the tumor formation is located too close to the trachea or if the patient has other serious diseases.

The method removes any portions of the lung or even entirely removes a lung. Sometimes lymph nodes and exposed area are removed. Surgery is a major invasive method, which requires hospitalization, general anesthesia and specialized medical care post-operative. The method entails the risk of complications more or less severe: heavy bleeding, infections and other complications resulting from anesthesia.

To be continued





Smoking and colorectal cancer

Sat, 05 Dec 2009 12:23:00 +0000

A relatively recent study shows that people who smoke are exposed, besides other dangers, to colorectal cancer risk drop. This was not shown until now, it was believed that smoking even though it is a risk factor for many other diseases, there is not a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

The study was done over a period of 13 years and included over 200 thousand participants, smokers or former smokers.

During the study period - 13 years - 27% of participants were smokers sick of colorectal cancer, the former smokers had contracted the same disease about 23%.

It also found two things: most people who have smoked at least 25 years is ill with colorectal cancer, smokers who quit smoking before the age of 40 years are not at risk of colorectal cancer. The conclusion is self: stop smoking as soon as possible!

Dr. Michael Thun, a researcher at the American Cancer Society study results concluded: "Although the link between smoking and colorectal cancer is less obvious, though it exists for sure".





Lung cancer - signs and symptoms

Sat, 28 Nov 2009 14:32:00 +0000

Symptoms of lung cancer are varied depending on where and how and how widespread is tumor formation. The warning signs are sometimes hard to identify or even nonexistent. Lung cancer may have the following types of symptoms:

-without symptoms - around 25% of people ill in the early phase present no symptoms. The disease can be discovered in a routine (a ray or a CT scan), the tumor may be the size of a coin.

-appearance of the faction of the tumor and its tendency to develop metastases to organs cities give some symptoms, such as: breathing, wheezing, chest pain, coughing up blood. If the disease has appeared and invaded the surrounding nerves, may occur Pancoast's syndrome - shoulder pain, which descends to the outside arm or paralysis of vocal cords, which cause wheezing. Invasion of the esophagus results in difficulty swallowing. If the tumor obstructs the airways, it can cause collapse of parts of the lung; this leads to the formation of infection in that area: abscesses, pneumonia.

-symptoms caused by metastases - there are times when metastasis of lung cancer affects some bones - in this case appear severe pain in affected bones. If metastasis includes brain, neurological problems: head pain, headaches, seizures, blurred vision and stroke like symptoms: weakness, lack of sense of touch in certain areas of the body.
-paraneoplastic symptoms: are indirect symptoms that result from disruption of hormone secretion: production of adrenocorticotrop hormone (ACTH), which leads to increased secretion of adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome). The most common disorder caused by lung cancer is the secretion of parathyroid hormone-like substances, which recognizes the increasing level of calcium in the blood.

-non-specific symptoms: they are common to other cancers and are physical and mental: sudden weight loss, weakness and fatigue, depression, sudden changes of mood without cause, unjustified melancholy.

Consult a doctor if:
-is a persistent cough or worsen a chronic cough;
-blood in the sputum appears;
brose is ascertained or frequent respiratory infections;
-is a persistent pain in the chest;
-breathing difficulties, wheezing.





Different types of lung cancer

Wed, 25 Nov 2009 16:45:00 +0000

Types of lung cancer, also known as the bronchogenice carcinomas are generally classified into two categories: small cell lung cancer (CPCM) and cancer non-small cell lung (NSCLC). This classification is based on microscopic appearance of tumor cells themselves. These two types of cancers grow and spread in different ways and have different treatment options. Getting the type of pulmonary cancer is of particular importance.

Approximately 20% of lung cancer cases are detected CPCM; this form is very aggressive and has a very high growth rate. CPCM is closely related to smoking, only 1% of cases these tumors occurring in nonsmokers. CPCM rapidly develop metastases in other organs of the body. CPCM is found most often after already spread in the body.

NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, representing approximately 80% of all lung cancer cases. For his type of NSCLC cancer can be divided into three main types, depending on the type of cells comprising the tumor formation. There are the following types:

-Adenocarcinomas: is the most common type of NSCLC - up to 50% of cases. This type of cancer occurs in both smokers and people who have this defect. Most adenocarcinomas occur in peripheral areas outside the lungs. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a subtype of adenocarcinoma that frequently develops in several areas of the lungs and spreads along the alveolar walls.

Squamous-cell carcinomas were more frequent than adenocarcinomas previously, currently, they account for approximately 30% of NSCLC. May be known as epidermoid carcinoma, this type of cancer (squamous cell) occurs most frequently in the bronchi.

Large-cell carcinomas, sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, are the common type of NSCLC.

-Mixtures of different types of NSCLC are also seen.

Other cancers can occur in the lungs, these types are much less common than NSCLC and CPCM and together contain only 5% -10% of cases of lung cancer:

There are bronchial carcinoid, (maximum 5% of cases). These tumors are generally small (3-4 cm or less) and occur most frequently in people under 40 years. Not related to smoking. Carcinoidele generally grow and spread more slowly than other types of tumors. If they are detected in time can be solved by surgery.
Various other types of cancer can be used as vehicle flow of blood or lymphatic system to develop metastases in the lungs. Metastatic tumors are often multiple, scattered throughout the lung. They generally focus to the periphery and are now less in the center.

To be continued

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Lung cancer - II - Causes

Sun, 15 Nov 2009 09:06:00 +0000

SmokingIncidence of lung cancer is correlated with smoking, about 90% of cases with smoking as the main cause. The risk increases with increasing the number of cigarettes smoked (doctors talk about this risk in terms of packs of cigarettes smoked per year, for example a person who smokes 1 pack per day for 10 years is known to have a history of 10 packs - years of smoking).Pipe or cigar smoking is not healthy but have a slightly lower risk.Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, many of which are certainly, scientific proved carcinogens. The risk of lung cancer decreases each year elapsed since quitting smoking. The risk comes close to the people who do not smoke at about 15 years of quitting smoking. This period is necessary for the body to replace damaged cells with healthy others. Are you a smoker? Quit today!Passive smokingPassive smoking is the inhalation of cigarette smoke by people who, although not smoke, live or work with people who smoke. The risk of these personae of the disease is 24% higher risk than those who do not smoke.Asbestos fibersAsbestos fibers are silicate fibers that were used in the past to insulate and protect the premises or to cover the various buildings. Presently the use of these fibers is prohibited or permitted only under special conditions. Asbestos fibers penetrated into the lungs may persist there for years, eventually generating disease. Cancer risk increases pulmonary extreme than if smokers working in environments contaminated by asbestos fibers.RadonRadon is an inert gas that occurs as a secondary product in the reaction of obtaining uranium. About 12% of lung cancer cases are due to radon. Although it is a colorless gas and have no smell there is technology for detection and annihilation of radon.GeneticsAlthough most cases of lung cancer are directly related to smoking, there are cases of nonsmokers who develop the disease; this seems to suggest that the disease may be triggered genetically. Recent research seems to indicate that the gene responsible for lung cancer in nonsmokers is located on human chromosome no. 6.PollutionPollution generated by cars, factories, chemical plants increases the risk of lung cancer among those exposed. About 1% of deaths are due to pollution. Experts believe that breathing polluted air present the same risk of passive smoking.To be continued[...]

Lung cancer - I - Intro

Fri, 13 Nov 2009 18:30:00 +0000

Lung cancer is a serious, high risk disease. There are many important things to be said about this disease, so we will structure this article into more chapters. This one is the first one.Lung cancer, like all cancers, result from an anomaly in the fundamental unit of life cell. Normally the body maintains a system of checks and balances on economic growth in cells such as cells divide to produce new cells only when necessary. Disorders of this system of checks and balances result in an increase in cell division and uncontrolled proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as tumor.Benign tumors can usually be removed and not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, grow aggressively and invade other tissues of the body, which allows entry of tumor cells in the blood or lymphatic system and then to other organs. This spread is called metastasis; tumor growth areas in these organs are called metastases. Since lung cancer tends to spread or develop metastases very early, we can say that is a serious form of cancer, high risk and it is also difficult to treat.While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain organs - particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, bones are the organs most commonly affected, with a high risk of developing metastases. Metastasis tumor is composed of the same type of cells as the original tumor. For example, prostate cancer, if it spreads through the blood to the lungs, talk about prostate cancer in lung cancer, not lung cancer.The main function of the lungs is gas exchange between blood and the air we breathe. The work of the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and the inspired oxygen enters the bloodstream. Right lung has three lobes, whereas left lung is divided into two lobes and a smaller structure called the lingula which is equivalent to the middle lobe. Major airways into the lungs are the bronchi, resulting in the trachea. Bronchi branch into progressively smaller airways called bronchiole. They end in small bags known as pulmonary alveoli. The wafers are exchanged gas itself. Lungs and chest wall are covered with a thin layer of tissue called pleura.Various types of lung cancer can occur in any part of the lung, but 90% -95% of lung cancer cases are believed to originate from epithelial tissues, or cells lining the respiratory tract and older children (bronchi and bronhiolele), for this reason, forms of cancer are bronhogenics sometimes called carcinoma or bronchogenic cancers. Cancers can arise also from the pleura (thin layers of tissue surrounding the lungs) or, rarely, from blood vessels.Lung cancer is the most common cause of death among people with cancer. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, about 1 in 14 people in USA will contact disease during their life.Lung cancer generally occurs in older age, 70% of those affected with over 65 years, only 3% of cases occur in people under 45 years.Pulmonary cancer was a relatively rare disease before 1930, but the number of cases increased rapidly with the increasing number of smokers, and developing industrialization.Lately however is noted a slight decrease in the number of cases due to awareness of the negative role of smoking and quitting the habit and also because anti-tobacco campaigns.However, lung cancer remains the leading cause of death among females; the number of deaths exceeded the number of deaths due to breast cancer.(To be continued)[...]

Blood Cancer - Leukemia

Thu, 12 Nov 2009 17:12:00 +0000

Leukemia is also known as cancer of the blood. In real terms leukemia is a cancer of white blood cells (WBC) and of platelets. These factors help blood to clot. Significantly reducing the number of white blood cells leave the body weak, defenseless against germs, such as a mild disease, such as a simple cold can cause serious effects or even death.

Decreased number of platelets leads to delayed clotting of blood, so some wounds, even superficial is cicatrize heaviest bleeding at the slightest touch.

Acute leukemia is a fast growing disease which usually affects their status embryonic cells. Because of that affected cells can not differentiate according to their body and no body can provide the necessary functionality. These cells are described in the literature as "functional" because they do not behave like normal cells. Thus it reduced the number of new red cells caused by spinal cord; it leads to a typical form of anemia.

On the other hand, chronic leukemia develops gradually and allows partial development of cells, which can reach their mostly "task" specific
but due to the increasing number of white blood cells blood flow is slowed and it triggers a form of severe anemia.

Leukemia can be classified Peter basic categories:
-AML - acute myeloid leukemia;
-ALL - acute lymphocytic leukemia;
-CML - chronic myeloid leukemia;
-CLL - chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Suffering from acute leukemia has the following symptoms:
-breathing during physical activity;
slow-healing wounds, even superficial, heavy bleeding;
mild fever and night sweats;
-bruises without apparent reason;
-red spots under the skin;
-small number of white blood cells;
-pain in the bones or joints;

In terms of chronic leukemia, it is more difficult to detect because symptoms do not clear, there are many patients whose disease was discovered accidentally during routine testing. Occasionally, one can see lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin. In this case it is obligatory to consult a specialist and make a complete set of blood tests. If the disease is severe, can occur and events such as fatigue increased even if a smaller effort or frequent infections.
Confirmation of disease may be made only after complex tests such as bone marrow aspiration and biopsy of the spine. The tests should be repeated at regular intervals doctor to judge the course of the disease and determining treatment followed.




About brain cancer

Mon, 02 Nov 2009 15:17:00 +0000

Brain cancer is a disease of the brain cancer cells (malignant) appear in brain tissue. Cancer cells grow to form a mass of cancerous tissue (tumor) that interferes with brain functions such as muscle control, sensation, memory, and other normal body functions. Tumors composed of cancer cells are called malignant tumors, and those composed of non-cancerous cells are called benign tumors. Cancer cells that develop in brain tissue are called primary brain tumors while the tumor that spread from other organs and affects the brain are called metastases brain tumors.

The statistics suggest that this type of cancer occurs rarely and is likely to grow to approximately 22,000 people in 2009, with about 13,000 deaths – it is estimated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

Not all brain tumors are the same, even if they come from the same type of brain tissue. Tumors can be distinguished in degree depending on how the tumor cells appear under a microscope. There is a class division, depending on cancer cell growth rate. NCI lists the following classes of tumors:

-Grade I: the tissue is benign. Cells look almost like normal cells, and growth is slow.
-Grade II: the tissue is malignant. Cells look less like normal cells than tumor cells in a Grade I.
-Grade-III malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. Abnormal cells are growing actively (anaplastic).
-Grade-IV malignant tissue has cells that look abnormal and most tend to grow rapidly.
The most common primary brain tumors are usually named after the type of tissue in the brain have developed. They are gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastomas). Gliomas have more subtypes that include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, and choroid papillomas. If the tumor classes are coupled with tumor name, the name will give physicians a better understanding of the severity of brain cancer. For example, a grade III (anaplastic) glioma is an aggressive tumor, while an acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor grade I. However, even benign tumors can cause serious problems if the increase
large enough to cause increased intracranial pressure or vascular structures or obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow.

Can anyone cure cancer?

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Breast cancer can be defeated?

Sun, 01 Nov 2009 17:48:00 +0000

Sometimes breast cancer spreads in other parts of the body become metastatic breast cancer. Sometimes, though treatments are made, the cancer cells do not die entirely; some may survive and can spread in the body, sickness and other organs and generating other tumors.

Metastatic breast cancer may develop in two ways: after stopping some cells can survive and can spread in the body, which develop other tumors or during treatment. It is often the case in which metastatic disease is diagnosed so late, when treatment is ongoing, that chances of survival become very fragile.

There are situations when other organs such as lung, liver, bones, brain and other organs may suffer abnormal structure and / or operational. It is a metastasis of breast cancer and not a new form of cancer. In this case the chances of survival are somewhat higher, generally because breast cancer has a high rate of improvement and even healing.

Three of ten patients with breast cancer subsequently develop metastatic form of breast cancer. If no other body has not been affected by metastasis, and cancer cells register a decline after the end of treatment, there is good chance of survival.

Because of its nature, breast cancer requires extensive treatment. Therapies are generally applied: chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immune therapy combined with regular mammography, ultrasound, CT scans, MRIs, etc. To treat the whole body must be implemented systemic therapies. For treatment of specific organs are local treatments such as mastectomy and lumpectomy. Also be made and therapies to alleviate pain.

It is important to know that there are many cases of women who survived the disease. Life lived with joy and optimism is a real help to overcome this ugly disease. There will never lose hope, with optimism and strength, but also with your doctor the disease can be defeated.

More info HERE




Skin cancer - increased frequency

Sun, 01 Nov 2009 17:11:00 +0000

Skin cancer is a disease with a frequency of occurrence of increasingly large. This happens because people are at greater risk.
So what causes skin cancer? This article will answer that question and detail, which is at greatest risk.

Probably the most common cause is prolonged exposure to sunlight. Remember when people used to boast of bronze from the sea? You must know that in recent years the sun has changed the type of radiation it emits, and ozone thinning. Such as solar radiation became dangerous. It is necessary to protect people with a shirt, sun hat, glasses, creams and other solar radiation.

It is proven that prolonged exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancer.
Pain arising from heatstroke is warning that the body gives us that we do something wrong.

People who "burn" very soon have a shortage of melanin in the body. Melanin is a substance found in skin, hair and eyes and is responsible for producing pigments. People with less melanin will be whiter skin, blond hair and iris of a lighter. The most pronounced deficit of melanin is known as albinism. Albinos have very little color in the tissues (or no).

How the melanin protects the skin is darkening it often comes into contact with sunlight. This is known as a suntan and body is how to prevent sunburn and therefore skin cancer. However, it is a very fine line between sun-tanned skin and damaged skin.

Using equipment that result in exposure to UV radiation is another way to increase the risk of skin cancer. Lounge chair is a prime example. Rest on the chair is beneficial to the body, but that's too much damage, if it is excessive can easily reach a peiele disease.

In summary, you should protect against ultra-violet radiation. The sun is not as it was 20 years ago.




About Neuro-endocrine Carcinoma

Sun, 01 Nov 2009 16:25:00 +0000

One of many forms of cancer is aggressive and devastating neuro-endocrine carcinoma of the colon. The worst feature of this disease is that it is usually detected in advanced stages, at which it is often difficult to treat.

Neuroendocrine colon cancer symptoms become visible only in the advanced stages, so the patient survival rate diminishes. Malignant tumors are mostly detected with remote metastases. Most recent studies show that in almost all cases of neuroendocrine cancer patient's death occurs.

Research findings are pessimistic, the final results of this type of cancer are the same, regardless of age or sex of sick person or location of the tumor. Although neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon depends on the stage where the tumor, generally patients in stages 1 and 2 of the disease do not suffer from this type of colon cancer (neuroendocrine). In most cases where the tumor is in stage 3 or 4, is very difficult to determine if it is this form of cancer.

Unfortunately, medical science failed to develop any appropriate method to deal with this particular type of cancer. A technique that could use the method of immunohistochemical staining. This method helps doctors to determine the severity of colon cancer and helps determine neuroendocrine useful drug for treating and improving it. Colorarii immunohistochemical method is used specifically for neuroendocrine markers. This involves staining tumor with a monoclonal antibody-80, which will help identify the quantum of neuroendocrine differentiation and the nature of damage to the health of patients.

Unfortunately, neuroendocrine cancer of the colon has a good prognosis and surgery is often powerless against this disease.
For these reasons it is necessary to monitor population health status, so as to take appropriate measures since the first symptoms of illness.

More info HERE




Women, be warned: Oral contraceptive pills increase risks of being affected with breast cancer

Mon, 15 Jun 2009 23:30:00 +0000

By: Thuria Ghaleb Simply being a woman is the main risk factor for developing breast cancer. However, women are nine times more prone to develop breast cancer by using oral contraceptive pills than other contraception methods, a new local study found. The study was conducted by researchers in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at Sana’a University on 150 cases of breast cancer admitted to the National Oncology Center at the al-Jumhoury Hospital in Sana’a to generally identify risk factors of breast cancer among Yemeni female patients. According to the study, such oral contraceptive pills contain the estrogen hormone which increases cell proliferation, especially in the breast, which has estrogen receptors. The affect of previous physical breast trauma is also found as the most serious factor on developing breast cancer among cases, surveyed this study.Breast cancer is a disease where malignant cells form in the tissues of the breast. It is considered a heterogeneous disease, meaning that it is a different disease in different age groups and has different cell population within the tumor itself. Generally, breast cancer is a much more aggressive disease in younger women.Breast cancer is considered the most widespread form of cancer among women in the world in general and in the Arab world in particular. Breast cancer is women’s most feared enemy and one of their biggest concerns especially women who are more prone to getting this disease.More than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer around the world every year. It represents 10 percent of all cancers diagnosed worldwide annually and constituted 22 percent of all new cancers in women in 2000, making it by far the most common cancer in women.In the Arab world, breast cancer was diagnosed in women of early age groups, and the disease was detected in late stages of the disease. Nearly 70 percent of all women with breast cancer avoid declaring it or do not go to the doctor for treatment, even though it is one of the most important deadly diseases in Middle East. In Yemen, it has been found that breast cancer is the first most common cancer among women in the age group 30-59, and estimated to be 82 percent of total cancer in Yemen.“Since there is no way of avoiding this disease, we have no choice but to study the factors that might have a direct link to breast cancer amongst Yemeni women such as the environment, diet, psychological and professional factors, and negative habits such as smoking and chewing qat,” said Dr. Arwa al-Hrribi, one of the researchers who conducted this study. “Some factors might be related to medications or the infection of other diseases. Other factors are pregnancy and birth related.” The study, supervised by Dr. Nagiba al-Shawafi who is a professor in the Community Medicine Department, also found that women above 34 years old are four times more affected by breast cancer than other younger age groups. Women who are living near factories, high voltage power or wireless stations are also found two times more prone to be affected with breast cancer than others, the study found.Most of the surveyed cases were house-wives, however researchers found seven cases of women working in some pharmaceutical factory, in the same antibiotic production department. Smoking is considered as a risk factor for developing breast cancer and the chance of getting breast cancer is increas[...]