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Preview: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science

EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 11 Dec 2016 02:39:02 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Circulation favors placenta over brain in fetuses of diabetic mothers

Sat, 10 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(European Society of Cardiology) Blood flows preferentially to the placenta instead of the brain in fetuses of mothers with diabetes, reveals research presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2016.



Heart damage caused by chemotherapy is worse in patients with diabetes

Sat, 10 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(European Society of Cardiology) Heart damage caused by chemotherapy is worse in cancer patients who also have diabetes, according to a study presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2016.



User-friendly medication packaging design can boost patient safety

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Human Factors and Ergonomics Society) Improvements to text size and placement and color scheme could help consumers- - especially the elderly - -discriminate medication ingredients to avoid inadvertent overdoses.



Do cannabis dispensary staff receive sufficient training?

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) As legalization of cannabis for medical use increases across the US, the training of dispensary staff, who may recommend cannabis type and concentration to patients, requires closer examination. A new study, which found that only 55% of dispensary staff reported having some formal training for their positions, is published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.



Utah State University researchers receive American Water Resources Association Award

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Utah State University) Utah State University researchers Enjie Li, Joanna Endter-Wada and Shujuan Li were honored with the 2016 William R. Boggess Award at the American Water Resources Association Annual Conference held Nov. 13-17, in Orlando, Fla.



Sexual harassment common among middle school children, study finds

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Sexual harassment is a prevalent form of victimization that most antibullying programs ignore and teachers and school officials often fail to recognize, said bullying and youth violence expert Dorothy L. Espelage. The five-year study by researchers at the University of Illinois found that homophobic bullying is the precursor to sexual harassment among adolescents.



Study examines how CEO power affects companies in times of crisis

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Dallas) A new study from The University of Texas at Dallas finds that bestowing considerable power in the CEO does not create value for the firm during industrywide downturns.



UMD researchers show how online communities bridge the rural-urban healthcare divide

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Maryland) Online communities are helping patients find and share information and connect with each other at unprecedented levels. But can they also create social value by helping to bridge the disparities between rural and urban health care? University of Maryland's Robert H. Smith School of Business researchers asked whether online health communities can create social value, by helping to alleviate regional health disparities between rural and urban patients.



NYU researchers examine social/behavioral interventions to uncover undiagnosed HIV

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(New York University) At least a third of new HIV transmission events are linked to those with undiagnosed HIV. Researchers looked to identify best approaches to uncovering undiagnosed HIV, comparing the efficacy of three social/behavioral intervention strategies for heterosexual individuals at high risk for HIV in Brooklyn, NY. Active approaches to detect undiagnosed HIV among heterosexuals are needed to achieve elimination of HIV transmission in the US; the study addresses this gap in available HIV prevention programs.



Never-smoking women have high prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) A new study published by University of Toronto researchers suggests that women who have never smoked are susceptible to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and that African American women are particularly vulnerable.



MIT Portugal Ph.D. student wins the Road Safety Innovation Award by ACP

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(MIT Portugal Program) Francisco Duarte, a Ph.D. Student in Transportation Systems of the MIT Portugal Program at University of Coimbra, was honored today with the first prize at the initiative promoted by Automóvel Clube Portugal in a partnership with BP Portugal, National Council of Rectors and National Innovation Agency. The 10 000€ prize will later be invested in the venture's prototype and is currently under construction.



More than reality TV: Educating the world about beach safety

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of New South Wales) The factual Australian TV show Bondi Rescue performs a valuable educational role in teaching people around the world about the dangers of rip currents and the importance of swimming between the flags, a global survey of viewers by UNSW scientists indicates. The popular series follows lifeguards at Bondi Beach in Sydney over summer as they perform about 5,000 surf rescues.



UNIST receives Minister of Public Safety and Security commendation

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST)) UNIST Professor Joonbum Bae's tele-operation robot received a commendation from the Minister of Public Safety and Security (MPSS).



Monkey speak: Macaques have the anatomy, not the brain, for human speech

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Princeton University) Researchers have found that monkeys known as macaques possess the vocal anatomy but not the brain circuitry to produce human speech. The findings suggest that human speech stems mainly from the unique evolution and construction of our brains, and is not linked to vocalization-related anatomical differences between humans and primates. Scientists have long debated if -- and to what extent -- differences between the human and primate vocal anatomy allow people to speak but not monkeys and apes.



New study highlights smoking intensity in coronary heart disease risk

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Oxford University Press USA) Increased relative risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) have long been associated with smoking, and traditionally they have been dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked a day, smoking intensities, and total exposure over time. A study published today in Nicotine & Tobacco Research suggests relative CHD risk is higher for smokers consuming cigarettes over a longer period of time than for smokers consuming the same quantity over a shorter period.



Air pollution impairs function of blood vessels in lungs

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(European Society of Cardiology) Air pollution impairs the function of blood vessels in the lungs, according to a study in more than 16,000 patients presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2016.



Breast cancer mortality rates decline in many countries

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(American Association for Cancer Research) Breast cancer mortality rates continue to decline in many nations, but a review of mortality trends in 47 countries around the world indicates some significant disparities, particularly in South Korea and some Latin American nations, according to results presented at the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 6-10.



Moderate exercise improves memory dysfunction caused by type 2 diabetes

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Tsukuba) University of Tsukaba-led researchers showed that impaired glycometabolism and memory function in type 2 diabetic rats is improved by moderate exercise, possibly via enhanced lactate transport to neurons by MCT2.



Study: Running actually lowers inflammation in knee joints

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Brigham Young University) We all know that running causes a bit of inflammation and soreness, and that's just the price you pay for cardiovascular health. You know; no pain, no gain.Well, maybe not. New research from BYU exercise science professors finds that pro-inflammatory molecules actually go down in the knee joint after running.



UTA researchers win three federal transportation grants

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Arlington) The University of Texas at Arlington has won three national US Department of Transportation grants that could be worth about $12 million in funding to UTA during the next five years and speaks to the University's growing expertise across several academic and research disciplines that intersect the nation's current and future transportation infrastructure.



Treating cancer, mental health neglect in rural America

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon Health & Science University) OHSU Knight Cancer Institute oncologist publishes New England Journal of Medicine 'Perspective' on her experience treating a patient in rural Oregon with breast cancer, mental illness.



Investigating link btwn bedside nursing & avoidable readmissions for older black patients

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing) As many as a quarter of all older adults discharged from an acute hospitalization will return within thirty days. Readmissions like these result in increased healthcare costs, functional decline and greater need for skilled nursing when transitioning back to community settings. Older black patients bear a disproportionate risk of readmissions according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and no single approach has been repeatedly effective in reducing readmissions for older black patients.



Study: Mobile money lifts Kenyan households out of poverty

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT Prof. Tavneet Suri is co-author of a new paper showing that mobile-money services have had notable long-term effects on poverty reduction in Kenya -- especially among female-headed households -- and have inspired a surprising occupation shift among women.Published in today's issue of Science, the study estimates that, since 2008, access to mobile-money services increased daily per capita consumption levels of 194,000 -- or 2 percent -- of Kenyan households, lifting them out of extreme poverty.



Shooting, gang violence exposure leads to PTSD

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Northwestern University) The violence that women in disadvantaged neighborhoods experience and witness can result in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and full diagnoses, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study that examined a disadvantaged Chicago neighborhood.



Personality traits and psychiatric disorders linked to specific genomic locations

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - San Diego) A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified six loci or regions of the human genome that are significantly linked to personality traits, report researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine in this week's advance online publication of Nature Genetics. The findings also show correlations with psychiatric disorders.