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Preview: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science

EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 02:39:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Professor publishes archaeological research on social inequality

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(The University of Montana) The origins of social inequality might lie in the remnants of ancient Eurasia's agricultural societies, according to an article recently published in the major science journal Nature.



A walk at the mall or the park? New study shows, for moms and daughters, a walk in the park is best

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) University of Illinois family studies researchers believed that if the attention restoration theory, which describes how interaction with natural environments can reduce mental fatigue and restore attention, worked for individuals it might also work for families to help facilitate more positive family interactions and family cohesion. They tested their theory by looking at sets of moms and daughters who were asked to take a walk together in nature and a walk in a mall.



A mom's support helps a child learn to handle negative emotions, but what if mom is distressed?

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) When children become upset, showing negative emotions or behaviors, some parents become distressed, while others are able to talk their child through the difficult situation. Studies have shown that a mothers' reaction -- positive or negative -- to her child's negative emotions can predict whether her child develops the ability to effectively regulate his emotions and behavior. A new University of Illinois study explores potential predictors of mothers' supportive or non-supportive behavior during emotional challenges.



Small changes to organ procurement system could lead to more life-saving transplants

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Indiana University) Slight changes to the system for allocating deceased-donor kidneys could result in higher rates of organ procurement and lead to more kidney transplants across the country, according to new research co-authored by an Indiana University Kelley School of Business professor.



These ring-tailed lemurs raise a 'stink' when they flirt with potential mates

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) Stink-flirting among ring-tailed lemurs come at a cost, but may also influence females in choosing a mate.



Rheumatology leaders urge support for graduate student exemption & continuous health coverage

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American College of Rheumatology) The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) today expressed concerns with a provision of the House tax bill passed on Nov. 16 that would repeal the tax-exempt status for graduate student tuition waivers, and a provision included in the Senate tax bill that would repeal the individual health insurance mandate.



New study out of WSU further supports use of progesterone to fight preterm birth

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) A new study published today -- World Prematurity Day -- in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology provides additional support for treatment with vaginal progesterone to reduce the risk of preterm birth, neonatal complications and infant death in pregnant women with a short cervix. A shortened cervix is the most powerful predictor of preterm birth.



Ending TB means investing in R&D

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Burness) This week, as health ministers, diplomats and other representatives meet to discuss tuberculosis (TB) at the World Health Organization (WHO) Ministerial Conference in Moscow, millions of people are suffering from the disease. The governments around the world can and must end this suffering through a major and sustained investment in TB research and development (R&D).  



UTSA researchers receive $147,000 grant to train school psychologists in deaf education

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at San Antonio) Educational psychology researchers from UTSA received a grant for a new program that integrates educational psychology and deaf education.



Springer Nature launches a pilot with PaperHive

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Springer) Springer Nature has launched a one-year pilot with PaperHive, a market-leading annotation system and copyright-compliant collaborative research platform. The partnership focuses on increasing reader engagement of university students with academic literature in various fields including biomedicine, mathematics, physics, and chemistry. The pilot phase comprises books and textbooks from Springer and Springer Spektrum, the leading publisher for classical and digital educational media in the field of natural sciences and mathematics in the German-speaking region.



Brain activity buffers against worsening anxiety

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Duke University) Boosting activity in brain areas related to thinking and problem-solving may also protect against worsening anxiety, suggests a new study by Duke University scientists. Using noninvasive brain imaging, the researchers found that at-risk people were less likely to develop anxiety if they had higher activity in a region of the brain responsible for complex mental operations. The results may be a step towards tailoring psychological therapies to the specific brain functioning of individual patients.



New study hopes to empower parents of children with autism

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Boston Medical Center) Researchers from Boston Medical Center, in conjunction with researchers from Florida State University and others across the country, are collaborating on a study that aims to get parents involved with early intervention services sooner.



New interdisciplinary research program in biomedical innovation law

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Law) The Novo Nordisk Foundation has awarded a grant of DKK 35 million to Timo Minssen, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen for establishing a Collaborative Research Programme in Biomedical Innova-tion Law (CeBIL).The aim of CeBIL is to analyse the most important legal obstacles to pharmaceutical innovation and thereby contribute to translating innova-tive biomedical research into new effective, affordable and easily acces-sible forms of treatment.



Performance appraisal success depends on frequent feedback and good standard setting

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Leicester) Appraisal of employees often gets a bad press, but recent research suggests if it involves frequent feedback between the formal appraisal and good prior planning and communication of standards then it can be successful and appreciated by employees.



BfR supports EFSA and ECHA with the development of European guidelines for the health assessment of endocrine disruptors

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment) On behalf of the European Food Safety Authority, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment hosted a hearing of experts on the practicability of hormone measurements in toxicological studies in Berlin on Oct. 18-19, 2017.



University of Guelph professor identifies protein key to cancer cells ability to spread

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Guelph) U of G scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues.The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it decreased the adhesion and invasion rate of breast and brain cancer cells by up to 90 percent.



First-graders fitter than expected

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) Childhood obesity is often attributed to a lack of exercise. So what about sports among elementary school students? A team from the Technical University of Munich pursued this question and collected the results of fitness tests for first-year students over a period of one decade. Their study shows that students did not lose their strength. Speed or balance even increased over the time of 10 years. One change was in the boys, whose endurance decreased compared to the girls of the same age.



No more deer in the headlight: Study finds large mammals do use road crossing structures

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Frontiers) A pilot study finds that large mammals are more likely to use wildlife crossing structures than move past a random location in the surrounding habitat. Animal movement also varied between crossing structures in different locations, suggesting that location might be more important than design. These findings are a first step towards a better understanding of the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures.



What grosses out a chimpanzee?

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Kyoto University) Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans.



Cardiorespiratory fitness is essential to reduce risk of coronary heart disease

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Elsevier) Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death for men in the US. Both cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the blood triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio (TG:HDL ratio) are strong predictors of death from CHD. In the current issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, two new studies highlight the importance of CRF on subsequent CVD and mortality risk. These articles contribute substantive evidence on the importance of achieving moderate to high levels of CRF in both adults and children.



Dog ownership linked to lower mortality

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Uppsala University) A team of Swedish scientists have used national registries of more than 3.4 million Swedes aged 40 to 80 to study the association between dog ownership and cardiovascular health. Their study shows that dog owners had a lower risk of death due to cardiovascular disease or to other causes during the 12-year follow-up.



When male voles drink alcohol, but their partner doesn't, their relationship suffers

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Frontiers) Researchers find that the relationship between prairie vole couples suffers when the male has access to alcohol, but his female partner doesn't -- similar to what has been observed in human couples. The researchers also found changes in a specific brain region in the male voles. The results could help researchers find strategies to overcome the negative effects of alcohol on human relationships.



Risk of distracted driving predicted by age, gender, personality and driving frequency

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Frontiers) The first study of how personal traits affect driver distraction finds that young men, extroverted or neurotic people, and people who drive more often are more likely to report being distracted during driving, while older women and those who feel they could control their distracted behavior are less likely to report distraction. The study also proposes future directions for interventions to reduce distracted driving.



Want safe travels? Find freeways with these features

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Brigham Young University) A solid median, wide shoulders, minimal hills -- and a high speed limit? Brigham Young University researchers explore freeway features that minimize crash risk.



New therapy lessens impact of mistreatment at a young age

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Delaware) Work underway in a laboratory at the University of Delaware suggest certain drugs can prevent and reduce changes to the brain caused by mistreatment at an early age.