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Preview: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science

EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2018 01:39:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Transforming patient health care and well-being through lighting

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) The world of health care is changing rapidly and there is increased interest in the role that light and lighting can play in improving health outcomes for patients and providing healthy work environments for staff, according to many researchers. Recently, the Center for Lighting Enabled Systems & Applications (LESA) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, together with the Illumination Engineering Society (IES), sponsored a workshop to explore pathways to define and promote the adoption of lighting systems specifically for health-care environments.



Public lecture on consciousness, press room, and more: CNS 2018 only 4 weeks away

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Cognitive Neuroscience Society) The Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS) 2018 conference -- only 4 weeks away -- will bring together more than 1,500 scientists at the Sheraton in Boston from March 24-27. They will discuss the latest research on attention, creativity, decision-making, language, memory, and music -- in 50+ talks and 1,000+ posters.



Developing a 'living lab' to study energy-efficient logistics

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) The Department of Energy announced that Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is among five organizations that received competitively awarded, cost-shared funding as part of a $13.4 million investment in community-based advanced transportation projects.



Almost all adolescents in an economically disadvantaged urban population exposed to tobacco smoke

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(American Association for Cancer Research) Ninety-four percent of adolescents ages 13 to 19 in an economically disadvantaged, largely minority population in San Francisco had measurable levels of a biomarker specific for exposure to tobacco smoke (NNAL).



NIST expertise helps protect Emancipation Proclamation at African American History Museum

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) This month, two seminal documents in American history -- the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th Amendment to the Constitution -- went on display (link is external) at the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC). They are preserved in sealed encasements that were custom-designed, fabricated and outfitted with environmental sensors by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).



Infants are able to learn abstract rules visually

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Northwestern University) Three-month-old babies cannot sit up or roll over, yet they are already capable of learning patterns from simply looking at the world around them, according to a recent Northwestern University study published in PLOS One. For the first time, the researchers show that 3- and 4-month-old infants can successfully detect visual patterns and generalize them to new sequences.



Researchers develop new technology platform for cancer immunotherapy

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(InSilico Medicine, Inc.) Johns Hopkins scientists invent multifunctional antibody-ligand traps (Y-traps), a new class of cancer immunotherapeutics. They develop Y-traps comprising an antibody targeting an immune checkpoint (CTLA-4 or PD-L1) fused to a TGFβ trap. In humanized mouse models, these Y-traps reverse immune suppression and inhibit growth of tumors that do not respond to current immune checkpoint inhibitors.



Sweet, bitter, fat: Genetics play a role in kids' snacking patterns, study finds

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Guelph) The types of snacks a child chooses could be linked to genetics, a University of Guelph study found.The study investigated whether genetic variants in taste receptors related to sweet, fat and bitter tastes influence the snacks preschoolers choose and found nearly 80 per cent carried at least one of these genotypes that could predispose them to poor snacking habits.These findings could help parents tailor their kids' diets based on their genetics of taste.



Opioid abuse leads to heroin use and a hepatitis C epidemic, USC researcher says

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southern California) Heroin is worse than other drugs because people inject it much sooner, potentially resulting in increased risk of injection-related epidemics such as hepatitis C and HIV, a Keck School of Medicine of USC study shows. As more people use opioids, many switch to heroin because it's more potent and cheaper - a trend that complicates disease prevention as health officials crack down on opioids.



Tracking fishing from space: The global footprint of industrial fishing revealed

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Global Fishing Watch) Humans have been fishing the seas for over 42,000 years. However, the global footprint of fishing was poorly understood -- until now. A new study published today in Science illuminates the extent of global fishing -- down to individual vessel movements and hourly activity -- and finds that fishing occurs in over 55 percent of the world's oceans. By revealing where and when fishing occurs, the findings open an unprecedented gateway for improved ocean management.



Age and gender matter behind the wheel -- but not how you might expect

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) A UCLA study explored the relationship between new drivers' skills and age, gender, organized sports and video gaming. The results suggest that mandatory training should be required for all novice drivers, not just teenagers.



Mind-reading algorithm uses EEG data to reconstruct images based on what we perceive

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) A new technique developed by neuroscientists at U of T Scarborough can reconstruct images of what people perceive based on their brain activity gathered by EEG.



Kessler Foundation receives grant to study cortical changes in youth with brain injury

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Kessler Foundation) Drs. Kiran Karunakaran and Karen Nolan have won a $35,000 grant from New Jersey Health Foundation to study the cortical changes in children and young adults with lower extremity motor deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). 'Our research shows that robotic exoskeleton training has the potential for tremendous impact on gait function, balance, and neuromuscular responses, as well as community participation and quality of life for individuals with TBI,' explained Dr. Nolan.



Dr. Kucukboyaci receives grant to study cognitive therapies for traumatic brain injury

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Kessler Foundation) 'Memory and learning problems are very common in people with moderate to severe TBI,' explained Dr. Kucukboyaci. 'Through this NJ Health Foundation grant, we will be able to advance our preliminary research and directly address the need for Class I research in software-assisted cognitive rehabilitation. 'Our goal is to improve patient care for this population,' he continued, 'by devising and teaching TBI-tailored memory strategies that can boost work or school functioning, and monitoring cognitive changes over time.'



Looking for the origins of schizophrenia

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(D'Or Institute for Research and Education) Schizophrenia may be related to neurodevelopment changes, including brain's inability to create the appropriate vascular system, according to new study resulted from a partnership between the D'Or Institute for Research and Education, the University of Chile and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The results broaden the understanding about the causes of this severe and disabling disorder, which affects about 1 percent of the world's population.



Descriptive phrases for how often food should be eaten helps preschoolers better understand healthy eating

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Elsevier) Preschool is a critical period for children to begin to make their own dietary decisions to develop life-long healthy eating habits. A new study published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior found that preschoolers who learned how to classify food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose healthy food as a snack.



New insights on the neurobiology of dying

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) A new Annals of Neurology study provides insight into the neurobiology of dying. For the study, investigators performed continuous patient monitoring following Do Not Resuscitate - Comfort Care orders in patients with devastating brain injury to investigate the mechanisms and timing of events in the brain and the circulation during the dying process.



Fertility breakthrough: New research could extend egg health with age

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Princeton University) Princeton researchers identified a key protein in old, poor-quality C. elegans eggs. When they blocked this protein midway through the fertile window, the equivalent of a woman in her early thirties, they successfully extended egg viability beyond the normal span. Another experiment that knocked out this protein's genes entirely extended the worms' fertility by about 10 percent. If applied to humans, that could represent a 3- to 6-year extension of female fertility.



Prestigious AGA Recognition Awards presented to GI leaders

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(American Gastroenterological Association) The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) has announced the 2018 recipients of the annual recognition awards, given in honor of outstanding contributions and achievements in gastroenterology.



Antidepressant response within hours? Experts weigh evidence on ketamine as fast-acting treatment for depression in Harvard Review of Psychiatry

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wolters Kluwer Health) Recent studies suggest that ketamine, a widely used anesthetic agent, could offer a wholly new approach to treating severe depression -- producing an antidepressant response in hours rather than weeks. Two reviews of recent evidence on ketamine and related drugs for treating depression appear in the Harvard Review of Psychiatry, published by Wolters Kluwer.



Financial structure of early childhood edu. Requires overhaul to make it accessible and affordable

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) High-quality early care and education (ECE) is critical to positive child development and has the potential to generate economic returns, but the current financing structure of ECE leaves many children without access to high-quality services and does little to strengthen the ECE workforce, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.



Biomarker, clues to possible therapy found in novel childhood neurogenetic disease

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Researchers studying a rare genetic disorder that causes severe, progressive neurological problems in childhood have discovered insights into biological mechanisms that drive the disease, along with early clues that an amino acid supplement might offer a targeted therapy. The disorder, called TBCK-encephalopathy, disrupts autophagy, an important cellular waste-disposal process.



Study finds language, achievement benefits of universal early childhood education

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Boston College) A study of more than 60,000 children enrolled in Norway's universal early education system has found the program improves language skills and narrows achievement gaps, according to a team of researchers from the US and Norway, led by Boston College Professor of Education Eric Dearing.



Scottish hospitals see slower decline in deaths

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of York) In a first-of-its-kind study, the researchers looked at extensive data on hospital admissions and discharges in both countries over a 17-year period. They found that while the number of people dying in hospital has declined in both countries, it is falling substantially faster in England.



Decoding the structure of huntingtin

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Determining the three dimensional structure of the protein could help to develop new treatments of Huntington's disease.