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Preview: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science

EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 13:39:02 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



New understanding of how muscles work

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(McGill University) Muscle malfunctions may be as simple as a slight strain after exercise or as serious as heart failure and muscular dystrophy. A new technique developed at McGill University now makes it possible to look much more closely at how sarcomeres, the basic building blocks within all skeletal and cardiac muscles, work together. It's a discovery that should advance research into a wide range of muscle malfunctions.



Use of brain-computer interface, virtual avatar could help people with gait disabilities

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Houston) Researchers from the University of Houston have shown for the first time that the use of a brain-computer interface augmented with a virtual walking avatar can control gait, suggesting the protocol may help patients recover the ability to walk after stroke, some spinal cord injuries and certain other gait disabilities.



Labor market effects of trade liberalization

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Carnegie Mellon University) A new study on the Brazilian labor market found that workers in regions with industries facing increased competition from imports experienced a steady decrease in earnings over time in comparison to other regions.



Is MRI needed in children with a sports-related concussion?

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A new study reviewed more than five years of records of pediatric patients treated for sports concussion, the most common form of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among children, to determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed structural changes to the brain that may be related to persistent symptoms.



Linking mental health and the gut microbiome

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Frontiers) Better understanding the gastrointestinal microbiome may help psychiatrists treat mental health disorders such as depression, highlights a review in Frontiers in Psychiatry.



Antipsychotics common for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Centre for Addiction and Mental Health) Antipsychotic medication is frequently being prescribed to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, often without a psychiatric diagnosis, a new study conducted by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences has found.



Study of homeless finds women at disadvantage for accessing disability benefits

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(North Carolina State University) A recent study of homeless adults finds that women are at a significant disadvantage compared to men when it comes to accessing disability benefits. The study also finds that medical records are key to accessing disability benefits, which poses a problem for many homeless adults.



Comparing food allergies: Animals and humans may have more in common than you think

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) Not only people, but mammals like cats, dogs and horses suffer from symptoms and problems of food intolerance and allergies. The Messerli Research Institute of Vetmeduni and Meduni Vienna, now condensed the knowledge about human and animal food allergies and intolerance into a new European position paper. It highlights the strong similarities in symptoms and triggers of adverse food reactions and stresses the need for more comparative studies on mechanisms and diagnosis of food intolerance.



A song's structure can be linked to its popularity

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Frontiers) Music can elicit strong emotions, which can be hard to describe. A new study has found that a simple change in harmonic structure can contribute to our preference for certain songs. Analyzing the chords of over 500 pop songs between 1958 and 1991, the study reveals a link between those showing higher 'harmonic surprise' (chords that do not usually follow each other) and their popularity in the Billboard Top 100 chart.



Researchers link high levels of 'good' cholesterol with excessive mortality

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) In striking contrast to the general perception, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown in a new study that people with extremely high levels of HDL -- the 'good' cholesterol -- in their blood have a more than 65 percent higher mortality rate than people with normal HDL levels. The researchers say the results should lead to a change in the way 'good' cholesterol is perceived.



Special focus issue of Bioanalysis explores bioanalytical outsourcing strategies

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Future Science Group) Bioanalysis, a leading MEDLINE-indexed journal for bioanalysts, has published a special focus issue on 'Outsourcing Strategies in Bioanalysis.'



Children with fragile X syndrome have a bias toward threatening emotion

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Elsevier) Anxiety occurs at high rates in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Children with co-occurring anxiety tend to fare worse, but it can be hard to identify in infants. A new study in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging reports that infants and children with FXS show bias toward threatening emotion, rather than positive emotion, a pattern highly linked with anxiety.



Psychotic disorders and obesity: New report shows big waistlines are to blame

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Florida Atlantic University) A number of factors, including obesity, shorten the lifespan for those with schizophrenia by 20 years and by 10 years for those with bipolar disorder compared to the general population. In the first study to compare long-term weight gain across psychotic disorders, researchers from FAU show that expanding waistlines and the way body fat is distributed are largely to blame.



New use of blood cleaning device saves high-risk patients with liver failure

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland Medical Center) University of Maryland School of Medicine researchers report that a device that removes toxins from the blood can also effectively provide a bridge to liver transplantation or buy time for a traumatically injured liver to heal, suggesting broader uses for the device than previously thought.



So-called 'bright girl effect' does not last into adulthood, study finds

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Case Western Reserve University) The notion that young females limit their own progress based on what they believe about their intelligence -- called the 'bright girl effect' -- does not persist into adulthood, according to new research from Case Western Reserve University.



Personality drives purchasing of luxury goods

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University College London) People who are extraverted and on low incomes buy more luxury goods than their introverted peers to compensate for the experience of low financial status, finds new UCL research.



Smokers in clinical studies who say they've quit often haven't

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Society for the Study of Addiction) A new US study published by the scientific journal Addiction has found that a high proportion of smokers enrolled in stop-smoking programs during a hospital stay report having quit when in fact they have not. The findings mean that in these kinds of study it is vital to check claims of having quit using an objective measure.



Altered mitochondria associated with increased autism risk

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may play a key role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A provocative new study by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)'s pioneering mitochondrial medicine team suggests that variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) originating during ancient human migrations may be an important contributor to ASD predisposition.



Parenting style reduces kids' distress in war

Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Frontiers) Researchers in Israel have found that maternal authoritativeness and warmth helps to protect against psychological distress and mental health symptoms in children exposed to war. The results suggest that combining emotional support and warmth with discipline and openness to negotiation could be an effective way to protect children from emotional trauma following violent conflict.



NIST study suggests frailty makes elderly more likely to die in home fires

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) A new study by NIST shows scientifically for the first time that an individual's ability to respond quickly to a residential fire determines who dies and who gets injured. Home fire deaths, the NIST researchers state, are more likely among those they define as frail populations--persons who are not in robust health and primarily age 65 and older--while nonfatal injuries occur more often in adults ages 20 to 49.



Why both bigots and egalitarians say 'they don't see race'

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ohio State University) People who claim they 'don't see race' when they evaluate others may think they all have similar beliefs about racial justice -- but they're very wrong, according to a new book. In fact, the belief in 'racial colorblindness' unites people who range from liberal to conservative and hardened racists to egalitarians



Like adults, children show bias in attributing mental states to others

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Association for Psychological Science) Young children are more likely to attribute mental states to characters that belong to the same group as them relative to characters that belong to an outside group, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The study shows that 5- and 6-year-olds were more likely to describe interactions between two characters in terms of what they were thinking and feeling when the characters had the same gender or geographic origin as them.



Getting hold of quantum dot biosensors

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The Optical Society) Harnessing the nano-tractor-beam like abilities of optical tweezers, researchers from the University of Melbourne, Australia, and Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, developed an all-silicon nanoantenna to trap individual quantum dots suspended in a microfluidic chamber.



Study links fish stress hormones to whether they take the bait

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Take a fish out of water and its stress hormones will go up. Adrenaline and noradrenaline, the 'fight or flight' hormones, peak first, followed more gradually by cortisol. A new study finds that largemouth bass whose cortisol levels rise most after a brief bout of stress are inherently harder to catch by angling.



Kessler Foundation awarded major Wallerstein Foundation grant for stroke research

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kessler Foundation) Kessler Foundation was awarded a $250,000 grant by the Wallerstein Foundation for Geriatric Life Improvement. The three-year grant will advance the Foundation's stroke rehabilitation research in the diagnosis and treatment of spatial neglect, a hidden disability that complicates recovery after right brain stroke.