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Preview: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science

EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:39:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Infant mortality rates in Texas vary dramatically from one zip code to the next

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(The University of Texas System) Infant mortality rates in Texas vary dramatically even across neighboring zip codes, according to a new analysis and mapping tool from researchers at The University of Texas System and UT Health Northeast. The analysis and searchable map, which are the first of their kind in Texas, use data from Texas Vital Statistics Linked Birth and Death Records from 2011-2014.



UTA researcher to examine cured-in-place pipe technology

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Arlington) A University of Texas at Arlington expert in pipe technology is investigating whether steam sealing of repaired pipes release a noxious fume and how dangerous that is to people.



Early Trump support climbed in areas with recent Latino population growth

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Riverside) According to three political scientists from the University of California, Riverside, Donald Trump's promise to build a 'great wall' spanning the border separating the United States and Mexico, as well as subsequent remarks describing Mexican immigrants as 'criminals' and 'rapists,' had a galvanizing effect on his voter base in the initial stages of his campaign, particularly in areas of the country that had experienced considerable Latino population growth in recent years.



Older hospitalized adults are infrequently tested for influenza

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) This year's flu season is shaping up to be an especially serious one, and it's important for clinicians to promptly recognize, diagnosis, and treat influenza in hospitalized patients, especially in vulnerable populations such as older individuals.



Increasing number of adolescents receive a psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnosis

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Turku) According to a national register study comparing Finnish birth cohorts from 1987 and 1997, an increasing number of adolescents receive a psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnosis. The number of diagnosed adolescents increased especially for girls in the younger cohort. The results of the study conducted by the University of Turku, Finland, and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) were published in the Lancet Psychiatry journal.



Mortality of surgery vs. targeted radiation in early lung cancer patients

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Among patients older than 80 years, 3.9 percent receiving surgery passed away within the 30-day post-treatment window, compared with 0.9 percent of patients receiving focused radiation.



Teaming up to prepare for emergencies: JRC data helps international community

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Commission Joint Research Centre) The Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission's science and knowledge service, joins forces with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to assess similarities in emergency preparedness and response across sectors, identify lessons learned and set out good practices for the nuclear sector.



Algorithm increases employment opportunities for refugees

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(ETH Zurich) A data-driven approach could help increase employment levels for asylum seekers in Switzerland from 15 to 26 percent. Social scientists from Switzerland and the US, in collaboration with ETH's Public Policy Group, reached this conclusion in the journal Science.



Hunting dogs as possible vectors for the infectious disease tularaemia

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) The zoonosis Tularaemia is life-threatening for rodents, rabbits and hares, but which can also infect humans and dogs. While contact with contaminated blood or meat makes hunters a high-risk group, the frequency of infections among hunting dogs has not been much studied. Researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna now confirmed a relevant prevalence of infections in Austrian hunting dogs. This could intensify the debate whether the often asymptomatic animals represent an additional risk of infection for people.



Free online access to millions of documents on chemical toxicity made possible through ToxicDocs

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Springer) Millions of pages of internal corporate and trade association documents relating to the introduction of new products and chemicals into the workplace and commerce have been compiled into a free searchable online database called ToxicDocs. The history and future outlook for this database is now the subject of a free to view special section in the Journal of Public Health Policy which is a Palgrave Macmillan journal and is published by Springer Nature.



Occupational therapy improves health, quality of life of young adults with diabetes

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southern California) New results from a University of Southern California-led research study demonstrates the distinct value of occupational therapy for improving the health and quality of life of young adults living with diabetes. Research participants who completed the occupational therapy intervention program significantly improved their average blood glucose levels, diabetes-related quality of life and habits for checking blood glucose.



More University of Toronto affiliated scientists to publish lab notes in real time

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) About 20 scientists affiliated with a University of Toronto research organization have agreed to publish their lab notes in real time, a groundbreaking move aimed at hastening the discovery of new medical treatments.



Portland State study shows pitfalls of using the term middle class

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Portland State University) Middle class describes an economic tier between rich and poor. It implies upward mobility and a break from poverty. But a recent article co-authored by Portland State University anthropologist Charles Klein shows that the term does little to shine a light on the real lives of people who make it into this social classification.



Let's make a deal: Could AI compromise better than humans?

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Brigham Young University) BYU researchers developed an algorithm that teaches machines not just to win games, but to cooperate and compromise -- and sometimes do a little trash-talking too.



Wills Eye Hospital hosts presentation of inaugural Brady Shields Chair

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wills Eye Hospital) Renowned Eye Cancer specialist, Dr. Jerry Shields receives the first distinguished Brady-Shields Chair in Ocular Oncology.



Challenges and research for an evolving aviation system

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) A comprehensive aviation safety system as envisioned by NASA would require integration of a wide range of systems and practices, including building an in-time aviation safety management system (IASMS) that could detect and mitigate high-priority safety issues as they emerge and before they become hazards, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.



Moms, sisters, wives rank among more 'difficult' kin

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Berkeley) Most of us put up with whiners, naggers, control freaks and other annoying people in our lives for good reason - we're related to them. While female kin are more likely to be viewed as difficult, they are also seen as being more supportive and involved in family life.



Health care financing system deepens poverty and income inequality

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Physicians for a National Health Program) Households' payments for medical premiums, copayments and deductibles pushed more than 7 million Americans into poverty in 2014, according to a study in the American Journal of Public Health. Medical payments also dramatically worsened overall income inequality among Americans.



Study finds shift in patterns of glutamate and GABA in visuospatial working memory network

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Elsevier) A new study in Biological Psychiatry has characterized the patterns of brain neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA in a network of regions that temporarily maintain and process visual information about the location of objects in space, a cognitive ability referred to as visuospatial working memory. The study reports that the patterns are altered in people with schizophrenia, suggesting a potential explanation for the impairments in visuospatial working memory that characterize people with the disorder.



Key to willpower lies in believing you have it in abundance

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Americans believe they have less stamina for strenuous mental activity than their European counterparts -- an indication that people in the US perceive their willpower or self-control as being in limited supply, suggests a study by University of Illinois educational psychologist Christopher Napolitano. The purpose of the study was to test the validity of the widely used Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale.



Harrington Discovery Institute announces 2018 grant funding to 10 physician-scientists

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center) Ten physician-scientists are named 2018 Harrington Scholar-Innovator Award recipients to support their discoveries in diverse research areas, including cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and addiction.



Low-income immigrants face barriers to US citizenship

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Stanford University) New research shows that lowering application fees for naturalization could help more U.S. immigrants gain the benefits of citizenship.



Algorithm improves integration of refugees

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Stanford University) A new machine learning algorithm developed by Stanford researchers could help governments and resettlement agencies find the best places for refugees to relocate, depending on their particular skills and backgrounds.



Dr. Dobryakova of Kessler Foundation researches effect of feedback on cognitive fatigue

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Kessler Foundation) Ekaterina Dobryakova, Ph.D., research scientist in Traumatic Brain Injury Research at Kessler Foundation, received an award from the New Jersey Health Foundation to study how performance feedback influences cognitive fatigue levels in individuals with TBI. The goal is to see whether a behavioral intervention that is based on providing performance feedback can effectively reduce levels of cognitive fatigue, a finding that would have implications for individuals with other types of neurological conditions who are affected by disabling fatigue.



Babies' babbling betters brains, language

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Cornell University) Babies are adept at getting what they need -- including an education. New research shows that babies organize mothers' verbal responses, which promotes more effective language instruction, and infant babbling is the key.