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EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 20:36:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



ACP says transgender individuals should not be barred from military

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American College of Physicians) The American College of Physicians (ACP) strongly opposes President Trump's decision to ban transgender individuals from military service. ACP supports inclusive policies that benefit the overall health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and opposes those that reinforce social stigma, marginalization, or discrimination.



Seeing in the dark: Minus sunlight, a general theory reveals universal patterns in ecology

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Santa Fe Institute) By omitting mechanistic drivers such as sunlight, a statistical theory accurately describes broad ecological patterns in a Panama forest, as well as other natural systems and communities.



Unclear CEO expectations often lead chief marketing officers toward revolving door

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Indiana University) Nearly three-quarters of chief marketing officers believe their jobs aren't designed to let them have the greatest impact on their companies, according to a new survey.



Research calls for enhancing long-term benefits of Farm Bill programs

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Virginia Tech) Ultimately, incentive programs that assist landowners with conservation efforts benefit the population as a whole. 'Private lands conservation is critical,' Dayer said. 'Often when we think about land for wildlife, we think about national parks or protected areas, but those are a small proportion. In the US, 60 percent of the land is privately owned.'



Private insurance claim lines with Lyme disease diagnoses evidence notable increases 2007-16

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(FAIR Health) Although Lyme disease historically has been concentrated in the Northeast and upper Midwest, our data suggest that it is spreading. In the United States in 2007 (as shown in the heat map below), claim lines with Lyme disease diagnoses as a percentage of all claim lines with all diagnoses in the state were highest in the Northeast. The states with the highest percentages of such claim lines were (in order from highest to lowest) New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York.



Projected precipitation increases are bad news for water quality

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Carnegie Institution for Science) If climate change is not curbed, increased precipitation could substantially overload US waterways with excess nitrogen, according to a new study from Carnegie's Eva Sinha and Anna Michalak and Princeton University's Venkatramani Balaji published by Science. Excess nutrient pollution increases the likelihood of events that severely impair water quality. The study found that impacts will be especially strong in the Midwest and Northeast.



Community bias predicts police use of lethal force

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Society for Personality and Social Psychology) Averaging the implicit bias of hundreds of thousands of individuals to understand how 'biased' a community is, predicts the likelihood of African-Americans being killed by police.



Penn Medicine neurosurgeon named alpha Omega Alpha Fellow in Leadership

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Timothy H. Lucas, II, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of Neurosurgery and director of the Translational Neuromodulation Lab in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, has been awarded the 2017 Fellow in Leadership Award by Alpha Omega Alpha national medical honor society.



Involvement of prescription opioids in fatal car crashes climbs sevenfold

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) The percentage of fatally injured drivers who tested positive for prescription opioids rose sevenfold from 1 percent in 1995 to over 7 percent in 2015, according to a new study at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.



Research at Lake Baikal -- for the protection of a unique ecosystem

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ) As part of the Helmholtz Russia Research Group LaBeglo, UFZ researchers are studying the impact of climate change and environmental toxins on the lake's fauna. In a recent study, together with researchers from the Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the University of Irkutsk, they addressed the question of how Baikal amphipods that fulfil important ecological functions in the lake react to pollutants in the water.



Defense technologies can pivot, change purpose, used in private sector

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Purdue University) An agreement among WestGate Authority, Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division (NSWC Crane), Purdue University and Purdue Research Foundation to pivot patented technologies developed for the US Department of Defense has shown strong adaptability to serve other societal purposes in the public sector.



New law could shore up US helium supply

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Helium is essential for MRIs, the fiber optics that deliver images to our TVs, scientific research and of course, party balloons. In the past decade, helium prices have sky-rocketed due to supply shortages. But if small updates are made to an old law, the US could boost its domestic helium output and help keep critical medical tests and electronics running, reports Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly news magazine of the American Chemical Society.



The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017 Annual Meeting

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Institute of Biological Sciences) For this episode of BioScience Talks, we chatted with presenters and personnel from SICB's 2017 annual meeting, which was held earlier this year in New Orleans.



Managers often fail to use or understand their own data on customer satisfaction

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Indiana University) Despite the millions companies spend to gather information about customer satisfaction, senior managers often fail to understand those customers' expectations.



Identified the component that allows a lethal bacteria to spread resistance to antibiotics

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)) A study performed at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and involving the collaboration of the Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC) in Madrid has identified the key component of the machinery that S. aureus uses to acquire and transfer genes that confer resistance to antibiotics.



'Visionary' project to save the Belize coast provides valuable framework

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Taylor & Francis Group) A coastal zone management plan designed to safeguard Belize's natural assets has produced a win-win opportunity for people and the environment, providing a valuable framework for other coastal nations around the world where overfishing, development, and habitat degradation are increasingly serious problems.



Group relocation preserves social connections among elderly Japanese Tsunami survivors

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Association for the Advancement of Science) Relocating in groups, rather than individually, increased informal socializing and social participation among older survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, a new study shows. The finding suggests local authorities should consider moving residents



Senate vote starts process to take coverage from millions

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American College of Physicians) The American College of Physicians (ACP) is gravely disappointed that 50 Senators plus Vice President Pence voted to begin debate on still-secret legislation that could result in tens of millions losing insurance coverage. They now must be held accountable to their constituents, and to our members' patients, who may be harmed by their vote. We thank the 50 Senators who voted against it, especially Senators Susan Collins (ME) and Lisa Murkowski (AK), who stood with patients against the wishes of their conference colleagues.



When should the police use confrontational tactics?

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Northwestern University) In a newly published article, Northwestern University economist Charles F. Manski and his co-author, Carnegie Mellon University criminologist Daniel S. Nagin, outline a 'formal model of optimal policing' that can be used to resolve tensions between public safety and community trust -- and that also can help a public that is prone to privileging one over the other, depending on the circumstances, to keep both in mind.



Qubitekk licenses ORNL single-photon source approach for quantum encryption

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Qubitekk has non-exclusively licensed an Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed method to produce quantum light particles, known as photons, in a controlled, deterministic manner that promises improved speed and security when sharing encrypted data.



Colorizing images with deep neural networks

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Association for Computing Machinery) For decades, image colorization has enjoyed an enduring interest from the public. Though not without its share of detractors, there is something powerful about this simple act of adding color to black and white imagery, whether it be a way of bridging memories between the generations, or expressing artistic creativity. A team of researchers has proposed a new technique to leverage deep networks and AI, which allows novices, even those with limited artistic ability, to quickly produce reasonable results.



Ramesh Raskar of MIT to receive Computer Graphics Achievement Award

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Association for Computing Machinery) The Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM SIGGRAPH) is pleased to announce Ramesh Raskar, PhD, Associate Professor and Head of the Camera Culture group at the MIT Media Lab, as the 2017 recipient of the Computer Graphics Achievement Award.



Bernd Bickel of IST Austria to receive significant New Researcher Award

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Association for Computing Machinery) The Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM SIGGRAPH) is pleased to announce Bernd Bickel, PhD, of IST Austria, as the 2017 recipient of the Significant New Researcher Award.



Study explains link between academic performance and violence

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Northwestern University) A lack of variation in the stress hormone cortisol from morning to evening is tied to a wide range of negative health conditions, including inflammation and immune system dysfunction, new Northwestern University research suggests. In the first comprehensive review of the relationship between daily cortisol fluctuations and health, researchers at the School of Education and Social Policy combined data from 80 different studies to show that while cortisol levels matter, a lack of variation from morning to evening may be even more telling.   



Health commentators say there is a lingering consent problem in biobanking

Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) Researchers throughout the world are going to great lengths to get hold of your genes, tissue and health information. Yet, remarkably, there is very little consensus on how they should be going about doing that.