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Preview: EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics

EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Fri, 09 Sep 2016 03:36:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Application of the mathematics of harmony -- Golden non-Euclidean geometry in modern math

Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(World Scientific) A masterful exploration of history and the essence of mathematical reasoning to the future development of modern science and mathematics.

Experts urge a defensive stance in efforts against antimicrobial resistance

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Burness) In a Comment in Nature, CDDEP Director Ramanan Laxminarayan and other experts in antimicrobial resistance suggest that the United Nations should reframe global efforts against antimicrobial resistance by adopting a defensive stance. The suggested focus should be in building the resilience of society and maintaining diversity in the 'global microbiome'-- only a fraction of which causes human or animal disease.

Can an integrative medicine approach help prevent medical errors?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Medical errors are the third leading cause of death in the US according to a published estimate, but many could be prevented with a shift in the medical industry from a production-driven to an integrative model of healthcare. The emphasis should be on value-based decision-making that takes into account the whole patient, says Editor-in-Chief John Weeks in an editorial in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.

Sharing stories synchronizes group memories

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) People synchronize what they remember and what they forget after sharing memories with one another, according to Princeton University-led research. The findings, published in PNAS, have an applied scope: policymakers could use them to bust myths about certain topics, like how Zika virus is spread.

Academies announce winners of 2016 Communication Awards

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine announced today the recipients of the 2016 Communication Awards. Supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation since 2003 as part of the Keck Futures Initiative, these prestigious awards -- each of which includes a $20,000 prize -- recognize excellence in reporting and communicating science, engineering, and medicine to the general public. The winners will be honored during a ceremony on Oct. 26 in Washington, DC.

New Kuwaiti law on the collection of human DNA threatens scientific collaboration

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(European Society of Human Genetics) The law requiring compulsory DNA testing of all Kuwaiti residents, as well as of all those visiting the country for whatever purpose, is a serious assault on the right to privacy of individuals, and is also likely to lead to the isolation of Kuwaiti scientific research and researchers, according to the European Society of Human Genetics.

Who owns the dead?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Carnegie Mellon University) In a new book, Carnegie Mellon University's Jay D. Aronson details the reasons why a promise was made to identify all victims of the Sept. 11th World Trade Center terrorist attack and why living up to the task has been so challenging.

Hip fractures: Most elderly unlikely to fully recover

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Springer) One in every two older persons who have suffered a hip fracture will never be as physically active and independent as they were before. The odds are even lower for the very old and those with dementia or other ailments, says Victoria Tang of the University of California in the US. She led an observational study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, published by Springer.

Forecasting climate change's effects on biodiversity hindered by lack of data

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Purdue University) An international group of biologists is calling for data collection on a global scale to improve forecasts of how climate change affects animals and plants.

10 new projects to be supported under Joint DOE user facility initiative

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Joint Genome Institute) The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory have accepted 10 projects submitted during the 2017 call for proposals for their joint 'Facilities Integrating Collaborations for User Science' (FICUS) initiative. The accepted proposals will begin on Oct. 1, 2016 and fall under the following focused topic areas: Plant-Microbe Interactions, Biofuels and Bioproducts, and Biogeochemistry of Select Inorganics.

Study looks at how parents use newborn screening results

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(St. Michael's Hospital) A study finds parents say they want to know everything that turns up in newborn screening tests, but then don't use the information or use it inappropriately.

Teens are less likely to select sugary beverages that contain health warning labels

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Teens are more than 15 percent less likely to say they would purchase soft drinks and other sugary drinks that include health warning labels, according to a new study. The study is among the first to examine how warning labels on sugary drinks influence teens.

US rules for targeted killing using drones need clarifying, RAND report asserts

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(RAND Corporation) Current US policies on using drones for targeted killing are characterized by ambiguities in interpretations of international law and too many generalities, despite recent efforts by the Obama administration to clarify the policies, a new RAND Corporation report finds.

Critical information needed in fight to save wildlife

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Connecticut) An international group of 22 scientists is calling for a coordinated global effort to gather important species information that is urgently needed to improve predictions for the impact of climate change on future biodiversity.

A tenth of the world's wilderness lost since the 1990s

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Cell Press) Researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Sept. 8 show catastrophic declines in wilderness areas around the world over the last 20 years. They demonstrate alarming losses comprising a tenth of global wilderness since the 1990s -- an area twice the size of Alaska. The Amazon and Central Africa have been hardest hit.

Genetic analysis uncovers 4 species of giraffe, not just 1

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Cell Press) Up until now, scientists had only recognized a single species of giraffe made up of several subspecies. But, according to the most inclusive genetic analysis of giraffe relationships to date, giraffes actually aren't one species, but four. The unexpected findings reported in Current Biology on Sept. 8 highlight the urgent need for further study of the four genetically isolated species and for greater conservation efforts for the world's tallest mammal, the researchers say.

For arts nonprofits, attendance at events unlikely to influence donors

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Missouri-Columbia) New research from the University of Missouri finds no evidence to support the idea that donors are influenced by performance measures such as high attendance numbers; in fact, large audience numbers may actually lead to fewer donations.

Calculating the role of lakes in global warming

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) Lakes bury more carbon than all the world's oceans combined. How will they respond to global warming?

The Exascale Computing Project announces $39.8 million in first-round development awards

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/US Department of Energy) The Department of Energy's Exascale Computing Project (ECP) today announced its first round of funding with the selection of 15 application development proposals for full funding and seven proposals for seed funding, representing teams from 45 research and academic organizations.

TGen-NAU study generates Soviet anthrax pathogen genome from autopsy specimens

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) A new study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute and Northern Arizona University used deep DNA sequencing methods to generate the anthrax genome sequence from the victims of the 1979 anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk, Russia, when it was part of the USSR.

Seeing the forest for the trees: World's largest reforestation program overlooks wildlife

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) Princeton University-led research found that China's reforestation program, the world's largest, overwhelmingly leads to the planting of monoculture forests that fall short of restoring the biodiversity of native forests -- and can even harm existing wildlife. The researchers found, however, that multi-species forests could be planted without detracting from the economic benefits China's poor and rural citizens receive for replanting forests.

How does your garden grow?

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Santa Barbara) According to a new study, turning lawn into a vegetable garden can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Smartphone hacks 3-D printer by measuring 'leaked' energy and acoustic waves

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University at Buffalo) University at Buffalo researchers illustrate how smartphones, due to their ubiquity and sophisticated gadgetry, can easily hack 3-D printers by measuring 'leaked' energy and acoustic waves that emanate from the printers. The work is eye-opening because it shows how anyone with a smartphone -- from a disgruntled employee to an industrial spy -- might steal intellectual property from an unsuspecting business.

Study finds increased ocean acidification due to human activities

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Oceanographers from MIT and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution report that the northeast Pacific Ocean has absorbed an increasing amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide over the last decade, at a rate that mirrors the increase of carbon dioxide emissions pumped into the atmosphere.

Testing backlogged sexual assault kits prevents future rapes and saves victims millions

Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Case Western Reserve University) Testing backlogged sexual assault kits leads to the imprisonment of more rapists -- preventing future sexual assaults and saving would-be victims and communities millions of dollars, according to a new analysis by Case Western Reserve University.