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EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:36:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



USC researchers develop method to ensure human rights in public health services

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southern California) When measuring the success of public health work -- from immunizations to family planning services -- experts rely on sets of standardized indicators. But these indicators often neglect the voices and human rights of people who use the services, according to USC researchers. The USC Program on Global Health & Human Rights and the World Health Organization developed a new method to determine the extent to which commonly used public health indicators capture human rights concerns.



Extreme fieldwork, climate modeling yields new insight into predicting Greenland's melt

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Los Angeles) A new UCLA-led study brings together scientists from land hydrology, glaciology and climate modeling to unravel a meltwater mystery. UCLA professor of geography Laurence Smith and his team of researchers discovered that some meltwater from the lakes and rivers atop the region's glaciers, is being stored and trapped on top of the glacier inside a low-density, porous 'rotten ice.' This phenomenon affects climate model predictions of Greenland's meltwater.



Transformation to wind and solar achievable with low indirect GHG emissions

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)) Different low carbon technologies from wind or solar energy to fossil carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) differ greatly when it comes to indirect GHG emissions in their life cycle. The new study finds that wind and solar energy belong to the more favorable when it comes to life-cycle emissions and scaling up these technologies would induce only modest indirect GHG emissions -- and hence not impede the transformation towards a climate-friendly power system.



Mindful yoga can reduce risky behaviors in troubled youth, says UC research

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Cincinnati) Study shows a marked reduction in risky sex and substance abuse in troubled 18- to 24-year-olds after several months of participating in mindful yoga and positive coping strategies.



Marking Human Rights Day with a focus on scientific freedom

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Carnegie Mellon University) This year's observance coincides with the American Association for the Advancement of Science's (AAAS) recently released scientific freedom and responsibility statement that supports its mission to promote scientific freedom--and that freedom's inseparable counterpart, scientific responsibility.



New Stanford study analyzes recent research on causes of gun violence

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Stanford University) Consensus is growing in recent research evaluating the impact of right-to-carry concealed handgun laws, showing that they increase violent crime, despite what older research says.



Police officers highly motivated by supervisor scrutiny

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) Police officers are highly responsive to the scrutiny of their superiors, a Princeton University study shows. The findings suggest that rules and supervision can be effective at reforming police behavior.



Solar power advances possible with new 'double-glazing' device

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Warwick) A new 'double-glazing' solar power device -- which is unlike any existing solar panel and opens up fresh opportunities to develop more advanced photovoltaics -- has been invented by University of Warwick researchers.



Eldercare Workforce Alliance recognizes Rep. Jan Schakowsky for policy leadership

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Geriatrics Society) The Eldercare Workforce Alliance (EWA) today recognized Rep. Jan Schakowsky with its Award of Honor for her decades of leadership and commitment to the eldercare workforce. Rep. Schakowsky, who earlier this year introduced the bipartisan Geriatrics Workforce and Caregiver Enhancement Act, has been an ardent champion for educating and supporting our healthcare workforce by empowering them to improve the quality of care delivered to us all as we age.



National Academies' Gulf Research Program awards $10.8 million to address risk in offshore oil and gas operations

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) The Gulf Research Program of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine today announced awards for six new projects totaling $10.8 million. All six projects involve research to develop new technologies, processes, or procedures that could result in improved understanding and management of systemic risk in offshore oil and gas operations.



Army research wins 'Best Paper' at IEEE Global Communication Conference

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(U.S. Army Research Laboratory) Research led by the US Army Research Laboratory's Dr. Jin-Hee Cho was highlighted in a paper that won the IEEE GLOBECOM 2017 Best Paper Award in the Selected Areas in the Communications symposium track in Singapore this week.



People with Huntington's want more openness around assisted dying

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Lancaster University) Research has shown that better communication around assisted dying is needed between clinician and patients diagnosed with Huntington's disease.This is the first study in the UK (where assisted dying is illegal) into the attitudes of people with the condition, which usually leads to dementia and inability to coordinate movement.Because it is inherited, people with a diagnosis will often have witnessed the suffering of a parent.



Night owls have larger social networks than early birds

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Aalto University) Data and traces of our mobile phone use and digital behavior can be used to understand and treat mental health disorders.



Swansea research finds babies that feed themselves have no increased risk of choking

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Swansea University) New research from Swansea University shows that letting babies feed themselves solid foods from as young as six months does not increase the risk of them choking compared to spoon-feeding them.



5G set to revolutionize communications and to transform industry

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(IMDEA Networks Institute) The new generation of 5G mobile networks is the future of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector -- a true technological revolution that will deliver the Internet of Things and is being driven by R&D+i initiatives like '5TONIC,' Spain's leading 5G innovation laboratory.



One wet winter can shake up San Francisco Bay's invasive species

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Smithsonian) For many Californians, last year's wet winter triggered a case of whiplash. After five years of drought, rain from October 2016 to February 2017 broke more than a century of records. In San Francisco Bay, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center biologists discovered a hidden side effect: All that freshwater rain can turn the tables on some of the bay's invasive species.



Sandy Hook shooting aftermath: Increased gun sales, more accidental deaths by firearms

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Association for the Advancement of Science) In the wake of the 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, in Newtown, Conn., the number of guns purchased in America spiked compared to baseline levels, and there were 60 additional accidental deaths related to firearms -- 20 among children and 40 among adults, a new study estimates.



New Lyme disease tests could offer quicker, more accurate detection

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rutgers University) New diagnostic methods offer a better chance for more accurate detection of the infection from the Lyme bacteria, the most common tick-borne infection in North America and Europe.



Special issue to highlight impact of changes in Arctic climate

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) There's controversy in climate change research -- not whether climate change exists, but how the evidence is gathered and used to inform predictions. To help bring convergence to the field and potentially accelerate action, a special issue of the Advances in Atmospheric Sciences is highlighting recent scientific work.



Forests are the key to fresh water

Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of British Columbia Okanagan campus) Freshwater resources are critical to both human civilization and natural ecosystems, but UBC researchers have discovered that changes to ground vegetation can have as much of an impact on global water resources as climate change.



Study finds recreational drug users not what we think

Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(James Cook University) A reasearcher from James Cook University in Queensland has been investigating why Australians are among the top users of illegal drugs in the world -- and has uncovered some revealing new facts about the motivations of recreational drug users.



Next generation electronic monitoring of parolees in development

Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Massachusetts Lowell) Using smartphones, GPS and sensor technology, UMas Lowell researcher are developing a new approach to electronic monitoring of parolees that not only tracks their whereabouts but also rewards positive actions that can bolster success on probation by promoting behavior change rather than simply focusing on negative behavior and punishment.



New guide: How science academies can support the sustainable development goals

Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development identified 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) whose realization will require expertise from many sectors, including science, engineering, and medicine. Supporting the Sustainable Development Goals: A Guide for Merit-Based Academies, a new publication from the InterAcademy Partnership, explains why and how academies around the globe can support the Sustainable Development Goals - for example, by providing advice to governments about implementing the goals, and by monitoring and evaluating progress toward the goals.



Mission to gather petrified Antarctic plants could help predict future of flora on warming Earth

Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Kansas) Fossil plants that lived in Antarctica during the Permian and Triassic could foretell how plants will respond to contemporary climate change.



Researchers devise better recommendation algorithm

Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Improved recommendation algorithm should work especially well when ratings data are 'sparse.'