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Preview: EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics

EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 23:36:02 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



System links data scattered across files, for easy querying

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) System finds and links related data scattered across digital files, for easy querying and filtering.



Children's menus still laden with fat, sodium, and calories despite industry pledges

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Despite a 2011 pledge among United States chain restaurants to improve the nutritional value of children's menu options, a new study finds no significant improvements have been made to cut calories, saturated fat, or sodium. The study is the first to look at trends in the nutrient content of kids' meals among national restaurant chains since the National Restaurant Association launched the voluntary Kids LiveWell program in 2011. The study is published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.



How much drought can a forest take?

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Davis) Why do some trees die in a drought and others don't? And how can we predict where trees are most likely to die in future droughts? Scientists from the University of California, Davis, and colleagues examined those questions in a study published in the journal Ecology Letters.



Your 'anonmyized' web browsing history may not be anonymous

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Princeton University, Engineering School) Researchers wrote computer programs that found patterns among anonymized data about web traffic and used those patterns to identify individual users. The researchers note web users with active social media are vulnerable to the attack. 'Given a history with 30 links originating from Twitter, we can deduce the corresponding Twitter profile more than 50 percent of the time.'



UTA works with Boeing, NASA, MIT to improve online students' completion rates

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Arlington) Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington are working with Boeing, NASA and Massachusetts Institute of Technology to better understand the role that social networks play in the completion rates and academic performance of students taking online courses.



Motors matter: From DVD players to robotic surgeons

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Chinese Association of Automation) A team of researchers from the Polytechnic University of Bari, in Italy, are working to improve how industrial electric drives operate. They propose a new control scheme that will improve not only how the motor operates, but also how to improve how the motor interacts with other systems. The scheme is detailed in a paper published in IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica.



Researchers discover greenhouse bypass for nitrogen

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Virginia Institute of Marine Science) An international team discovers that production of a potent greenhouse gas can be bypassed as soil nitrogen breaks down into unreactive atmospheric N2.



One year of sex-inclusive research celebrated at Jan. 25 symposium

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Northwestern University) The Sex Inclusion in Biomedical Research Workshop and Symposium, which celebrates the one-year anniversary of the implementation of the National Institutes of Health's landmark sex-inclusion policy, will take place Jan. 25, 12-6 p.m. at Prentice Women's Hospital, 250 E. Superior Street in Chicago. It is open to the public but attendees must register and pay ($30 for community members, students, residents and postdoctoral fellows, $75 for faculty and staff). Lunch and a celebratory reception are included in the cost.



Professor Andrew Morris wins NEH fellowship

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Union College) Andrew Morris, associate professor of history, has been awarded a prestigious fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities.Among the most competitive academic awards in the country, the fellowships support advanced research in the humanities, allowing recipients to produce articles, books, digital materials or other scholarly resources.Morris will use his grant to continue work on a book about Hurricane Camille and the transformation of American disaster relief policy.



Rice's Baker Institute releases policy recommendations for the Trump administration

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rice University) Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy has released policy recommendations for President-elect Donald Trump's administration, which includes science and health care.



New Marcellus development boom will triple greenhouse gas emissions from PA's natural gas

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PSE Healthy Energy) Natural gas production on Pennsylvania's vast black shale deposit known as the Marcellus Shale will nearly double by 2030 to meet growing demand, tripling Pennsylvania's greenhouse gas emissions from the natural gas sector relative to 2012 levels, according to a report published today by Delaware Riverkeeper Network. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions will remain steady through 2045 with continued shale gas development, projects the report, 'Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Projected Future Marcellus Development.'



Affordable Care Act made cancer screening more accessible for millions, study finds

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Virginia Health System) From 2011 to 2013, the ACA resulted in an 8 percent increase in the diagnoses of early-stage colorectal cancer among US seniors aged 65 and older.



Rheumatology leaders say FDA biosimilar interchangeability guidance a balanced approach

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American College of Rheumatology) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has released a draft guidance on biosimilar interchangeability titled 'Considerations in Demonstrating Interchangeability With a Reference Product' that leaders at the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) believe may address many of the safety and efficacy concerns physicians have raised over the past year.



ACR sends letter to Congress outlining health care reform priorities

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American College of Rheumatology) The American College of Rheumatology sent a letter to Congressional leaders ahead of actions on health policy, urging lawmakers to adopt a health-care reform plan that is consistent with the ACR's priority of affordable and accessible health care for Americans living with rheumatic diseases.



Biosimilars create opportunities for sustainable cancer care

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Society for Medical Oncology) Biosimilars create opportunities for sustainable cancer care, says the European Society for Medical Oncology in a position paper published in ESMO Open. The document outlines approval standards for biosimilars, how to safely introduce them into the clinic, and the potential benefits for patients and healthcare systems.



Finding ways to fix the climate before it's too late

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Scientists and policymakers rely on complex computer simulations called Integrated Assessment Models to figure out how to address climate change. But these models need tinkering to make them more accurate.



The Tasmanian tiger had a brain structure suited to a predatory life style

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Scans of preserved Tasmanian tiger brains suggest that these extinct predators devoted more of the cortex to complex cognition associated with predation compared to modern Tasmanian devils, according to a study published Jan. 18, 2017 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Gregory Berns from Emory University, US, and Ken Ashwell from University of New South Wales, Australia.



Mitochondrial DNA shows past climate change effects on gulls

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Ornithological Society Publications Office) To understand the present and future, we have to start with the past. A new study in The Auk: Ornithological Advances uses the mitochondrial DNA of Heermann's gulls to draw conclusions about how their population has expanded in the Gulf of California since the time of the glaciers -- and, by extension, how human-caused climate change may affect them in the future.



Air polluters more likely to locate near downwind state borders

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Indiana University) Indiana University research reveals a pattern of companies strategically locating facilities where wind will carry pollution across state lines. Locating factories and power plants near downwind borders can allow states to reap the benefits of jobs and tax revenue but share the negative effects -- air pollution -- with neighbors.



Colorado medical students defend physicians' right to recommend marijuana

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Colorado students viewed the legalization of marijuana favorably, medicinal or otherwise, and generally felt that the medical use of marijuana is acceptable in the treatment of conditions approved by the Colorado Medical Marijuana Registry. Nearly half (49 percent) felt that it had significant physical health benefits and 37 percent believed it had mental health benefits.



New in the Hastings Center Report

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(The Hastings Center) What happens when physicians and surrogate decision-makers disagree about what is best for a patient? Two articles and four commentaries explore this question in the January-February 2017 issue.



Nursing homes falling behind with end-of-life directives

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Missouri-Columbia) Advance directives, or living wills, are the legal documents individuals use to communicate their treatment preferences when faced with serious injuries or illnesses. Following a new study, Colleen Galambos, professor in the University of Missouri School of Social Work, says that more attention to how advance directives are used in nursing homes may reduce unnecessary care and save health care costs, all while respecting residents' wishes.



New study finds Transcendental Meditation reduces trauma in female prisoners

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Maharishi University of Management) The first study to specifically focus on reducing stress in female prisoners has found that Transcendental Meditation significantly reduces trauma symptoms. Women have become the fastest growing prison population in the US, and research shows they suffer from higher rates of mental and emotional trauma, and higher rates of sexual abuse than men. This randomized controlled trial, published in The Permanente Journal, follows a recent study on reduced trauma in male inmates through Transcendental Meditation.



Colorado medical students defend physicians' right to recommend marijuana

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Springer) In the first study of its kind, University of Colorado School of Medicine students expressed support for the legal use of marijuana, including for physical and mental health reasons. They also believe more research is needed to ascertain what risk could be involved in using the drug. These were some of the findings of a study led by Michael Chan, a recent graduate of the CU Anschutz Medical Campus.



New tool can help policymakers prioritize information needs for synthetic biology tech

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(North Carolina State University) New technologies are developed at a rapid pace, often reaching the marketplace before policymakers can determine how or whether they should be governed. Now researchers have developed a model that can be used to assess emerging synthetic biology products, well before they are ready for the market, to determine what needs to be done to inform future policies.