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Preview: EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics

EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 11:36:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Prestigious international environmental prize awarded to Mexican scientist-statesman

Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(ReAgency) In the past, Mexico's rainforests suffered extensive logging and were in grave danger.But Mexican ecologist Professor José Sarukhán was able to convince the then-President to build a government department to exclusively track the country's rainforests and protect their biodiversity. The department, CONABIO, became one of the first models of its kind in the world.For this and other contributions - Professor Sarukhán has been chosen as winner of the 44th Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement.



Longevity-promoting superstar gets revealed in Caenorhabditis reproducibility project

Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Buck Institute for Research on Aging) The amyloid dye Thioflavin T emerged as the superstar when age researchers in three independent laboratories tested ten already-promising pro-longevity chemicals across a range of distinctive strains and species of tiny nematode worms known as Caenorhabditis. The project, dubbed the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program (CITP), tackled reproducibility, which has been a lingering problem in age research, given that some of the field's most prominent research findings cannot be replicated by other labs.



Seven new species of night frogs from India including 4 miniature forms

Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PeerJ) Scientists from India have discovered seven new frog species belonging to the genus Nyctibatrachus, commonly known as Night Frogs. This find is a result of five years of extensive explorations in the Western Ghats global biodiversity hotspot in India. Four out of seven of the new species are miniature-sized frogs (12.2-15.4 mm), which can comfortably sit on a coin or a thumbnail. These are among the smallest known frogs in the world.



Buying green doesn't make you green: QUT study

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Queensland University of Technology) Company bosses need to walk-the-walk when it comes to greening their business with technology, with new QUT research finding that just buying green IT, doesn't make you green. Professor Jan Recker, from the QUT Business School, said investment in Green IT paid off in terms of reducing costs but to generate green reputational and innovation benefits a more substantial change of strategy and practice was required from top-down and beyond the IT department.



Family focused interventions for at risk children and youth

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Society for Research in Child Development) A new special section published in the journal Child Development includes articles from 12 sets of experts on how interventions can be developed to maximize resilience among children experiencing adversity and improve outcomes for their families as well.



More black police won't result in fewer police-involved homicides of black citizens

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Indiana University) Hiring more black police officers is not a viable strategy for reducing police-involved homicides of black citizens in most cities, according to new Indiana University research that is the first in-depth study of this increasingly urgent public policy question.



AAP, Vanderbilt neonatologist urge public health approach for opioid use during pregnancy

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center) The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a statement today stating that a public health response, rather than a punitive approach, is needed to address the increasing number of pregnant women using opioids.



UBC study links slot-machine addiction to immersion in the game

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of British Columbia) Gamblers who feel like they enter into a trance while playing slot machines are more likely to have gambling problems, according to new research from the Centre for Gambling Research at UBC.



A research advocates making cost-effectiveness analyses to improve healthcare management

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Elhuyar Fundazioa) In healthcare management, making cost-effectiveness analyses based on scientific evidence may bring 'significant benefits for patients and for the healthcare system and the general public, when clinical practice is improved and more efficient use of resources is made; so they should be applied systematically to already established procedures and also prior to introducing new techniques or treatments'.



Researcher uncovers the secret history of self-harm

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Queen Mary University of London) Taking the reader from the Victorian era to modern Britain, Psyche on the Skin challenges the idea that self-harm is a phenomenon that can be attributed to 'how we live now.'



Winners and losers: Climate change will shift vegetation

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Umea University) Projected global warming will likely decrease the extent of temperate drylands by one-third over the remainder of the 21st century coupled with an increase in dry deep soil conditions during agricultural growing season. These results have been presented in Nature Communications by an international collaboration led by the US Geological Survey and members from seven countries, including Scott Wilson at the Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC) at Umeå University In Sweden.



Fifth of world's food lost to over-eating and waste, study finds

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Edinburgh) Almost 20 per cent of the food made available to consumers is lost through over-eating or waste, a study suggests.



Teflon subproducts recycled into valuable pharmaceuticals

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ)) Both the US and the EU patent offices granted ICIQ the exclusive exploitation rights of a new waste valorization method. The process offers a sustainable alternative to the preparation of valuable pharmaceuticals (i.e. Prozac®) and agrochemicals from fluoroform, a sub-product obtained when preparing Teflon.



Industry funding biases drug trial studies in favor of sponsors' products

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Sydney) Industry-sponsored studies are more likely to favour products of pharmaceuticals and medical devices than non-industry funded research, a new Cochrane Library Review reveals today.



Differences in the rhetorical styles of candidates in the 2016 US presidential election

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oxford University Press USA) A new paper published in Digital Scholarship in the Humanities reveals and quantifies dramatic differences in the speaking styles of candidates in the 2016 United States presidential election. Lexical analysis indicates that President Donald Trump had a distinct communication style, and it was far more direct than any of the other candidates.



Warming ponds could accelerate climate change

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Exeter) Rising temperatures could accelerate climate change by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide stored in ponds and increasing the methane they release, new research shows.



Pilot study finds youth more likely than adults to report seeing alcohol marketing online

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Underage youth are nearly twice as likely to recall seeing alcohol marketing on the internet than adults, with almost one in three saying they saw alcohol-related content in the previous month, according to a new pilot survey led by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.



Single-payer reform is 'the only way to fulfill the president's pledge' on health care

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Physicians for a National Health Program) Proposals floated by Republican leaders won't achieve President Trump's campaign promises of more coverage, better benefits, and lower costs, but a single-payer health reform would, according to a commentary in Annals of Internal Medicine. A single-payer system could provide comprehensive first-dollar coverage to all Americans within the current budgetary envelope because of vast savings -- estimated at $504 billion annually -- on health care bureaucracy and profits.



Study reveals 'nightmare' for Central Africa's forest elephants

Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cell Press) Forest elephants living in an area that had been considered a sanctuary in the Central African country of Gabon are rapidly being picked off by illegal poachers, who are primarily coming from the bordering country of Cameroon. Researchers reporting in Current Biology on February 20 found that the forest elephant population in Gabon has dropped by more than 80 percent in a decade--a loss of about 25,000 elephants.



Gene sequences reveal secrets of symbiosis

Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)) Genome sequences by KAUST of dinoflagellate algae indicate how they maintain their symbiotic relationship with corals.



GBSI reports encouraging progress toward improved research reproducibility by year 2020

Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Global Biological Standards Institute) One year after Global Biological Standards Institute issued its Reproducibility2020 challenge and action plan for the biomedical research community, the organization reports encouraging progress toward the goal to significantly improve the quality of preclinical biological research by year 2020. The Report is the first comprehensive review of community-led action and impact to improve life sciences research reproducibility since the issue became more widely known in 2012, and it outlines priorities going forward.



Stanford researcher to examine unsung hero of science: Assessment

Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences ) Assessment adds enormous value to the scientific landscape, creating foundations for government and society.



Marine ecologist offers suggestions for achieving a strong, lasting 'blue economy'

Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon State University) Incentive-based solutions offer significant hope for addressing the myriad environmental challenges facing the world's oceans.



Using statistics ethically to combat 'a scientific credibility crisis'

Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Georgetown University Medical Center) Can statistics increase the value of science to society? Georgetown University's Rochelle Tractenberg, chair of the Committee on Professional Ethics of the American Statistical Association, will discuss 'Promoting Ethical Science and Policy With Ethical Statistical Practice' on a panel presenting three disciplinary perspectives on Sunday, Feb. 19, from 8 to 9:30 a.m. at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting in Boston.



'Alternative facts' not just in politics and media

Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Michigan State University) A Michigan State University scholar is warning those who read about the latest groundbreaking research to proceed with caution. Kevin Elliott, an associate professor who specializes in the philosophy and ethics of science, is presenting an analysis of case studies about conflicts of interest in research this month at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, or AAAS, annual meeting in Boston.