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Preview: EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics

EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 30 Apr 2017 08:36:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



UTA professor's book explains complex world of public health, individual medical services

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Texas at Arlington) A book from a UTA associate professor explains why the United States has the health system it has.



American College of Physicians praises blocked health insurance merger

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American College of Physicians) The American College of Physicians (ACP) today praised this morning's decision by the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upholding a lower court ruling halting the proposed $54 billion insurance merger between Anthem and Cigna. The ruling over the potential impact on competition and insurance prices is a big "win" for patients and the physicians who care for them.



Hybrid circuits can increase computational power of chaos-based systems

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(North Carolina State University) New research from North Carolina State University has found that combining digital and analog components in nonlinear, chaos-based integrated circuits can improve their computational power by enabling processing of a larger number of inputs.



Why chemists marched for science (video)

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Tens of thousands of people gathered in Washington, D.C., and at hundreds of satellite marches around the world on Saturday to join the first March for Science. We followed two groups of chemists from Minnesota and New Jersey to get a snapshot of the hopes and concerns that brought them to the US capital to join people from across the nation -- and the globe -- in the March for Science. Watch it here: https://youtu.be/-LC5S4uKr1M.



JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting being held May 20-25 in Chiba, Japan

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Geophysical Union) Discover the latest in Earth and space science research at the JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017 taking place May 20-25 at the Makuhari Messe International Conference Hall in Chiba, Japan. The meeting will bring together researchers from the American Geophysical Union and the Japan Geoscience Union.



When the smoke clears... tobacco control in post-conflict settings

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(ecancermedicalscience) In new research published today by King's College London - Institute of Cancer Policy and the Conflict & Health Research Group in the journal ecancermedicalscience, the difficulties of prioritizing preventable disease and long term health issues in post conflict zones are explored.



Mapping the edge of reality

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(RMIT University) Australian and German researchers have collaborated to develop a genetic algorithm to confirm the rejection of classical notions of causality.



American Geriatrics Society voices opposition to amended American Health Care Act

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Geriatrics Society) Following a review of the recently released MacArthur Amendment to the American Health Care Act (AHCA), the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) remains opposed to this legislation that would repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and which AGS experts believe would harm access to key health services for older adults, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.



Crime and virtual punishment

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Utah) Students from the University of Utah have created a new mobile 'game' for the iPhone and Android devices that demonstrates how software algorithms used by many of the nation's judicial courts to evaluate defendants could be biased like humans. Justice.exe is a free app in which the player chooses the minimum or maximum sentence for a series of convicted criminals, and the software's algorithm eventually tries to predict how the player would punish criminals.



Legal marijuana stores lead to increases in property crime

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ohio State University) Legal marijuana shops are linked to higher levels of property crime in nearby areas, according to a nearly three-year study in Denver.



Survey: Another good year for Chesapeake Bay's underwater grasses

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Virginia Institute of Marine Science) An annual survey led by researchers at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science shows the abundance of underwater grasses in Chesapeake Bay increased 8 percent between 2015 and 2016, continuing an upward trend initiated in 2012.



Feeling the heat

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) How has thermal comfort changed in recent decades over China against the background of the global warming? Scientists carried out an investigation over the Chinese mainland using the index of effective temperature (ET), which combines the effects of temperature, humidity and wind speed.



Shortage of essential diphtheria treatment drugs needs international action, experts warn

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Exeter) International action is needed to tackle a global shortage of medicine in Western nations which could hinder the ability of doctors to treat diphtheria, experts have warned.



Looking for the quantum frontier

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology) Researchers have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier' -- the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. The team, whose work was highlighted in the first edition of Quantum journal this week, demonstrate that these computations can be performed with near-term, intermediate, quantum computers.



England's Cancer Drugs Fund 'failed to deliver meaningful value to patients and society'

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(European Society for Medical Oncology) Analysis of the drugs that were approved for use by the NHS Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England has shown that the fund was not good value for patients and society and may have resulted in patients suffering unnecessarily from toxic side effects of the drugs. The review by Professor Richard Sullivan and Dr. Ajay Aggarwal is published in Annals of Oncology with an accompanying editorial by Dr. Kapil Dhingra.



Ocean warming to cancel increased CO2-driven productivity

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Adelaide) University of Adelaide researchers have constructed a marine food web to show how climate change could affect our future fish supplies and marine biodiversity.



Unification could be good for North Korea, RAND report asserts

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(RAND Corporation) A new RAND report identifies the likely concerns of North Korean elites about their possible fates under various unification scenarios and recommends actions that the Republic of Korea (ROK), also known as South Korea, could take now to help North Korean elites feel more positive about, or at least less resistant to, unification.



How do students with debt fare in community college?

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(SAGE) Community college students who borrow up to $1,999 in student loans during their first two years of community college complete 17 percent fewer academic credits in that same time period than their peers who take out $2,000 to $3,999 in loans or do not take out any loans at all. This finding and more were published in a new study out today in The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (a SAGE Publishing journal).



Animal testing essential to medical progress but protocols could be improved

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Elsevier Health Sciences) The use of animals in biomedical research has long been the focus of campaigns by animal rights activists. Two leading scientists writing in the European Journal of Internal Medicine give their expert view of the importance of animal testing to medical progress and present ways it could be further improved to yield more useful clinical results.



Rice's John Boles offers new exploration of Founding Father Thomas Jefferson

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rice University) In a new book spanning more than 640 pages, Rice University's eminent scholar of the American South, John Boles, takes a fresh, nuanced look at one of America's most talented, enigmatic and complex Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson. Not since the 1970 book 'Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation' by Boles' mentor Merrill Peterson has a scholar published a comprehensive biography of the third president of the US.



Several EPA programs face possible elimination under Trump proposal

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) The Trump administration's proposed plan for the US Environmental Protection Agency includes completely defunding several programs related to climate change, public health and pollution, according to an internal agency memo that was leaked to the media last month. An article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, runs through the numbers.



Serious violence in England and Wales drops 10 percent in 2016

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cardiff University) The number of people injured in serious violence dropped by 10 percent in 2016 compared to 2015, according to a national report on serious violence published by Cardiff University.



Actress Kiruna Stamell debates gene editing with ethicist Dr. Christopher Gyngell

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(SAGE) Two papers published today by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, debate gene editing and the health of future generations. Stage and screen actress Kiruna Stamell, who has a rare form of dwarfism, proposes that gene editing does not represent an improvement in healthcare; while Dr. Christopher Gyngell, a research fellow at the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, argues that provided it is well regulated, gene editing could greatly improve the health of our descendants.



Do medical marijuana laws promote illicit cannabis use and disorder?

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders increased at a greater rate in states that passed medical marijuana laws than in other states, according to latest research. The new study is among the first to analyze the differences in cannabis use and cannabis use disorders before and after states passed medical marijuana laws, as well as differentiate between earlier and more recent periods and additionally examine selected states separately.



Concise consent forms are effectively understood by clinical trial participants

Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) Shortening consent documents makes no significant difference to how well potential research participants understand a clinical study, according to a study published April 26, 2017, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Christine Grady from the NIH Clinical Center, US, and colleagues.