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Preview: EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics

EurekAlert! - Policy and Ethics



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sat, 10 Dec 2016 11:36:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Next-generation accelerators get boost from new beam physics

Sat, 10 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST)) A new research, affiliated with UNIST reported the full generalization of the KV model by including all of the linear (both external and space-charge) coupling forces, beam energy variations, and arbitrary emittance partition, which all form essential elements for phase-space manipulations.



UH receives $66 million in-kind software grant from Siemens PLM Software

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Houston) The University of Houston Gerald D. Hines College of Architecture and Design today announced it has received an in-kind software grant from Siemens PLM Software, with a commercial value of more than $66 million. Siemens PLM Software is a leading global provider of product lifecycle management (PLM) software and services.



Do cannabis dispensary staff receive sufficient training?

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) As legalization of cannabis for medical use increases across the US, the training of dispensary staff, who may recommend cannabis type and concentration to patients, requires closer examination. A new study, which found that only 55% of dispensary staff reported having some formal training for their positions, is published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.



Federal funds help Virginia increase wetland benefits

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Virginia Institute of Marine Science) The US Environmental Protection Agency today announced two major grants designed to help Virginia protect and restore its wetlands.



NTU launches new research lab to develop greener maritime energy solutions

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Nanyang Technological University) Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) today launched a new marine research laboratory to develop innovative eco-friendly technologies for Singapore's maritime and offshore industry. It is equipped with the region's first dual-fuel marine engine. Partners are SembCorp Marine and the Singapore Economic Development Board.



Meadow restoration studied for potential to build carbon credits in California

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Nevada, Reno) Turning meadow restoration into cleaner air is the goal of researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno. Their Soil Science Laboratory recently partnered with the Earthwatch Institute to better understand how restoration and plant communities relate to the soil carbon in Sierra Nevada mountain meadows. The team aims to develop a model that can predict how much carbon is sequestered in a meadow. The data may be used by the State of California to sell carbon credits through their Cap and Trade program.



Investigating link btwn bedside nursing & avoidable readmissions for older black patients

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing) As many as a quarter of all older adults discharged from an acute hospitalization will return within thirty days. Readmissions like these result in increased healthcare costs, functional decline and greater need for skilled nursing when transitioning back to community settings. Older black patients bear a disproportionate risk of readmissions according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and no single approach has been repeatedly effective in reducing readmissions for older black patients.



Shooting, gang violence exposure leads to PTSD

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Northwestern University) The violence that women in disadvantaged neighborhoods experience and witness can result in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and full diagnoses, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study that examined a disadvantaged Chicago neighborhood.



Research explains why some presents are great to give but not to receive

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Indiana University) New research from Indiana University's Kelley School of Business highlights common mistakes that people will make this holiday season, including thinking more about the moment they expect when giving a present than the many moments after when their recipients keep and use the gift.



Scientists track restoration of communication in minimally conscious patient

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Weill Cornell Medicine) A severely brain injured woman, who recovered the ability to communicate using her left eye, restored connections and function of the areas of her brain responsible for producing expressive language and responding to human speech, according to new research from Weill Cornell Medicine scientists.



Survey: Wait times for voters in 2016 election improved in several key states

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) While many voters reported long lines at polling locations around the country during the 2012 presidential election, this year the overall amount of time people had to wait to vote improved significantly, according to a new survey examining voter experience during the 2016 presidential election. MIT Professor Charles Stewart III presented the preliminary findings of the Survey on the Performance of American Elections, during a conference hosted by the Pew Charitable Trusts.



Queen's researchers receive funding to track impact of climate change on polar bears

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Queen's University) Queen's University researchers Stephen C. Lougheed, Peter Van Coeverden de Groot and Graham Whitelaw have been awarded $9.5 million in total partner cash and in-kind contributions -- including $2.4 million from Genome Canada's Large-Scale Applied Research Project competition -- to monitor impacts of environmental change on polar bears. The project, entitled BEARWATCH, will combine leading-edge genomics and Indigenous traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to develop a non-invasive means of tracking polar bear response to climate change.



Keeping electric car design on the right road

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Pushing nanoscale battery developments in the right direction can help create a sustainable transport sector.



Metaphoring the police: It's all about the right choice of word

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Springer) A well-chosen metaphor does wonders to explain concepts, to persuade and to ensure buy-in into any given matter. So says Paul Thibodeau of Oberlin College in the US, lead author of an article in Springer's journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review on the use of metaphors as a form of explanation.



Not free agents? Could human decisions actually be products of deterministic forces?

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(World Scientific) Is it not commonly accepted that human decision making is the result of free will and is therefore not deterministic? Yet there is an opposing view based on the theory of games that some aspects are deterministic. When this view is extended to include the system dynamics of space and time, an engineering approach to decision-based social structures becomes possible, with potentially profound consequences.



High altitudes hamper hummingbirds' ability to manoeuvre: UBC research

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of British Columbia) Hummingbirds' ability to accelerate and turn diminishes at high altitudes, but it isn't a lack of oxygen to the body that limits the birds' performance -- it's physics. University of British Columbia researchers captured male adult hummingbirds and transported them to the White Mountain Research Centre in California. The center, situated at 3,800 metres (12,500 feet), allowed the researchers to evaluate the birds' ability to accelerate and turn, and compare them to baselines gathered closer to sea level.



Researchers create hidden images with commercial inkjet printers

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(The Optical Society) Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The inexpensive method could be used as a type of invisible ink to hide information in otherwise normal-looking images.



People with traumatic brain injury approximately 2.5 times more likely to be incarcerated

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(St. Michael's Hospital) People who have suffered a traumatic brain injury are approximately 2.5 times more likely to be incarcerated in a federal correctional facility in Canada than people who have not, a new study has found.



Genetic variant determines if stallions become carriers of equine arteritis virus

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) The change of just four nucleotides in the CXCL16 gene is all that is necessary to determine whether or not stallions are likely to become long-term carriers of EAV. Sanjay Sarkar, Ernest Baily and Udeni Balasuriya of the University of Kentucky, Lexington, and colleagues report these findings Dec. 8, 2016 in PLOS Genetics.



Unraveling the secrets of cluster crystallization

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ)) A team of researchers at ICIQ in Tarragona (Spain) and Oregon State University (US) combine experimental and computational strategies to understand the secrets behind the crystallization of unprecedented chromium polycations.



Climate change is already causing widespread local extinction in plant and animal species

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Extinctions related to climate change have already happened in hundreds of plant and animal species around the world. New research, publishing on Dec. 8 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, shows that local extinctions have already occurred in 47 percent of the 976 plant and animal species studied.



ASHG supports Genetic Privacy Provisions in 21st Century Cures Act

Wed, 07 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(American Society of Human Genetics) The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) commends Congress for strengthening privacy protections for genetics research participants as part of the 21st Century Cures Act (H.R.34) passed on Dec. 7. These provisions, Section 2012 and Section 2013 of H.R.34, were originally introduced in the Senate by Senator Warren (D-MA) and Senator Enzi (R-WY) as the Genetic Research Privacy Protection Act (S.2744), legislation endorsed by ASHG.



Despite evolutionary inexperience, northern sockeye manage heat stress

Wed, 07 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon State University) Sockeye salmon that evolved in the generally colder waters of the far north still know how to cool off if necessary, an important factor in the species' potential for dealing with global climate change.



Mount Sinai researchers find signs of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure in children

Wed, 07 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Children exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke show measurable amounts of the drug in their bodies, a researcher at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has found. The study was published in the journal Pediatric Research



New approach may open up speech recognition to more languages

Wed, 07 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) At the Neural Information Processing Systems conference this week, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) are presenting a new approach to training speech-recognition systems that doesn't depend on transcription. Instead, their system analyzes correspondences between images and spoken descriptions of those images, as captured in a large collection of audio recordings. The system then learns which acoustic features of the recordings correlate with which image characteristics.