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Preview: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Mon, 11 Dec 2017 04:33:02 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Ben-Gurion U. researcher indicates nicotine replacement is safer for pregnant women than smoking

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev) Smoking during pregnancy is the most significant, preventable risk factor for poor maternal and infant health outcomes. However, clinicians worldwide, including in the United States, report that they prescribe NRT at low levels due to lack of confidence and safety concerns. However, behavioral counseling combined with medication is the most effective smoking cessation strategy.



Soy, cruciferous vegetables associated with fewer common breast cancer treatment side effects

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Georgetown University Medical Center) Consuming soy foods (such as soy milk, tofu and edamame) and cruciferous vegetables (such as cabbages, kale, collard greens, bok choy, Brussels sprouts, and broccoli) may be associated with a reduction in common side effects of breast cancer treatment in breast cancer survivors, say a team of scientists.



E-cig use increases risk of beginning tobacco cigarette use in young adults

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) Young adults who use electronic cigarettes are more than four times as likely to begin smoking tobacco cigarettes within 18 months as their peers who do not vape, according to new University of Pittsburgh research. The findings demonstrate that e-cigarettes are serving as a gateway to traditional smoking, contrary to their purported value as a smoking cessation tool. The study is the first nationally representative survey that followed for more than a year people 18 to 30 years old who were initially nonsmokers.



Anesthetics have the same effects on plants as they have on animals and humans

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oxford University Press USA) A new study published in Annals of Botany has shown that plants react to anesthetics similarly to the way animals and humans do, suggesting plants are ideal objects for testing anesthetics actions in future.



Exposure to air pollution just before or after conception raises risk of birth defects

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center) Women exposed to air pollution just prior to conception or during the first month of pregnancy face an increased risk of their children being born with birth defects, such as cleft lip or palate or abnormal hearts.



Rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy may increase chronic disease risk in children

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) New research reveals that children born to women with rheumatoid arthritis face an increased susceptibility for certain chronic diseases.



Payment incentives to psychiatrists in Ontario do not increase access for new patients

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Canadian Medical Association Journal) Incentive payments, introduced to encourage community-based psychiatrists to see new patients after discharge from a psychiatric hospital or following suicide attempts, do not increase access, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).



Physicians, especially female and rural doctors, retiring earlier than expected

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Canadian Medical Association Journal) Physicians in British Columbia are retiring earlier than previously thought and many are reducing their working hours in the years leading up to retirement, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). These findings indicate that estimates based on physician 'head counts' from data on physician licences may be overestimating the number of active physicians.



CAR T, immunotherapy bring new hope for multiple myeloma patients

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Two investigational immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, have shown encouraging results in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients who had relapsed and were resistant to other therapies. Both of these investigational approaches targeted a receptor called B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), which is highly expressed in myeloma and thus a promising target for treatment.



Landmark CAR-T cancer study published in the New England Journal of Medicine

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Loyola University Health System) Loyola University Medical Center is the only Chicago center that participated in the pivotal clinical trial of a groundbreaking cancer treatment that genetically engineers a patient's immune system to attack cancer cells.



Global CAR T therapy trial shows high rates of durable remission for NHL

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) In a pair of clinical trials stretching from Philadelphia to Tokyo, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy Kymriah™ (formerly known as CTL019) demonstrated long-lasting remissions in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Results from a global, multisite trial will be presented today at the 59th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta (Abstract #577). Results from the single-site study, with follow-up extending past two years, will be published today in the New England Journal of Medicine.



Sequencing offers clues to progression toward multiple myeloma

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have carried out the largest genomic analysis of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), a precursor to full-blown blood cancer that doesn't show outward symptoms. The next-generation sequencing project 'will help to explain the biology of the disease and how it unfolds through time from asymptomatic stages to symptomatic ones,' said Mark Bustoros, M.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Irene Ghobrial, M.D.



Tracking how multiple myeloma evolves by sequencing DNA in the blood

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Although people with multiple myeloma usually respond well to treatment, the blood cancer generally keeps coming back. Following genetic changes in how the disease evolves over time will help to understand the disease and, eventually, deliver more effective treatments. Researchers now have successfully demonstrated techniques to track these alterations over time by analyzing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) found in blood, according to Jens Lohr, M.D., Ph.D., a hematologist and oncologist at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.



Study shows combining chemotherapy with targeted drug boosts response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Among younger patients newly diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), treatment with a combination of chemotherapy and a molecularly targeted drug significantly improves response over what is typically seen with chemotherapy alone, according to an investigator-initiated multi-center phase II clinical trial.



Low-dose treatment with Il2 across studies shows benefits in chronic graft-versus host

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Daily low doses of the immune signaling protein interleukin-2 (IL-2) can safely benefit patients who develop chronic graft-versus-host disease following stem cell transplants, including particular benefit in pediatric patients in one small study, report scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.



Rapid responses, few adverse effects in targeted agent in Phase1 trial in rare blood disorder

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Clinical Activity in a Phase 1 Study of BLU-285, a Potent, Highly-Selective Inhibitor of KIT D816V in Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis. Study shows one of multiple ways in which novel targeted cancer therapies are now being deployed to improve outcomes and quality of life for patients with rare, advanced, or difficult-to-treat blood malignancies.



Phase 2 CAR-T study reports significant remission rates at 15-month follow up

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A study involving the recently approved CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy shows that 42 percent of patients with aggressive large B-cell lymphoma remained in remission at 15 months following treatment with axi-cel (marketed as Yescarta™).



International team identifies genetic model for predicting primary myelofibrosis outcomes

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Mayo Clinic) A group of investigators from Mayo Clinic and multiple academic research centers in Italy have identified a genetic model for predicting outcomes in patients with primary myelofibrosis who are 70 years or younger and candidates for stem cell transplant to treat their disease. The group's findings were presented today at the 59th American Society of Hematology annual meeting in Atlanta by lead authors Alessandro Vannucchi, M.D., from the University of Florence and Ayalew Tefferi, M.D., a hematologist at Mayo Clinic.



St. Jude gene therapy improves immunity in babies with 'bubble boy' disease

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital) Preliminary findings indicate gene therapy pioneered at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital is safe and effective for babies with a devastating inherited disorder that leaves them with little or no immune protection.



Study explores use of checkpoint inhibitors after relapse from donor stem cell transplant

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Immunotherapy agents known as checkpoint inhibitors have shown considerable promise in patients with hematologic cancers who relapse after a transplant with donor stem cells. Preliminary results from the first clinical trial in these patients of one such agent -- nivolumab -- indicate that along with signs of effectiveness, it also produced significant side effects at the dose initially studied. The findings indicate a need for further clinical trials in this group before being considered for off-label use with these patients, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report.



Immunotherapy drug nearly eliminates severe acute graft-versus-host disease

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Seattle Children's) Results from a phase 2 clinical trial, presented by Seattle Children's Research Institute at the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, show that the drug Abatacept (Orencia) nearly eliminated life-threatening severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants.



Physical activity data, emojis on Apple Watch correlated with patient-reported outcomes

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Mayo Clinic) Wearable activity monitors, such as the Apple Watch, provide objective, continuous activity data that correlate with established patient-reported outcomes for cancer patients, according to a poster presentation by Mayo Clinic researchers that was presented at the American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting in Atlanta.



USC researchers develop method to ensure human rights in public health services

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southern California) When measuring the success of public health work -- from immunizations to family planning services -- experts rely on sets of standardized indicators. But these indicators often neglect the voices and human rights of people who use the services, according to USC researchers. The USC Program on Global Health & Human Rights and the World Health Organization developed a new method to determine the extent to which commonly used public health indicators capture human rights concerns.



In lab research, scientists slow progression of a fatal form of muscular dystrophy

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Saint Louis University) Saint Louis University researchers report that a new drug reduces fibrosis (scarring) and prevents loss of muscle function in an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).



Boosting the antibiotic arsenal

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT researchers have discovered a way to make bacteria more vulnerable to a class of antibiotics known as quinolones, which include ciprofloxacin and are often used to treat infections such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.