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Preview: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 23:33:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Sugars in human mother's milk are new class of antibacterial agents

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Vanderbilt University) A new study has found that sugars in mother's' milk do not just provide nutrition for babies but also help protect them from bacterial infections, making them a new class of antimicrobial agent.



People who hear voices can detect hidden speech in unusual sounds

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Durham University) People who hear voices that other people can't hear may use unusual skills when their brains process new sounds, according to research led by Durham University and University College London (UCL).



Novel approach to track HIV infection

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Northwestern University) Scientists used a novel live-cell fluorescent imaging system that allowed them for the first time to identify individual viral particles associated with HIV infection.



To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep -- and caffeine

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) A new preclinical study found that a brief period of extended wakefulness before surgery enhances pain and prolongs recovery time after surgery. Caffeine administration helped to reduce the harmful effects of sleep loss on subsequent surgical pain.



New bioimaging technique is fast and economical

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue -- such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing.



Research reveals how physical exercise protects the heart

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) A study by the University of São Paulo (USP) in Brazil, published recently in the journal Autophagy, helps to elucidate part of the mechanism whereby aerobic exercise protects the sick heart. The benefits of exercise range from prevention of cachexia -- severe loss of weight and muscle mass -- and control of arterial blood pressure to improved cardiac function, postponing a degenerative process that causes progressive heart cell death. About 70% of heart failure patients die from the condition within five years.



Study of California kidney cancer shows declining incidence, end of a trend

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Davis Health System) Study of kidney cancer incidence in California over 25 years is the first report to demonstrate that the rising rate of kidney cancer seen in the US over the past two decades may have ended.



Make way for hemoglobin

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Harvard Medical School) Harvard Medical School researchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O. This finding could spark the development of new treatments for blood disorders and cancers.



UH receives $3.3 million from state cancer research program

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Houston) The University of Houston has received $3.3 million from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, including $2 million to hire Rohith Reddy, a post-doctoral researcher at Harvard Medical School who focuses on next-generation technologies for detecting gynecological cancers, and $1.3 million to allow the College of Education's Lorraine Reitzel to expand a tobacco cessation program to substance abuse treatment centers.



Paper: Clinical signs best predictors of mortality in critically ill calves

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Clinical signs such as gastrointestinal problems may be better predictors of mortality in neonatal calves with diarrhea than blood pH levels and other laboratory findings, suggests a new study co-written by University of Illinois veterinary medicine dean Peter Constable; Florian M. Trefz and Annette Lorch, both of the Center of Veterinary Clinical Medicine at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich; and Ingrid Lorenz, of the Bavarian Animal Health Service.



Smokers 20 percent more likely to quit when cigarettes cost $1 more

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Drexel University) Smokers were found to be 20 percent more likely to quit smoking when packs of cigarettes cost just one dollar more, according to a new public health study out of Drexel University.



GIST tumors linked to NF1 mutations, genetic testing needed

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - San Diego) Researchers at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, with colleagues from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Fox Chase Cancer Center, have determined that a specific region of the small bowel, called the duodenal-jejunal flexure or DJF, shows a high frequency of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with mutations of the NF1 gene.



ASTRO supports US Nuclear Regulatory Commission final rule

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Society for Radiation Oncology) The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) applauds the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for yesterday's announcement of a final rule that updates the definition of medical events for permanent implant brachytherapy and protects patients' access to this treatment.



Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start times

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) Leading pediatrics and sleep associations agree: Teens shouldn't start school so early. Yet University of Michigan research finds parents are split almost down the middle on whether they support delays in school start times that might permit their 13- to 17-year-olds to sleep later on school days.



GA4GH 5th Plenary Meeting

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Global Alliance for Genomics and Health) Francis Collins and Harold Varmus will discuss the importance of international open science in a joint keynote address at the 5GA4GH 5th Plenary Meeting in Orlando, Florida, USA on Oct. 17, 2017. The event is an official ASHG ancillary meeting and will afford attendees the opportunity to learn more about important changes to GA4GH that aim to enable responsible, real-world genomic data sharing by 2022.



Mechanisms explaining positional diversity of the hindlimb in tetrapod evolution

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Nagoya University) Elucidating how body parts in their earliest recognizable form are assembled in tetrapods during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. Nagoya University researchers found in eight tetrapod species that the position of the sacral vertebrae and the hindlimbs is determined by the initiation timing of Gdf11 gene expression. This will contribute to a forthcoming model explaining the coupling of spine and hindlimb positioning - a major step in fully understanding tetrapod evolution.



Organ crosstalk: Fatty liver can cause damage to other organs

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Deutsches Zentrum fuer Diabetesforschung DZD) Scientists of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) in Tübingen discovered that a fatty liver can cause damage to other organs. In two just-published studies they demonstrate the effects of fatty liver disease on the function of the hormone-producing islet cells in the pancreas and on renal function.



Vitamin D deficiency linked to increased heart failure risk in older adults

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Wiley) A recent study found an elevated risk of heart failure in more than half of older individuals, and this risk was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency.



Population health impact of infants born small for gestational age in low- and middle-income countries

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Brigham and Women's Hospital) Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and CHERG used the first international, multi-ethnic birth weight standard, known as the INTERGROWTH-21st, to describe the global burden of suboptimal fetal growth.



Special issue of Future Medicinal Chemistry explores immunotherapy edit article

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Future Science Group) The field of immunotherapy is moving forward at an unprecedented rate and cancer immunotherapy, in particular, has recently come of age!



Virus with an eggshell

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Wiley) Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited. The reason may be an eggshell-like mineral layer that the virus acquires due to the high calcium concentration in the intestines of birds. As reported by Chinese researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie, these mineralized viruses are significantly more infectious and, in addition, more robust and heat stable than the native viruses.



Smart computers

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Freiburg) Artificial neural networks decode brain activity during performed and imagined movements.



New study rebuts the claim that antidepressants do not work

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Gothenburg) A theory that has gained considerable attention in international media, including Newsweek and the CBS broadcast 60 minutes, suggest that antidepressant drugs, such as the SSRIs, do not exert any actual antidepressant effect. A research group at the Sahlgrenska Academy has now analyzed data from clinical trials and can rebut this theory.



How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Nagoya University) Researchers at Nagoya University revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain. Without Daple, the cilia develop a random arrangement and cannot produce a uniform flow of CSF. This in turn leads to a build-up of fluid, which is associated with swelling of the head, known as hydrocephalus.



Drug resistance in an intestinal parasite of piglets confirmed for the first time

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea especially in newborn piglets and spreads quickly across farms. European farmers preventively use toltrazuril to control parasite development. In contrast to congeneric chicken parasites, no resistance to toltrazuril was described in pig parasites until recently. Researchers of Vetmeduni Vienna now confirmed ineffectivness of toltrazuril against a Dutch isolate. Although the resistance develops slowly, monitoring should be intensified due to the lack of alternative treatment options and hygiene measures should be increased.