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Preview: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sat, 18 Nov 2017 22:33:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Hibernating ground squirrels provide clues to new stroke treatments

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) In the fight against brain damage caused by stroke, researchers have turned to an unlikely source of inspiration: hibernating ground squirrels. While the animals' brains experience dramatically reduced blood flow during hibernation, just like human patients after a certain type of stroke, the squirrels emerge from their extended naps suffering no ill effects. Now, a team of NIH-funded scientists has identified a potential drug that could grant the same resilience to stroke patients.



Small changes to organ procurement system could lead to more life-saving transplants

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Indiana University) Slight changes to the system for allocating deceased-donor kidneys could result in higher rates of organ procurement and lead to more kidney transplants across the country, according to new research co-authored by an Indiana University Kelley School of Business professor.



Not an illusion: Clever use of mirrors boosts performance of light-sheet microscope

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Marine Biological Laboratory) Using a simple 'mirror trick' and not-so-simple computational analysis, scientists affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have considerably improved the speed, efficiency, and resolution of a light-sheet microscope, with broad applications for enhanced imaging of live cells and embryos.



Like a baby: The vicious cycle of childhood obesity and snoring

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) In a new longitudinal observational study, scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) looked at the relationships among maternal snoring, childhood snoring and children's metabolic characteristics -- including body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance, which reflects future risk for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease -- in approximately 1,100 children followed from gestation through early adolescence.



When to fish: Timing matters for fish that migrate to reproduce

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) A new University of Washington study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certain fish and change the life history patterns of entire populations.



These ring-tailed lemurs raise a 'stink' when they flirt with potential mates

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) Stink-flirting among ring-tailed lemurs come at a cost, but may also influence females in choosing a mate.



Decrease in sunshine, increase in rickets

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) A University of Toronto student and professor have teamed up to discover that Britain's increasing cloudiness during the summer could be an important reason for the mysterious increase in rickets among British children over the past few decades.



Rheumatology leaders urge support for graduate student exemption & continuous health coverage

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American College of Rheumatology) The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) today expressed concerns with a provision of the House tax bill passed on Nov. 16 that would repeal the tax-exempt status for graduate student tuition waivers, and a provision included in the Senate tax bill that would repeal the individual health insurance mandate.



Investigating patterns of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Brigham and Women's Hospital) Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to cause memory loss and cognitive decline, but other functions of the brain can remain intact. The reasons cells in some brain regions degenerate while others are protected is largely unknown. In a paper to be published in Stem Cell Reports, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital have found that factors encoded in the DNA of brain cells contribute to the patterns of degeneration, or vulnerability, in AD.



New study out of WSU further supports use of progesterone to fight preterm birth

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) A new study published today -- World Prematurity Day -- in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology provides additional support for treatment with vaginal progesterone to reduce the risk of preterm birth, neonatal complications and infant death in pregnant women with a short cervix. A shortened cervix is the most powerful predictor of preterm birth.



Ending TB means investing in R&D

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Burness) This week, as health ministers, diplomats and other representatives meet to discuss tuberculosis (TB) at the World Health Organization (WHO) Ministerial Conference in Moscow, millions of people are suffering from the disease. The governments around the world can and must end this suffering through a major and sustained investment in TB research and development (R&D).  



Age and gut bacteria contribute to MS disease progression, according to Rutgers

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rutgers University) Gut bacteria at a young age can contribute to multiple sclerosis disease onset and progression.



Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Specially tailored, ultrafast pulses of light can trigger neurons to fire and could one day help patients with light-sensitive circadian or mood problems, according to a new study in mice at the University of Illinois. This study is the first demonstration of using coherent control to regulate function in a living cell.



New study hopes to empower parents of children with autism

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Boston Medical Center) Researchers from Boston Medical Center, in conjunction with researchers from Florida State University and others across the country, are collaborating on a study that aims to get parents involved with early intervention services sooner.



New interdisciplinary research program in biomedical innovation law

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Law) The Novo Nordisk Foundation has awarded a grant of DKK 35 million to Timo Minssen, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen for establishing a Collaborative Research Programme in Biomedical Innova-tion Law (CeBIL).The aim of CeBIL is to analyse the most important legal obstacles to pharmaceutical innovation and thereby contribute to translating innova-tive biomedical research into new effective, affordable and easily acces-sible forms of treatment.



Link between obesity and cancer is not widely recognized

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oxford University Press USA) A new study published in the Journal of Public Health has shown that the majority of people in the United Kingdom do not understand the connection between weight issues and cancer. Obesity is associated with thirteen types of cancer, including those of the breast, kidney, bowel, and womb. However, after surveying 3,293 adults, taken as representative of the UK population, researchers found that only a quarter of respondents were aware of the link between obesity and cancer.



Electrochemistry opens up novel access to important classes of substances

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany have succeeded in overcoming the problem of electrochemical polymer formation and in developing a sustainable and efficient synthesis strategy for these important products for the first time.



Anti-tumor and immune-potentiating Enterococcus faecalis-2001 β-glucans

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Bentham Science Publishers) Enterococcus faecalis 2001 is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and has been used as a biological response modifier (BRM). From physiological limitation of bacterial preservation in storage and safety, the live E. faecalis 2001 has been heat-treated and the BRM components containing high level of β-glucan, named EF-2001, were prepared.



Brain astrocytes linked to Alzheimer's disease

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Eastern Finland) Astrocytes, the supporting cells of the brain, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. This is the first time researchers discovered a direct association between astrocytes and AD. Published in Stem Cell Reports, the study investigated the brain cell function of familial AD patients by using stem cell technologies.



BfR supports EFSA and ECHA with the development of European guidelines for the health assessment of endocrine disruptors

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment) On behalf of the European Food Safety Authority, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment hosted a hearing of experts on the practicability of hormone measurements in toxicological studies in Berlin on Oct. 18-19, 2017.



University of Guelph professor identifies protein key to cancer cells ability to spread

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Guelph) U of G scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues.The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it decreased the adhesion and invasion rate of breast and brain cancer cells by up to 90 percent.



Study analyzes mutations in cerebrospinal fluid in lung cancer with brain metastases

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Society for Medical Oncology) Researchers have explored the analysis of mutations in cerebrospinal fluid of lung cancer patients with brain metastases in a study presented at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress. Tumor tissue from brain metastasis is difficult to obtain and therefore less invasive methods are needed to identify and monitor the presence of known actionable mutations.



First-graders fitter than expected

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) Childhood obesity is often attributed to a lack of exercise. So what about sports among elementary school students? A team from the Technical University of Munich pursued this question and collected the results of fitness tests for first-year students over a period of one decade. Their study shows that students did not lose their strength. Speed or balance even increased over the time of 10 years. One change was in the boys, whose endurance decreased compared to the girls of the same age.



ALEX study shows alectinib 600 mg more effective than crizotinib in Asian cancer patients

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Society for Medical Oncology) A subanalysis of the phase III ALEX study has shown that alectinib 600 mg twice daily is more effective than standard of care crizotinib in Asian patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), researchers report at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress.



Asthma attacks reduced in tree-lined urban neighborhoods

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Exeter) People living in polluted urban areas are far less likely to be admitted to hospital with asthma when there are lots of trees in their neighborhood, a study by the University of Exeter's medical school has found.