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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sat, 10 Dec 2016 03:33:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Circulation favors placenta over brain in fetuses of diabetic mothers

Sat, 10 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(European Society of Cardiology) Blood flows preferentially to the placenta instead of the brain in fetuses of mothers with diabetes, reveals research presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2016.



Heart damage caused by chemotherapy is worse in patients with diabetes

Sat, 10 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(European Society of Cardiology) Heart damage caused by chemotherapy is worse in cancer patients who also have diabetes, according to a study presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2016.



User-friendly medication packaging design can boost patient safety

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Human Factors and Ergonomics Society) Improvements to text size and placement and color scheme could help consumers- - especially the elderly - -discriminate medication ingredients to avoid inadvertent overdoses.



UTHealth researcher receives NIH funding to study how the brain deciphers words

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) Unlocking the mystery of how the brain processes the written word into language is the focus of a $3 million federal grant awarded to Nitin Tandon, M.D., professor of neurosurgery at McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) and a member of Memorial Hermann Mischer Neuroscience Institute.



Exploring the evolutionary history of the immune system

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin) Researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have found that human ALOX15 appears to have developed a much higher capacity to stimulate the production of these lipid mediators than the enzyme variant found in lower primates.



Lyncean Technologies receives $650,000 in Series A funding

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Lyncean Technologies, Inc.) Lyncean Technologies, Inc., manufacturer of the Lyncean Compact Light Source, today announced the successful raising of $650,000 in a Series A funding round.



Do cannabis dispensary staff receive sufficient training?

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) As legalization of cannabis for medical use increases across the US, the training of dispensary staff, who may recommend cannabis type and concentration to patients, requires closer examination. A new study, which found that only 55% of dispensary staff reported having some formal training for their positions, is published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.



Ancient enzyme morphed shape to carry out new functions in humans

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Scripps Research Institute) New research led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) reveals that a human enzyme has changed little from its days as a bacterial enzyme.



Study provides new focus for developing drugs to fight cancer

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Riverside) Cancer researchers and drug companies may have been too quick to ignore a promising line of inquiry that targets a specific cell protein, according to a research team led by a biomedical scientist in the School of Medicine at the University of California, Riverside.



Cow gene study shows why most clones fail

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Davis) It has been 20 years since Dolly the sheep was successfully cloned, but cloning mammals remains a challenge. A new study by researchers from the US and France of gene expression in developing clones now shows why most cloned embryos likely fail.



Older women with breast cancer report better cosmetic satisfaction with less radiation, less surgery

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) In the first study evaluating patient-reported cosmetic outcomes in a population-based cohort of older women with breast cancer, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center researchers found that less radiation was associated with improved cosmetic satisfaction long-term.



Sexual harassment common among middle school children, study finds

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Sexual harassment is a prevalent form of victimization that most antibullying programs ignore and teachers and school officials often fail to recognize, said bullying and youth violence expert Dorothy L. Espelage. The five-year study by researchers at the University of Illinois found that homophobic bullying is the precursor to sexual harassment among adolescents.



Study finds new pathways to treat non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of South Carolina) Researchers from the University of South Carolina, Duke University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Metabolon Inc. Research Triangle Park have discovered a new pathway in the liver that opens the door to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition that affects up to 25 percent of the population and may lead to cirrhosis and eventually liver cancer or failure, and likely other liver diseases.



Image-guided biopsy identifies patients who achieve pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant therapy

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) In a pilot study conducted at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, image-guided biopsies identified select breast cancer patients who achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) after chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy, neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST).



NIH scientists develop new mouse model to study Salmonella meningitis

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have established in mice a way to study potentially life-threatening meningitis caused by Salmonella. Bacterial meningitis happens when bacteria infect the central nervous system (CNS), causing a serious disease that can be life-threatening and difficult to diagnose and treat. Patients who survive often have permanent brain damage.



Oxytocin improves synchronization in leader-follower interaction

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Aarhus University) A new study from Center for Music in the Brain (MIB) Aarhus University/The Royal Academy of Music, Denmark, published in Scientific Reports on the Dec. 8, 2016, shows that participants receiving oxytocin -- a hormone known to promote social bonding - are more synchronized when finger-tapping together, than participants receiving placebo. This effect was observed when pairs of participants, placed in separate rooms tapped together in a leader/follower relationship.



Diet, the gut microbiome, and colorectal cancer: are they linked?

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Recent evidence from animal models suggests a role for specific types of intestinal bacteria in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). If a microbial imbalance in the gut could actively contribute to CRC in humans, dietary-based therapeutic interventions may be able to modify the composition of the gut microbiome to reduce CRC risk, as discussed in a review article published in BioResearch Open Access.



UMD researchers show how online communities bridge the rural-urban healthcare divide

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Maryland) Online communities are helping patients find and share information and connect with each other at unprecedented levels. But can they also create social value by helping to bridge the disparities between rural and urban health care? University of Maryland's Robert H. Smith School of Business researchers asked whether online health communities can create social value, by helping to alleviate regional health disparities between rural and urban patients.



New evidence shows how bacterium in undercooked chicken causes GBS

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Michigan State University) A Michigan State University research team is the first to show how a common bacterium found in improperly cooked chicken causes Guillain-Barre Syndrome, or GBS.



NYU researchers examine social/behavioral interventions to uncover undiagnosed HIV

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(New York University) At least a third of new HIV transmission events are linked to those with undiagnosed HIV. Researchers looked to identify best approaches to uncovering undiagnosed HIV, comparing the efficacy of three social/behavioral intervention strategies for heterosexual individuals at high risk for HIV in Brooklyn, NY. Active approaches to detect undiagnosed HIV among heterosexuals are needed to achieve elimination of HIV transmission in the US; the study addresses this gap in available HIV prevention programs.



Never-smoking women have high prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) A new study published by University of Toronto researchers suggests that women who have never smoked are susceptible to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and that African American women are particularly vulnerable.



Beans and peas increase fullness more than meat

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen) Meals based on legumes such as beans and peas are more satiating than pork and veal-based meals according to a recent study by the University of Copenhagen's Department of Nutrition, Excercise and Sports. Results suggest that sustainable eating may also help with weight loss.



Home-based rehabilitation improves daily life of people with low vision

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Cardiff University) The visual function and daily life of people whose sight can't be corrected with glasses or contact lenses can be significantly improved through home visits by rehabilitation specialists, concludes a study by Cardiff University.



Schiff bases of benzothiazol-2-ylamine and thiazolo[5,4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Bentham Science Publishers) A series of Schiff bases of benzothiazol-2-ylamine/thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine was synthesized. Aniline/4-aminopyridine was converted to the corresponding thiourea derivative, which was then cyclized to obtain benzothiazol-2-ylamine/thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine. Finally, these were condensed with various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes to obtain twelve novel Schiff bases of benzothiazol-2-ylamine and thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine.



Identification of flavonoids from plant parts and callus culture of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.

Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Bentham Science Publishers) Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is an important medicinal plant (Family: Asclepiadaceae). It has been used as an antidiabetic agent in traditional medicines. The hypoglycemic activity has also been validated through clinical trials and studies on animal models. Extensive use of G. sylvestre for phytoceuticals has led to its depletion from the natural habitat and thus, the plant finds its presence in the list of endangered plant species of India.