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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2018 19:57:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



US hospitals testing experimental therapies to prevent two common bacterial infections

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) NIAID-supported clinical sites in the US are participating in two ongoing international Phase 2 trials evaluating investigational antibody-based therapies aimed at preventing potentially antibiotic-resistant infections. By aligning the NIAID Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) with a large international consortium leading the effort, the US investigators hope to enroll adult patients from 15 intensive care units in the trials.



Prevention is better than cure: Targeted vaccination to halt epidemics

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Commission Joint Research Centre) Scientists at the Joint Research centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, simulated real-world social networks to assess the best strategies for halting epidemics.



Children's learning is not affected by repeated sick days with fever and infections

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Aarhus University) Whereas severe infections with long-term hospitalisations can make it more difficult for a child to pass the 9th grade exam, recurring less serious severe infections do not affect children's learning. This is shown by the hitherto largest study of almost 600,000 Danish children.



Genetics makes Asians and Europeans susceptible to severe dengue

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Institut Pasteur) As globalization and climate change spread tropical infectious diseases around the globe, not all populations have the same degree of susceptibility. Researchers from the Institut Pasteur, CNRS and the Institute for Research and Innovation in Health-University of Porto (i3S) identified gene variants common in people of Asian and European ancestry, making them more prone than those of African origin to developing severe dengue, which can lead to potentially fatal dengue shock syndrome.



Mutation explains why some people are more vulnerable to viral brain infection

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Rockefeller University) Scientists identified mutations in a single gene that impair immunity to viruses in a region of the brain called the brain stem.



NYU researchers adapt HIV test in developing rapid diagnostic test for Zika virus

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(New York University) Researchers at New York University College of Dentistry, in collaboration with Rheonix, Inc., are developing a novel test for Zika virus that uses saliva to identify diagnostic markers of the virus in a fraction of the time of current commercial tests.



Opioid abuse leads to heroin use and a hepatitis C epidemic, USC researcher says

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southern California) Heroin is worse than other drugs because people inject it much sooner, potentially resulting in increased risk of injection-related epidemics such as hepatitis C and HIV, a Keck School of Medicine of USC study shows. As more people use opioids, many switch to heroin because it's more potent and cheaper - a trend that complicates disease prevention as health officials crack down on opioids.



Toenail fungus gives up sex to infect human hosts

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Duke University) The fungus that causes athlete's foot and other skin and toenail infections may have lost its ability to sexually reproduce as it adapted to grow on human hosts. The discovery that this species may be asexual -- and therefore nearly identical at the genetic level -- uncovers potential vulnerabilities that researchers could exploit in designing better antifungal medications. The findings appear online in Genetics.



Liverpool leads new £4.7m Zika vaccine project

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Liverpool) The University of Liverpool is leading on a major new collaborative project to develop a Zika virus vaccine that is suitable for use in pregnancy.Supported by a £4.7million award from Department of Health and Social Care, managed by Innovate UK, the new project aims to take two new vaccine candidates through to a clinical trial in humans within the next three years.



Disease-bearing mosquitoes gain from shrinkage of green spaces

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) A study conducted in São Paulo, Southern Hemisphere's biggest city, shows that mosquitoes belonging to vector species make up for seven out of the eight most common species found in municipal parks; adapted to urban environment, they benefit from the fragmentation of green areas, a process which leads to the extinction of wild species.



Tracking dormant malaria

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) In an advance that could help scientist discover new malaria drugs, MIT researchers have shown that they can grow dormant human malaria parasites in engineered human liver tissue for several weeks, allowing them to closely study how the parasite becomes dormant, what vulnerabilities it may have, and how it springs back to life.



Artificial intelligence quickly and accurately diagnoses eye diseases and pneumonia

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - San Diego) Using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, researchers at Shiley Eye Institute at UC San Diego Health and University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in China, Germany and Texas, have developed a new computational tool to screen patients with common but blinding retinal diseases, potentially speeding diagnoses and treatment.



How bats carry viruses without getting sick

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Cell Press) Bats are known to harbor highly pathogenic viruses like Ebola or Marburg and yet they do not show clinical signs of disease. In a paper published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe on February 22, scientists at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China find that in bats, an antiviral immune pathway called the STING-interferon pathway is dampened, and bats can maintain just enough defense against illness without triggering a heightened immune reaction.



UTA researcher to develop nanomaterials to treat antibiotic-resistant infections

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Arlington) A researcher at The University of Texas at Arlington has been awarded a prestigious National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development, or CAREER, grant to develop new synthetic antimicrobial nanomaterials to treat antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitals and military facilities.



First child vaccinated with typhoid conjugate vaccine in Africa

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Liverpool) History was made in the fight against typhoid fever today, as the first child in Africa was vaccinated in a clinical trial using a new generation of typhoid vaccines.



Open-access data resource aims to bolster collaboration in infectious disease research

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania) An international team of researchers has launched the Clinical Epidemiology Database, an open-access online resource enabling investigators to maximize the utility and reach of their data and to make optimal use of information released by others.



First global estimate finds 1.8 million young people develop TB every year

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Lung Foundation) A total of 1.8 million young people between ten and 24 years of age are estimated to develop tuberculosis (TB) every year, with young adults aged 20 to 24 years at the greatest risk of developing infectious TB, according to research published in the European Respiratory Journal.



Can menstrual cups help prevent vaginal infections?

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Chicago) Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago will conduct a study to determine how the use of menstrual cups helps prevent vaginal infections and sexually transmitted infections.



AI to fight the spread of infectious diseases

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southern California) Public outreach campaigns can prevent the spread of devastating yet treatable diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), malaria and gonorrhea. But ensuring these campaigns effectively reach undiagnosed patients, who may unknowingly spread the disease to others, is a major challenge for cash-strapped public health agencies. Now, a team of USC Viterbi School of Engineering researchers has created an algorithm that can help policymakers reduce the overall spread of disease.



'Icebreaker' protein opens genome for t cell development, Penn researchers find

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Researchers describe the role of a transcription factor called TCF-1 in targeting the condensed chromatin and regulating the availability of genome sequences in T-cell development. The new connection between TCF-1 and chromatin will aid in developing new therapies using epigenetic drugs to alter T-cell fate in cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.



New safety data for the most commonly used drug to treat Chagas disease

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal)) The frequency of adverse reactions to benznidazole is high when treating chronic Chagas patients, although they were mostly mild effects, according to a study led by ISGlobal, in collaboration with the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. The results point to the need of finding drug combinations or dosages in order to maintain efficacy but decrease its toxicity.



Typhoid outbreak: Genetic cause of extensive drug-resistance found

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) The genetic cause behind a strain of typhoid's resistance to five classes of antibiotics has been uncovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators. There is currently a major outbreak of typhoid fever in Pakistan. This study shows the typhoid strain causing the outbreak acquired an additional piece of DNA to become resistant to multiple antibiotics, including a third-generation antibiotic.



New VaxArray potency test kit for pandemic flu vaccines

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(InDevR, Inc.) InDevR has expanded its VaxArray® product portfolio with a new reagent kit to address the 'need for speed' in combating flu viruses with pandemic potential. The VaxArray Influenza Pandemic Hemagglutinin potency test kit is now available for flu vaccines containing H5, H7, and H9 flu subtypes, which includes new H7 vaccines against the deadly avian H7N9 virus. This new potency assay enables rapid determination of immunogenic hemagglutinin in low-dose and adjuvanted flu vaccines.



Past encounters with the flu shape vaccine response

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Chicago Medical Center) Researchers from the University of Chicago, Harvard University and others show that poor immune responses, not egg adaptions, may explain the low effectiveness of the vaccine that year.



Following the 2014 Ebola outbreak, signs of recovery for Liberian healthcare system

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in 2014-2015 disrupted the provision of healthcare in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. In a research article published this week in PLOS Medicine, Bradley Wagenaar, of the University of Washington, and colleagues quantify the health system output losses in Liberia during and in the immediate aftermath of the EVD outbreak, and the recovery of the health systems in the two years following.