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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 21:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Study of climate change could lead to understanding future of infectious disease

Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Penn State) Over the past 34 years, rainfall in Uganda has decreased by about 12 percent even though many of the global climate models predict an increase in rainfall for the area, according to an international team of researchers. Rainfall levels in Uganda impact agriculture, food security, wildlife habitats and regional economics as well as the prevalence of certain diseases.

Malaria's most wanted: Identifying the deadliest strains to design a childhood vaccine

Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Melbourne) Researchers have identified a 'genetic fingerprint' associated with the most deadly strains of malaria parasites, making these unique DNA regions potential targets for vaccine development.

Discovered mode of drinking in mosquitoes carries biomedical implications

Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Virginia Tech) 'Mosquitoes are not just a nuisance, but also a health threat,' said Virginia Tech's Mark Stremler, a study co-author. 'The more we can understand about their robustness and how they survive, the better chance we have of figuring out ways to control them.'

Natural sniper kills hospital bacterium

Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(KU Leuven) Bacteria produce proteins to take out specific competitors. One of these proteins can kill the hospital bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbial geneticists at KU Leuven, Belgium, have unravelled how this protein launches its attack and ensures that the bacteria die very quickly. In the long term, these proteins hold potential for new antibiotic cocktails.

Tiny gels sop up intestinal toxins

Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Bacterial infections that target the intestine can cause conditions that range from uncomfortable to deadly. While it's easy to blame the bacteria, it's actually the toxins the bacteria produce that trigger inflammation, diarrhea, fever and cramps. Researchers now report the development of a microgel scavenger that targets toxins instead of bacteria. They will present their results today at the 255th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.

Fast-acting antidote in sight for cholera epidemics

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Gothenburg) Groundbreaking discoveries regarding the onset of cholera are paving the way for a future, fast-acting antidote for cholera epidemics, according to research published in the journals PLOS Pathogens and ACS Infectious Disease.

Research with made-in-Canada molecule targets fungal infections worldwide

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Canadian Glycomics Network) People whose immune systems are compromised from illnesses such as cancer can also fall victim to infections caused by fungal pathogens, which have become a major. GlycoNet is funding translational research to test a unique approach using drug-like molecules that inhibit attachment of cell surface carbohydrates and have been shown to alter and weaken diverse medically important fungi. The project is led by Network Investigator, Leah Cowen, (University of Toronto) and her colleague Luke Whitesell (University of Toronto).

Molecular doorstop could be key to new tuberculosis drugs

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Rockefeller University) In discovering how an antibiotic kills the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, scientists open the door to new treatments for the disease -- and possibly others, as well.

New antibody and unique binding site offer possible paths to malaria prevention

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) Scientists have discovered a human antibody that, when tested in mice, prevented malaria infection by binding a specific portion of a surface protein found in almost all strains of the malaria parasite worldwide.

Deeper insight into viral infections

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Würzburg) Würzburg researchers have developed a new analysis technique that sheds more light on viral infections. They used the new method to demonstrate that virus-infected cells produce far more infection-related proteins and peptides than previously thought.

University of Liverpool awarded £1.6 million to develop novel meningitis blood test

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Liverpool) Researchers at the University of Liverpool are developing a new commercial blood test to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected meningitis.

Newly described human antibody prevents malaria in mice

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Scientists have discovered a human antibody that protected mice from infection with the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The research findings provide the basis for future testing in humans to determine if the antibody can provide short-term protection against malaria, and also may aid in vaccine design. NIAID investigators led the research with colleagues at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Currently, there is no highly effective, long-lasting vaccine to prevent malaria.

With big data, researchers identify new targets for lung disease treatments

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland School of Medicine) Every year, approximately 12 million adults in the US are diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and 120,000 die from it. For people with COPD, Haemophilus influenzae, a bacterium, can be particularly dangerous. Now, researchers have unraveled how the bacterium adapts quickly, which may open new avenues for therapy for COPD and other diseases such as ear infections or pneumonia.

Commonly used drugs affect our gut bacteria

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) One in four drugs with human targets inhibit the growth of bacteria in the human gut. These drugs cause antibiotic-like side-effects and may promote antibiotic resistance, EMBL researchers report in Nature on March 19.

Most Americans found to have suboptimal cardiovascular health

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(American College of Physicians) A study of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 2014 found that most Americans have suboptimal cardiovascular health.

Progress toward a new flu treatment, thanks to a small tweak

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) This year's aggressive flu season reminds everyone that although the flu vaccine can reduce the number of people who contract the virus, it is still not 100 percent effective. A tweak to a small-molecule drug shows promise for future production of new antiviral therapies that could help patients, regardless of the strain with which they are infected. The researchers present their work at the 255th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.

Breastfeeding may protect high-birthweight infants from childhood obesity

Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(The Endocrine Society) Breastfeeding may protect high-birthweight infants from having overweight or obesity as children, new research from South Korea suggests. The results will be presented in a poster on Sunday, March 18 at ENDO 2018, the 100th annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Chicago, Ill.

Researchers join forces to improve life for children with genetic disorder

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Virginia Tech) The achievements of three girls who received intensive therapy through the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute's Neuromotor Research Clinic based on innovative pediatric neurorehabilitation research have been documented in a report published in BMC Research Notes.

Climate change promotes the spread of mosquito and tick-borne viruses

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(European Commission Joint Research Centre) Scientists at the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, find that global warming has allowed disease-bearing insects to proliferate, increasing exposure to viral infections.

H7N9 influenza vaccine clinical trials begin

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the U.S. The Phase 2 studies, sponsored by NIAID, will test different dosages of the inactivated influenza vaccine candidate (called 2017 H7N9 IIV) as well as different vaccination schedules. The studies also will evaluate whether an adjuvant boosts the immune responses of people receiving the vaccine.

False beliefs about MMR vaccine found to influence acceptance of Zika vaccine

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania) People's willingness to use a Zika vaccine, once it's available, will be influenced by how they weigh the risks associated with the disease and the vaccine, but also by their misconceptions about other vaccines.

Cryptococcal meningitis: Validation of new therapeutic regimens

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(ANRS) The Advancing Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for Africa (ACTA) trial funded by the Medical Research Council (UK) and ANRS (France) has highlighted the benefits of new therapeutic regimens in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, a frequent and severe opportunistic disease in patients living with HIV. In light of these findings, reported in the March 15, 2018, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the WHO has changed its guidelines regarding treatment of this fungal infection.

New educational app helps support GvHD diagnosis and scoring after HCT

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) A new e-Health educational App is now available to assist healthcare professionals in their assessment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a potentially lethal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Its added value in the identification and accurate evaluation of this disease will be discussed during the 44th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The Meeting has registered more than 5,000 delegates for attendance in the host city of Lisbon, Portugal from March 18 to March 21, 2018.

Viral hideout

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Harvard Medical School) The ability of the 'cold sore' herpes simplex virus to establish quiet infections and reawaken periodically has long mystified scientists. A new study in mice reveals that a key host protein acts as a critical regulator of the virus's sleep-wake cycle.

New understanding of parasite biology might help stop malaria transmission

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute) Researchers at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute made an important step toward deeper understanding of how malaria blood stage parasites turn the switch to become transmissible to other humans. This knowledge is fundamental for future research aiming to interrupt malaria transmission. The results will be published on Friday, March 16, 2018, in the multidisciplinary journal Science.