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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Mon, 29 May 2017 09:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

HIV: A therapeutic advance for resource-limited settings

Mon, 29 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(ANRS) ANRS 12286 MOBIDIP, a clinical trial running in parallel in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa, shows that dual therapy with lamivudine and a boosted protease inhibitor is effective as second-line treatment in patients infected by HIV with multiple mutations. Such treatment deescalation will reduce costs, side effects, and the need for virological monitoring of patients. The results of this study are published in The Lancet HIV.

Methicillin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Egypt

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Bentham Science Publishers) In this article that appeared in Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, Dr. AlaaAbouelfetouh, Associate Professor of Microbiology at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, is gathering the published data describing methicillin resistance in S. aureus (MRSA) in Egypt.

New drug reduces transplant and mortality rates significantly in patients with hepatitis C

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Intermountain Medical Center) Patients with hepatitis C who suffer from advanced stages of liver disease have renewed hope, thanks to findings by researchers who have discovered that a new drug significantly reduces their risk of death and need for transplantation.

Bioelectricity new weapon to fight dangerous infection

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Tufts University) Changing natural electrical signaling in non-neural cells improves innate immune response to bacterial infections and injury. Tadpoles that received therapeutics, including those used in humans for other purposes, which depolarized their cells had higher survival rates when infected with E. coli than controls. The research has applications for treatment of emerging diseases and traumatic injury in humans.

Genetic test for anal cancer could identify those at high risk

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Queen Mary University of London) A new test, based on a patient's epigenetics, could be an accurate and inexpensive way to find and treat those at highest risk of anal cancer -- a disease with growing incidence in women, men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with HIV.

Zika infections could be factor in more pregnancies

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Wisconsin-Madison) Zika virus infection passes efficiently from a pregnant monkey to its fetus, spreading inflammatory damage throughout the tissues that support the fetus and the fetus's developing nervous system, and suggesting a wider threat in human pregnancies than generally appreciated, University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have found.

World's leading liver experts focus on continuing advancements in liver disease & transplantation

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Intermountain Medical Center) As the prevalence of liver disease continues to rise across the world, the growing number of people impacted by cirrhosis, liver cancer, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is the focus of more than 1,700 of the world's leading liver disease experts.

Ineffective antibiotics form strong teams against deadly super bacteria

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University at Buffalo) A team of University at Buffalo-led researchers found that combinations of three antibiotics -- that are each ineffective against superbugs when used alone -- are capable of eradicating two of the six ESKAPE pathogens when delivered together.

MSU doctor to help eradicate malaria in Malawi with $8.5 million grant

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Michigan State University) Terrie Taylor, Michigan State University Distinguished Professor of internal medicine and an osteopathic physician, will use a 7-year, $8.5 million federal grant to study why previous malaria prevention and eradication methods in Malawi Africa have been unsuccessful and how progress can be made.

Zika reached Miami at least four times, Caribbean travel likely responsible

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Scripps Research Institute) With mosquito season looming in the Northern Hemisphere, doctors and researchers are poised to take on a new round of Zika virus infections. Now a new study by a large group of international researchers led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) explains how Zika virus entered the United States via Florida in 2016 -- and how it might re-enter the country this year.

Zika virus spread undetected for many months, NIH-supported study finds

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Genetic analysis of samples collected as the Zika virus spread throughout the Americas after its introduction show that the virus circulated undetected for up to a year in some regions before it came to the attention of public health authorities. Genetic sequencing has also enabled scientists to recreate the epidemiological and evolutionary paths the virus took as it spread and split into distinct subtypes. The research, published in Nature, was supported in part by NIAID.

Grifols strengthens its Procleix portfolio

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Grifols) Blood banks in countries that accept the CE Mark can now use this test to screen blood donations to detect the presence of the Zika virus, a measure that will increase the safety of blood transfusions.

Near real-time genomic sequencing maps introduction and spread of Zika virus in US

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases) A new study by a multi-national research team, including scientists from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), explains how Zika virus entered the United States last year and how it might re-enter the country this year. The study was published online today in the journal Nature.

Zika virus likely circulated in Americas long before detection during 2015-16 epidemic

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard) Analysis of the largest collection of Zika genomes to date reveals the trajectory and evolution of the virus as it spread throughout the Americas, with implications for future surveillance efforts.

Revealed: How polyomavirus tricks our cells into helping it build its invasion route

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) If every cell in our body is a factory, viruses are industrial spies who try to break in and take over. New findings about how one of the most mysterious types of spy - polyomaviruses -- accomplishes this feat could aid the fight against Merkel cell carcinoma, and diseases in organ transplant and cancer patients.

Large market share for non-quality-assured malaria medicines in Africa

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Infectious Diseases Data Observatory) A new study of malaria medicine quality in eight sub-Saharan African countries has found a large and potentially growing market for non-quality-assured (QA) malaria treatments -- medicines not pre-approved by global health organizations -- as much as 20 percent of the private-sector market in Kenya, and 42 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Zika spread secrets tracked through new gene sequencing study

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Oxford) An international research collaboration studying the genetics of Zika virus in Brazil and beyond has provided a new understanding of the disease and its rapid spread through space and time. The research has significant public health implications and has the potential to improve responses to future outbreaks.The research published today in Nature, was led by the universities of Birmingham and Oxford in partnership with FioCruz Bahia, the University of São Paulo, and supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

FGCU virologists publish study that finds Zika invaded Florida multiple times in 2016

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Florida Gulf Coast University) A new study by an international group of scientists reveals that the Zika virus outbreak in Florida wasn't a single virus introduction but rather at least four separate introductions from the Caribbean and Central America that each led to local chains of transmission.

Year-long survey tracks the microbiome of a newly opened hospital

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Chicago Medical Center) A 12-month study mapping bacterial diversity within a hospital -- with a focus on the flow of microbes between patients, staff and surfaces -- should help hospitals worldwide better understand how to encourage beneficial microbial interactions and decrease potentially harmful contact.

Scientists gain better understanding of how Ebola disables people's immune defenses

Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston) University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston scientists have unlocked mysteries of how the Ebola virus hampers the body's natural defenses to speed the rate of infection and its accompanying lethal disease, according to a new report in PLOS Pathogens. The study was conducted in collaboration with the University of Washington and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Rising incidence of tick-borne Powassan virus infection in North America

Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Cases of human infection with Powassan virus (POWV), which can cause fatal neuroinvasive disease and long-term neurological effects, appear to be increasing in the United States. POWV is transmitted by Ixodes tick species found in North America.

Exposure to particulate matter from traffic and residential heating

Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Bentham Science Publishers) A study by researchers at the University of Tartu found that exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) could be associated with cardiac diseases among people in the city of Tartu, Estonia, whereas PM from residential heating did not. Results of the study adds valuable information to the current knowledge as it they confirms the link between health effects and low-level PM, and association is different depending on the PM source.

'Pregnant' housefly males demonstrate the evolution of sex determination

Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Zurich) An international team headed up by researchers from the University of Zurich has discovered the gene that determines the male sex in houseflies. Surprisingly, the sex-determining mechanisms are not the same for all houseflies -- they depend on where the insects live. This knowledge not only helps us better understand the evolution of sex determination, but also aids in the control of agricultural pests or carriers of disease.

Parents' reasons for not vaccinating children influence public attitudes toward them

Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of British Columbia) Mothers are viewed negatively if their child hasn't been vaccinated, no matter the reason. But mothers who outright refuse to vaccinate their children are viewed in a harsher light compared to those who delay vaccines because of safety concerns or who aren't up to date due to time constraints.

Scientists develop test to identify best treatment for gonorrhea

Mon, 22 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) Researchers from UCLA have developed a laboratory test that helps physicians determine which people with gonorrhea may be more treatable with an antibiotic that has not been recommended since 2007 because of concerns that the resistance to the drug was growing.