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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 11:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Slowing dangerous bacteria may be more effective than killing them, researchers report

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) A new study suggests it may be possible to slow dangerous infections by manipulating the messages microbes send to one another, allowing the body to defeat an infection without causing the bacteria to develop resistance to the treatment.



Cardiac ICU patient composition is changing over time

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) A new University of Michigan study finds slightly more than half of heart patients are admitted to the CICU for noncardiac conditions, such as sepsis or renal failure, rather than for a heart condition.



Grant enables study of mosquito virus as a genetic lab tool, malaria biocontrol

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Penn State) A virus that infects a species of malaria-transmitting mosquito could help scientists gain a better understanding of mosquito biology and eventually could lead to methods for stopping or slowing the spread of the disease, according to a researcher in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.



CU Anschutz and UC San Diego researchers find creosote bush could treat deadly infections

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Researchers at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and UC San Diego have found that compounds produced by the creosote bush, a desert shrub common to American Southwest, exhibit potent anti-parasitic activity against two deadly parasites responsible for Giardia infections (Giardia lamblia) and the amoeba that causes an often-lethal form of encephalitis (Naegleria fowleri). Standard treatment for both infections involve antibiotics and anti-parasitic drugs.



Expert panel reviews neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) ) An ECDC expert opinion concludes that there is clear evidence supporting the use of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment and prevention of influenza. Moreover, the current recommendations in European countries on the use of the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir are appropriate and should be applied by prescribing physicians.



Blood-filtering organs fight infections that enter through the skin

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Penn State) New information about how and where the innate immune system fights off viral infections that enter through the skin could lead to better treatments for viruses like Zika, dengue and measles, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. The innate immune system is the body's first line of defense, providing broad protection as opposed to the specific immune system which targets the specific threat.



Zika pandemic study shows health authorities can improve communication and monitoring

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem who studied health monitoring and communication during the recent Zika pandemic have proposed ways for health authorities to better contain future pandemics. Steps such as improving the readability of public health messages and announcing early can help authorities better contain pandemics, improve infection control and reduce public anxiety.



New test differentiates between Lyme disease, similar illness

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Colorado State University) A team of researchers led by Colorado State University has identified a way to distinguish Lyme disease from similar conditions.



Pig-to-person spread of flu at fairs a continued concern

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ohio State University) The spread of influenza among pigs is common at fairs and other gatherings, and protective measures including cutting the length of time pigs and people congregate make good sense for both the animals and humans, say the authors of a new study.



Can previous exposure to west Nile alter the course of Zika?

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso) West Nile virus is no stranger to the US-Mexico border; thousands of people in the region have contracted the mosquito-borne virus in the past. But could this previous exposure affect how intensely Zika sickens someone now?



Compounds in desert creosote bush could treat giardia and 'brain-eating' amoeba infections

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - San Diego) Researchers at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego and the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that compounds produced by the creosote bush, a desert plant common to the Southwestern United States, exhibit potent anti-parasitic activity against the protozoa responsible for giardia infections and an amoeba that causes an often-lethal form of encephalitis.



Empowering patients effectively improves physician hand hygiene

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Elsevier) Armed with new tools, patients and parents felt empowered to remind healthcare providers to perform hand hygiene, successfully improving compliance rates, but just over half of physicians felt that patients should be reminding providers, according to a new study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).



An immune signaling pathway for control of Yellow Fever Virus infection

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Princeton University) Princeton University researchers have uncovered a critical role for a new immune signaling pathway in controlling infection by the flavivirus Yellow Fever Virus (YFV).



Human intrusion on fruit bat habitats raises exposure risk to Hendra virus in Australia

Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Sydney) There is a rising risk of human and domestic animal exposure to deadly Hendra virus (HeV) carried by fruit bats in Eastern Australia due to human intrusion into their habitats, human proximity to woodlands and vegetation loss, a new study reveals.



How head-on collisions of DNA protein machines stop replication

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine) Head-on collisions between the protein machines that crawl along chromosomes can disrupt DNA replication and boost gene mutation rates. This may be one of the ways bacteria control their evolution by accelerating mutations in key genes when coping with new conditions. Some mutations may help bacteria survive hostile environments, resist antibiotics or fend off immune attacks



FDA approves emergency use for multiplex Zika test

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) The Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University's Mailman School today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the CII-ArboViroPlex rRT-PCR Test, the first multiplex assay that simultaneously tests for the presence of Zika virus, all serotypes of dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and West Nile virus, as well as a host gene that ensures the accuracy of results.



Now showing: Researchers create first 3-D movie of virus in action

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee) Imaging the movement of a virus demonstrates that single-particle X- ray scattering has the potential to shed new light on key molecular processes when paired with powerful new algorithms.



Neurological complications associated with Zika virus in adults in Brazil

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The JAMA Network Journals) A new article published by JAMA Neurology reports on a study of hospitalized adult patients with new-onset neurologic syndromes who were evaluated for Zika virus infection.



Viruses up their game in arms race with immune system

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Penn State) Myxoma virus -- introduced to control the rabbit population in Australia in 1950 -- has developed a deadly ability to suppress the immune response in host rabbits. This example of an evolutionary arms race highlights the potential for escalating virus virulence and host resistance to produce more dangerous viruses with implications for agriculture and human vaccination, where resistance to viruses is artificially increased through selective breeding, genetic engineering, and immunization, potentially accelerating the arms race.



Scientists map sex chromosome evolution in pathogenic fungi

Fri, 11 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Duke University) Duke researchers recently mapped the evolutionary turning point that transformed the pathogenic Cryptococcus fungus from an organism with thousands of sexes to only two. They found that during evolution, a reshuffling of DNA known as translocation brought together separate chunks of sex-determining genes onto a single chromosome, essentially mimicking the human X or Y chromosome. Surprisingly, these translocations occurred at the chromosome's centromeres, regions so dense that they were once thought to suppress recombination.



New malaria analysis method reveals disease severity in minutes

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of British Columbia) University of British Columbia investigators have found that measuring changes in red blood cell deformability is a robust, sensitive method for inferring heme-induced oxidative stress. Using a simple UBC-developed device that measures RBC deformability, malaria progression may be assessed in a matter of minutes.



Test uses nanotechnology to quickly diagnose Zika virus

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Washington University School of Medicine) Currently, testing for Zika requires that a blood sample be refrigerated and shipped to a medical center or laboratory, delaying diagnosis and possible treatment. Now, Washington University in St. Louis researchers have developed a test that quickly can detect the presence of Zika virus in blood. Although the new proof-of-concept technology has yet to be produced for use in medical situations, test results can be determined in minutes, and the materials do not require refrigeration.



Small molecule inhibitor prevents or impedes tooth cavities in a preclinical model

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Alabama at Birmingham) University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have created a small molecule that prevents or impedes tooth cavities in a preclinical model. The inhibitor blocks the function of a key virulence enzyme in an oral bacterium, a molecular sabotage that is akin to throwing a monkey wrench into machinery to jam the gears.



Chickenpox virus fatal in newly discovered immunodeficiency

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Aarhus University) A new study has identified an immunodeficiency which leads to some people becoming seriously ill from the chickenpox virus. The discovery of the gene mutation may help to improve prevention and treatment of the disease. It also contributes with fundamental new knowledge about the immune system.



For bacteria that cheat, food is at the forefront

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Oregon State University) Microbes that produce important secretions for use in a community suffer a blow to their own fitness for supplying the non-producing 'cheater' bacteria -- but only when production requires the same nutrients that would otherwise go into growth and biomass.