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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Two Group A Streptococcus genes linked to 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland) Group A Streptococcus bacteria cause illnesses ranging from mild nuisances like strep throat to life-threatening conditions such as flesh-eating disease, also known as necrotizing fasciitis. Life-threatening infections occur when the bacteria spread underneath the surface of the skin or throat and invade the underlying soft tissue. Researchers have found two group A Streptococcus genes involved in invasive infections, which may be potential targets for therapeutics.



Low screening rates for adolescents diagnosed with PID in the nation's emergency departments

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Children's National Health System) The nation's emergency departments had low rates of complying with recommended HIV and syphilis screening for at-risk adolescents, though larger hospitals were more likely to provide such evidence-based care.



Residents: Frontline defenders against antibiotic resistance?

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Children's National Health System) Residents often decide which antibiotics to start a patient on so they could become the first line of defense against antibiotic resistance, says Geovanny F. Perez, M.D., a pulmonologist at Children's National Health System.



Study: Strategy might prevent infections in patients with spinal cord injuries

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(MediaSource) A new study at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center investigates how to reduce the number of infections in patients with spinal cord injuries without using antibiotics.



In US, spread of Zika linked to time outdoors

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Northeastern University) New research by a Northeastern infectious disease modeling expert has linked a person's risk of contracting Zika in the U.S. to time spent outdoors. The findings could impact how communities address the spread of the virus.



BU: Resurgence of whooping cough may owe to vaccine's inability to prevent infections

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Boston University School of Medicine) The startling global resurgence of pertussis, or whooping cough, in recent years can largely be attributed to the immunological failures of acellular vaccines, Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers argue in a new journal article.



Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cedars-Sinai Medical Center) For years, medical investigators have tried and failed to develop vaccines for a type of staph bacteria associated with the deadly superbug MRSA. But a new study by Cedars-Sinai investigators shows how staph cells evade the body's immune system, offering a clearer picture of how a successful vaccine would work.



Flu vaccine used in elderly may benefit middle-aged adults with chronic conditions

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) Expanding the high-dose influenza vaccine recommendation to include middle-aged adults with chronic health conditions may make economic sense and save lives. The findings may justify for clinical trials of the high-dose and new recombinant trivalent influenza vaccines in 50- to 64-year-old adults with chronic illnesses, such as heart or lung disease, diabetes, or cancer, to determine if they do provide considerably better protection than the currently recommended standard dose quadrivalent vaccine.



Prestigious EU grants for SUND researchers

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) Three researchers from the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen have received prestigious grants from the EU Innovative Training Networks.



Excess dietary manganese promotes staph heart infection

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center) Too much dietary manganese -- an essential trace mineral found in leafy green vegetables, fruits and nuts -- promotes infection of the heart by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The findings, reported this week in Cell Host & Microbe, add to evidence that diet modifies risk for infection and suggest that people who have excess levels of tissue manganese, potentially from dietary supplements, may be at increased risk for staph infection of the heart.



Broad swath of US deemed environmentally suitable for mosquitoes that transmit disease

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Entomological Society of America) Three-quarters of counties in the contiguous United States present suitable environmental conditions for at least part of the year for either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes to survive if introduced, according to researchers at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The two mosquito species can transmit viruses that cause Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever.



Steering the immune defense against fungal pathogens

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Wiley) Fungal infections represent an increasing health crisis, especially for immune-deficient patients. American scientists now report in the journal Angewandte Chemie that specific help could be provided by small-molecule immunotherapeutics with novel mechanism of action. They developed small bifunctional molecules that simultaneously bind both chitin, a specific feature of the fungal cell wall and a molecule not found in humans, and naturally occurring human antibodies and redirect the human immune system to eliminate fungal pathogens.



Communication key to preventing spread of drug-resistant bacteria

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Oregon State University) Communication breakdowns between care facilities can pave the way for outbreaks of infection, according to research on the spread of an extensively drug-resistant bacterium.



UNIST to track the spread of deadly avian influenza

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST)) South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology has embarked on a research project to develop a new type of tracking device, capable of monitoring the migration routes of wild birds.



$11.5 million program project aims to combat malaria drug resistance

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Texas Biomedical Research Institute) Texas Biomed researchers have partnered with researchers at Notre Dame and the CIDR in Seattle to pursue studies in drug resistant malaria.



DNDi welcomes Malaysia's move to secure access to more affordable hepatitis C treatments

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative) Malaysia has issued a 'government use' licence enabling access to more affordable versions of an expensive and patented medicine to treat hepatitis C. This landmark decision should help the more than 400,000 people living with hepatitis C in Malaysia access sofosbuvir, and could have important repercussions in the global effort to secure access to expensive treatments for this viral disease.



Treating asthma or COPD with steroid inhaler raises the risk of hard-to-treat infections

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(European Lung Foundation) Older people who use steroid inhalers for asthma or COPD are more likely to suffer particular bacterial infections, according to a large study published in the European Respiratory Journal.



PET imaging tracks Zika virus infection, disease progression in mouse model

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases) For the first time, scientists have used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging to study brain inflammation following Zika virus infection in mice, according to a study recently published online in Molecular Imaging and Biology. Traditional methods of infectious disease research using animal models provide limited information about disease progression until the study's endpoint, when investigators can analyze tissues from those animals. Imaging studies allow longitudinal studies of the same animal during the course of infection.



An interconnection between the nervous and immune system

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin) Working with colleagues from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE ), Harvard Medical School and Ohio State University, researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have shown that the increased incidence of infections seen in spinal cord injury patients is directly linked to a disruption of the normal central nervous system.



InDevR licenses Mount Sinai influenza antibodies for VaxArray neuraminidase potency assay

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(InDevR, Inc.) InDevR advances its VaxArray technology toward tracking neuraminidase levels in flu vaccines through an exclusive, worldwide antibody license agreement with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.



5 African countries approach control of their HIV epidemics

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Data released today from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) show that the HIV epidemic is coming under control in Lesotho. These results add to prior PEPFAR-supported Population-based HIV Impact Assessments (PHIAs) announced in the last nine months for Malawi, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Together, these data demonstrate impressive progress toward controlling the HIV epidemics in the five countries.



Scientists identify new hosts for Chagas Disease vectors

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Riverside) Solitary weasel-like animals called tayra might look pretty harmless, but some may actually be incubators for a parasite that causes Chagas disease, a chronic, debilitating condition that is spread by insects called kissing bugs and affects more than 8 million people worldwide.



Researchers unlock potential pathway to treat flesh-eating bacteria

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Houston Methodist) Researchers at Houston Methodist have solved a 100-year-old mystery, providing them a possible key to unlock a pathway for treating diseases caused by flesh-eating bacteria. Muthiah Kumaraswami and his team at Houston Methodist Research Institute found a critical target on which to focus for developing a potential Group A Streptococcus vaccine or antibiotic to fight it. By manipulating this target, they hope to either reduce the severity of these infections or clear them up faster.



Sexual behavior in Germany

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Deutsches Aerzteblatt International) A sexual history and consultation in the practice setting can contribute to counteracting the spread of sexually transmitted infections. This is the result of a representative survey that questioned 2524 persons about their sexual practices and sexual contacts outside their main relationships, as well as about contraceptive measures, whose results Julia Haversath and coauthors summarize in the current issue of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International (Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 544-50).



Video game boosts sex health IQ and attitudes in minority teens

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Yale University) A video game designed by Yale researchers to promote health and reduce risky behavior in teens improves sexual health knowledge and attitudes among minority youth, according to a new study. The findings validate the value of the video game as a tool to engage and educate teens at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, said the researchers.