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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Wed, 28 Jun 2017 07:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



What we can learn about global flu evolution from one person's infection

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) A new study has found that flu evolution within some individuals can hint at the virus's eventual evolutionary course worldwide.



New gene editing technique could drive out mosquito-borne disease

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Berkeley) Scientists at UC Berkeley and UC Riverside have demonstrated a way to edit the genome of disease-carrying mosquitoes that brings us closer to suppressing them on a continental scale.



Morgridge scientists illuminate structures vital to virus replication

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Morgridge Institute for Research) Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. The research uses pioneering cryo-electron tomography to reveal the complex viral replication process in vivid detail, opening up new avenues to potentially disrupt, dismantle or redirect viral machinery.



New research into antibiotic treatment for killer sepsis

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Warwick) University of Warwick expertise is contributing to a world-first £1.5million study aiming to tackle one of the biggest public health threats we face -- antibiotic resistance.



Ancient retrovirus embedded in the human genome helps fight HIV-1 infection

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kumamoto University) Researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan have found that a human endogenous retrovirus family, HERV-K, interferes with the replication and infectivity of HIV-1.



Microneedle patches for flu vaccination prove successful in first human clinical trial

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Emory Health Sciences) A phase I clinical trial conducted by Emory University in collaboration with researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology has found that influenza vaccination using Band-Aid-like patches with dissolvable microneedles was safe and well-tolerated by study participants, was just as effective in generating immunity against influenza, and was strongly preferred by study participants over vaccination with a hypodermic needle and syringe.



Researchers develop microneedle patch for flu vaccination

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging & Bioengineering) A National Institutes of Health-funded study led by a team at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University has shown that an influenza vaccine can produce robust immune responses and be administered safely with an experimental patch of dissolving microneedles. The method is an alternative to needle-and-syringe immunization; with further development, it could eliminate the discomfort of an injection as well as the inconvenience and expense of visiting a flu clinic.



Integrated medical records can reduce disparities between blacks and whites in HIV care

Mon, 26 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) A streamlined and integrated method of tracking medical records called a laboratory health information exchange narrowed the gap in anti-retroviral therapy and viral suppression between HIV-positive blacks and whites. Also, the use of these exchanges led to Latinos who are HIV-positive being more likely than whites of using anti-retroviral therapy and improving viral suppression.



Imprecise iron supplementation can spur increase in Salmonella

Mon, 26 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Frontiers) Individuals who do not produce enough iron are anemic, and often experience fatigue. One common remedy is for physicians to prescribe an iron infusion to their anemic patients. This makes sense, but can lead to unexpected consequences like increasing the risk of food poisons such as Salmonella. These types of poisons depend on abundant access to iron. Physicians should be attuned to this dynamic when determining the strength of iron infusions for their anemic patients.



Latest advances in malaria research in free eBook by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

Mon, 26 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHLP) today announced a grant from the J.C. Flowers Foundation (JCFF) to support the free eBook distribution of the research monograph, Malaria: Biology in the Era of Eradication. JCFF funding enables this newly published title to reach scientists, clinicians and care-givers throughout malaria-endemic areas such as Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America.



Study: Most families in low-income countries don't have soap at home

Mon, 26 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University at Buffalo) Study -- the first to systematically measure handwashing in so many countries -- highlights the need to improve access to soap, along with handwashing behavior in general, in many impoverished countries.



Discovery of a new mechanism for bacterial division

Mon, 26 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) EPFL scientists show how some pathogenic bacteria -- such as the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis -- use a previously unknown mechanism to coordinate their division. The discovery could help develop new ways to fight them.



Treating Lyme disease: When do symptoms resolve in children?

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Children's National Health System) Mattia Chason, M.D., and colleagues in infectious disease examined how quickly Lyme disease symptoms typically resolve in children, a research question that has received little prior study.



Cloud formation, infection research, ubiquitin code

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Goethe University Frankfurt) The European Union is funding three new projects -- Innovative Training Networks (ITN) within the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Programme -- for structured doctoral training at Goethe University Frankfurt.



Child safety or parental duty: New study maps out core concepts in the vaccination debate

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Virginia Tech) 'A single phrase can conjure up completely different images in our minds, depending on how that concept is organized in our mental models,' said Samarth Swarup, a research assistant professor at Virginia Tech.



UTEP Scientists awarded patent for Chagas disease vaccine

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The University of Texas at El Paso) A pair of scientists at The University of Texas at El Paso is one step closer to developing the first ever clinical Chagas disease vaccine.Researchers Rosa Maldonado, Ph.D., and Igor Almeida, Ph.D., both faculty in the Department of Biological Sciences, recently were granted a patent for "Mucin-Associated Surface Protein As Vaccine Against Chagas Disease."



News from the pathogen that causes sleeping sickness

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Würzburg) A team of researchers from the University of Würzburg has discovered an interesting enzyme in the pathogens responsible for African sleeping sickness: It could be a promising target for drugs.



Biofilms -- the eradication has begun

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(McGill University Health Centre) Biofilms are slimy, glue-like membranes that are produced by microbes in order to colonize surfaces. They protect microbes from the body's immune system and increase their resistance to antibiotics. Biofilms represent one of the biggest threats to patients in hospital settings. But there is good news -- Canadian scientists have developed a novel enzyme technology that prevents the formation of biofilms and can also break them down.



Studies of US Lassa fever patient offer clues about immune response, viral persistence

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Infectious Diseases Society of America) Researchers were able to closely study a Lassa fever patient's immune response over time after he was evacuated to the US for treatment.An experimental drug, favipiravir, was used in treating the US patient and an additional patient infected with Lassa virus in Germany. The drug appeared to have few serious side effects, but its efficacy is unknown.Individual patient reports cannot be generalized to broader population, but findings suggest promising areas for future research.



Critical gaps in our knowledge of where infectious diseases occur

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen) Today Scientists have called for action. The scientific journal Nature Ecology & Evolution have published a joint statement from scientists at Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen and North Carolina State University. The scientists call attention to a serious lack of data on the worldwide distribution of disease-causing organisms. Without this knowledge, predicting where and when the next disease outbreak will emerge is hardly possible. Macroecologists hold the expertise to create the needed data network and close the knowledge gaps.



Scientists uncover potential mechanism for HPV-induced skin cancer

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) Scientists have identified a molecular pathway by which some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) might increase the risk of skin cancer, particularly in people with the rare genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The novel pathway is described in PLOS Pathogens.



First Chikungunya-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitos found in Brazil

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) While more than 13,000 cases of Chikungunya viral disease were reported in Brazil in 2015, scientists had never before detected the virus in a captured mosquito in this country. Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have identified a mosquito -- caught in the Brazilian city of Aracaju -- that's naturally infected with the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya.



HIV-positive women with cytomegalovirus likelier to pass virus that causes AIDS to infant

Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) HIV-positive women with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, in their urine at the time of labor and delivery are more than five times likelier than HIV-positive women without CMV to transmit HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, to their infants. The research also found that they are nearly 30 times likelier to transmit cytomegalovirus to their infants.



Trends in emergency room visits & costs for patients with shingles

Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Brigham and Women's Hospital) Their study suggests that while emergency room visits for shingles has decreased for those vaccinated against either the chicken pox (18 to 19 years old) or the shingles (60 years and older), the patient population in-between (ages 20-59 years old) has experienced increased visits for the disease.



Biological fingerprint of tuberculosis meningitis discovered in children

Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The Francis Crick Institute) Children with tuberculosis meningitis have a biological fingerprint that can be used to assess the severity of the condition, help decide the best course of treatment, and provide clues for novel treatments.