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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 06:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Spread of ages is key to impact of disease, animal study finds

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Edinburgh) How a disease outbreak affects a group of animals depends on the breakdown of ages in the population, research has shown.



New lab-on-a-chip platform seeks to improve pathogen detection

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Future Science Group) Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute have developed a new prototype lab-on-a-chip platform for the easy and versatile detection of molecular pathogens.



Seven months after Rio Olympics, Zika continues to plague babies in urban slums

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Berkeley) The near-paranoia related to Zika leading up to the 2016 Rio Games could have been avoided by heeding the lessons of previous epidemics, argues a new study from public health researchers at UC Berkeley.



Scientists assemble Zika virus mosquito genome from scratch

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Baylor College of Medicine) A team of scientists has developed a new way to sequence genomes, which can assemble the genome of an organism, entirely from scratch, dramatically cheaper and faster.



Most dengue infections transmitted in or near home

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Florida) The majority of dengue virus infections appear to happen very close to home and are transmitted from the same family of mosquitoes, suggests new research led by the University of Florida and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.



What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - San Diego) In a new paper, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, along with colleagues in Brazil and Spain, describe the phenotypic spectrum or set of observable characteristics of congenital Zika (ZIKV) syndrome, based upon clinical evaluations and neuroimaging of 83 Brazilian children with presumed or confirmed ZIKV congenital infections.



New CDISC data standard aids development of therapies for Ebola virus

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Infectious Diseases Data Observatory) The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) and the Infectious Diseases Data Observatory (IDDO) announce the availability of a new standard to assist in the collection, aggregation and analysis of Ebola virus disease (EVD) research data. This standard is for use in EVD trials, leading to potential treatments and public health surveillance for this disease.



Penn State develops first-of-a-kind model to research post-malaria epilepsy

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Penn State) A first-of-its-kind mouse model could lead to an understanding of how cerebral malaria infection leads to the development of epilepsy in children, and to the prevention of seizures. The model -- a way for researchers to simulate the effects of malaria in children by using mice -- was developed in a collaboration between researchers at Penn State's colleges of medicine, engineering, science and agriculture.



Effective one-shot vaccination of newborns moves closer to reality

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Boston Children's Hospital) Newborns are highly vulnerable to infections and don't respond optimally to most vaccines because their young immune systems typically mount weak antibody responses. Now, researchers at Boston Children's Hospital report achieving strong vaccine responses in newborn animals, including monkeys -- the final preclinical model before human trials -- by adding compounds known as adjuvants that boost the immune response.



Immune study in chickens reveals key hurdle for Campylobacter vaccine effort

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Liverpool) New University of Liverpool research reveals that the immune response of farmed chickens does not develop fast enough to fight off Campylobacter during their short lifespan. The findings have important implications in the challenge towards developing a poultry vaccine for the bug, which is the UK's leading cause of food poisoning.



Fighting malaria through metabolism

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) EPFL scientists have fully modeled the metabolism of the deadliest malaria parasite. The model offers unprecedented tools for developing a new generation of antimalarial therapies to overcome drug resistance.



Most dengue infections transmitted in and around home

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue virus appears to be largely driven by infections centered in and around the home, with the majority of cases related to one another occurring in people who live less than 200 meters apart, new research led by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of Florida suggests.



Fighting malaria through mathematical analysis of parasite's metabolism

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) A new mathematical model, based on the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, could help develop antimalarials by identifying key metabolic targets, according to a study published in PLOS Computational Biology by Vassily Hatzimanikatis at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, and colleagues.



Mosquito monitoring has limited utility in dengue control, study finds

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) Cross-sectional surveys of mosquito abundance carried out in the subtropics and tropics are meant to give researchers an indication of the risk of a dengue virus outbreak in any given area. This type of entomological monitoring, however, is not a good proxy for dengue risk, researchers report this week in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.



Silence is golden -- Suppressing host response to Ebola virus may help to control infection

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Boston University Medical Center) The Ebola virus causes a severe, often fatal illness when it infects the human body. Initially targeting cells of the immune system called macrophages, white blood cells that absorb and clear away pathogens, a new study has found a way to potentially 'silence' these Ebola virus-infected macrophages.The findings, which appear in the Journal of Virology, could lead to new treatment options for Ebola virus disease.



New low-cost rotavirus vaccine could reduce disease burden in developing countries

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health) A new vaccine for rotavirus was found to be 66.7 percent effective in preventing severe gastroenteritis caused by the virus, according to a new study from researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Epicentre, Paris.



USDA announces $11 million to support antimicrobial resistance research

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institute of Food and Agriculture ) The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) today announced $11 million in available funding for projects that mitigate antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a growing public health issue that affects more than 2 million people annually. Funding is made through NIFA's Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI), authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill.



How prenatal maternal infections may affect genetic factors in autism spectrum disorder

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - San Diego) In a new study, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, University of Cyprus and Stanford University map the complex biological cascade caused by MIA: the expression of multiple genes involved in autism are turned up or down by MIA, affecting key aspects of prenatal brain development that may increase risk for atypical development later in life.



Antenatal screening in Europe: How to avoid mother-to-child transmission of infections

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) ) Transmission of infections with HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis or rubella from mother to child before and during birth as well as in infancy still occur across Europe -- despite existing prevention methods. A new ECDC report outlines the cornerstones for effective antenatal screening programs across the EU/EEA countries.



States can lower risk of measles outbreak by strengthening exemption policies

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) States with weaker non-medical exemption policies for vaccinations can reduce the likelihood of a measles outbreak 140 to 190 percent by strengthening them, a new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus shows.



In new grants, FARE focuses on studies to unravel food allergy causes, improve treatments

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Food Allergy Research & Education) Food Allergy Research & Education is pleased to announce recipients of the 2017 FARE Investigator in Food Allergy Awards. Projects funded explore three unique areas that could be a cause of food allergy in different populations and provide insights toward targeted therapies.



Sussex Drug Discovery Centre & ReViral reach clinical trial with lung virus treatment

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Sussex) Sussex Drug Discovery Centre & ReViral reached a clinical trial with a 'game changer' treatment for respiratory syncytial virus.



Interferon drug shows promise in treating Ebola

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University Health Network) A pilot study of a class of drugs used to treat hepatitis and some forms of multiple sclerosis has been shown for the first time to ease symptoms of Ebola patients, while also increasing their survival.



From Genome Research: Pathogen demonstrates genome flexibility in cystic fibrosis

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) Chronic lung infections can be devastating for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia, one of the most common species found in cystic fibrosis patients, is often antibiotic resistant. In a study published today in Genome Research, scientists sequenced and phenotyped multiple B. cenocepacia isolates from 16 CF patients. They found extensive variation among isolates during chronic lung infection as well as changes in clinically relevant bacterial phenotypes.



HIV co-infection influences natural selection on M. tuberculosis

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Molecular Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press)) While M. tuberculosis has been evolving with humans for thousands of years, HIV co-infections create host immunological environments that this bacterium has not encountered before and could, therefore, be nudging it to evolve new characteristics. Now, an evolutionary analysis of M. tuberculosis full genome sequences from HIV uninfected and HIV co-infected individuals uncovered specific sites within M. tuberculosis genomes where the bacterium may have been compelled to evolve in response to HIV-1 co-infections.