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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 18:57:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



New neuron-like cells allow investigation into synthesis of vital cellular components

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Penn State) A new method to create synthetic neurons allows researchers to investigate how the human brain makes metabolic building blocks essential for the survival of all living organisms. A new study describes a core enzyme involved in the synthesis of these building blocks, called purines, and how the enzyme might change during infection by herpes simplex virus.



Researchers borrow from AIDS playbook to tackle rheumatic heart disease

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Case Western Reserve University) Billions of US taxpayer dollars have been invested in Africa over the past 15 years to improve care for millions suffering from the HIV/AIDS epidemic; yet health systems on the continent continue to struggle. What if the investments and lessons learned from HIV could be used to improve care for those with other serious chronic conditions?



European science on the map at Davos summit

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Research Council) The European Research Council (ERC) will bring cutting-edge science to the forefront at the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) from 23 to 26 January in Davos, Switzerland. Using ideas arising from this year's meeting theme: 'Creating a shared future in a fractured world', the ERC's President, Professor Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, and eleven remarkable scientists and scholars will feed into the debate, via fourteen sessions.



Microbiome predicts blood infections in pediatric cancer patients

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Patients who developed bloodstream infections had significantly reduced microbiome diversity than patients who remained free of infection.



Using social and risk networks helps identify people undiagnosed with HIV

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(New York University) Conducting HIV testing among the social and risk networks of those recently diagnosed with HIV helps identify undiagnosed cases of HIV at significantly higher rates and at a lower cost than other testing approaches, finds a new study conducted in Ukraine by an international research team.



Improving vaccines for the elderly by blocking inflammation

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University College London) By identifying why skin immunity declines in old age, a UCL-led research team has found that an anti-inflammatory pill could help make vaccines more effective for elderly people.The study, published today in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, found that an excessive inflammation reaction in older people can obstruct the immune system.



New long-acting approach for malaria therapy developed

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Liverpool) A new study, published in Nature Communications, conducted by the University of Liverpool and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine highlights a new 'long acting' medicine for the prevention of malaria.



Virus shown to be likely cause of mystery polio-like illness

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of New South Wales) A major review by UNSW Sydney medical researchers has identified strong evidence that a virus called Enterovirus D68 is the cause of a mystery polio-like illness that has paralysed children in the US, Canada and Europe. The study is published in the journal Eurosurveillance.



A better HIV test

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Stanford University) Stanford researchers have developed a reliable, hassle-free HIV test -- just what public health officials need to screen large numbers of people and head off potential outbreaks.



Researchers find latent HIV reservoirs inherently resistant to elimination by CD8+ T-cells

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(George Washington University) A research team at GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences found that latent HIV reservoirs exhibit resistance to elimination by CD8+ T-cells.



Computational method speeds hunt for new antibiotics

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Carnegie Mellon University) A team of American and Russian computer scientists has developed an algorithm that can rapidly search massive databases to discover novel variants of known antibiotics -- a potential boon in fighting antibiotic resistance. In just a few hours, the algorithm identified 10 times more variants of peptidic natural products (PNPs) than all previous PNP discovery efforts combined, the researchers report in the journal Nature Microbiology.



Older hospitalized adults are infrequently tested for influenza

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) This year's flu season is shaping up to be an especially serious one, and it's important for clinicians to promptly recognize, diagnosis, and treat influenza in hospitalized patients, especially in vulnerable populations such as older individuals.



Hunting dogs as possible vectors for the infectious disease tularaemia

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) The zoonosis Tularaemia is life-threatening for rodents, rabbits and hares, but which can also infect humans and dogs. While contact with contaminated blood or meat makes hunters a high-risk group, the frequency of infections among hunting dogs has not been much studied. Researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna now confirmed a relevant prevalence of infections in Austrian hunting dogs. This could intensify the debate whether the often asymptomatic animals represent an additional risk of infection for people.



Mice immunized with synthetic horsepox protected against vaccinia virus

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Immunization with a synthetic horsepox virus offers mice similar protection to immunization with vaccinia virus against a lethal dose of vaccinia, according to a study published Jan. 19, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Ryan Noyce from the University of Alberta, Canada, and colleagues.



Creation of synthetic horsepox virus could lead to more effective smallpox vaccine

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry) UAlberta researchers created a new synthetic virus that could lead to the development of a more effective vaccine against smallpox. The discovery demonstrates how techniques based on the use of synthetic DNA can be used to advance public health measures.



How did a deadly tropical fungus get to the temperate environs of the Pacific Northwest?

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) In what is being described as 'The Teddy Roosevelt effect,' a deadly fungus in the Pacific Northwest may have arrived from Brazil via the Panama Canal, according to a new study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen). Cryptococcus gattii -- which until a 1999 outbreak in British Columbia's Vancouver Island was considered primarily a tropical fungus -- can cause deadly lung and brain infections in both people and animals.



Harrington Discovery Institute announces 2018 grant funding to 10 physician-scientists

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center) Ten physician-scientists are named 2018 Harrington Scholar-Innovator Award recipients to support their discoveries in diverse research areas, including cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and addiction.



Genetic sequencing points to endemic origin of monkeypox virus outbreak in Nigeria

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases) Scientists working to control a human outbreak of monkeypox virus (MXPV) in Nigeria performed genetic sequencing of patient samples, revealing that the outbreak likely originated from a source within the country. Their results emphasize the value of local surveillance for the early detection of viral spillovers and the need for advanced genetic characterization to help determine the origins of outbreaks.



Schistosoma vaccine to enter phase Ib clinical trial

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(George Washington University) Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, in collaboration with a team of researchers at the George Washington University and the Rene Rachou Institute, have received funding from the National Institutes of Health for a Phase Ib clinical trial for a Schistosomiasis vaccine in an endemic area of Brazil.



Zika virus damages placenta, which may explain malformed babies

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon Health & Science University) New researcher shows how Zika virus infection in five pregnant rhesus monkeys caused placental tissues to become thickened and inflamed, resulting in less oxygen being transported across the placenta and to the baby.



NIH scientists find microbes on the skin of mice promote tissue healing, immunity

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Beneficial bacteria on the skin of lab mice work with the animals' immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to new research from scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Researchers say untangling similar mechanisms in humans may improve approaches to managing skin wounds and treating other damaged tissues. The study was published online today in Cell.



Flu may be spread just by breathing, new UMD-led study shows

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Maryland) It is easier to spread the influenza virus (flu) than previously thought, according to a new study released today. People commonly believe that they can catch the flu by exposure to droplets from an infected person's coughs or sneezes or by touching contaminated surfaces. But, new information about flu transmission reveals that we may pass the flu to others just by breathing.



Researchers begin isolating blood-feeding and non-biting genes in mosquitoes

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Birmingham) Researchers have taken the first step on a path that eventually could result in female mosquitoes that no longer bite and spread diseases.



Reminding people about vaccinations can increase rates of immunization

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) Rates of immunization against infectious diseases in children and adults are improving, but under-vaccination remains a problem that results in vaccine-preventable deaths and illnesses.



The flu vaccine could get a much-needed boost

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) More than 700,000 Americans were hospitalized due to illnesses associated with the seasonal flu during the 2014-15 flu season, according to federal estimates. A radical new approach to vaccine development at UCLA may help lower that figure for future flu seasons.