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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 01:57:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Antibiotics resistance: Researchers succeed to block genes of resistance

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Montreal) Scientists at Université de Montreal's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine design better molecules that make it harder for plasmids to move between bacteria.

UCLA engineers use deep learning to reconstruct holograms and improve optical microscopy

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Los Angeles) UCLA researchers report that they have developed new uses for deep learning: reconstructing a hologram to form a microscopic image of an object and improving optical microscopy. Their new holographic imaging technique produces better images than current methods that use multiple holograms, and it's easier to implement because it requires fewer measurements and performs computations faster.

Gastric acid suppressant lansoprazole may target tuberculosis

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University College London) A cheap and widely used drug, used to treat conditions such as heartburn, gastritis and ulcers, could work against the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB), according to new research published in PLOS Medicine, from UCL and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

Pneumonia: Treatment with vaccines instead of antibiotics

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Zurich) A properly functioning immune system is key to resolve bacterial pneumonia. Researchers from the University Children's Hospital Zurich and UZH working with an international team have now found that specific immune cells are crucial for recovery. The researchers' work paves the way for developing new vaccines, which would also counteract the emerging resistance to antibiotics.

Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Malaria parasites, although widespread among wild chimpanzees and gorillas, have not been detected in bonobos, a chimp cousin. Although the researchers saw evidence of a new malaria species in bonobos, it was limited to one small area of their range. This work helps the hunt for biological loopholes to potentially exploit the life history of ape pathogens to better understand how they cross over to humans.

New findings to help HIV scientists establish 'template' for potent antibodies

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(International AIDS Vaccine Initiative) New data published today in Immunity further illuminate how some human beings generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. Led by scientists at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the results offer important insight into a potential AIDS vaccine design.

Proposed cuts to US Malaria Initiative could mean millions more malaria cases

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Cutting the budget of the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) by 44 percent, as the US Congress has proposed, would lead to an estimated 67 million additional cases of malaria over the next four years, according to a mathematical model published this week in PLOS Medicine by Peter Winskill of Imperial College London, UK, and colleagues.

Second HIV test helps prevent incorrect HIV diagnosis in infants

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Confirmatory HIV testing can substantially reduce the number of infants in South Africa who may be falsely diagnosed as HIV-infected and started on unneeded treatment, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Lorna Dunning of the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and colleagues. Confirmatory testing is recommended by the World Health Organization and South African guidelines, but in many settings, uptake is low.

Brain cell advance brings fresh hope for CJD therapies

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Edinburgh) Scientists at the University of Edinburgh have developed a new system to study Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the laboratory, paving the way for research to find treatments for the fatal brain disorder.

Cholesterol helps flu virus escape through host cell's membrane

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) An MIT study provides the clearest picture yet of how viral buds filled with flu virus are pinched off from a host cell membrane before breaking free to infect again.

Zika-related nerve damage caused by immune response to the virus

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Yale University) The immune system's response to the Zika virus, rather than the virus itself, may be responsible for nerve-related complications of infection, according to a Yale study. This insight could lead to new ways of treating patients with Zika-related complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, the researchers said.

ACP and CDC issue recommendations for hepatitis B screening, vaccination, and care

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American College of Physicians) Reducing chronic hepatitis B infections by screening at-risk adults, increasing hepatitis B vaccination rates, and linking infected persons to care is a public health priority, the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advise in a new paper published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Ending TB means investing in R&D

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Burness) This week, as health ministers, diplomats and other representatives meet to discuss tuberculosis (TB) at the World Health Organization (WHO) Ministerial Conference in Moscow, millions of people are suffering from the disease. The governments around the world can and must end this suffering through a major and sustained investment in TB research and development (R&D).  

Anti-malaria drug shows promise as Zika virus treatment

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Sanford-Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) California researchers have discovered that a medication used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus. The drug, called chloroquine, has a long history of safe use during pregnancy, and is relatively inexpensive. The research was published today in Scientific Reports.

Flu vaccine prevents hospitalization in children

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Public Health Ontario) Children vaccinated against influenza are significantly less likely to experience serious complications from the virus that could land them in hospital, new research from Public Health Ontario (PHO) and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has found.

Unlocking the secrets of Ebola

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Scientists have identified a set of biomarkers that indicate which patients infected with the Ebola virus are most at risk of dying from the disease. The results come from one of the most in-depth studies ever of blood samples from patients with Ebola. Researchers found 11 biomarkers that distinguish fatal infections from non-fatal ones and two that, when screened for early upon symptom onset, accurately predict which patients are likely to die.

One Health researchers identify hot spots of tick-borne diseases in Mongolia

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(George Mason University) Given the critical role livestock play in Mongolia, transmission of tick-borne diseases can have very real health and economic implications for livestock and herders. George Mason University's Dr. Michael von Fricken and colleagues explored the interaction between nomadic herders, the livestock they own, and the tick-borne diseases they are exposed to.

Bristol wins grant to tackle antibacterial drug resistance in Thailand

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Bristol) The University of Bristol has been awarded a grant by the UK Research Councils and the Department of Health to lead an inter-disciplinary research project to tackle the growing threat of antibacterial drug resistance (ABR) in Thailand.

'The Brazilian Zika outbreak could end soon'

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(German Center for Infection Research) Scientists have elucidated the Zika burden in a Brazilian metropolis. Their data indicate: the outbreak may be coming to an end and further outbreaks in the region seem unlikely. The study has also provided new evidence supporting the link between Zika infection during pregnancy and malformations in newborns. A third finding is important with regard to intervention measures: Zika virus infection predominantly affects poor regions.

A structural clue to attacking malaria's 'Achilles heel'

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Scripps Research Institute) New research could boost the development of a more potent vaccine against the global killer.

Study raises possibility of naturally acquired immunity against Zika virus

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center) Birth defects in babies born infected with Zika virus remain a major health concern. Now, scientists suggest the possibility that some women in high-risk Zika regions may already be protected and not know it. New research in PLOS Pathogens on Nov. 16, performed in mice, shows women who develop symptom-free Zika infections may be able to acquire immunity that would protect them from future infections and their offspring in a future pregnancy.

In the heart of devastating outbreak, research team unlocks secrets of Ebola

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Wisconsin-Madison) In a comprehensive and complex molecular study of blood samples from Ebola patients in Sierra Leone, published today (Nov. 16, 2017) in Cell Host and Microbe, a scientific team led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified signatures of Ebola virus disease that may aid in future treatment efforts.

Ancient enzyme could boost power of liquid biopsies to detect and profile cancers

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Austin) Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin are developing a new tool for liquid biopsy that can detect RNA biomarkers from cancer cells in a patient's blood much more accurately and completely than other existing methods. This could soon provide doctors with a more complete picture of an individual's disease, improving their chances of finding the best treatment, while also sparing patients the pain, inconvenience and long wait times associated with surgical biopsies.

Progression from infection to pulmonary tuberculosis follows distinct timeline

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Researchers have uncovered a sequence of biological processes that occur in humans infected with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the infection progresses to pulmonary tuberculosis, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens.

Prior asymptomatic Zika infection protects against reinfection in pregnant mice

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PLOS) Protective antibodies from prior asymptomatic Zika infection defend against reinfection during pregnancy in mice, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens.