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Preview: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases

EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 05:57:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Portable 3-D scanner assesses patients with elephantiasis

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Washington University in St. Louis) An estimated 120 million people worldwide are infected with lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic, mosquito-borne disease that can cause major swelling and deformity of the legs, a condition known as elephantiasis. Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that a portable scanning device can measure limb enlargement and disfigurement faster and more easily in patients with elephantiasis. The research tool makes it easy to obtain accurate measurements and determine whether treatments to reduce swelling are effective.



Nidoviruses redundantly express genes and encode more proteins than previously believed, study finds

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Georgia State University) Arteriviruses, a family of single-stranded RNA viruses that belongs to the order Nidovirales, produce more proteins and messenger RNAs than previously reported, a finding that provides important insights about a virus that could potentially evolve to infect humans in the future, according to a new research study.



Endogenous infection marker guides antibiotic therapy

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Basel) The endogenous infection marker procalcitonin can help to guide the use of antibiotics when treating infections. The course of antibiotic therapy is shortened, and its side effects and mortality rate also decrease, as researchers from the University of Basel and other colleagues report in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases. They conducted a meta-analysis of over 6,700 international data sets from patients with respiratory infections.



New antibiotic resistance genes found

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Chalmers University of Technology) Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have found several previously unknown genes that make bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics. The genes were found by searching large volumes of bacterial DNA and the results are published in the scientific journal Microbiome.



Bentham Science Journals indexed in The Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Bentham Science Publishers) The Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) has accepted to index two more journals published by Bentham Science Publishers.



Usutu virus is back -- not only in blackbirds but also in humans

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) During 10 subsequent years no Usutu virus associated bird mortality was observed in Austria - contrary to neighboring Hungary. Last year Usutu virus was identified again in two blackbirds - and in 2017 already in sixteen songbirds. A research team of the Vetmeduni Vienna investigated the virus strains involved. In another study Usutu virus was demonstrated in seven human blood donations from eastern Austria, suggesting that human infections seem to be more frequent than previously thought.



New UK-India scheme to tackle antimicrobial resistance announced

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)) The Academy of Medical Sciences is today (Friday, 13th October) announcing the pledge from The Yusuf and Farida Hamied Foundation1 for a scheme to build stronger research links between the UK and India to jointly address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).



NIFA honors land-grant university partners, announces hall of fame inductees

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institute of Food and Agriculture ) The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) today honored several land-grant university partners during its annual Day of Appreciation ceremony. Those honored were recognized for supporting NIFA's mission to advance agricultural research, education, and extension to solve significant societal challenges.



Combination of El Niño and 2016 Ecuador earthquake likely worsened Zika outbreak

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Geophysical Union) Combination of El Niño and 2016 Ecuador earthquake likely worsened Zika outbreak



CU Anschutz researchers say climate change may accelerate infectious disease outbreaks

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Aside from inflicting devastating natural disasters on often vulnerable communities, climate change can also spur outbreaks of infectious diseases like Zika , malaria and dengue fever, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.



Researchers find mechanism involved in novel drug design with potential to treat tuberculosis

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Instituto de Medicina Molecular) Portuguese researchers successfully used a pioneer method to chemically modify a protein's components with potential medical applications and an impact in the fight against tuberculosis.



Promising new leprosy vaccine moves into human trials

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Infectious Disease Research Institute) Today marks a significant step forward in the prevention and treatment of leprosy as the Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) and American Leprosy Missions announce the start of a Phase 1 clinical trial in humans for a promising leprosy vaccine candidate -- the first vaccine developed specifically for leprosy.



Reengineered immune system cells show early promise against HIV

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) Improving on a previous attempt, scientists have developed a new strategy that could potentially be used to reengineer a patient's own immune system cells to fight HIV. The approach, described in PLOS Pathogens, shows benefit in human cell cultures and in mice.



Immune reaction to sandfly saliva varies between individuals living in endemic areas

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) The Phlebotomus papatasi sandfly is responsible for spreading Leishmania throughout the tropics and subtropics. How individuals in areas endemic for Leishmania infection react to sandfly saliva depends on their long-term exposure to the flies, researchers now report PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases TK.



Study exposes the dark side of coffee cultivation in Uganda

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Lehigh University) New research led by Kelly Austin, associate professor of sociology at Lehigh, explores unequal exchange in the coffee industry. She cites a range of negative consequences that coffee cultivation contributes to, including: malaria vulnerability, decreased participation in schooling, gender inequalities, and environmental degradation in Bududa, Uganda.



Calcium lets T cells use sugar to multiply and fight infection

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NYU Langone Health / NYU School of Medicine) A calcium signal controls whether immune cells can use the nutrients needed to fuel their multiplication into a cellular army designed to fight invading viruses.



Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) A new mouse study shows that, even in immunized animals, noroviruses can escape the immune system and still spread by hiding out in an extremely rare type of cell in the gut.



UTokyo NY Conference to headline studies on deadly viruses, Alzheimer's

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Tokyo) Leading scientists from Japan in the fields of medical science and industrial science will speak at the UTokyo NY Conference on Friday, November 3, 2017, to report on their international collaboration projects on deadly viruses and Alzheimer's prevention.



New study mapping pandemic potential could help prevent future disease outbreaks

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) A new scientific study provides the first evidence-based assessment of pandemic potential in Africa prior to outbreaks and identifies ways to prevent them.



Experimental Ebola vaccines elicit year-long immune response

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Results from a large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Liberia show that two candidate Ebola vaccines pose no major safety concerns and can elicit immune responses by one month after initial vaccination that last for at least one year. The findings, published in NEJM, are based on a study of 1,500 adults that began during the West Africa Ebola outbreak. The trial is being conducted by a US-Liberia clinical research collaboration known as PREVAIL.



Research reveals how rabies can induce frenzied behavior

Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Alaska Fairbanks) Scientists may finally understand how the rabies virus can drastically change its host's behavior to help spread the disease, which kills about 59,000 people annually.A new study published in the journal Scientific Reports shows how a small piece of the rabies virus can bind to and inhibit certain receptors in the brain that play a crucial role in regulating the behavior of mammals. This interferes with communication in the brain and induces frenzied behaviors that favor the transmission of the virus.



TB Alliance moves two novel tuberculosis drugs into human trials

Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Burness) TBA-7371 and sutezolid entered phase 1 clinical trials, TB Alliance announced today. Both compounds have proceeded through early preclinical development and were granted 'Investigative New Drug' status by the US Food and Drug Administration. The phase 1 clinical trials are presently ongoing.



Better mini brains could help scientists identify treatments for Zika-related brain damage

Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) UCLA researchers have developed an improved technique for creating simplified human brain tissue from stem cells. Because these so-called 'mini brain organoids' mimic human brains in how they grow and develop, they're vital to studying complex neurological diseases.



New Zika serotypes may emerge, researcher warns

Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) The virus is mutating very fast in Brazilian patients. Appearance of new serotypes could hinder development of vaccines and efficacy of diagnostic tests, according to a member of one of the leading group of scientists on Zika-related investigations



Mum's immune response could trigger social deficits for kids with autism

Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Sydney) Children with autism are more likely to show severe social symptoms if their mother had chronic asthma or allergies while pregnant, the University of Sydney's Brain and Mind Centre reveals today in Molecular Psychiatry.