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Preview: EurekAlert! - Earth Science

EurekAlert! - Earth Science

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 20:24:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Talented 12: Chemical & Engineering News announces its 2017 rising stars in chemistry

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) magazine is revealing its annual 'Talented 12' list. The young, rising stars in chemistry are trying to solve some of the most difficult problems facing the world. From alternative energy to cancer treatment and combating the opioid epidemic, these young scientists have accepted the challenge. At an event today at ACS' 254th National Meeting & Exposition their identities will be revealed and featured in an upcoming issue of C&EN.

Satellite sees the formation of eastern Pacific's Tropical Depression 13E

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) The thirteenth tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean season formed on Aug. 18. NOAA's GOES-Wet satellite captured an image of the new storm.

NASA looks at rainfall in Tropical Storm Harvey

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Tropical Storm Harvey is now moving into the eastern Caribbean Sea. NASA's GPM core satellite examined the soaking rainfall the new tropical storm was generating along its path.

NASA gets a final look at Hurricane Gert's rainfall

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Before Hurricane Gert became a post-tropical cyclone, NASA got a look at the rainfall occurring within the storm. After Gert became post-tropical NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an image as Gert was merging with another system.

Hot spot at Hawaii? Not so fast

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rice University) Rice University geophysicists use a new model to conclude that volcanic hot spots around the globe aren't moving as fast as recently thought.

Mechanisms explaining positional diversity of the hindlimb in tetrapod evolution

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Nagoya University) Elucidating how body parts in their earliest recognizable form are assembled in tetrapods during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. Nagoya University researchers found in eight tetrapod species that the position of the sacral vertebrae and the hindlimbs is determined by the initiation timing of Gdf11 gene expression. This will contribute to a forthcoming model explaining the coupling of spine and hindlimb positioning - a major step in fully understanding tetrapod evolution.

The power of perovskite

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) OIST researchers improve perovskite-based technology in the entire energy cycle, from solar cells harnessing power to LED diodes to light the screens of future electronic devices and other lighting applications.

Identifying individual atmospheric equatorial waves from a total flow field

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) A new study presents a method for identifying individual equatorial waves in wind and geopotential height fields using horizontal wave structures derived from classical equatorial wave theory.

Right kind of collaboration is key to solving environmental problems

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Stockholm University) Society's ability to solve environmental problems is tied to how different actors collaborate and the shape and form of the networks they create, says a new study from researchers at Stockholm Resilience Centre which is published in the journal Science.

Gene variant activity is surprisingly variable between tissues

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences) Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study led by an international team of scientists at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has found. Researchers of the former group of Denise Barlow were able to show that the differential allele activity is regulated by tissue-specific, regulatory DNA elements known as enhancers - a process that could also be involved in many diseases.

The Western Ghats of India revealed two new primitive species of earthworm

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Pensoft Publishers) Having conducted a survey of the earthworms in the Western Ghats mountains, India, a team of four scientists discovered two species new to science. Both belong to a primitive family. They are described in the open access journal ZooKeys.

Climate change and habitat conversion combine to homogenize nature

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Davis) Climate change and habitat conversion to agriculture are working together to homogenize nature, indicates a study in the journal Global Change Biology led by the University of California, Davis. In other words, the more things change, the more they are the same.

Global corporations, startups begin testing at Washington open-access clean energy facility

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington) Global corporations, US solar companies, and Washington startups have signed up to test their cleantech at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds, created by the University of Washington (UW) Clean Energy Institute (CEI), during the facility's first six months of operation.

SLU biologist receives $480,000 to study singing insects' serenades

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Saint Louis University) Saint Louis University scientist Kasey Fowler-Finn, Ph.D., and her research team will study treehoppers to learn how changing temperatures, like those caused by global warming, affect singing insects' ability to recognize the songs of potential mates.

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Hawaii at Manoa) In a recent report published in Nature Microbiology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM) oceanography professor Ed DeLong and his team report the largest single-site microbiome gene catalog constructed to date. With this new information, the team discovered nutrient limitation is a central driver in the evolution of ocean microbe genomes.

Study validates East Antarctic ice sheet to remain stable even if western ice sheet melts

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Indiana University) A new study from Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis validates that the central core of the East Antarctic ice sheet should remain stable even if the West Antarctic ice sheet melts.

New weather forecasting model could help advance NOAA's 3-4 week outlooks

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science) Predicting the weather three to four weeks in advance is extremely challenging, yet many critical decisions affecting communities and economies must be made using this lead time. However, model forecasts available for the first time this week could help NOAA's operational Climate Prediction Center (CPC) significantly improve its week 3-4 temperature and precipitation outlooks for the US.

Potato waste processing may be the road to enhanced food waste conversion

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Penn State) With more than two dozen companies in Pennsylvania manufacturing potato chips, it is no wonder that researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences have developed a novel approach to more efficiently convert potato waste into ethanol. This process may lead to reduced production costs for biofuel in the future and add extra value for chip makers.

Ray of hope for more abundant wheat crops

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Lancaster University) Using infrared gas analyzers connected to a miniature controlled environment chamber, Dr. Samuel Taylor and Professor Steve Long, at the Lancaster Environment Centre simulated a sudden increase in sunlight following shade, and measured the time it took for the plant to regain its maximum photosynthesis efficiency and take full advantage of the extra energy from light. They found it took about 15 minutes for photosynthesis to reach maximum efficiency.

Scientists have transferred an office scanner into a new tool for soil color evaluation

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Lomonosov Moscow State University) A scientist of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University together with the colleagues have designed a simple technique for quantitative characteristic of soil color with the help of a low-cost digital device. The available color control technique is promising as it decreases incorrect diagnostic of soil horizons and consequently, increases the accuracy of soil maps.

Scientists compare soil microbes in no-till, conventional tilling systems of Pacific Northwest farms

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Phytopathological Society) Wheat growers of the inland Pacific Northwest have been slow to adopt no-till farming, in part because short-term residue accumulation can encourage fungal soil-borne disease outbreaks. But over longer periods, researchers at Washington State University and the University of Idaho noticed fewer outbreaks in fields where no-till was practiced for multiple seasons. New and cutting-edge research featured in Phytobiomes, an open-access journal of APS, paves the way for further study of this phenomenon.

Digging in the dirt

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Delaware) University of Delaware researchers have developed new methods for assessing the loss of phosphorus in soil. While current measurements focus mainly on surface runoff, the new research is looking at the best way to measure the risk of underground phosphorus that winds up in drainage water.

NASA's ICESat-2 preps for laser tests

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Lasers that will fly on NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, are about to be put to the test at the agency's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

New proposal for a subspecies definition triggered by a new longhorn beetle subspecies

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Pensoft Publishers) The discovery of a new Scandinavian longhorn beetle subspecies triggered a discussion on the vague classification rank. As a result, a newly proposed subspecies definition has been published along with the description of the taxon in the open access journal ZooKeys. To the authors, before being determined as a subspecies, a population needs to be deemed a potentially incipient new species, diagnosed by a minimum of one heritable trait and, at least, partially isolated geographically.

Recently discovered brain chemical 'NPGL' controls appetite and body fat composition

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Hiroshima University) NPGL, a recently discovered protein involved in brain signalling, has been found to increase fat storage by the body -- even when on a low-calorie diet. In addition, NPGL was shown to increase appetite in response to high caloric food intake, suggesting that perhaps we shouldn't feel so guilty about gorging on junk food from time to time.