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EurekAlert! - Earth Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 10:24:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



American Chemical Society expands its applied materials journals portfolio

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Given the rapid emergence of interdisciplinary research in materials science and the growing need to offer researchers new opportunities to share their important findings, the Publications Division of the American Chemical Society announced today a concerted expansion of its applied materials portfolio of peer-reviewed journals.



Satellite shows Pilar reduced to remnants

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Tropical Depression Pilar weakened to a remnant low pressure area as it continued to crawl north along the west coast of Mexico. Satellite data revealed no circulation center.



Nerves control the body's bacterial community

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kiel University) Using the freshwater polyp Hydra as a model organism, Kiel University researchers and their international colleagues investigated how the simple nervous system of these animals interacts with the microbiome. They were able to demonstrate, for the first time, that small molecules secreted by nerve cells help to regulate the composition and colonisation of specific types of beneficial bacteria along the Hydra's body column.



The connection between nitrogen utilization and groundwater quality is clear

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Aarhus University) A new study based on 70 years of monitoring data highlights the importance of a consistent national groundwater monitoring program and the need for development of future effective nitrogen mitigation measures in intensive agriculture worldwide in order to protect groundwater resources.



How has society adapted to hurricanes? A look at New Orleans over 300 years

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Wiley) In the midst of an intense hurricane season, a historical perspective published in WIREs Climate Change looks at adaptation to hurricanes in New Orleans over nearly three centuries, from its foundation in 1718 to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.



Scientists recalibrate the traditional Chinese Solar Terms with big meteorological data

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Science China Press) The 24 Solar Terms (24-STs) is one of the most popular elements in Chinese culture invented by their ancestors some 3,000 years ago. Researchers have recalibrated the two medically related critical timings of Great Heat and Great Cold in the classic 24-STs by using big modern meteorological data. As a result, a novel calendric system, called the 24 Medical Terms, has been developed as an upgraded version of the traditional 24-STs.



Drought -- a cause of riots

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Université de Genève) UNIGE, in partnership with the universities of Heidelberg and Lucerne, has verified the possibility of a relationship between periods of drought and rioting. The researchers observed a systematic link between the sudden depletion of water resources and the outbreak of unrest. They also succeeded in quantifying the impact of geographic and social factors on the same link. The findings underline the importance of the role of political institutions in the event of a drought.



A little tension yields enormous solar crystals

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)) New evidence of surface-initiated crystallization may improve the efficiency of printable photovoltaic materials.



New study analyzes causes of 2010 landslide in Saint-Jude, Quebec

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Canadian Science Publishing) New study discusses triggers of the Saint-Jude landslide in Quebec that occurred in nearly 10,000-year-old sensitive clay sediment that 'liquefies' when disturbed.



Discovery: Bernie Sanders spider

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Vermont) Students and a scientist at the University of Vermont have discovered 15 new species of 'smiley-faced' spiders -- and named them after, among others, David Attenborough, Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Leonardo DiCaprio, and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.



Escaping wildfires

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Utah) The U-led study is the first attempt to map escape routes for wildland fire fighters from an aerial perspective. The researchers used LiDAR technology to analyze the terrain slope, ground surface roughness and vegetation density of a fire-prone region in central Utah, and assessed how each landscape condition impeded a person's ability to travel.



Role of microorganisms in the formation of unique iron ore caves

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Akron) The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded $400,00 to three researchers in the Department of Biology and Geoscience at The University of Akron (UA) to continue their groundbreaking research on cave formation. The scientists are studying communities of microorganisms and their role in the formation of unique iron ore caves, which make up only about one percent of caves worldwide. With this funding, researchers will again travel to Brazil to study these caves firsthand.



UH researchers begin carbon capture project with Oil India

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Houston) Researchers from the University of Houston have begun a $1.4 million project to demonstrate using carbon dioxide captured from nearby petrochemical plants to boost oil recovery in a field in the Indian state of Assam, a project which will help to reduce the country's carbon footprint.



NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite gets two looks at Hurricane Maria

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Hurricane Maria was analyzed in visible and infrared light as NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP passed overhead over two days. NASA's GPM satellite also provided a look at Maria's rainfall rates.



Lee reborn as a tiny zombie hurricane in central Atlantic

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Former Tropical Storm Lee was almost forgotten when hurricanes Irma, Jose and Maria struck the US because it weakened to a remnant low pressure area and lingered quietly in the central Atlantic.



NASA catches Tropical Depression Pilar hugging and soaking Mexico's coast

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Tropical Storm Pilar formed near the southwestern coast of Mexico on Saturday, Sept. 23, and continued hugging the coast when NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites passed overhead. Pilar weakened to a tropical depression during the late morning on Sept. 25.



Filter may be a match for fracking water

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Swansea University) A new superhydrophilic filter has proven able to remove greater than 90 percent of hydrocarbons, as well as all bacteria and particulates from contaminated water produced by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations at shale oil and gas wells, according to researchers at the Energy Safety Research Institute at Swansea University in collaboration with researchers at Rice University.



NASA sees short-lived Tropical Depression 22W make landfall

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA's Terra satellite captured the landfall of Tropical Depression 22W in northern Vietnam. The Depression only existed for two days before it made landfall and began dissipating.



Study examines legacies of rainforest burning in British Columbia

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Wiley) Analyses of temperate rain forests located on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, suggest that for centuries, humans have intentionally used fire to manage plant life. The findings are published in the Journal of Biogeography.



UC research shows ticks are even tougher and nastier than you thought

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Cincinnati) Studies by the University of Cincinnati are showing how ticks can survive drought and cold northern winters. UC is working with county parks on a surveillance program.



Climate insurance is rarely well thought out in agriculture

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ) Internationally subsidised agricultural insurance is intended to protect farmers in developing countries from the effects of climate change. However, it can also lead to undesirable ecological and social side effects, as UFZ researchers and their colleagues at the University of Oregon have explained in Global Environmental Change. The article also contains recommendations for improved insurance schemes which in future should also take account of ecological and social aspects in addition to economic issues.



Clarifying perspectives to promote action on loss and damage from climate change

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Lund University) The hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria highlight the potential for the climate system to cause loss and damage. 'Loss and damage' is a phrase used in different ways by people who work on climate policy, negotiation and adaptation/resilience. A new study clarifies these different perspectives which is a key issue now that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC, is encouraging creation and implementation of actions to address loss and damage from climate change.



Geophysical investigation aims revealing how vegetation responds to climate change

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Researchers from five countries analyze remnants trapped in rainforest sediment to reconstruct 1 million years of Atlantic Rainforest history. Traces held by items such as microbes, pollen, isotopes, greenhouse gases and algae give clues on the variations of sunlight that caused the many glacial-interglacial cycles in the history of the planet, as well as for the impacts of the wet and dry periods on the Atlantic rainforest.



Scientists monitor Silicon Valley's underground water reserves -- from space

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University at Buffalo) Scientists monitoring Silicon Valley's underground water reserves from space have found that water levels rebounded quickly after a severe drought that lasted from 2012-15. The research points to the success of aggressive conservation measures. It also helps to lay the groundwork for low-cost monitoring of subterranean water reserves in California and elsewhere in the world.



With extra sugar, leaves get fat too

Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory) Eat too much without exercising and you'll probably put on a few pounds. As it turns out, plant leaves do something similar. A new study shows that retaining sugars in plant leaves can make them get fat too. In plants, this extra fat accumulation could be a good thing. It could help turn plants into factories for making biofuels and other useful chemicals.