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Preview: EurekAlert! - Earth Science

EurekAlert! - Earth Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 23:24:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Homes should not be abandoned after a big nuclear accident

Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Bristol) New research suggests that few people, if any, should be asked to leave their homes after a big nuclear accident, which is what happened in March 2011 following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.



UTSA researchers receive grant to help prevent contaminations in Edwards Aquifer

Sat, 18 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at San Antonio) Vikram Kapoor, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, and Drew Johnson, professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Texas at San Antonio, have been awarded a $692,452 funding agreement through the City of San Antonio's Proposition 1 Edwards Aquifer Protection Program to design and implement a way to track fecal bacteria in the Edwards Aquifer so that major contamination can be stopped before it starts.



Breakthrough could launch organic electronics beyond cell phone screens

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Princeton University, Engineering School) A discovery by an international team of researchers from Princeton University, the Georgia Institute of Technology and Humboldt University in Berlin points the way to more widespread use of an advanced technology generally known as organic electronics.



When to fish: Timing matters for fish that migrate to reproduce

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) A new University of Washington study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certain fish and change the life history patterns of entire populations.



These ring-tailed lemurs raise a 'stink' when they flirt with potential mates

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) Stink-flirting among ring-tailed lemurs come at a cost, but may also influence females in choosing a mate.



Decrease in sunshine, increase in rickets

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) A University of Toronto student and professor have teamed up to discover that Britain's increasing cloudiness during the summer could be an important reason for the mysterious increase in rickets among British children over the past few decades.



Carbon emissions by plant respiration will have large impact on climate

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Minnesota) New findings by researchers from the University of Minnesota College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, who partnered with scientists from across the world, suggest plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warn that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning.



Infrared NASA imagery shows development of Tropical Depression 31W

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA's Aqua satellite provided infrared imagery of the latest tropical cyclone in the South China Sea.



Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rice University) Researchers from Rice University, UCLA, Michigan State and the University of New Mexico have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen. The research appears this week in Science Advances.



Chinese team employs world's fastest supercomputer to simulate devastating earthquake

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Association for Computing Machinery) ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery, has named a 12-member Chinese team the recipients of the 2017 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for their research project, '18.9-Pflops Nonlinear Earthquake Simulation on Sunway TaihuLight: Enabling Depiction of 18-Hz and 8-Meter Scenarios.' Using the Sunway TaihuLight, which is ranked as the world's fastest supercomputer, the team created 3-D visualizations relating to a devastating earthquake that occurred in Tangshan, China in 1976.



Warmer water signals change for Scotland's shags

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Centre for Ecology & Hydrology) An increasingly catholic diet among European shags at one of Scotland's best-studied breeding colonies has been linked to long-term climate change and may have important implications for Scotland's seabirds.



NIR-driven H2 evolution from water: Expanding wavelength range for solar energy conversion

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Kyushu University, I2CNER) A Japanese research team at Kyushu University synthesized a compound that absorbs near-infrared light to produce hydrogen from water. The compound contains three ruthenium atoms connected by an organic molecule. The absorbed light stimulates electrons to 'jump' into orbitals that do not exist in other, similar compounds. This is the first successful use of infrared light to reduce water into hydrogen, which can be used for energy conversion and storage, and other industrial purposes in a future sustainable energy society.



Plant respiration could become a bigger feedback on climate than expected

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Centre for Ecology & Hydrology) New research suggests that plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warns that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning.



The tragedy of the seagrass commons

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Swansea University) Urgent action is required to stem the loss of the world's seagrass meadows to protect their associated fisheries.



What grosses out a chimpanzee?

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Kyoto University) Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans.



The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig) Leipzig. Forests fulfil numerous important functions, and do so particularly well if they are rich in different species of trees. In addition, forest managers do not have to decide on the provision of solely one function, such as wood production or nature conservation: several services provided by forest ecosystems can be improved at the same time. These are the results of two studies led by scientists from Leipzig University and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), and published in Ecology Letters.



Surrey develops new 'supercatalyst' to recycle carbon dioxide and methane

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Surrey) The University of Surrey has developed a new and cost-effective catalyst to recycle two of the main causes behind climate change -- carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).



New theory rewrites opening moments of Chernobyl disaster

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Taylor & Francis Group) A brand-new theory of the opening moments during the Chernobyl disaster, the most severe nuclear accident in history, based on additional analysis is presented for the first time in the journal Nuclear Technology, an official journal of the American Nuclear Society.



A popular tool to trace Earth's oxygen history can give false positives

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Georgia Institute of Technology) If someone cries 'Eureka!' because it looks like oxygen appeared in Earth's ancient atmosphere long before the body of evidence indicated, be careful. If it was a chromium isotope system reading that caused the enthusiasm, it might need to be curbed.



Water world

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Washington University in St. Louis) Following the path of radicals and being able to identify many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, expeditious and sensitive mass spectrometry, three scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms -- a strain of cyanobacteria -- to develop the first experimental map of that organism's water world.



Using eDNA to identify the breeding habitat of endangered species

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Kobe University) Using wide-ranging eDNA analysis combined with traditional collection survey methods, Japanese researchers have identified the breeding site of critically endangered fish species Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan. The findings were published on November 14 in the online edition of The Science of Nature - Naturwissenschaften.



A new way to store thermal energy

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A new phase-change material developed at MIT provides a way to store heat in a stable chemical form, then release it later on demand using light as a trigger.



American Water Works Association and Wiley confirm new publishing partnership

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) John Wiley and Sons Inc., (NYSE:JW-A) (NYSE:JW-B) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) announced today that they have agreed to become publishing partners for the AWWA periodicals, Journal -- American Water Works Association (JAWWA) and Opflow.



Fossil that fills missing evolutionary link named after UChicago professors

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Chicago) Scientists recently announced the discovery of a missing evolutionary link--a fossil of the first known member of the modern bryozoans to grow up into a structure. Called Jablonskipora kidwellae, it is named after UChicago geophysical scientists David Jablonski and Susan Kidwell.



Hot and bothered

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Santa Barbara) Environmental economists predict climate change will bring big manufacturing losses to China by mid-21st century.