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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 09 Sep 2016 03:18:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Application of the mathematics of harmony -- Golden non-Euclidean geometry in modern math

Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(World Scientific) A masterful exploration of history and the essence of mathematical reasoning to the future development of modern science and mathematics.



UMD physicists discover 'smoke rings' made of laser light

Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland) University of Maryland physicists have discovered that self-focused laser pulses generate violent swirls of optical energy that resemble smoke rings. In these light structures, known as 'spatiotemporal optical vortices,' light energy flows through the inside of the ring and loops back around the outside. The vortices travel with the laser pulse and control energy flow around it. The new optical structures are described in the Sept. 9, 2016, issue of the journal Physical Review X.



Better chemistry through...chemistry

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Santa Barbara) Award-winning UCSB professor Bruce Lipshutz is out to make organic chemistry better for the planet



Healthy ageing. Three days reality check.

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Biogerontology Research Foundation) The Eurosymposium on Healthy Ageing (EHA) www.eha-heales.org is an international event that provides a unique opportunity for researchers, government officials, biotech executives, entrepreneurs, and non-governmental institutions from around the world to meet, network, and forge new scientific collaborations.



Global DS Foundation funds research showing impact of trisomy 21 on interferon signaling

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Global Down Syndrome Foundation) Renowned Crnic Institute scientist, Dr. Espinosa, has found the interferon response is constantly activated in people with Down syndrome causing the body to fight a viral infection when such infection doesn't exist. Constant immune system activation would likely cause damaging side-effects and may explain cognitive deficit, increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders, higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, and protection against solid tumors. Testing FDA-approved drugs that block the interferon response could be an important next step.



Gladstone investigator receives $5.8M career grant

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Gladstone Institutes) Gladstone senior investigator Katerina Akassoglou, PhD, was awarded a prestigious multi-year, multi-million dollar grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Akassgolou will use the award to advance her research on the intersection of the brain, immune, and vascular systems, and their role in neurological diseases.



Seeing energized light-active molecules proves quick work for Argonne scientists

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Argonne National Laboratory) To understand how molecules undergo light-driven chemical transformations, scientists need to be able to follow the atoms and electrons within the energized molecule as it gains and loses energy. In a recent study, a team of researchers at Argonne, Northwestern University and the Technical University of Denmark used the ultrafast high-intensity pulsed X-rays produced by the Linac Coherent Light Source to take molecular snapshots of these molecules.



A more accurate sensor for lead paint

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Michigan) A new molecular gel recipe developed at the University of Michigan is at the core of a prototype for a more accurate lead paint test.



NIST and Navy tests suggest telecom networks could back up GPS time signals

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) The National Institute of Standards and Technology and the US Naval Observatory, which operate US civilian and military time standards, respectively, have worked with two companies -- Monroe, Louisiana-based CenturyLink, and Aliso Viejo, California-based Microsemi -- to identify a practical GPS backup possibility: commercial fiber-optic telecommunications networks.



Researchers uncover new potential genetic links to common brain disorder

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland School of Medicine) An international group of researchers has for the first time identified a set of 30 inherited recessive genes that play a role in intellectual disability, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects as many as 213 million people around the world.



The pleasures & perils of protein: Fruit fly study reveals new clues to appetite & aging

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Michigan Health System) Why do we -- and the fruit flies that sometimes inhabit our kitchens -- seek out protein-full foods when we're running on empty? And what does that preference mean for the odds of living a longer life, whether it's measured in decades for a human, or days for a fly? New research suggests that a brain chemical may have a lot to do with both questions.



NTU Singapore documentary on earthquakes bags multiple international awards

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Nanyang Technological University) A documentary by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) on its ground-breaking earthquake research in Nepal has bagged several top international film awards.



Avoiding 'traffic jam' creates impossibly bright 'lighthouse'

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institutes of Natural Sciences) A supercomputer recreated a blinking impossibly bright 'monster pulsar.' The central energy source of enigmatic pulsating Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULX) could be a neutron star according to numerical simulations performed by a research group led by Tomohisa Kawashima at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.



Study shows how Chinese medicine kills cancer cells

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Adelaide) Researchers at the University of Adelaide have shown how a complex mix of plant compounds derived from ancient clinical practice in China -- a Traditional Chinese Medicine -- works to kill cancer cells.



UBC research could help local governments plan together

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of British Columbia Okanagan campus) A new approach to modelling land use change developed at UBC could help cities and towns better coordinate their land-use planning efforts.The approach can enhance existing computer planning models, better enabling planners to consider how the land-use patterns of their neighbors could impact planning in their own communities.



ERC Starting Grants: €485 million in grants to 325 top researchers across Europe

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(European Research Council) The European Research Council (ERC) has announced today the awarding of its Starting Grants to 325 early-career researchers throughout Europe. The funding, worth in total €485 million and up to €1.5 million per grant, will enable them to set up their own research teams and pursue ground-breaking ideas.



Study finds earthquakes can trigger near-instantaneous aftershocks on different faults

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - San Diego) According to a new study by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego, a large earthquake on one fault can trigger large aftershocks on separate faults within just a few minutes. These findings have important implications for earthquake hazard prone regions like California where ruptures on complex fault systems may cascade and lead to mega-earthquakes.



Can some types of fat protect us from brain disease?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Berkeley) Having a little bit of extra fat may help reduce the risk of developing diseases caused by toxic protein aggregation, such as Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. UC Berkeley scientists have discovered a new communication process between organelles inside the cell, including mitochondria, and shown how fat metabolism plays a central role in linking mitochondrial health to cytosolic protein homeostasis. Another study uncovers a new signaling pathway that may explain the peripheral wasting seen in Huntington's.



The evolution of antibiotic resistance, on a plate

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(American Association for the Advancement of Science) Researchers have developed a large culturing device to track the evolution of bacteria as they mutate in the presence of antibiotics, revealing that, surprisingly, the fittest mutants were not those most likely to infiltrate higher antibiotic concentrations.



Fool me twice... A novel 'Trojan horse' antibody circumvents ebolavirus infections

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(American Association for the Advancement of Science) Scientists have shown that a two-pronged antibody can counteract the unique immune-evasion mechanism that filoviruses like Ebola have evolved.



Chemists devise revolutionary 3-D bone-scanning technique

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Trinity College Dublin) Chemists from Trinity College Dublin have devised a scanning technique for bones that does not expose patients to X-ray radiation but provides exceptional 3-D images from which diagnoses and prognoses can be made. Their technique now provides information on bone quality as well as quantity.



Containing our 'electromagnetic pollution'

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Drexel University) Electromagnetic radiation is everywhere -- that's been the case since the beginning of the universe. But the proliferation of electronics in recent decades has contributed both to the volume of radiation generated on our planet and its noticeability. A group of researchers at Drexel University and the Korea Institute of Science & Technology is working on cleaning up this electromagnetic pollution by containing the emissions with a thin coating of a nanomaterial called MXene.



Measuring forces in the DNA molecule

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) DNA, our genetic material, normally has the structure of a twisted rope ladder. Experts call this structure a double helix. Among other things, it is stabilized by stacking forces between base pairs. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA.



Brain connections are more sophisticated than thought

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Duke University) Inhibitory connections between neurons act as the brain's brakes, preventing it from becoming overexcited. Researchers thought inhibitory connections were less sophisticated than their excitatory counterparts because relatively few proteins were known to exist at these structures. But a new study by Duke scientists overturns that assumption, uncovering 140 proteins that have never been mapped to inhibitory synapses. Some of the proteins have already been implicated in autism, intellectual disability and epilepsy, suggesting new treatment avenues.



New chip could bring highest level of encryption to any mobile device

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(The Optical Society) Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device.