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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 02 Dec 2016 17:18:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



NASA's AIM observes early noctilucent ice clouds over Antarctica

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Data from NASA's AIM spacecraft shows the sky over Antarctica is glowing electric blue due to the start (an early one) of noctilucent, or night-shining, cloud season in the Southern Hemisphere.



Novel anti-PSMA imaging agent quickly identifies prostate cancer lesions

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Society of Nuclear Medicine) New research demonstrates that a novel imaging agent can quickly and accurately detect metastasis of prostate cancer, even in areas where detection has previously been difficult. Published in the December issue of "The Journal of Nuclear Medicine," the Phase 1 dose-escalation study of Zr-89-desferrioxamine-IAB2M (Zr-89-Df-IAB2M), an anti-PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) minibody, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer shows its effectiveness in targeting both bone and soft tissue lesions.



Superconductivity of pure Bismuth crystal at 0.00053 K

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Tata Institute of Fundamental Research) Scientists at TIFR Mumbai have discovered superconductivity of pure Bismuth crystal. A new mechanism is at play as existing theories cannot explain this discovery. This paves the way for the discovery of a new class of superconductors.



Shape matters when light meets atom

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore) Scientists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore have shown that a photon's shape affects how it is absorbed by a single atom. The experiment involved infrared photons some 4 meters long and Rubidium atoms less than a nanometer wide.



Cement made from steel production byproduct can lead to a huge CO2 reduction

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Eindhoven University of Technology) Steel production generates some hundred million tons of steel slag worldwide each year. Professor of building materials, Jos Brouwers, will be working with industrial partners to investigate whether he can make cement out of it. If he succeeds, more CO2 emissions can be cut than is yearly produced by all the traffic in the Netherlands.



Researchers find link between antidepressant use and congenital anomalies or stillbirths

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Swansea University) Academics at Swansea University have carried out a dose-response analysis which suggests that pregnant women who take a specific type of antidepressant in early pregnancy have a small but significantly greater risk of having babies with major congenital anomalies (sometimes referred to as birth defects) or stillbirths compared with those who did not take these antidepressants.



Faster, noninvasive method to determine the severity of a heart failure

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Eindhoven University of Technology) Researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology and the Catharina Hospital in Eindhoven have developed a method that is very quick, noninvasive, cost-effective and can be performed at the hospital bedside. Moreover, this method appears to have a predictive value for whether or not a double pacemaker will be successful.



High-precision magnetic field sensing

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(ETH Zurich) Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields. The sensor may find widespread use in medicine and other areas.



Student's award-winning graphene battery could slash electric-car charging times

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Sussex) A student engineer from the University of Sussex in the UK has won a car industry award for designing a new battery that could revolutionize electric vehicles.



Where giant galaxies are born

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)) An international team of scientists, with IAC participation, has discovered that the biggest galaxies in the universe develop in cosmic clouds of cold gas. This finding, which was made possible using radio telescopes in Australian and the USA, is being published today in the journal Science.



More than 100,000 people challenge Einstein in a unique worldwide quantum physics experiment

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences) On Nov. 30, more than 100,000 people participated in the BIG Bell Test, a global experiment to test the laws of quantum physics. Participants were able to complete more than half a million levels of the video game that generated more than 90 million bits, a number that tripled the initial expectations of the scientific team leading the project.



Physicists decipher electronic properties of materials in work that may change transistors

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Dallas) University of Texas at Dallas physicists have published new findings examining the electrical properties of materials that could be harnessed for next-generation transistors and electronics. Dr. Fan Zhang, assistant professor of physics, and senior physics student Armin Khamoshi recently published their research on transition metal dichalcogenides, or TMDs, in the journal Nature Communications.



New aspect of atom mimicry for nanotechnology applications

Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Tokyo Tech researchers show dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms can also mimic polymerisation yielding controlled one and two-dimensional arrays of nanocontainers.



New evidence on the formation of the solar system

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Monash University) International research involving a Monash University scientist is using new computer models and evidence from meteorites to show that a low-mass supernova triggered the formation of our solar system.



UTA CAPPA student wins statewide bullet train station design competition

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Arlington) A University of Texas at Arlington student has won a statewide design competition for her Dallas station design for the Texas Central Partners' bullet train that is planned to run between Houston and Dallas by the early 2020s.



UChicago startup turns renewable energy into natural gas

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Chicago) One of the biggest challenges to wider adoption of wind and solar power is how to store the excess energy they often produce.A technology developed at the University of Chicago, and now being commercialized by a University startup, is addressing the intermittent nature of these renewable sources. It uses a selectively evolved, unicellular microorganism that helps convert electricity into methane gas. That gas can be stored, transported and used wherever natural gas is used, including for the generation of power on demand.



Monell Center receives grant to develop technologies to improve taste of lifesaving drugs

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Monell Chemical Senses Center) The Monell Center announced today that it has received a $345,000 grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The grant supports an innovative global health research project titled, 'Developing Novel Pediatric Formulation Technologies for Global Health: Human Taste Assays.'



Dabigatran superior to warfarin when anticoagulation is resumed after bleeding

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) In the first analysis of how to treat patients on anticoagulants who suffer a major bleeding event, a clinical practice that routinely gives doctors pause, while also evaluating a new drug, University of Pittsburgh researchers aim to provide much-needed guidance to clinicians trying to balance the risks of stroke versus bleeding when determining the best treatment.



Scientists discover new method to restore function of white blood cells in septic patients

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) New research findings published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology (http://www.jleukbio.org), suggest that treating the white blood cells of sepsis patients with antibodies that block programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1) molecules may restore their function and ultimately their ability to eradicate deadly bacteria.



URI scientist: Rare childhood disease linked to major cancer gene

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Rhode Island) A team of researchers led by a University of Rhode Island scientist has discovered an important molecular link between a rare childhood genetic disease, Fanconi anemia, and a major cancer gene called PTEN. The discovery improves the understanding of the molecular basis of Fanconi anemia and could lead to improved treatment outcomes for some cancer patients.



DOE project to evaluate safety of transporting used nuclear fuel

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Houston) With more than 74,000 metric tons of used nuclear fuel stored at locations around the United States, ensuring the safety of moving it to more secure disposal sites is a top federal priority. A University of Houston engineer will lead a $3 million, multi-institution effort to develop monitoring techniques to ensure the nuclear materials remain stable during transit.



For the first time, scientists catch water molecules passing the proton baton

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) Water conducts electricity, but the process by which this familiar fluid passes along positive charges has puzzled scientists for decades. But in a paper published in the Dec. 2 in issue of the journal Science, an international team of researchers has finally caught water in the act -- showing how water molecules pass along excess charges and, in the process, conduct electricity.



Study suggests possible new target for treating and preventing Alzheimer's

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon Health & Science University) A new scientific discovery may provide a future avenue for treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. A study published Nov. 28 in the journal JAMA Neurology examined aquaporin-4, a type of membrane protein in the brain. Using brains donated for scientific research, researchers at OHSU discovered a correlation between the prevalence of aquaporin-4 among older people who did not suffer from Alzheimer's as compared to those who had the disease.



NASA's Sun-observing IRIS mission

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) The sun may seem static from Earth's vantage point, 93 million miles away, but our star is constantly changing. Complex magnetic interactions force material throughout the solar atmosphere that can burst forth in massive eruptions. NASA's recently extended IRIS mission watches the interface region, the lower levels of the sun's atmosphere.



What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) Same class of algorithms used by Google and Netflix can also tell us if distant planetary systems are stable or not.