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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Fri, 26 May 2017 01:18:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Engines of twingenuity: NASA's twin study investigators have a meeting of the minds

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Johnson Space Center) NASA's Twins Study investigators met in Houston this week to discuss findings from the final data collections.

Sediment from Himalayas may have made 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake more severe

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Oregon State University) Sediment that eroded from the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau over millions of years was transported thousands of kilometers by rivers and in the Indian Ocean -- and became sufficiently thick over time to generate temperatures warm enough to strengthen the sediment and increase the severity of the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake.

Research could bring 'drastically' higher resolution to your TV and smartphone

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Central Florida) By developing a way to tune the color of individual pixels, researchers have eliminated the need for subpixels -- allowing a greater density of pixels and much higher resolution for video displays.

Jupiter's complex transient auroras

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(RIKEN) Combined observations from three spacecraft show that Jupiter's brightest auroral features recorded to date are powered by both the volcanic moon Io and interaction with the solar wind.

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cornell University) How water relates to and interacts with biological systems -- like DNA, the building block of all living things -- is of critical importance, and a Cornell University group has used a relatively new form of spectroscopy to observe a previously unknown characteristic of water.

The big star that couldn't become a supernova

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Ohio State University) For the first time in history, astronomers have been able to watch as a dying star was reborn as a black hole. It went out with a whimper instead of a bang.

Collapsing star gives birth to a black hole

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Astronomers have watched as a massive, dying star was likely reborn as a black hole.

Cellular stress in the brain may contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(George Washington University) Research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight shows that cellular stress in the brain may contribute to development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

The best teams of the engineering competition 'Capture the Flag' were awarded

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University) On May 24, at the plenary session of the International Polytechnic Week, the winners of the students' competition 'Capture the Flag' organized by Siemens LLC with the support of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, were awarded. More than 60 students from various universities of St. Petersburg participated in the competition. Altogether, 11 teams competed in the framework of the event, eight of them successfully reached the finals.

Solving the riddle of the snow globe

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) A new Tel Aviv University study finds the sedimentation of asymmetric objects in liquid is very different from that of symmetrical objects like spheres. The research may have practical applications in improving water treatment and industrial processes.

MIT researchers engineer shape-shifting food

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Researchers from MIT's Tangible Media Group have concocted something akin to edible origami, in the form of flat sheets of gelatin and starch that, when submerged in water, instantly sprout into three-dimensional structures, including common pasta shapes such as macaroni and rotini.

Researchers find new way to control light with electric fields

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(North Carolina State University) Researchers from North Carolina State University have discovered a technique for controlling light with electric fields.

New metamaterial-enhanced MRI technique tested on humans

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(ITMO University) Scientists from the Netherlands and Russia designed and tested a new metasurface-based technology for enhancing the local sensitivity of MRI scanners on humans for the first time. The metasurface consists of thin resonant strips arranged periodically. Placed under a patient's head, it provided much higher signals from the local brain region. The results published in Scientific Reports, show that the use of metasurfaces can potentially reduce image acquisition time, thus improving comfort for patients, or acquire higher resolution images for better disease diagnosis.

One in 3 high blood pressure patients failing to take medication

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Leicester) University of Leicester researchers design novel urine test to help to diagnose adherence to blood pressure medications.

Controlling 3-D behavior of biological cells using laser holographic techniques

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)) A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes.

Unveiling the quantum necklace

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) Researchers simulate quantum necklace-like structures in superfluids.

Ag/ZnO-Nanorods Schottky diodes based UV-PDs are fabricated and tested

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(World Scientific) The current-voltage characteristics of the Ag/ZnO-Nanorod Schottky contacts were studied at forward applied bias over the range 0 V to 1 V, under dark and UV light. The dark and photocurrents were 1.29E-5A and 2.16E-5, respectively, and the contrast ratio (ratio of photocurrent to dark current) was 1.67 at +1.0 V for these devices. The results show that these devices could be useful for cost-effective and low-voltage UV detection applications.

Designer worm spit supercharges healing

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(James Cook University) Every day 12 Australian diabetics have a limb amputated because of a non-healing wound. Globally, it's one every 30 seconds. A molecule produced by a Thai liver parasite could be the solution to those non-healing wounds -- and scientists from the Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine are now able to produce a version of the molecule on a large enough scale to make it available for laboratory tests and eventually clinical trials.

Development of compound that captures specific alkane gas molecule with its color change

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kanazawa University) A ring-shaped molecule based on pillar[5]arene conjugated with benzoquinone has been developed, the powder of which selectively captures n-alkane gas molecule by host-guest complexation but not branched or cyclic alkane molecule. Upon forming such host-guest complex, its color changed from dark-brown to light-red, a chromophore-like behavior. The complex is highly-stable at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure. Thus, the new compound may serve as a sensor and/or a storage material for specific alkane molecules.

New drug therapy could improve brain function and life expectancy of ALS patients

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev) The Ben-Gurion U. researcher successfully redesigned a portion of MabThera, an FDA-approved drug used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer, into a new molecule to treat ALS. 'Our experimental results on ALS transgenic mice showed a significant increase in life expectancy,' says Dr. Lichtenstein. 'Since the drug is already approved, we believe that we will only need limited preclinical testing to reach the clinical phase earlier than other initiatives.'

Researchers develop magnetic switch to turn on and off a strange quantum property

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) A NIST-led research team has developed the first switch that turns on and off a quantum behavior called the Berry phase. The discovery promises to provide new insight into the fundamentals of quantum theory and may lead to new quantum electronic devices.

US nuclear regulators greatly underestimate potential for nuclear disaster

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission relied on faulty analysis to justify its refusal to adopt a critical measure for protecting Americans from nuclear-waste fires at dozens of reactor sites around the country, according to an article in the May 26 issue of Science magazine. Radioactivity from such a fire could force approximately 8 million people to relocate and result in $2 trillion in damages.

A flip switch for binge-eating?

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Association for the Advancement of Science) Researchers have identified a subgroup of neurons in the mouse brain that, upon activation, immediately prompt binge-like eating.

Study: A new way to slow cancer cell growth

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Rochester Medical Center) Researchers have identified a new way to potentially slow the fast-growing cells that characterize all types of cancer. By removing a specific protein from cells, they were able to slow the cell cycle, which is out of control in cancer. The findings were made in kidney and cervical cancer cells and are a long way from being applied in people, but could be the basis of a treatment option in the future.

Ineffective antibiotics form strong teams against deadly super bacteria

Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University at Buffalo) A team of University at Buffalo-led researchers found that combinations of three antibiotics -- that are each ineffective against superbugs when used alone -- are capable of eradicating two of the six ESKAPE pathogens when delivered together.