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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 07:18:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Drawing inspiration from plants and animals to restore tissue

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences) Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering have developed new wound dressings that dramatically accelerate healing and improve tissue regeneration. The two different types of nanofiber dressings, described in separate papers, use naturally-occurring proteins in plants and animals to promote healing and regrow tissue.

A small, daily dose of Viagra may reduce colorectal cancer risk

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University) A small, daily dose of Viagra significantly reduces colorectal cancer risk in an animal model that is genetically predetermined to have the third leading cause of cancer death, scientists report.Viagra cut in half the formation of polyps, an abnormal and often asymptomatic clump of cells on the lining of the intestines that may become cancer, says Dr. Darren D. Browning, cancer researcher at the Georgia Cancer Center and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University.

Liquid-to-glass transition process gains clarity

Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Wisconsin-Madison) Paul Voyles, the Beckwith-Bascom Professor in materials science and engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and collaborators in Madison and at Yale University have made significant experimental strides in understanding how, when and where the constantly moving atoms in molten metal 'lock' into place as the material transitions from liquid to solid glass.

Better understanding ALS by looking at how cells change

Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Montreal) Eight years in the making, a discovery by neuroscientists in Montreal highlights the value of long-term, fundamental research and provides important information for future drug targets.

Endocrine Society awards inaugural Baxter Prize to women's health entrepreneur

Sat, 17 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(The Endocrine Society) French physician and researcher André Ulmann, M.D., Ph.D., won the Endocrine Society's first-ever John D. Baxter Prize for Entrepreneurship for his advances in women's health and rare endocrine conditions, the Society announced today.

Unexpected effect could lead to lower-power memory, computing devices

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) An expected effect, known as zero field switching, could enable lower-power memory and computing devices than presently possible.

Development of an enzymatic cycling method using pyruvate kinase

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Bentham Science Publishers) Enzyme cycling is a sensitive assay method that exploits amplification techniques. We recently developed a novel enzymatic cycling method, which utilizes both the forward and reverse reactions of creatine kinase (CK), for the quantitative determination of creatine.

3-D tissue model of developing heart could help drug safety testing for pregnant women

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Syracuse University) A Syracuse University engineering team has developed a process that combines biomaterials-based cell patterning and stem cell technology to make a 3-D tissue model that could mimic early stage human heart development. Embryotoxicity is just one potential use of the modeling platform.

Genetic variant discovery to help asthma sufferers

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Liverpool) Research from the University of Liverpool, published in Lancet Respiratory Medicine, identifies a genetic variant that could improve the safety and effectiveness of corticosteroids, drugs that are used to treat a range of common and rare conditions including asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Piezomagnetic material changes magnetic properties when stretched

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Davis) Piezoelectric materials, which generate an electric current when compressed or stretched, are familiar and widely used: lighters that spark when you press a switch, microphones, sensors, motors and all kinds of other devices. Now a group of physicists has found a material with a similar property, but for magnetism. This 'piezomagnetic' material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain.

Chirping is welcome in birds but not in fusion devices

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Article describes cause of chirping that signals loss of heat from fusion reactions.

Signaling pathways to the nucleus

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Freiburg) Researchers have demonstrated how auxin, a hormone that controls many processes in plants, reaches its destination.

Wandering greenhouse gas

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research) On the seafloor of the shallow coastal regions north of Siberia, microorganisms produce methane when they break down plant remains. If this greenhouse gas finds its way into the water, it can also become trapped in the sea ice that forms in these coastal waters.

Plasmons triggered in nanotube quantum wells

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Rice University) A novel quantum effect observed in a carbon nanotube film could lead to the development of near-infrared lasers and other optoelectronic devices, according to scientists at Rice University and Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Two better than one: USU chemists advance sustainable battery technology

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Utah State University) Utah State University chemists describe design and synthesis of a pi-conjugation-extended viologen molecule as a novel, two-electron storage anolyte for neutral total organic aqueous redox flow batteries.

New solution to harmful algal blooms raises hope of economic and environmental benefits

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(John Innes Centre) A cheap, safe and effective method of dealing with harmful algal blooms is on the verge of being introduced following successful field and lab tests.

Near-infrared photoactivatable oxygenation catalysts of amyloid peptide

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Japan Science and Technology Agency) A new, biocompatible photooxygenation catalyst that can selectively oxygenate and degrade the pathogenic aggregation of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation is developed. The catalyst was able to oxygenate Aβ embedded under the skin of a living mouse, and diminished intact Aβ level in AD-model mouse brain. The new catalyst is potentially applicable for the treatment of peripheral amyloid diseases and AD.

Bees: How royal jelly prevents royal offspring from falling out of their cells

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg) Defying gravity: A special mixture of proteins in the larval food of bees ensures that future queen larvae survive. Surprisingly this has less to do with nourishment than with gravity. The special properties of the proteins prevent the large and heavy larvae from falling out of their cells. Researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have discovered how this is accomplished at a molecular level. Their study appeared in the internationally renowned journal Current Biology.

With new 'shuffling' trick, researchers can measure gene activity in single cells

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington) Researchers at the University of Washington and the Allen Institute for Brain Science have developed a new method to classify and track the multitude of cells in a tissue sample. In a paper published March 15 in the journal Science, the team reports that this new approach -- known as SPLiT-seq -- reliably tracks gene activity in a tissue down to the level of single cells.

New understanding of Kenyan paleoenvironments opens window on human evolution in the area

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Geological Society of America) Interest in human evolution has stimulated new geological work in the southern rift valley of Kenya. A new Geological Society of America Bulletin article by Anna K. Behrensmeyer and colleagues presents the results of more than 15 years of field research on complex strata representing the last 500,000 years of geological history in an active rift system.

Monocrystalline silicon thin film for cost-cutting solar cells with 10-times faster growth rate fabricated

Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(Tokyo Institute of Technology) A research team from Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Waseda University have successfully produced high-quality thin film monocrystalline silicon with a reduced crystal defect density down to the silicon wafer level at a growth rate that is more than 10 times higher than before. In principle, this method can improve the raw material yield to nearly 100 percent.

Democratizing science: Making neuroscience experiments easier to share, reproduce

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington) In a paper published online March 5 in Nature Communications, University of Washington researchers unveiled an open-access browser to display, analyze and share neurological data collected through a type of magnetic resonance imaging study known as diffusion-weighted MRI.

The Protein Society's Best Paper Award

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(The Protein Society) Congratulations to The Protein Society's 'Best Paper' Award winners, sponsored by Wiley. The winners will give a talk at the 32nd Annual Symposium held July 9-12, 2018 in Boston, MA.

The Protein Society announces 2018 award recipients

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(The Protein Society) The Protein Society, the premier international society dedicated to supporting protein research, announces the winners of the 2018 Protein Society Awards, which will be conferred at their 32nd Annual Symposium (July 9 - 12, 2018, Boston, Massachusetts). Plenary talks from the recipients are scheduled throughout the 3.5-day event.

Compact fiber optic sensor offers sensitive analysis in narrow spaces

Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 EDT

(The Optical Society) Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces.