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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 07:18:02 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Siberian scientists suggested a new method for synthesizing a promising magnetic material

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Siberian Federal University) Scientists from Siberian Federal University (SFU) together with their colleagues from the Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kirensky Institute of Physics of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences used a new method for synthesizing iron-dysprosium garnet. Magnetic materials of this class are used in microwave and magnetic photon equipment. Iron-dysprosium garnet is understudied and may have previously unknown properties. The article was published in Materials Science and Engineering journal.



Big energy savings: OSU researchers build the world's smallest electro-optic modulator

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon State University) Researchers at have designed and fabricated the world's smallest electro-optic modulator, which could mean major reductions in energy used by data centers and supercomputers.



3-D printing improves cell adhesion and strength of PDMS polymer

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Penn State) Combining two different polymer forms can switch manufacturing of silicone parts from molding, casting and spin coating of simple forms to 3-D printing of complex geometries with better mechanical characteristics and better biological adhesion, according to a team of Penn State researchers.



New neuron-like cells allow investigation into synthesis of vital cellular components

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Penn State) A new method to create synthetic neurons allows researchers to investigate how the human brain makes metabolic building blocks essential for the survival of all living organisms. A new study describes a core enzyme involved in the synthesis of these building blocks, called purines, and how the enzyme might change during infection by herpes simplex virus.



Prescription drug abuse prevention at CU Anschutz receives $1.5 million

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) The Colorado Health Foundation has invested more than $1.5 million to advance Colorado's efforts to fight substance abuse and the opioid epidemic plaguing the state.



European science on the map at Davos summit

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Research Council) The European Research Council (ERC) will bring cutting-edge science to the forefront at the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) from 23 to 26 January in Davos, Switzerland. Using ideas arising from this year's meeting theme: 'Creating a shared future in a fractured world', the ERC's President, Professor Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, and eleven remarkable scientists and scholars will feed into the debate, via fourteen sessions.



Small hydroelectric dams increase globally with little research, regulations

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) University of Washington researchers have published the first major assessment of small hydropower dams around the world -- including their potential for growth -- and highlight the incredibly variability in how dams of varying sizes are categorized, regulated and studied.



A new approach to rechargeable batteries

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A new battery technology developed at MIT, based on a metal-mesh membrane and electrodes made of molten sodium, could open the way for more intermittent, renewable power sources on the grid.



Multifunctional platform for the delivery of gene therapeutics

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the 'gene scissors' to the tumor cell genome. As the authors report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, their nonviral transport and release platform of gene-editing systems has the additional advantage of combining hyperthermal cancer therapy with genetic modification.



Discrepancies between satellite and global model estimates of land water storage

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Austin) Research led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that calculations of water storage in many river basins from commonly used global computer models differ markedly from independent storage estimates from GRACE satellites.



Biomarkers helped solving the mystery of 500-million-year-old macroorganisms

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Lomonosov Moscow State University) A postgraduate student of the Faculty of Geology of MSU, working with an international scientific group, participated in chemical analysis of biomarkers -- compounds that remained after the decomposition of organic remains of the genus Beltanelliformis. These organisms populated the Earth in the Ediacaran period (about 575-541 million years ago), and their position on the evolutionary tree was unknown. The obtained data showed that Beltanelliformis were colonies of cyanobacteria.



Persistent photoconductivity used to stimulate neurotypic cells

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(North Carolina State University) Researchers have, for the first time, used a material's persistent photoconductivity to stimulate neurotype cells. The technique, which is relatively simple, should facilitate future research on using charge to influence cellular behavior.



New for three types of extreme-energy space particles: Theory shows unified origin

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Penn State) One of the biggest mysteries in astroparticle physics has been the origins of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, very high-energy neutrinos, and high-energy gamma rays. Now, a new theoretical model reveals that they all could be shot out into space after cosmic rays are accelerated by powerful jets from supermassive black holes. The model may set a new milestone on the path toward solving the half-century-old enigma of the origin of the highest-energy particles in the universe.



Brown University researchers aim to store data in molecules

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Brown University) Supported by a $4.1 million award from DARPA, Brown researchers will look for ways to store and manipulate digital data using molecules in solution.



Improving vaccines for the elderly by blocking inflammation

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University College London) By identifying why skin immunity declines in old age, a UCL-led research team has found that an anti-inflammatory pill could help make vaccines more effective for elderly people.The study, published today in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, found that an excessive inflammation reaction in older people can obstruct the immune system.



Transportable laser

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)) PTB physicists have developed a frequency-doubling unit for transportable, optical atomic clock that will even continue to operate when it has been shaken at three times the Earth's gravitational acceleration. The results have been published in the current issue of the Review of Scientific Instruments.



Scientists find mechanisms to avoid telomere instability found in cancer and aging cells

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Instituto de Medicina Molecular) Researchers from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) João Lobo Antunes have found that a functional component of telomeres called TERRA has to constantly be kept in check to prevent telomeric and chromosomal instability, one of the underlying anomalies associated with cancer.



New long-acting approach for malaria therapy developed

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Liverpool) A new study, published in Nature Communications, conducted by the University of Liverpool and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine highlights a new 'long acting' medicine for the prevention of malaria.



TU Wien develops new semiconductor processing technology

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Vienna University of Technology) Extremely fine porous structures with tiny holes -- resembling a kind of sponge at nano level -- can be generated in semiconductors. This opens up new possibilities for the realization of tiny sensors or unusual optical and electronic components. There have already been experiments in this area with porous structures made from silicon. Now, researchers at TU Wien have succeeded in developing a method for the controlled manufacture of porous silicon carbide.



Optical nanoscope allows imaging of quantum dots

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Basel) Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. In particular, the new method allows the imaging of quantum dots in a semiconductor chip. Together with colleagues from the University of Bochum, scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute reported the findings in the journal Nature Photonics.



Taking control at the junction

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)) Fine tuning the composition of nitride alloys can further the development of optical and electronic interface devices.



Breakthrough 1,000 degree C solar to get first commercial trial

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(SolarPACES) A new solar technology is twice as efficient, cutting the cost of solar thermal energy, by raising operating temperatures to 1,000°C, almost twice the 565°C molten salt temperature in current concentrated solar power (CSP) tower plants.



Lobachevsky University researchers obtain magnetic semiconductor layers of a new type

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Lobachevsky University) Researchers at the laboratory of spin and optical electronics of the Lobachevsky University (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) have obtained a new type of magnetic semiconductor layers, which demonstrate spin-dependent phenomena in the transport of charge carriers at room temperature.



A 'hot Jupiter' with unusual winds

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(McGill University) The hottest point on a gaseous planet near a distant star isn't where astrophysicists expected it to be -- a discovery that challenges scientists' understanding of the many planets of this type found in solar systems outside our own.



Scientists discover material ideal for smart photovoltaic windows

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Researchers at Berkeley Lab discovered that a form of perovskite, one of the hottest materials in solar research currently due to its high conversion efficiency, works surprisingly well as a stable and photoactive semiconductor material that can be reversibly switched between a transparent state and a non-transparent state, without degrading its electronic properties.