Subscribe: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences
http://www.eurekalert.org/rss/chemistry_physics.xml
Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Wed, 29 Mar 2017 20:18:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Researchers track perfluorinated chemicals in the body

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Notre Dame) New research in the journal Environmental Science & Technology Letters shows scientists have developed a method to track perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in the body. PFAS are potentially toxic chemicals found in stain-resistant products, nonstick cookware, fire-fighting foams and -- most recently -- fast food wrappers.



Team highlights work on tuning block polymers for nanostructured systems

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Delaware) High-performance materials are enabling major advances in a wide range of applications from energy generation and digital information storage to disease screening and medical devices. Block polymers, which are two or more polymer chains with different properties linked together, show great promise for many of these applications, and a research group at the University of Delaware has made significant strides in their development over the past several years.



Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rochester Institute of Technology) Enhanced single-walled carbon nanotubes offer a more effective and sustainable approach to water treatment and remediation than the standard industry materials -- silicon gels and activated carbon -- according to a paper by RIT researchers John-David Rocha and Reginald Rogers.



Research highlights for Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago, April 22-26

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Experimental Biology 2017) Cutting-edge multidisciplinary research from across the life sciences will be presented at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting (EB 2017), the premier annual meeting of six scientific societies in Chicago to be held April 22-26.



Journal: Researchers can track hazardous chemicals from fast-food wrappers in the body

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Alabama at Birmingham) Just one month after major research findings showed dangerous PFAS present in more than one-third of fast food packaging tested, UAB and Notre Dame created a new technique to track PFASs in the body.



The search for obesity drugs targets hunger's complex chemistry

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Discoveries of hormones related to weight and appetite in the '90s helped spur a search for obesity treatments targeting those hormones -- with disappointing results. Now scientists are taking a new tack that could finally yield promising treatments, according to a story in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) that was produced in collaboration with the American Chemical Society's open-access journal ACS Central Science. C&EN is the weekly newsmagazine of ACS.



Painting fingernails with silver and gold

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Since ancient times, people have used lustrous silver, platinum and gold to make jewelry and other adornments. Researchers have now developed a new way to add the metals to nail polish with minimal additives, resulting in durable, tinted -- and potentially antibacterial -- nail coloring. They report their method in ACS' journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.



How to measure potentially damaging free radicals in cigarette smoke

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Smoking cigarettes can lead to illness and death. Free radicals, which are atoms or groups of atoms with unpaired electrons, in inhaled smoke are thought to be partly responsible for making smokers sick. Now researchers report in ACS' journal Chemical Research in Toxicology a method for measuring free radicals in cigarette smoke that could help improve our understanding of the relationship between these substances and health.



Harnessing brain's internal reserves might help treat epilepsy

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders affecting humans that causes recurrent convulsive seizures. Along with their colleagues from MIPT, researchers from the Laboratory of Systemic Organization of Neurons at ITEB discovered an efficient way of protecting the temporal lobe from pathological changes that arise as epilepsy progresses. In a study biophysicists have shown that drug-induced activation of the endocannabinoid system of the brain leads to reduced or completely suppressed epileptic activity in test animals.



New research explains why even targeted therapies eventually fail in lung cancer

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) New research shows the accumulation of genetic diversity in cancer cells with damaged DNA repair mechanisms contributes to the occurrence of resistance after the exposure of the cells to drugs used to treat tumors. A corollary to this discovery is that killing cancer cells that are more genetically unstable in the earlier stages of tumorigenesis could result in improved outcomes in currently used cancer treatments.



Wrong-way asteroid plays 'chicken' with Jupiter

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Western Ontario) For at least a million years, an asteroid orbiting the 'wrong' way around the sun has been playing a cosmic game of chicken with giant Jupiter and with about 6,000 other asteroids sharing the giant planet's space, says a report published in the latest issue of Nature.



Researchers identify genes that give cannabis its flavor

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of British Columbia) UBC scientists have scanned the genome of cannabis plants to find the genes responsible for giving various strains their lemony, skunky or earthy flavors, an important step for the budding legal cannabis industry.



Analysis yields clues to chemical composition, natural aging of 100-year-old beer

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Stashed away and long-forgotten, a trio of century-old bottled beers recently discovered in the Czech Republic could help scientists better understand early 20th-century brewing practices, as well as the chemical changes that occur in beer over long periods of time. A report on the well-preserved lagers appears in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.



Carnegie Mellon Power Sector Index tracks 24 percent decline in carbon emissions

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(College of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University) The initial results of the new Carnegie Mellon University Power Sector Carbon Index, which measures CO2 emissions from the US electrical power generation sector, found that US power producers had cut CO2 emissions intensity by 24 percent since 2005.



An LED-based device for imaging radiation induced skin damage

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The Optical Society) A noninvasive imaging device tested at UC Irvine's Beckman Laser Institute may help predict skin damage effects from radiation treatment in breast cancer patients.



Reading between the lines of highly turbulent plasmas

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Springer) Plasma, the ionised state of matter found in stars, is still not fully understood. Astrophysicists have long-since sought to develop models that can account for the turbulent motions inside plasma. Turbulences are typically detected through observation of broadened lines due to the Doppler Effect. In a study published in EPJ D, Roland Stamm and colleagues develop an iterative simulation model that accurately predicts changes to the line shape in the presence of strong plasma turbulence.



Researchers control soft robots using magnetic fields

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(North Carolina State University) Engineering researchers have made a fundamental advance in controlling so-called soft robots, using magnetic fields to remotely manipulate microparticle chains embedded in soft robotic devices. The researchers have already created several devices that make use of the new technique.



Scientists discover new category of analgesic drugs that may treat neuropathic pain

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) New research published online in The FASEB Journal suggests that a novel therapeutic target called LPCAT2 may prove effective against pain that is not receptive to the current treatments. This study has also revealed the existence of a platelet alleviating factor (PAF) pain loop, suggesting a possible role for PAF-receptor antagonists.



Reliable molecular toggle switch developed

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) ) Nanotechnology constantly allows for new records in miniaturization. Reduction of the dimension of electronic components, however, has physical limits that will be reached soon. Novel materials and components are required. This is where molecular electronics comes in. Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now succeeded in developing a molecular toggle switch that does not only remain in the position selected, but can also be flipped as often as desired. This is reported in Nature Communications.



Quantum communication: How to outwit noise

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Vienna University of Technology) Quantum information transfer requires reliable information transfer from one quantum system to the other, which is extremely difficult to achieve. Independently, two research teams have now developed a new quantum communication protocol. This protocol enables reliable quantum communication even under the presence of contaminating noise. Both research groups work with the same basic concept: To make the protocol immune to the noise, they add an additional element, a so-called quantum oscillator, at both ends of the quantum channel.



Choosing a simpler path to drug discovery

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kyoto University) Researchers from Kyoto University, MIT, and ETH Zurich have developed a compact drug discovery method using simple models and small data sets. Their findings appeared March 6 in the journal Future Medicinal Chemistry.



Japanese researchers make breakthrough in antioxidant enzyme linked to jaundice

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Osaka University) A Japanese research team involving Osaka University investigated biliverdin reductase, the enzyme producing bilirubin -- a substance linked with jaundice -- from biliverdin (BV). Two BV molecules were found at the enzyme reaction site, in an unusual stacked arrangement. Mutation experiments confirmed which enzyme amino acid was necessary for bilirubin production. In the proposed mechanism, this amino acid transfers hydrogen to one BV molecule, using the other BV as a conduit. This aids the search for anti-jaundice drugs.



Mechanism for hMTH1's broad substrate specificity revealed

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kumamoto University) Researchers from Japan have revealed the mechanism that gives the hMTH1 protein broad substrate specificity, i.e., the ability to catalyze more than one substrate. The discovery could be used to improve current anticancer therapies.



Microscopic muscles: How non-muscle cells find the strength to move

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(National University of Singapore) Researchers from the Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore at the National University of Singapore have described, for the first time, the ordered arrangement of myosin-II filaments in actin cables of non-muscle cells.



Atomic 're-packing' behind metallic glass mystery

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Hokkaido University) A new method uncovers a four-decade mystery about metallic glass that could allow researchers to fine-tune its properties to develop new materials.