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EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 22:18:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and Wiley announce publishing partners

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) John Wiley and Sons Inc. (NYSE:JWA) (NYSE:JWB), in partnership with the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), is pleased to announce a new peer-reviewed, open access journal, FASEB BioAdvances.



The 17th Annual Wiley Prize in Biomedical Sciences awarded for elucidating the mechanism of nonsense

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wiley) The Wiley Foundation today announced the 17th annual Wiley Prize in Biomedical Sciences will be awarded to Lynne E. Maquat for elucidating the mechanism of nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay, a fundamental process whereby cells remove defective transcripts that can encode toxic proteins.



Carbon monoxide improves effectiveness of antibiotic that fights stomach infection, study finds

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Georgia State University) Carbon monoxide can improve the effectiveness of antibiotics, making bacteria more sensitive to antibiotic medication, according to a study led by Georgia State University.



Reinventing the inductor

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Santa Barbara) A basic building block of modern technology, inductors are everywhere: cellphones, laptops, radios, televisions, cars. And surprisingly, they are essentially the same today as in 1831, when they were first created by English scientist Michael Faraday.



New glaucoma drugs yield large, lasting reductions in intraocular pressure

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Two novel ocular hypotensive agents that have just been approved for use in humans -- netarsudil and latanoprostene bunod (LBN) -- greatly reduce intraocular pressure, with lasting results in various animal models of glaucoma and in humans.



Fragile X syndrome neurons restored using CRISPR/Cas9-guided activation strategy

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research) Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent cause of intellectual disability in males, affecting 1 out of 3600 boys born. For the first time, researchers at Whitehead Institute have restored activity to the fragile X syndrome gene in affected neurons using a modified CRISPR/Cas9 system that removes the methylation--the molecular tags that keep the mutant gene shut off--suggesting that this method may be useful for targeting diseases caused by abnormal methylation.



'Memtransistor' brings world closer to brain-like computing

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Northwestern University) Combined memristor and transistor operates like a neuron by performing both information processing and memory storage functions.



UTA researcher to develop nanomaterials to treat antibiotic-resistant infections

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Arlington) A researcher at The University of Texas at Arlington has been awarded a prestigious National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development, or CAREER, grant to develop new synthetic antimicrobial nanomaterials to treat antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitals and military facilities.



Snake-inspired robot uses kirigami to move

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences) Harvard researchers developed a soft robot inspired by snakeskin that crawls without any rigid components. The soft robotic scales are made using kirigami -- an ancient Japanese paper craft that relies on cuts, rather than origami folds, to change the properties of a material. As the robot stretches, the flat kirigami surface is transformed into a 3-D-textured surface, which grips the ground just like snakeskin.



Best and brightest: ONR, 2018 Young Investigator Program

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Office of Naval Research) The Office of Naval Research (ONR) today announced awards of $16 million through its 2018 Young Investigator Program (YIP). The awards were made to 31 scientists whose research holds strong promise across a wide range of naval-relevant science and technology areas.



One thing leads to another: Causal chains link health, development, and conservation

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(American Institute of Biological Sciences) The linkages between environmental health and human well-being are complex, and recent scholarship has developed a number of models for describing them. Unfortunately, these efforts have been constrained by varying practices and a lack of agreement among practitioners on consistent practices. Jiangxiao Qiu, an Assistant Professor in Landscape Ecology at the University of Florida, and his colleagues propose an alternative approach to understanding the interplay of social and ecological spheres: causal chains.



Researchers uncover novel mechanism behind schizophrenia

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Case Western Reserve University) An international team of researchers led by a Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine scientist has uncovered a novel mechanism in which a protein--neuregulin 3--controls how key neurotransmitters are released in the brain during schizophrenia. The protein is elevated in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses, but the study is the first to investigate how it causes such severe mental illness.



GW researcher awarded more than $1.5 million to study PTSD and cardiovascular disease

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(George Washington University) Paul Marvar, PhD, at GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences, received a large grant from the NIH to study a possible link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.



Computer scientists and materials researchers collaborate to optimize steel classification

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Saarland University) Steel is used to build cars, wind turbines and bridges and there are currently about 5000 different types of steel available on the market. But how can steel producers guarantee that a particular steel will always exhibit the same high quality? Up until now experienced experts analysed material samples under the microscope and carefully compared the results against reference images. But classifying materials in this way is not free from errors.



Animal study shows how to retrain the immune system to ease food allergies

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Duke University Medical Center) Treating food allergies might be a simple matter of teaching the immune system a new trick, researchers at Duke Health have found. In a study using mice bred to have peanut allergies, the Duke researchers were able to reprogram the animals' immune systems using a nanoparticle delivery of molecules to the lymph nodes that switched off the life-threatening reactions to peanut exposures.



UT Dallas team's microscopic solution may save researchers big time

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Dallas) A University of Texas at Dallas graduate student, his advisor and industry collaborators believe they have addressed a long-standing problem troubling scientists and engineers for more than 35 years: How to prevent the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope from crashing into the surface of a material during imaging or lithography



Zika virus could help combat brain cancer

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Study by Brazilian researchers shows infection by Zika caused death of cells from glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive kind of malignant brain tumor in adults. Scientists foresee the use of genetic engineering to neutralize Zika virus' infectious whilst preserving the viral particles which induce the death of tumoral cells.



$1.8m from DOE supports innovative waste heat recovery system

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Colorado State University) The US Department of Energy recently identified waste heat recovery from ultra-low temperature sources as an area of focus in their Quadrennial Technology Review. They recently awarded Colorado State University's Todd Bandhauer $1.8 million for his project to develop a commercially viable turbo-compression cooling system for ultra-low temperature waste heat recovery.



Recruiting the immune system to prevent relapse

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(American Chemical Society) Substance abuse, particularly opioid abuse, is an ongoing issue in the US. While treatments such as drug counseling and a handful of medications to combat withdrawal symptoms and cravings exist, the fear and risk of relapsing is real. An article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, describes how vaccines targeting drugs of abuse could prevent relapse.



Origami mysteries could be unfolded in engineering research

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Clemson University) Suyi Li, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering, says the possibilities for origami are many and could include floor pads that protect babies from falls and building foundations that absorb vibrations in earthquakes.



Researchers bring high res magnetic resonance imaging to nanometer scale

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Waterloo) A new technique that brings magnetic resonance imaging to the nanometer scale with unprecedented resolution will open the door for major advances in understanding new materials, virus particles and proteins that cause diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.



An improved anti-addiction medication

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(American Chemical Society) Drug addiction continues to plague vast numbers of people across the world, destroying and ending lives, while attempts to develop more effective pharmaceutical addiction treatments continue. Scientists now report in the Journal of the American Chemical Society the development of a potent new medicine to fight addiction, which might also be an effective treatment for epilepsy and other conditions.



VTT and Neonelektro have made LED advertising boards light, flexible and energy-efficient

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) Through a European project, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Neonelektro have developed new types of LED displays that combine the flexibility, low cost and high technical performance enabled by roll-to-roll mass manufacturing technology.



From compost to composites: An eco-friendly way to improve rubber (video)

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(American Chemical Society) The concept of "from trash to treasure" holds true for the world of composting, where food waste is recycled into fertilizer for gardens. But what if compost could go beyond fertilizer? Now, one group reports in ACS Omega that by collecting the gases produced during the compost process, they can combine it with rubber to make optimized electronic sealants and sensors.



New interaction mechanism of proteins discovered

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Zurich) UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. This new mechanism involves two fully unstructured proteins forming an ultra-high-affinity complex due to their opposite net charge. Proteins usually bind one another as a result of perfectly matching shapes in their three-dimensional structures.