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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sat, 19 Aug 2017 14:18:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



NJIT researchers will follow in the moon's slipstream to capture high-res sunspot images

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(New Jersey Institute of Technology) While much of the research around the eclipse on Monday will focus on the effects of the Sun's brief, daytime disappearance on Earth and its atmosphere, a group of solar physicists will be leveraging the rare event to capture a better glimpse of the star itself.



OU astrophysicist predicts detached, eclipsing white dwarfs to merge into exotic star

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Oklahoma) A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist, Mukremin Kilic, and his team have discovered two detached, eclipsing double white dwarf binaries with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. White dwarfs are the remnants of Sun-like stars, many of which are found in pairs, or binaries.



New bioimaging technique is fast and economical

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue -- such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing.



Discovered: A quick and easy way to shut down instabilities in fusion devices

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) This article describes suppression of instabilities with new neutral beam injector.



ASTRO supports US Nuclear Regulatory Commission final rule

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Society for Radiation Oncology) The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) applauds the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for yesterday's announcement of a final rule that updates the definition of medical events for permanent implant brachytherapy and protects patients' access to this treatment.



PPPL delivers new key components to help power a fusion energy experiment

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Article describes PPPL design and delivery of components for neutral beam injectors for fusion experiments at DIII-D.



Hot spot at Hawaii? Not so fast

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rice University) Rice University geophysicists use a new model to conclude that volcanic hot spots around the globe aren't moving as fast as recently thought.



Spoiler alert: Computer simulations provide preview of next week's eclipse

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center) Researchers from Predictive Science Inc. used NASA and National Science Foundation-supported supercomputers to run highly-detailed forecasts of the Sun's corona -- the aura of plasma that surrounds the sun -- at the moment of the eclipse. The team combined data from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, magnetic field maps, solar rotation rates and cutting-edge mathematical models to predict the state of the Sun's surface. The simulations are the largest produced by the group and include new physics.



Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Lomonosov Moscow State University) Members of the Faculties of Chemistry and Fundamental Physical and Chemical Engineering at the Lomonosov Moscow State University in collaboration with foreign partners have synthesized and studied new liquid-crystal photochromic polymers. The research has been fulfilled within the framework of the project, funded by the Russian Science Foundation.



A map of the cell's power station

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Freiburg) Researchers from the University of Freiburg are mapping the distribution of all proteins in mitochondria for the first time.



Virus with an eggshell

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Wiley) Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited. The reason may be an eggshell-like mineral layer that the virus acquires due to the high calcium concentration in the intestines of birds. As reported by Chinese researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie, these mineralized viruses are significantly more infectious and, in addition, more robust and heat stable than the native viruses.



Smart computers

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Freiburg) Artificial neural networks decode brain activity during performed and imagined movements.



New study rebuts the claim that antidepressants do not work

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Gothenburg) A theory that has gained considerable attention in international media, including Newsweek and the CBS broadcast 60 minutes, suggest that antidepressant drugs, such as the SSRIs, do not exert any actual antidepressant effect. A research group at the Sahlgrenska Academy has now analyzed data from clinical trials and can rebut this theory.



The power of perovskite

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) OIST researchers improve perovskite-based technology in the entire energy cycle, from solar cells harnessing power to LED diodes to light the screens of future electronic devices and other lighting applications.



How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Nagoya University) Researchers at Nagoya University revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain. Without Daple, the cilia develop a random arrangement and cannot produce a uniform flow of CSF. This in turn leads to a build-up of fluid, which is associated with swelling of the head, known as hydrocephalus.



Lasers used to detect risk of heart attack and stroke

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Warwick) Patients at risk of heart attacks and strokes may be spotted earlier thanks to a diagnosis tool that uses near-infrared light to identify high-risk arterial plaques, according to research carried out at WMG, University of Warwick, the Baker Institute and Monash University.



Identifying individual atmospheric equatorial waves from a total flow field

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) A new study presents a method for identifying individual equatorial waves in wind and geopotential height fields using horizontal wave structures derived from classical equatorial wave theory.



Allergies: Cross-reactivity between cypress pollen and peaches/citrus fruits explained

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Hokkaido University) In collaboration with teams from the Czech Republic and Japan, researchers from the Institut Pasteur, (AP-HP), and (AP-HM) have identified the likely origin of the cross-reactivity between cypress pollen, peaches and citrus fruits. Their work has shown that these sources contain allergens belonging to a new family of proteins involved in pollen food associated syndrome. This discovery, published in JACI on Aug. 3, paves the way for the development of novel allergy diagnostic tests.



Right kind of collaboration is key to solving environmental problems

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Stockholm University) Society's ability to solve environmental problems is tied to how different actors collaborate and the shape and form of the networks they create, says a new study from researchers at Stockholm Resilience Centre which is published in the journal Science.



Global corporations, startups begin testing at Washington open-access clean energy facility

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington) Global corporations, US solar companies, and Washington startups have signed up to test their cleantech at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds, created by the University of Washington (UW) Clean Energy Institute (CEI), during the facility's first six months of operation.



Solutal Marangoni flows of miscible liquid drive transport without surface contamination

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)) A research team led by Hyoungsoo Kim, a professor of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST, succeeded in quantifying the phenomenon called, the Marangoni effect, which occurs at the interface between alcohol and water. It is expected that this finding will be a valuable resource used for effectively removing impurities from a surface fluid without any contamination, and developing materials that can replace surfactants.



Spoiler alert: Computer simulations provide preview of upcoming eclipse

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Texas at Austin) A research team from Predictive Science Inc. (PSI) used the Stampede2 supercomputer at The University of Texas at Austin's Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) to forecast the corona of the sun during the upcoming eclipse. The findings shed light on what the eclipse of the sun might look like Aug. 21 when it will be visible across much of the US, tracing a 70-mile-wide band across 14 states.



Agroindustrial waste can be used as material for housing and infrastructure

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Converting waste into resources, substituting toxic raw materials for healthy inputs, migrating from harmful to sustainable production processes. These are some of the guidelines for a research project about agroindustrial wastes and their potential use as appropriate materials for housing and infrastructure.



Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) The model focuses mainly on the nature of Fermi bubbles and explains the spectral distribution of the observed cosmic rays flux. It can be said that the processes they described are capable of re-accelerating galactic cosmic rays generated in supernova explosions. Unlike electrons, protons have a significantly greater lifetime, so when accelerated in Fermi bubbles, they can fill up the volume of the Galaxy and be observed near the Earth.



RIT astrophysics Ph.D. student wins competitive NASA fellowship

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Rochester Institute of Technology) Rochester Institute of Technology graduate student Chi Nguyen was selected for a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship in Astrophysics Research. She is one of eight fellowship recipients selected from 141 applicants to the Astrophysics Science Research Program, a division of the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program.