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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 20:18:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Public may be more accepting of advocacy by climate scientists than previously thought

Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Taylor & Francis Group) Research published today in Environmental Communication suggests that scientists may have more freedom than previously thought to engage in certain forms of climate change advocacy without risking harm to their credibility.

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences) Origami-inspired materials use folds in materials to embed powerful functionality. However, all that folding can be pretty labor intensive. Now, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) are drawing material inspiration from another ancient Japanese paper craft -- kirigami.

Sandia use confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Sandia National Laboratories) Sometimes, you have to go small to win big. That is the approach a multilab, interdisciplinary team took in using nanoparticles and a novel nanoconfinement system to develop a method to change hydrogen storage properties.

New structural studies reveal workings of a molecular pump that ejects cancer drugs

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rockefeller University) Sometimes cells spit out things we don't want them to -- like medications. Researchers have determined the three-dimensional structure of a tiny pump that expels, among other things, chemotherapy agents. This new knowledge could lead to the design of more effective drugs.

Nano-sized hydrogen storage system increases efficiency

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Lawrence Livermore scientists have collaborated with an interdisciplinary team of researchers including colleagues from Sandia National Laboratories to develop an efficient hydrogen storage system that could be a boon for hydrogen powered vehicles.

New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Liverpool) Successful results of a University of Liverpool-led trial that utilised nanotechnology to improve drug therapies for HIV patients has been presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, a leading annual conference of HIV research, clinical practice and progress.

A novel DNA vaccine design improves chances of inducing anti-tumor immunity

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(The Wistar Institute) Scientists at The Wistar Institute and Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. have devised a novel DNA vaccine approach through molecular design to improve the immune responses elicited against one of the most important cancer antigen targets.

The dawn of a new era for Supernova 1987a

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Three decades ago, astronomers spotted one of the brightest exploding stars in more than 400 years. Since that first sighting, SN 1987A has continued to fascinate astronomers with its spectacular light show. To commemorate the supernova's 30th anniversary, new observations and a 3-D model are being released.

Cosmic blast from the past

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(ESA/Hubble Information Centre) Three decades ago, a massive stellar explosion sent shockwaves not only through space but also through the astronomical community. SN 1987A was the closest observed supernova to Earth since the invention of the telescope and has become by far the best studied of all time, revolutionising our understanding of the explosive death of massive stars.

How proteins reshape cell membranes

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association) Small 'bubbles' frequently form on membranes of cells and are taken up into their interior. The process involves EHD proteins -- a focus of research by Prof. Oliver Daumke of the MDC. He and his team have now shed light on how these proteins assemble on the surface of a cell and reshape its membrane.

Miniature device is 3 times more efficient in generating new colors of laser pulses

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Faculty of Physics University of Warsaw) A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has just published the results of their works on miniature device -- a tripler -- for generating femtosecond laser pulses in the UV. Not only does the device has three times higher efficiency than previously used setups, but also fits on a finger tip, thanks to using a unique software package, developed in Warsaw, during the design stage.

Experience graphene mobile innovation at the GSMA Mobile World Congress

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Graphene Flagship) Graphene is back at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2017 with the Graphene Experience Zone. Designed to showcase graphene mobile innovation in an interactive way, the Graphene Experience Zone will bring graphene to life. Organised by the Graphene Flagship and curated by ICFO, with support from the GSMA, the Graphene Experience Zone will help to highlight the potential of graphene to the mobile community.

Antibiotics used to treat cystic fibrosis increases risk of permanent hearing loss

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon Health & Science University) A powerful class of antibiotics provides life-saving relief for people with cystic fibrosis; however, a new study for the first time reveals the levels at which high cumulative dosages over time significantly increases the risk of permanent hearing loss in these patients. The study suggests physicians who treat patients with cystic fibrosis may be able to consider alternative strategies for treating the symptoms of respiratory infections associated with CF.

New 'tougher-than-metal' fiber-reinforced hydrogels

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Hokkaido University) Scientists have succeeded in creating 'fiber-reinforced soft composites,' or tough hydrogels combined with woven fiber fabric. These fabrics are highly flexible, tougher than metals, and have a wide range of potential applications.

Saturn's rings viewed in the mid-infrared show bright Cassini Division

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(National Institutes of Natural Sciences) Researchers has succeeded in measuring the brightnesses and temperatures of Saturn's rings using the mid-infrared images taken by the Subaru Telescope in 2008. They reveal that, at that time, the Cassini Division and the C ring were brighter than the other rings in the mid-infrared light and that the brightness contrast appeared to be the inverse of that seen in the visible light. The data give important insights into the nature of Saturn's rings.

Colorado School of Mines and Virginia Tech to create minerals industry consortium

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Colorado School of Mines) Colorado School of Mines is teaming with Virginia Tech to develop an integrated approach to locating, characterizing and visualizing mineral resources. The goal is to advance mining operations and boost exploration success rates while minimizing financial risk and environmental impact.The proposed Center for Advanced Subsurface Earth Resource Models would provide exploration and mining companies worldwide with new 3-D subsurface geological models, informing decision-making and risk management at all stages of the mining life cycle.

Electrons use DNA like a wire for signaling DNA replication

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(California Institute of Technology) A Caltech-led study has shown that the electrical wire-like behavior of DNA is involved in the molecule's replication.

New polymer additive could revolutionize plastics recycling

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cornell University) Only 2 percent of the 78 million tons of manufactured plastics are currently recycled into similar products because polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), which account for two-thirds of the world's plastics, have different chemical structures and cannot be efficiently repurposed together. That could all change with a discovery by a Cornell University research team.

Researchers find new clues for nuclear waste cleanup

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Washington State University) A Washington State University study of the chemistry of technetium-99 has improved understanding of the challenging nuclear waste and could lead to better cleanup methods.

The truth about catnip (video)

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Chemical Society) Catnip is notorious for its euphoric effects on our feline companions. What is it about catnip that makes cats go nuts, and what benefit does this have for the plants? The secret may be a chemical that has more to do with six-legged creatures than our four-legged friends. Watch the latest Speaking of Chemistry video here:

Vast luminous nebula poses a cosmic mystery

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Santa Cruz) Astronomers have found an enormous, glowing blob of gas in the distant universe, with no obvious source of power for the light it is emitting. Called an 'enormous Lyman-alpha nebula' (ELAN), it is the brightest and among the largest of these rare objects, only a handful of which have been observed.

Diving deep into the dolphin genome could benefit human health

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) A new database of bottlenose dolphin DNA and associated proteins just completed by researchers working for the National Institute of Standards and Technology could possibly aid in dolphin care and research of human medical problems such as stroke and kidney failure.

Tiny cavefish may help humans evolve to require very little sleep

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Florida Atlantic University) We all do it; we all need it -- humans and animals alike. Neuroscientists have been studying Mexican cavefish to provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms regulating sleep loss and the relationship between sensory processing and sleep. They are investigating how sleep evolves and using this species as a model to understand how human brains could evolve to require very little sleep, just like the cavefish.

Three layers of graphene reveals a new kind of magnet

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Tata Institute of Fundamental Research) Scientists at TIFR discover the magnetism of electrons in three layers of graphene. This study reveals a new kind of magnet and provides insight on how electronic devices using graphene could be made for fundamental studies as well as various applications.

Direct-to-consumer genomics: Harmful or empowering?

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Saint Louis University) In a recent paper, Joel Eissenberg, Ph.D., professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Saint Louis University, explores questions that stem from new advances in direct-to-consumer DNA tests, which have the effect of separating the physician-patient relationship from access to new personal health data.