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Preview: EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 18:18:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

New map may lead to drug development for complex brain disorders, USC researcher says

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Southern California) Just as parents are not the root of all their children's problems, a single gene mutation can't be blamed for complex brain disorders like autism, according to a Keck School of Medicine of USC neuroscientist. To help researchers see the big picture, Marcelo P. Coba created the first map that highlights the brain's network of protein associations. It's a first step to developing treatment drugs that operate more like rifles than shotguns.

New vaccine production could improve flu shot accuracy

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Duke University) For decades, vaccine manufacturers have used chicken eggs to grow the flu virus strains included in the seasonal vaccine. But because these human strains frequently mutate to adapt to their new environment, the resulting vaccine is often an imperfect match to the virus that it is supposed to protect against. Duke researchers have devised a way to keep the human influenza virus from mutating during egg-based production, generating a perfect match to the target vaccine.

Multitasking monolayers

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Vanderbilt University) Two-dimensional materials that can multitask. That is the result of a new process that naturally produces patterned monolayers that can act as a base for creating a wide variety of novel materials with dual optical, magnetic, catalytic or sensing capabilities.

First basic physics simulation of impact of neutrals on turbulence

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) This article describes simulation of recycled neutral atoms on plasma turbulence in fusion experiments.

Algae cultivation technique could advance biofuels

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Washington State University) Washington State University researchers have developed a way to grow algae more efficiently -- in days instead of weeks -- and make the algae more viable for several industries, including biofuels.

High-temperature superconductivity in B-doped Q-carbon

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(North Carolina State University) Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material.

Dark matter is likely 'cold,' not 'fuzzy,' scientists report after new simulations

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington) Scientists have used data from the intergalactic medium -- the vast, largely empty space between galaxies -- to narrow down what dark matter could be.

UMD engineers invent the first bio-compatible, ion current battery

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland) Engineers at the University of Maryland have invented a new kind of battery; one that is bio-compatible because it produces the same kind of ion-based electrical energy used by humans and other living things.

Research targets long-term brain deficits in cardiac arrest survivors

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center) Research conducted by Jason Middleton, PhD, Assistant Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy, and Neuroscience at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, and colleagues may lead to a treatment to prevent long-term sensory problems by restoring normal brain function in survivors of cardiac arrest.

Imaging technology reveals copper is key to meeting future food and energy needs

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Cornell University) For the first time, Cornell University researchers are using imaging capabilities at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to explore how copper affects plant fertility. The work could provide key insights into how plants can be bred for better performance in marginal soils.

Fungi that evolved to eat wood offer new biomass conversion tool

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) Twenty years ago, microbiologist Barry Goodell, now a professor at UMass Amherst, and colleagues discovered a unique system that some microorganisms use to digest and recycle wood. Three orders of 'brown rot fungi' have now been identified that can break down biomass, but details of the mechanism were not known. Now, using several complementary research tools, Goodell and colleagues report new details of an unexpected mechanism at work, one that surprisingly does not involve enzymes, the usual accelerators of chemical reactions.

Scientists capture first image of major brain receptor in action

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Columbia University Medical Center) Columbia University Medical Center researchers have captured the first three-dimensional snapshots of the AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor in action. The receptor, which regulates most electrical signaling in the brain, is involved in several important brain activities, including memory and learning.

NASA mission surfs through waves in space to understand space weather

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA's Van Allen Probes have observed a new population of space sound waves, called plasmaspheric hiss, which are important in removing high-energy particles from around Earth that can damage satellites.

NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH trial to test targeted drugs in childhood cancers

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NIH/National Cancer Institute) Investigators at the National Cancer Institute and the Children's Oncology Group announce the opening of enrollment for NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a unique precision medicine clinical trial to explore whether targeted therapies can be effective for children and adolescents with solid tumors that harbor specific genetic mutations and have progressed during or after standard therapy.

Writing with the electron beam: Now in silver

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie) For the first time an international team realized direct writing of silver nanostructures using an electron beam applied to a substrate. Silver nanostructures have the potential to concentrate visible light at the nanoscale. Potential applications include sensor design to detect extremely small traces of specific molecules, as well as devices for optical information processing.

What happens when materials collide? Observing fracture in stressed materials

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Osaka University) International team led by Osaka University researchers reports the first direct observations of a material's dynamic fracture at the atomic scale, from X-ray diffraction measurements of tantalum.

Shining rings: A new material emits white light when exposed to electricity

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (ITbM), Nagoya University) Scientists at Nagoya University have developed a new way to make stimuli-responsive materials in a predictable manner. They used this method to design a new material, a mixture of carbon nanorings and iodine, which conducts electricity and emits white light when exposed to electricity. The team's new approach could help generate a range of reliable stimuli-responsive materials, which can be used in memory devices, artificial muscles and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Georgia State's Inlighta Biosciences gets $2 million grant to develop enhanced MRI contrast agents

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Georgia State University) A local start-up, life sciences company founded by Dr. Jenny Yang, Regents' Professor of Biochemistry at Georgia State University, has received a $2 million federal grant to develop improved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for the early detection of liver cancers and other cancers, such as uveal melanoma or eye cancer, that have metastasized to the liver.

Autonomous vehicles, wearables, workplace safety among topics to be presented at HFES 2017

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Human Factors and Ergonomics Society) More than 130 concurrent sessions will cover a variety of topics representing the wide-reaching impact of HF/E research and practice in areas affecting human performance and safety at home, work, and leisure. Work to be presented continues to advance HF/E scholarship and application in areas that have an impact on design, manufacturing, and legislation.

Immune cells the missing ingredient in new bladder cancer treatment

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of British Columbia) New research offers a possible explanation for why a new type of cancer treatment hasn't been working as expected against bladder cancer.

Two undergrads improve plant carbon-cycle models

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) In the summer of 2012, two undergraduate students tackled a problem that plant ecology experts had overlooked for 30 years. The students demonstrated that different plant species vary in how they take in carbon dioxide and emit water through the pores in their leaves. The data boosted the accuracy of mathematical models of carbon and water fluxes through plant leaves by 30 to 60 percent.

US study of dapivirine ring in lactating women finds little drug gets into breast milk

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Microbicide Trials Network) The antiretroviral drug dapivirine contained in a vaginal ring for HIV prevention, is absorbed in very low concentrations into breastmilk, according to a US study of the dapivirine ring in women who were no longer nursing their babies but still producing milk. Researchers are now planning studies of the ring in African women who are breastfeeding as well as during pregnancy, when there may be a greater risk of acquiring HIV.

Anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent inhibits glioblastoma growth and radiation resistance

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Alabama at Birmingham) A collaborative team of neuro-oncology surgeon/scientists -- led by Ichiro Nakano, M.D., Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Maode Wang, M.D., Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China -- has discovered a unique and previously unidentified molecular mechanism that maintains glioma stem cells, and they have tested it as a potential therapeutic target in glioblastoma, using a novel small molecule inhibitor they designed and synthesized

Stress hormone linked to mood and hippocampus volume

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Society for Neuroscience) Individual differences in the pattern of release of the hormone cortisol in response to a stressful experience reveal how stressed a person actually feels, suggests a study of healthy women published in The Journal of Neuroscience.

NUS engineers achieve significant breakthrough in spin wave-based information processing technology

Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(National University of Singapore) A research team led by Professor Adekunle Adeyeye from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the NUS Faculty of Engineering, has recently achieved a significant breakthrough in spin wave information processing technology. His team has successfully developed a novel method for the simultaneous propagation of spin wave signals in multiple directions at the same frequency, without the need for any external magnetic field.