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EurekAlert! - Cancer Research News



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 10 Dec 2017 19:54:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



CAR T, immunotherapy bring new hope for multiple myeloma patients

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Two investigational immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, have shown encouraging results in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients who had relapsed and were resistant to other therapies. Both of these investigational approaches targeted a receptor called B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), which is highly expressed in myeloma and thus a promising target for treatment.



Landmark CAR-T cancer study published in the New England Journal of Medicine

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Loyola University Health System) Loyola University Medical Center is the only Chicago center that participated in the pivotal clinical trial of a groundbreaking cancer treatment that genetically engineers a patient's immune system to attack cancer cells.



Global CAR T therapy trial shows high rates of durable remission for NHL

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) In a pair of clinical trials stretching from Philadelphia to Tokyo, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy Kymriah™ (formerly known as CTL019) demonstrated long-lasting remissions in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Results from a global, multisite trial will be presented today at the 59th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta (Abstract #577). Results from the single-site study, with follow-up extending past two years, will be published today in the New England Journal of Medicine.



Sequencing offers clues to progression toward multiple myeloma

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have carried out the largest genomic analysis of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), a precursor to full-blown blood cancer that doesn't show outward symptoms. The next-generation sequencing project 'will help to explain the biology of the disease and how it unfolds through time from asymptomatic stages to symptomatic ones,' said Mark Bustoros, M.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Irene Ghobrial, M.D.



Tracking how multiple myeloma evolves by sequencing DNA in the blood

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Although people with multiple myeloma usually respond well to treatment, the blood cancer generally keeps coming back. Following genetic changes in how the disease evolves over time will help to understand the disease and, eventually, deliver more effective treatments. Researchers now have successfully demonstrated techniques to track these alterations over time by analyzing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) found in blood, according to Jens Lohr, M.D., Ph.D., a hematologist and oncologist at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.



Study shows combining chemotherapy with targeted drug boosts response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Among younger patients newly diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), treatment with a combination of chemotherapy and a molecularly targeted drug significantly improves response over what is typically seen with chemotherapy alone, according to an investigator-initiated multi-center phase II clinical trial.



Low-dose treatment with Il2 across studies shows benefits in chronic graft-versus host

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Daily low doses of the immune signaling protein interleukin-2 (IL-2) can safely benefit patients who develop chronic graft-versus-host disease following stem cell transplants, including particular benefit in pediatric patients in one small study, report scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.



Rapid responses, few adverse effects in targeted agent in Phase1 trial in rare blood disorder

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Clinical Activity in a Phase 1 Study of BLU-285, a Potent, Highly-Selective Inhibitor of KIT D816V in Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis. Study shows one of multiple ways in which novel targeted cancer therapies are now being deployed to improve outcomes and quality of life for patients with rare, advanced, or difficult-to-treat blood malignancies.



Phase 2 CAR-T study reports significant remission rates at 15-month follow up

Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A study involving the recently approved CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy shows that 42 percent of patients with aggressive large B-cell lymphoma remained in remission at 15 months following treatment with axi-cel (marketed as Yescarta™).



Study explores use of checkpoint inhibitors after relapse from donor stem cell transplant

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Immunotherapy agents known as checkpoint inhibitors have shown considerable promise in patients with hematologic cancers who relapse after a transplant with donor stem cells. Preliminary results from the first clinical trial in these patients of one such agent -- nivolumab -- indicate that along with signs of effectiveness, it also produced significant side effects at the dose initially studied. The findings indicate a need for further clinical trials in this group before being considered for off-label use with these patients, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report.



Immunotherapy drug nearly eliminates severe acute graft-versus-host disease

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Seattle Children's) Results from a phase 2 clinical trial, presented by Seattle Children's Research Institute at the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, show that the drug Abatacept (Orencia) nearly eliminated life-threatening severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants.



Physical activity data, emojis on Apple Watch correlated with patient-reported outcomes

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Mayo Clinic) Wearable activity monitors, such as the Apple Watch, provide objective, continuous activity data that correlate with established patient-reported outcomes for cancer patients, according to a poster presentation by Mayo Clinic researchers that was presented at the American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting in Atlanta.



For leukemia patients, transfusion needs may delay hospice care

Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Brown University) Researchers report that thousands of leukemia patients who received frequent transfusions had very short stays in hospice at the end of life, suggesting that transfusion dependence presents a barrier to making meaningful use of palliative care.



Molecular beacon signals low oxygen with ultrasound

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Areas of hypoxia, or low oxygen in tissue, are hallmarks of fast-growing cancers and of blockages or narrowing in blood vessels, such as stroke or peripheral artery disease. University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to find hypoxic spots noninvasively in real time. The researchers developed an oxygen-sensitive molecular beacon that emits ultrasound signals in response to light, a process called photoacoustic imaging.



For women with genetic risk, bi-annual MRI beats mammograms

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Chicago Medical Center) Intensive surveillance including a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) exam every six months was far more effective in detecting breast cancer in younger women with a high-risk genetic profile than an annual mammogram. DCE-MRI every six months performed well for early detection of invasive breast cancer in high-risk women.



ECOG-ACRIN discovers a simple blood test may predict recurrence of breast cancer

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group) Late recurrence five+ years after surgery accounts for at least half of all breast cancer recurrences. There are no tests that identify who is at highest risk. ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group researchers studied a blood test for circulating tumor cells, finding that in women cancer-free five after diagnosis, 5% had a positive test, which was associated with a 35% recurrence risk after two years, compared with only 2% with a negative test. Findings require follow-up.



PARP inhibitor improves progression-free survival in patients with advanced breast cancers and BRCA

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) In a randomized, Phase III trial led by researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, the PARP inhibitor talazoparib extended progression-free survival (PFS) and improved quality-of-life measures over available chemotherapies for patients with metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer and mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes.



ERC grant: €2 million for synthetic biology at TU Darmstadt

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Technische Universitat Darmstadt) The European Research Council awards an ERC Consolidator Grant to professor Heinz Koeppl and supports him for a period of five years with a total of €2 million. This will further strengthen the activities of TU Darmstadt in the domain of synthetic biology.



Family members without inherited mutation have increased risk of melanoma

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Karolinska Institutet) In families who carry certain inherited mutations that increase the risk for melanoma, members who do not carry the mutation also have an increased risk of melanoma, a study from Karolinska Institutet published in Genetics in Medicine reports. The phenomenon, which is called phenocopy, could result from other shared risk-enhancing genes or environmental factors within the families.



New assay may help predict which pancreatic lesions may become cancerous

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Elsevier) A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, describes a new simple molecular test to detect chromosomal abnormalities -- biomarkers known as telomere fusions -- in pancreatic tumor specimens and pancreatic cyst fluids. This assay may help predict the presence of high-grade or invasive pancreatic cancers requiring surgical intervention.



Researchers discover resistance mechanism to checkpoint inhibitors and how to reverse it

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Society for Medical Oncology) Researchers have discovered a mechanism of resistance to checkpoint inhibitors and how to reverse it. The biomarker results from the IMvigor210 study are reported at the ESMO Immuno Oncology Congress 2017.



Novel compound restores immune response in patients with melanoma

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Society for Medical Oncology) A novel compound may restore immune response in patients with melanoma, according to a study presented at the ESMO Immuno Oncology Congress 2017.



Including diagnosis related costs, 3-D mammography costs less than digital mammography

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Although digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), or 3-D mammography, costs more than a digital mammography (DM) screening, it actually may help rein in cancer screening costs, according to preliminary findings (PD7-05) presented by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania during the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.



Study results offer another boon for PARP inhibitors in treatment of advanced breast cancer

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Patients with certain advanced hereditary breast cancers may have new treatments options on the horizon, according to two studies presented this week at the annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. Susan Domchek, M.D., executive director of the Basser Center for BRCA at Penn's Abramson Cancer Center, will present new results from the Mediola and OlympiAD trials showing continued success of treating BRCA-related metastatic breast cancer with the PARP inhibitor olaparib with limited side effects for patients.



Lymph node surgery may raise risk of arm morbidity in younger women

Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Association for Cancer Research) Younger breast cancer patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection were more likely to experience arm swelling and decreased range of arm motion than patients who received sentinel lymph node biopsies, according to data presented at the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 5-9.