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Preview: EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science

EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 08:09:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



New Eocene fossil data suggest climate models may underestimate future polar warming

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Florida Museum of Natural History) A new international analysis of marine fossils shows that warming of the polar oceans during the Eocene, a greenhouse period that provides a glimpse of Earth's potential future climate, was greater than previously thought.



Use of dirty heating oil in NYC concentrated uptown

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Residential buildings that continued to burn residual fuel oil were concentrated in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, as of late 2015. Compared to cleaner heating sources such as natural gas, these dirty fuels produce high levels of particulate matter, exposure to which is linked to asthma, obesity, developmental delays, and other health problems.



Study may improve strategies for reducing nutrient runoff into Mississippi River

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) Every summer, the Gulf of Mexico is flooded with excess nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater treatment plants and farm fields along the Mississippi River basin. And every summer, those nutrients create a 'dead zone' in the Gulf. To address the issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency formed a task force and required 12 states to develop strategies to reduce agricultural runoff.



Discrepancies between satellite and global model estimates of land water storage

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at Austin) Research led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that calculations of water storage in many river basins from commonly used global computer models differ markedly from independent storage estimates from GRACE satellites.



Swansea University research helps break ground to clean up land

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Swansea University) Researchers at Swansea University's Complex Flow Lab have been exploring the intricate shapes that emerge when air is injected into soil. Published in Physical Review Applied, these findings could one day be used to speed up the decontamination of industrial brownfield sites?which the United Kingdom currently has over 400,000 hectares of.



Wild Sri Lankan elephants retreat from the sound of disturbed Asian honey bees

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Oxford) A new study using playbacks, has for the first time shown that Asian elephants in Sri Lanka are scared of honey bees, much like their African counterparts.The study, led by Dr. Lucy King, a Research Associate with the Department of Zoology at Oxford University, showed that Asian elephants responded with alarm to the bee simulations. They also retreated significantly further away and vocalized more in response to the bee sounds compared to controls.



Global temperature targets will be missed within decades unless carbon emissions reversed

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Southampton) In their latest paper, published in the February issue of Nature Geoscience, Dr Philip Goodwin from the University of Southampton and Professor Ric Williams from the University of Liverpool have projected that if immediate action isn't taken, the earth's global average temperature is likely to rise to 1.5°C above the period before the industrial revolution within the next 17-18 years, and to 2.0°C in 35-41 years if the carbon emission rate remains at its present-day value.



A race against pine: Wood-boring wasp in North America threatened by a Eurasian invader

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Pensoft Publishers) Invasive species have diverse impacts in different locations, including biodiversity loss, as a result of native species being outcompeted for similar resources. A US research team studied the case of an aggressive Eurasian woodwasp that has recently established in North America and poses a threat to a native competitor species. In their paper, published in the open-access journal Neobiota, the scientists seek a solution for the seemingly rapid decline in the native wood-boring insect.



Forest fire risk assessment using hotspot analysis in GIS

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Bentham Science Publishers) This research identified and prioritized forest fire hotspots, highlighted the shortage of fire stations within the identified hotspots and suggested the suitable locations for new fire stations in Brunei Muara district.



Breakthrough 1,000 degree C solar to get first commercial trial

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(SolarPACES) A new solar technology is twice as efficient, cutting the cost of solar thermal energy, by raising operating temperatures to 1,000°C, almost twice the 565°C molten salt temperature in current concentrated solar power (CSP) tower plants.



A 'hot Jupiter' with unusual winds

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(McGill University) The hottest point on a gaseous planet near a distant star isn't where astrophysicists expected it to be -- a discovery that challenges scientists' understanding of the many planets of this type found in solar systems outside our own.



Double trouble: Moisture, not just heat impacts sex of sea turtle hatchlings

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Florida Atlantic University) Male sea turtles are disappearing and not just in Australia. FAU researchers found that 97 to 100 percent of hatchlings in southeast Florida have been female since 2002. They are the first to show why and how moisture conditions inside the nest in addition to heat affect the development and sex ratios of turtle embryos, using a novel technique they developed to estimate sex ratios with a male-specific, transcriptional molecular marker Sox9.



New NOAA research holds promise of predicting snowpack even before the snow falls

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(NOAA Headquarters) As farmers in the American West decide what, when and where to plant, and urban water managers plan for water needs in the next year, they want to know how much water their community will get from melting snow in the mountains.This melting snow comes from snowpack, the high elevation reservoir of snow which melts in the spring and summer. New NOAA research is showing we can predict snow levels in the mountains of the West in March some eight months in advance.



Combined nutrients and warming massively increase methane emissions from lakes

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Aarhus University) Shallow lakes in agricultural landscapes will emit significantly greater amounts of methane, mostly in the form of bubbles (ebullition) in a warmer world, which is a potential positive feedback mechanism to climate warming. Submerged plants are key predictors of methane ebullition. The combination of warming with the loss of plants appears to transform shallow lakes into methane bubbling machines.



Climate engineering, once started, would have severe impacts if stopped

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Rutgers University) Facing a climate crisis, we may someday spray sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere to form a cloud that cools the Earth, but suddenly stopping the spraying would have a severe global impact on animals and plants, according to the first study on the potential biological impacts of geoengineering, or climate intervention.



The scent of the city

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Innsbruck) In the scientific journal PNAS, researchers from Innsbruck, Austria, present the world's first chemical fingerprint of urban emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the abatement strategy for organic solvents is having an effect in Europe. At the same time, the data suggest that the total amount of man-made VOCs globally is likely to be significantly higher than previously assumed.



Climate change and snowmelt -- turn up the heat, but what about humidity?

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Utah) Changes in humidity may determine how the contribution of snowpack to streams, lakes and groundwater changes as the climate warms. Surprisingly, cloudy, gray and humid winter days can actually cause the snowpack to warm faster, increasing the likelihood of melt during winter months when the snowpack should be growing, the authors report. In contrast, under clear skies and low humidity the snow can become colder than the air, preserving the snowpack until spring.



New study: Industry conservation ethic proves critical to Gulf of Maine lobster fishery

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Gulf of Maine Research Institute) A new study demonstrates how conservation practices championed by Maine lobstermen help make the lobster fishery resilient to climate change.



Climate change linked to more flowery forests, FSU study shows

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Florida State University) New research from a Florida State University scientist has revealed a surprising relationship between surging atmospheric carbon dioxide and flower blooms in a remote tropical forest.



Teaming up to prepare for emergencies: JRC data helps international community

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Commission Joint Research Centre) The Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission's science and knowledge service, joins forces with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to assess similarities in emergency preparedness and response across sectors, identify lessons learned and set out good practices for the nuclear sector.



Free online access to millions of documents on chemical toxicity made possible through ToxicDocs

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Springer) Millions of pages of internal corporate and trade association documents relating to the introduction of new products and chemicals into the workplace and commerce have been compiled into a free searchable online database called ToxicDocs. The history and future outlook for this database is now the subject of a free to view special section in the Journal of Public Health Policy which is a Palgrave Macmillan journal and is published by Springer Nature.



Climate change affects fish reproductive phenology in plateau area: Study

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) The Research Group of Biological Invasion and Adaptive Evolution (BIAE; PI: CHEN Yifeng) at Institute of Hydrobiology (IHB) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently answered how reproductive phenology of Gymnocypris selincuoensis, an endemic fish in Lake Selicuo in Tibetan Plateau, associated with climate changes.



Temporary 'bathtub drains' in the ocean concentrate flotsam

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) An experiment using hundreds of plastic drifters in the Gulf of Mexico shows that rather than simply spread out, as current calculations would predict, many of them clumped together in a tight cluster.



Mothers and young struggle as Arctic warms

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Wildlife Conservation Society) A new study from WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) and partners reveals for the first time the ways in which wild weather swings and extreme icing events are negatively impacting the largest land mammal of the Earth's polar realms -- the muskoxen. The paper demonstrates that while this denizen of the Arctic and other cold-adapted species have spectacular adaptations, the previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges are costly for the animals, if not deadly.



Challenges and research for an evolving aviation system

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 EST

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) A comprehensive aviation safety system as envisioned by NASA would require integration of a wide range of systems and practices, including building an in-time aviation safety management system (IASMS) that could detect and mitigate high-priority safety issues as they emerge and before they become hazards, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.