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Preview: EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science

EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 05:09:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Harvests in the US to suffer from climate change

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)) Some of the most important crops risk substantial damage from rising temperatures. To better assess how climate change caused by human greenhouse gas emissions will likely impact wheat, maize and soybean, an international team of scientists now ran an unprecedentedly comprehensive set of computer simulations of US crop yields. Importantly, the scientists find that increased irrigation can help to reduce the negative effects of global warming on crops -- but this is possible only in regions where sufficient water is available.

Researchers discover greenhouse bypass for nitrogen

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Virginia Institute of Marine Science) An international team discovers that production of a potent greenhouse gas can be bypassed as soil nitrogen breaks down into unreactive atmospheric N2.

UCI researchers map oceanic troughs below ice sheets in West Antarctica

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Irvine) University of California, Irvine glaciologists have uncovered large oceanic valleys beneath some of the massive glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica. Carved by earlier advances of ice during colder periods, the subsurface troughs enable warm, salty water to reach the undersides of glaciers, fueling their increasingly rapid retreat.

Professor Andrew Morris wins NEH fellowship

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Union College) Andrew Morris, associate professor of history, has been awarded a prestigious fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities.Among the most competitive academic awards in the country, the fellowships support advanced research in the humanities, allowing recipients to produce articles, books, digital materials or other scholarly resources.Morris will use his grant to continue work on a book about Hurricane Camille and the transformation of American disaster relief policy.

Mighty river, mighty filter

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Society of Agronomy) Researchers are reviving one of the Mississippi River's main filters: the floodplain. The result is a unique environment that removes nitrogen, a contributor to the Gulf of Mexico's dead zone.

New Marcellus development boom will triple greenhouse gas emissions from PA's natural gas

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(PSE Healthy Energy) Natural gas production on Pennsylvania's vast black shale deposit known as the Marcellus Shale will nearly double by 2030 to meet growing demand, tripling Pennsylvania's greenhouse gas emissions from the natural gas sector relative to 2012 levels, according to a report published today by Delaware Riverkeeper Network. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions will remain steady through 2045 with continued shale gas development, projects the report, 'Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Projected Future Marcellus Development.'

$5M foundation gift to help support US-China energy center at Berkeley Lab

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) In 2015, Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, and Tsinghua University in Beijing formed the Berkeley Tsinghua Joint Research Center on Energy and Climate Change to develop scientifically based clean energy solutions and the next generation of leaders to champion those solutions. Now, that effort has received welcome support from Jim and Marilyn Simons in the amount of a $5 million donation.

New research on shallow warm clouds will advance climate models, weather forecasts

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Kansas) David Mechem is leading a new $525,000, three-year grant from the US Department of Energy to better understand the fundamental processes governing the behavior of shallow clouds.

Extreme space weather-induced blackouts could cost US more than $40 billion daily

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Geophysical Union) The daily US economic cost from solar storm-induced electricity blackouts could be in the tens of billions of dollars, with more than half the loss from indirect costs outside the blackout zone, according to a new study.

Jane Qiu and Jane Palmer awarded EGU Science Journalism Fellowship

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Geosciences Union) The European Geosciences Union (EGU) has named journalists Jane Qiu and Jane Palmer as the winners of its 2017 Science Journalism Fellowship. Qiu will receive €3,000 to report on glaciers and fjord ecosystems in Svalbard, while Palmer is awarded €2,000 travel to Peru to find out more about the threat posed by slow-moving landslides.

Finding ways to fix the climate before it's too late

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Scientists and policymakers rely on complex computer simulations called Integrated Assessment Models to figure out how to address climate change. But these models need tinkering to make them more accurate.

Green Sahara's ancient rainfall regime revealed

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Arizona) Rainfall patterns in the Sahara during the 6,000-year 'Green Sahara' period have been pinpointed by analyzing marine sediments. From 5,000 to 11,000 years ago, what is now the Sahara Desert had ten times the rainfall it does today and was home to hunter-gatherers who lived in the region's savannahs and wooded grasslands. The new research is the first to compile a continuous record of the region's rainfall going 25,000 years into the past.

Survival of many of the world's nonhuman primates is in doubt, experts report

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) A report in the journal Science details the grim realities facing a majority of the nonhuman primates in the world -- the apes, monkeys, tarsiers, lemurs and lorises inhabiting ever-shrinking forests across the planet. The review is the most comprehensive conducted so far, the researchers say, and the picture it paints is dire.

New England's 1816 'Mackerel Year' and climate change today

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) In the latest issue of Science Advances, Karen Alexander at UMass Amherst and aquatic ecologists, climate scientists and environmental historians in New England recount their many-layered, multidisciplinary investigation into the catastrophic effects of the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora on coastal fish and commercial fisheries in the Gulf of Maine. They say the tale may carry lessons for intertwined human-natural systems facing climate change around the world today.

Mitochondrial DNA shows past climate change effects on gulls

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Ornithological Society Publications Office) To understand the present and future, we have to start with the past. A new study in The Auk: Ornithological Advances uses the mitochondrial DNA of Heermann's gulls to draw conclusions about how their population has expanded in the Gulf of California since the time of the glaciers -- and, by extension, how human-caused climate change may affect them in the future.

Climate change to shift global pattern of mild weather

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NOAA Headquarters) As scientists work to predict how climate change may affect hurricanes, droughts, floods, blizzards and other severe weather, there's one area that's been overlooked: mild weather. But no more.NOAA and Princeton University scientists have produced the first global analysis of how climate change may affect the frequency and location of mild weather.

Air polluters more likely to locate near downwind state borders

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Indiana University) Indiana University research reveals a pattern of companies strategically locating facilities where wind will carry pollution across state lines. Locating factories and power plants near downwind borders can allow states to reap the benefits of jobs and tax revenue but share the negative effects -- air pollution -- with neighbors.

NREL pioneers better way to make renewable hydrogen

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Scientists at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a method which boosts the longevity of high-efficiency photocathodes in photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices.

NASA's Aqua satellite sees Tropical Depression 01W ending near Southern Vietnam

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA's Aqua satellite provided a visible-light image of Tropical Depression 01W as it headed toward southern Vietnam for a brief landfall on Jan. 16. By Jan. 17 the depression had dissipated.

Bay Area methane emissions may be double what we thought

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Emissions of methane, a potent climate-warming gas, in the San Francisco Bay Area may be roughly twice as high as official estimates, with most of it coming from biological sources, such as landfills, but natural gas leakage also being an important source, according to a new study from Berkeley Lab.

It's freezing inside... that tornado?

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Concordia University) With winter upon us in full force, outdoor temperatures are plummeting. But inside an intense tornado, it's always chilly -- no matter the time of year. A new study from Concordia proves why that's the case.

MIT and Eni extend energy collaboration

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(MIT Energy Initiative) Following a stream of research successes in breakthrough technologies in the energy space, MIT President L. Rafael Reif and Eni CEO Claudio Descalzi have renewed their collaboration for another four years. The 20 million dollar agreement includes an extension of Eni's founding membership in the MIT Energy Initiative and research support for three of MITEI's Low-Carbon Energy Centers to advance key technologies for addressing climate change, in the areas of solar; energy storage; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage.

Research shows driving factors behind changes between local and global carbon cycles

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Exeter) Pioneering new research has provided a fascinating new insight in the quest to determine whether temperature or water availability is the most influential factor in determining the success of global, land-based carbon sinks.The research, carried out by an international team of climate scientists including Professors Pierre Friedlingstein and Stephen Sitch from the University of Exeter, has revealed new clues on how land carbon sinks are regulated on both local and global scales.

New species of moth named in honor of Donald Trump ahead of his swearing-in as president

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Pensoft Publishers) Days before Donald J. Trump steps forward on the Presidential Inauguration platform in Washington on Jan., 20, evolutionary biologist and systematist Dr. Vazrick Nazari named a new species in his honor. The author, whose publication can be found in the open access journal ZooKeys, hopes that the fame around the new moth will successfully point to the critical need for further conservation efforts for fragile areas such as the habitat of the new species.

Climate policies alone will not save Earth's most diverse tropical forests

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Leeds) Many countries have climate-protection policies designed to conserve tropical forests to keep their carbon locked up in trees. But new study suggests these policies could miss some of the most diverse forests because there is no clear connection between the number of tree species in a forest and how much carbon that forest stores.