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Preview: EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science

EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 15:09:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Complex, old-growth forests may protect some bird species in a warming climate

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon State University) Old forests that contain large trees and a diversity of tree sizes and species may offer refuge to some types of birds facing threats in a warming climate, scientists have found.



How much can late Permian ecosystems tell us about modern Earth? A lot

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Field Museum) New paleontological research shows that during the late Permian, the equator was dry and desert-like, yet surprisingly a hotspot for biodiversity. Similarly to modern rainforests, equator ecosystems were home to a unique diversity of species, including those both anciently and newly evolved. After the late Permian extinction, this diversity was decimated, and the climate change event that triggered an extinction back then is informative as we move forward with protecting our planet's species diversity.



Heavy-petroleum fuels raising vanadium emissions

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Duke University) Human emissions of the potentially harmful trace metal vanadium into Earth's atmosphere have spiked sharply since the start of the 21st century due in large part to industry's growing use of heavy oils, tar sands, bitumen and petroleum coke for energy, a new Duke study finds. These emissions now exceed those from all natural sources combined. Growing evidence suggests exposure to vanadium-rich aerosols can impair respiratory functions and exacerbate conditions such as asthma or COPD.



How much soil goes down the drain -- New data on soil lost due to water

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(European Commission Joint Research Centre) According to a new study, almost 36 billion tons of soil is lost every year due to water, and deforestation and other changes in land use make the problem worse. The study also offers ideas on how agriculture can change to become a part of the solution from being part of the problem.



NASA sees Tropical Storm Kai-Tak moving over the Philippines

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA's Aqua satellite provided infrared imagery of Tropical Storm Kai-Tak that revealed the western side of storm had moved into the southern and central Philippines. Infrared data revealed very cold cloud top temperatures with the potential for heavy rainfall.



Arctic sea ice affects and is affected by mid-latitude weather

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) New work by Dr Michael Kelleher and Prof James Screen from the University of Exeter find evidence that sea ice change is both a driver of and a response to atmospheric variability.



Coarse particulate matter may increase asthma risk

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(American Thoracic Society) Children exposed to coarse particulate matter may be more likely to develop asthma and to be treated in an ER or be hospitalized for the condition, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.



Exposure to larger air particles linked to increased risk of asthma in children

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Johns Hopkins Medicine) Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University report statistical evidence that children exposed to airborne coarse particulate matter -- a mix of dust, sand and non-exhaust tailpipe emissions, such as tire rubber -- are more likely to develop asthma and need emergency room or hospital treatment for it than unexposed children.



A model of Mars-like protoplanets shed light on early solar activity

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Siberian Federal University) A scientist from Siberian Federal University (SFU) and his colleagues from Austria and Germany constructed a physical and mathematical model of Mars- and Venus-sized planet formation. The team concluded that Mars had no chances to develop a thick atmosphere and biosphere. In the case of Venus it depended on solar activity: according to the scientists, it managed to keep its atmosphere due to the fact that young Sun was not very active. The study was published in Icarus.



Northeast farmers weigh warming climate, drenched fields

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cornell University) Farmers in the Northeast are adapting to longer growing seasons and warming climate conditions -- but they may face spring-planting whiplash as they confront fields increasingly saturated with rain, according to a research paper published in the journal Climatic Change.



Kent State researcher exposes MRSA risk at northeast Ohio beaches

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Kent State University) Tara C. Smith, Ph.D., a professor of epidemiology in Kent State's College of Public Health, published the findings of a study her lab conducted in 2015 that shows a higher-than-expected prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at beaches around Lake Erie.



Climate scientists study the odds of a US megadrought

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cornell University) To help untangle fact from speculation, Cornell University climate scientists and their colleagues have developed a 'robust null hypothesis' to assess the odds of a megadrought -- one that lasts more than 30 years -- occurring in the western and southwestern United States. The research was published online in the Journal of Climate.



NASA looks at rainfall in developing Tropical Storm Kai-tak

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Tropical Storm Kai-tak developed near the east central Philippines as the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed overhead and analyzed its rainfall.



UNH researchers find effects of climate change could accelerate by mid-century

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of New Hampshire) Environmental models are showing that the effects of climate change could be much stronger by the middle of the 21st century, and a number of ecosystem and weather conditions could consistently decline even more in the future.



NRL updates tropical cyclone weather predicting model

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Naval Research Laboratory) NRL COAMPS®-TC improves forecasts and evacuation correctness in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and enhances the safety of US Navy ships, aircraft, and the civilian population.



Clearing the air

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Argonne National Laboratory) A greater understanding of the dynamics of chemical reactions is leading to better models of atmospheric chemistry. Through this work, scientists are gaining insight into a key chemical able to break down some major air pollutants.



Climate change made Harvey rainfall 15 percent more intense

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rice University) Scientists from World Weather Attribution and Rice University have found that human-caused climate change made the record rainfall that fell over Houston during Hurricane Harvey roughly three times more likely and 15 percent more intense.



Study: Forest resilience declines in face of wildfires, climate change

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(The University of Montana) The research team said that with a warming climate, forests are losing their resilience to wildfires.



Tracing a plant's steps: Following seed dispersal using chloroplast DNA

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Botanical Society of America) Researchers have developed a new tool to sequence chloroplast DNA from hundreds of plants at once, to learn more about how plant populations move. This tool, CallHap, makes it cheaper and easier to sequence the chloroplast genomes of large numbers of plants and accurately track seed dispersal across landscapes.



New catalyst meets challenge of cleaning exhaust from modern engines

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Washington State University) Researchers have created a catalyst capable of reducing pollutants at the lower temperatures expected in advanced engines.



High-resolution climate models present alarming new projections for US

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Approaching the second half of the century, the United States is likely to experience increases in the number of days with extreme heat, the frequency and duration of heat waves, and the length of the growing season. In response, it is anticipated that societal, agricultural and ecological needs will increase the demand on already-strained natural resources like water and energy. University of Illinois researchers have developed new, high-resolution climate models that may help policymakers mitigate these effects at a local level.



NASA sees developing system 96W affecting central Philippines

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) A developing area of tropical low pressure designated System 96W was affecting the central Philippines when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead.



Picture book empowers children, families to tackle climate change

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Penn State) One day a polar bear shows up at Sophia's house asking if it can come inside. Its habitat melted and the bear needs a new home. So starts 'The Tantrum that Saved the World,' a new children's book about climate change's effects on creatures and communities around the world, by Penn State researcher Michael Mann and author and illustrator Megan Herbert.



Gulf coast universities team up to address hurricane resilience

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Miami) A new multi-institution research center -- the Hurricane Resilience Research Institute (HuRRI) -- will focus on helping the Gulf coast do better at preparing for and mitigating the damage and loss of lives from hurricanes and other severe storms.



Melting of East Antarctic Ice Sheet could cripple major US cities

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of South Florida (USF Health)) Instability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet signals increased risk of rising sea levels.