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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 09 Sep 2016 03:42:00 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Novel heart valve replacement offers hope for thousands with rheumatic heart disease

Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A novel heart valve replacement method is revealed today that offers hope for the thousands of patients with rheumatic heart disease who need the procedure each year. The research is being presented at the SA Heart Congress 2016.



UMD physicists discover 'smoke rings' made of laser light

Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

University of Maryland physicists have discovered that self-focused laser pulses generate violent swirls of optical energy that resemble smoke rings. In these light structures, known as 'spatiotemporal optical vortices,' light energy flows through the inside of the ring and loops back around the outside. The vortices travel with the laser pulse and control energy flow around it. The new optical structures are described in the Sept. 9, 2016, issue of the journal Physical Review X.



Researchers outline barriers to treating fear and anxiety

Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A misunderstanding of how the certain parts of the brain function has hampered the creation of pharmaceuticals to effectively address fear and anxiety disorders, a pair of researchers has concluded.



Voracious Asian jumping worms strip forest floor and flood soil with nutrients

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

New research from the University of Wisconsin-Madison shows that Asian jumping worms, an invasive species first found in Wisconsin in 2013, may do their work too well, speeding up the exit of nutrients from the soil before plants can process them.



Employees of medical centers report high stress and negative health behaviors

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Several national surveys have found that approximately 15 to 20 percent of adults in the US will report high levels of stress.



Global DS Foundation funds research showing impact of trisomy 21 on interferon signaling

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Renowned Crnic Institute scientist, Dr. Espinosa, has found the interferon response is constantly activated in people with Down syndrome causing the body to fight a viral infection when such infection doesn't exist. Constant immune system activation would likely cause damaging side-effects and may explain cognitive deficit, increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders, higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, and protection against solid tumors. Testing FDA-approved drugs that block the interferon response could be an important next step.



How do shark teeth bite? Reciprocating saw, glue provide answers

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A recent University of Washington study sought to understand why shark teeth are shaped differently and what biological advantages various shapes have by testing their performance under realistic conditions. The results appeared in August in the journal Royal Society Open Science.



Linking RNA structure and function

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

MIT biologists have discovered how an enigmatic type of RNA helps to control cell fate.



UC study looks at the influence of fat when gut bacteria is reduced by antibioticsm

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A study led by University of Cincinnati (UC) lipid metabolism researchers lends additional insight into how bacteria in the gut, or lack thereof, influences intestinal mast cells (MMC) activation and perhaps fat absorption.



Mouse model points to potential drug target for increasing social interaction in autism

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A study of a new mouse model identifies a drug target that has the potential to increase social interaction in individuals with some forms of autism spectrum disorder.



Experts urge a defensive stance in efforts against antimicrobial resistance

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In a Comment in Nature, CDDEP Director Ramanan Laxminarayan and other experts in antimicrobial resistance suggest that the United Nations should reframe global efforts against antimicrobial resistance by adopting a defensive stance. The suggested focus should be in building the resilience of society and maintaining diversity in the 'global microbiome'-- only a fraction of which causes human or animal disease.



New vaccination strategies coach immune system to make HIV-neutralizing antibodies

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

New approaches that could spur the human body to produce HIV-blocking antibodies have been successful in mice mimicking the human immune system, according to five studies published today in the research journals Cell, Immunity and Science.



New insights into tumor-infiltrating T cells

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have identified a distinct gene module for T cell dysfunction distinct from activation in tumor-infiltrating T cells, thus paving the way for the development of new precision therapeutics.



Paying do-gooders makes them less persuasive

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

People who receive a financial incentive to raise money for a charity they care about are actually less effective in soliciting donations, even when potential donors have no idea that incentives were involved, according to new findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The research suggests that incentives may have this effect because they result in the fundraisers coming off as less sincere to the people they're trying to persuade.



Seeing energized light-active molecules proves quick work for Argonne scientists

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

To understand how molecules undergo light-driven chemical transformations, scientists need to be able to follow the atoms and electrons within the energized molecule as it gains and loses energy. In a recent study, a team of researchers at Argonne, Northwestern University and the Technical University of Denmark used the ultrafast high-intensity pulsed X-rays produced by the Linac Coherent Light Source to take molecular snapshots of these molecules.



Reactive oxygen species switch immune cells from migratory to murderous

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Neutrophils use ROS concentration to determine when to stop migrating and start killing.



Life after Fitbit: Appealing to those who feel guilty vs. free

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Is life better or worse after sticking your Fitbit in a drawer? UW researchers surveyed hundreds of people who had abandoned self-tracking tools and found emotions ranged from guilt to indifference to relief that the tracking experience was over.



A more accurate sensor for lead paint

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A new molecular gel recipe developed at the University of Michigan is at the core of a prototype for a more accurate lead paint test.



Linking perception to action

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A neuroscientist maps brain cell activity that occurs during the delay between sensation and action.



Can an integrative medicine approach help prevent medical errors?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Medical errors are the third leading cause of death in the US according to a published estimate, but many could be prevented with a shift in the medical industry from a production-driven to an integrative model of healthcare. The emphasis should be on value-based decision-making that takes into account the whole patient, says Editor-in-Chief John Weeks in an editorial in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.



How effective is a smartphone app in teaching sexual health to teen girls?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

New research has been published that suggests that a smartphone application vs. traditional methods can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health.



Sharing stories synchronizes group memories

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

People synchronize what they remember and what they forget after sharing memories with one another, according to Princeton University-led research. The findings, published in PNAS, have an applied scope: policymakers could use them to bust myths about certain topics, like how Zika virus is spread.



Newly discovered infectious prion structure shines light on mad cow disease

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Groundbreaking research from the University of Alberta has identified the structure of the infectious prion protein, the cause of 'mad cow disease' or BSE, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which has long remained a mystery.



TSRI and IAVI researchers harness antibody evolution on the path to an AIDS vaccine

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A series of new studies led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative describe a potential vaccination strategy to jump-start the selection and evolution of broadly effective antibodies to prevent HIV infection. The researchers plan to test this strategy in an upcoming human clinical trial.



First-of-kind study suggests cover crop mixtures increase agroecosystem services

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Planting a multi-species mixture of cover crops -- rather than a cover crop monoculture -- between cash crops, provides increased agroecosystem services, or multifunctionality, according to researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.



Study reveals how new experiences boost memory formation

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Most people remember where they were when the twin towers collapsed in New York. New research reveals why that may be the case. A study led by the University of Edinburgh has shed new light on the biological mechanisms that drive the process, known as flashbulb memory.



Researchers name a new species of reptile from 212 million years ago

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An extinct reptile related to crocodiles that lived 212 million years ago in present day New Mexico has been named as a new species, Vivaron haydeni, in a paper published this week by Virginia Tech's Department of Geosciences researchers.



Borderline personality disorder -- as scientific understanding increases, improved clinical management needed

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Even as researchers gain new insights into the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD), there's a pressing need to improve diagnosis and management of this devastating psychiatric condition. A scientific and clinical research update on BPD is presented in the September/October special issue of the Harvard Review of Psychiatry, published by Wolters Kluwer.



COPD exacerbations lead to lung function decline, particularly among those with mild COPD

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, are associated with significant long-term lung function loss, according to research published online, ahead of print in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.



NASA sees remnants of Tropical Cyclone Newton over Southwestern US

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the US Southwest and captured infrared data on the clouds associated with former Tropical Cyclone Newton.



NASA takes parting look at Hermine

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Satellite imagery showed that Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine was just a swirl of clouds with no rainfall off the coast of southeastern Massachusetts on Thursday, Sept. 8. Just two days earlier, the GPM satellite saw that Hermine was still generating some rainfall.



Rare and common genetic variants combine to cause skull-fusion disorder

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have identified mutations responsible for a disorder that causes the premature fusion of the suture along the top of a baby's skull. Their discovery will immediately help diagnose and counsel patients, and has broader for understanding the genetics of complex traits.



New suicide prevention strategies for homosexual and transgender youth

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Homosexual, bisexual, and transgender youth tend to have a higher risk for suicide-related thoughts and behaviors, but research on interventions to prevent suicide among sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth has been limited. New research should focus on interventions specifically targeted to SGM youth and their unique and diverse challenges, including health needs, according to a study published in LGBT Health.



NIST and Navy tests suggest telecom networks could back up GPS time signals

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

The National Institute of Standards and Technology and the US Naval Observatory, which operate US civilian and military time standards, respectively, have worked with two companies -- Monroe, Louisiana-based CenturyLink, and Aliso Viejo, California-based Microsemi -- to identify a practical GPS backup possibility: commercial fiber-optic telecommunications networks.



Living together in mud: New bivalve species dwelling on a sea cucumber discovered in Japan

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Most bivalves live in sand or mud or attached to rock surface. However, a new bivalve species described from Japan lives on a sea cucumber that burrows in mudflats. This species is attached to the host by thin threads and uses host burrows as shelter from predators. This species, published in the open-access journal ZooKeys, is one of the smallest species in the genus, which is probably an adaptation to a narrow host burrow.



More underrepresented students obtain science degrees & pursue STEM, due to research mentoring

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A new study in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching indicates that undergraduates who participate in mentored research not only graduate more often with science degrees, but also attend graduate school and pursue STEM careers at higher rates.



Researchers uncover new potential genetic links to common brain disorder

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An international group of researchers has for the first time identified a set of 30 inherited recessive genes that play a role in intellectual disability, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects as many as 213 million people around the world.



US should act to support innovation in increasingly clean electric power technologies

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine urges Congress, federal and state agencies, and regulatory institutions to significantly increase their support for innovation for what the report's study committee calls 'increasingly clean' electric power technologies -- nuclear power, carbon capture and storage, and renewables such as solar and wind.



Induced climate change 'tug of war' keeps scientists guessing on storm tracks

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

The effects of man-made climate change can hamper scientific projections of how key global weather patterns will act in the future, a new study has revealed.



Kill them with cuteness: The adorable thing bats do to catch prey

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A Johns Hopkins University researcher noticed the bats he works with cocked their heads to the side, just like his pet pug. As the article publishing in open-access journal PLOS Biology details, using high-tech recording devices, Wohlgemuth determined that a bat's fetching head waggles and ear wiggles sync with the animal's sonar vocalizations to help it hunt. The finding demonstrates how movement in bats can enhance signals used by senses like sight and hearing.



Yellow or black, large or small? Ant color and body size respond strongly to environment

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A University of Liverpool study of ants across three continents has revealed that their color and size is strongly influenced by their environment, and that the dominant color and average body size can change from year to year as temperatures vary. This finding has implications for how ant communities will cope with rising global temperatures.



'Deeply unsettling' weight discrimination in the workplace highlighted

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Women face weight-based prejudice in the workplace -- even when their body mass index is within the healthy range, research led by a University of Strathclyde academic has found.



The impact of extreme exercise on breathing in GB Olympic boxers and swimmers

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers from the School of Sport and Exercise Science (SSES) investigated elite British athletes from both swimming and boxing and their research suggests asthma related breathing problems should not be a barrier to sporting success, as long as they are well managed and controlled.



Hip fractures: Most elderly unlikely to fully recover

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

One in every two older persons who have suffered a hip fracture will never be as physically active and independent as they were before. The odds are even lower for the very old and those with dementia or other ailments, says Victoria Tang of the University of California in the US. She led an observational study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, published by Springer.



Diabetes: Risk factor air pollution

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Exposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München, in collaboration with colleagues of the German Center for Diabetes Research, reported these results in the journal Diabetes.



The pleasures & perils of protein: Fruit fly study reveals new clues to appetite & aging

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Why do we -- and the fruit flies that sometimes inhabit our kitchens -- seek out protein-full foods when we're running on empty? And what does that preference mean for the odds of living a longer life, whether it's measured in decades for a human, or days for a fly? New research suggests that a brain chemical may have a lot to do with both questions.



Three in 4 don't know obesity causes cancer

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Three out of four (75 percent) people in the UK are unaware of the link between obesity and cancer, according to a new Cancer Research UK report published today.



Social networks enable smart household appliances to make better recommendations

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In his Ph.D. thesis, David Nuñez, a UPV/EHU computer engineer, has improved the tools for predicting the trust that a user will place in another in his/her social environment and has come up with a new algorithm that selects in less time the minimum set of users of a social network capable of influencing the maximum possible number of users of the network.



Avoiding 'traffic jam' creates impossibly bright 'lighthouse'

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A supercomputer recreated a blinking impossibly bright 'monster pulsar.' The central energy source of enigmatic pulsating Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULX) could be a neutron star according to numerical simulations performed by a research group led by Tomohisa Kawashima at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.



Study shows how Chinese medicine kills cancer cells

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the University of Adelaide have shown how a complex mix of plant compounds derived from ancient clinical practice in China -- a Traditional Chinese Medicine -- works to kill cancer cells.



Steroid treatment for IVF problems may do more harm than good

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the University of Adelaide are urging doctors and patients to refrain from using a specific steroid treatment to treat infertility in women unless clinically indicated, because of its links to miscarriage, preterm birth and birth defects.



UBC research could help local governments plan together

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A new approach to modelling land use change developed at UBC could help cities and towns better coordinate their land-use planning efforts.The approach can enhance existing computer planning models, better enabling planners to consider how the land-use patterns of their neighbors could impact planning in their own communities.



Pet therapy can combat homesickness

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

The expression dog is man's best friend might have more weight in the case of first-year university students suffering from homesickness, according to a new UBC study.The study shows that animal-assisted therapy can help students combat homesickness and could be a useful tool in lowering post-secondary drop-out rates.



Negative experiences on Facebook linked to increased depression risk in young adults

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A unique new study of young adults finds that negative experiences on Facebook may increase the risk of depressive symptoms, suggesting that online social interactions have important consequences for mental health.



Forecasting climate change's effects on biodiversity hindered by lack of data

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An international group of biologists is calling for data collection on a global scale to improve forecasts of how climate change affects animals and plants.



Nijmegen breakage syndrome: Molecular pathways that lead to microcephaly

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from Jerusalem and Duesseldorf have succeeded in generating induced pluripotent stem cells from a rare disorder called Nijmegen breakage syndrome and to push these cells to become early neurons, revealing the mechanisms leading to the neurological phenotype observed in these patients.



Carnegie Mellon algorithm detects online fraudsters

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An algorithm developed at Carnegie Mellon University makes it easier to determine if someone has faked an Amazon or Yelp review or if a politician with a suspiciously large number of Twitter followers might have bought and paid for that popularity.



Teenage weight gain down to dramatic drop in calories they burn

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An acceleration in obesity among young teenagers could be explained by a 12-year-long study which found that the number of calories they burn while at rest drops suddenly in puberty.



Tamoxifen resistance linked to high estrogen levels in utero

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An animal study suggests that resistance to tamoxifen therapy in some estrogen receptor positive breast cancers may originate from in utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. The study provides a new path forward in human research as about half of the breast cancers treated with this common cancer therapy do not respond well, say researchers at the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, who led the multi-institutional research.



Chronic Sinusitis Associated With Certain Rare Head and Neck Cancers among Elderly, Although AbsoluChronic sinusitis associated with certain rare head and neck cancers among elderly, although absolut

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In a study published online by JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Daniel C. Beachler, Ph.D., M.H.S., and Eric A. Engels, M.D., M.P.H., of the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md., evaluated the associations of chronic sinusitis with subsequent head and neck cancer in an elderly population.



After long-term follow-up, study looks at prognostic factors for breast cancer

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A new study published online by JAMA Oncology is long-term analysis of prognostic factors among some patients with breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving therapy in the EORTC 'boost no boost' trial, which evaluated the influence of a 'boost' dose in radiotherapy.



Down regulation of microRNA-155 may underlie age-related hypertension

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In this issue of JCI Insight, researchers led by Iris Jaffe of Tufts Medical Center provide evidence that age-related reductions of a microRNA (miR-155) underlie age-associated hypertension.



Improved airway-targeted gene delivery in a pig model of cystic fibrosis

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Two studies in this issue of JCI Insight report the development and use of viral vector-based delivery of CFTR in pig models of cystic fibrosis.



A microRNA signature for infantile hemangioma

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In this issue of JCI Insight, Jonathan Perkins of University of Washington and colleagues analyzed infantile hemangioma tumor tissue, infantile hemangioma patient plasma, and non-infantile hemangioma vascular anomalies to identify a set of microRNAs that are specific for infantile hemangioma.



Cancer cells metastasize by hitching a ride on platelets

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In this issue of JCI Insight, Pierre Henri Mangin and colleagues at the Etablissement Français du Sang-Alsace have shown that a molecule expressed on platelets, known as α6β1 integrin, participates in tumor metastasis by promoting interactions between tumor cells and platelets.



Risk factors for congenital heart defects may lie both inside and outside the heart

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

University of California, Irvine biologists Anne Calof and Arthur Lander and colleagues report that the role of genes in CHD is more complex than previously realized and that overall risk is determined by a combination of gene effects both inside and outside of the heart itself.



How the brain builds panoramic memory

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

MIT neuroscientists have identified two brain regions that are involved in creating panoramic memories. These brain regions, known as the OPA and RSC, help us to merge fleeting views of our surroundings into a seamless, 360-degree panorama.



European region most skeptical in the world on vaccine safety

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Public confidence in vaccines varies widely between countries and regions around the world, and the European region is the most skeptical about vaccine safety, according to the largest ever global survey of confidence in vaccines led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. With recent disease outbreaks triggered by people refusing vaccination, the authors believe the findings provide valuable insights, which could help policymakers identify and address issues.



Study looks at how parents use newborn screening results

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A study finds parents say they want to know everything that turns up in newborn screening tests, but then don't use the information or use it inappropriately.



Bacteria supply their allies with munitions

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Bacteria fight their competitors with molecular spear guns, the so-called Type VI secretion system. When firing this weapon they also unintentionally hit their own kind. However, as Prof. Marek Basler from the Biozentrum of the University of Basel reports in the journal Cell, the related bacteria strains benefit from coming under fire. They recycle the protein components of the spear guns and use these to build their own weapons.



The Lancet: Major review to help doctors, patients and public make informed decisions about the use of statins

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A major review of the available evidence on the safety and efficacy of statin therapy, published in The Lancet, intends to help doctors, patients and the public make informed decisions about the use of the drugs. The authors warn that the benefits of statin therapy have been underestimated, and the harms exaggerated, because of a failure to acknowledge properly both the wealth of evidence from randomized trials and the limitations of other types of studies.



Prisons could unlock hep C-free future

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Prisons provide one of the most significant opportunities to drive down the prevalence of hepatitis C, and help reach global WHO elimination goals, says new research presented at the 5th International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users today.



Kymouse success in steps to developing HIV vaccine

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Kymab, the Scripps Research Institute, and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative show that a novel approach using Kymouse, a modified mouse that mimics human antibody responses, and an immunogen of HIV-protein nanoparticles is an effective platform for discovering and testing possible HIV vaccines. Immunized mice produced human antibodies against the virus protein, the first proof of principle that this strategy can work, triggering the response required to test components of a future vaccine.



Unprecedented atmospheric behavior disrupts one of Earth's most regular climate cycles

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A team of scientists has discovered an unexpected disruption in one of the most repeatable atmospheric patterns.



Teens are less likely to select sugary beverages that contain health warning labels

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Teens are more than 15 percent less likely to say they would purchase soft drinks and other sugary drinks that include health warning labels, according to a new study. The study is among the first to examine how warning labels on sugary drinks influence teens.



Giraffes more speciose than expected

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from the Senckenberg and the Giraffe Conservation Foundation have analyzed the genetic relationships of all major populations of giraffe in the wild. The large study, published today in Current Biology, shows that there are four distinct giraffe species. The new insights are set to improve protection efforts of these endangered animals in Africa.



Study finds earthquakes can trigger near-instantaneous aftershocks on different faults

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

According to a new study by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego, a large earthquake on one fault can trigger large aftershocks on separate faults within just a few minutes. These findings have important implications for earthquake hazard prone regions like California where ruptures on complex fault systems may cascade and lead to mega-earthquakes.



Scientists find culprit responsible for calcified blood vessels in kidney disease

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists have implicated a type of stem cell in the calcification of blood vessels that is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The research will guide future studies into ways to block minerals from building up inside blood vessels and exacerbating atherosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries.



Can some types of fat protect us from brain disease?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Having a little bit of extra fat may help reduce the risk of developing diseases caused by toxic protein aggregation, such as Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. UC Berkeley scientists have discovered a new communication process between organelles inside the cell, including mitochondria, and shown how fat metabolism plays a central role in linking mitochondrial health to cytosolic protein homeostasis. Another study uncovers a new signaling pathway that may explain the peripheral wasting seen in Huntington's.



The evolution of antibiotic resistance, on a plate

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have developed a large culturing device to track the evolution of bacteria as they mutate in the presence of antibiotics, revealing that, surprisingly, the fittest mutants were not those most likely to infiltrate higher antibiotic concentrations.



Fool me twice... A novel 'Trojan horse' antibody circumvents ebolavirus infections

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists have shown that a two-pronged antibody can counteract the unique immune-evasion mechanism that filoviruses like Ebola have evolved.



Ants have dual navigation systems

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Ants visually track the motion of objects as they move through their environment in order to determine the distance they have traveled, a new study reports.



Is Internet service reaching marginalized groups?

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Politically excluded groups suffer from lower Internet access compared to groups in power, a new study reports.



US rules for targeted killing using drones need clarifying, RAND report asserts

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Current US policies on using drones for targeted killing are characterized by ambiguities in interpretations of international law and too many generalities, despite recent efforts by the Obama administration to clarify the policies, a new RAND Corporation report finds.



Marijuana use remains on the rise among US college students, but narcotic drug use declines

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

College student marijuana use continues its nearly decade-long increase, according to the most recent national Monitoring the Future study.



Study: A tenth of the world's wilderness lost since the 1990s

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers reporting in the journal Current Biology show catastrophic declines in wilderness areas around the world over the last 20 years.



Telemedicine is as effective as in-person visits for children with asthma

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Sometimes children with asthma live hundreds of miles away from the nearest allergist and therefore may not be getting the best and most cost-effective care.According to a new study, treatment via telemedicine can be as effective as an in-person visit for children suffering from asthma.



Chemists devise revolutionary 3-D bone-scanning technique

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Chemists from Trinity College Dublin have devised a scanning technique for bones that does not expose patients to X-ray radiation but provides exceptional 3-D images from which diagnoses and prognoses can be made. Their technique now provides information on bone quality as well as quantity.



Containing our 'electromagnetic pollution'

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Electromagnetic radiation is everywhere -- that's been the case since the beginning of the universe. But the proliferation of electronics in recent decades has contributed both to the volume of radiation generated on our planet and its noticeability. A group of researchers at Drexel University and the Korea Institute of Science & Technology is working on cleaning up this electromagnetic pollution by containing the emissions with a thin coating of a nanomaterial called MXene.



Measuring forces in the DNA molecule

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

DNA, our genetic material, normally has the structure of a twisted rope ladder. Experts call this structure a double helix. Among other things, it is stabilized by stacking forces between base pairs. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA.



Genome of the world's largest bony fish may explain fast growth rate and large size

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

The genome of the ocean sunfish, the world's largest bony fish, has been sequenced for the first time by researchers from China National Genebank at BGI-Shenzhen and A*STAR, Singapore. The researchers, who include Nobel Laureate Sydney Brenner, publish their results in the open-access journal GigaScience. The ocean sunfish genome revealed several altered genes that may explain the fast growth rate and large size of the fish as well as its unusual endoskeleton.



Risk factors for congenital heart defects may lie both inside and outside the heart

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a leading cause of birth defect-related deaths, but many of the critical genes involved are unknown, and those that are known often contribute only small increases in CHD risk. In new research publishing Sept. 8 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, Anne Calof, Arthur Lander and colleagues report that overall risk is determined by a combination of gene effects both inside and outside of the heart itself.



New 'Trojan horse' antibody strategy shows promise against all Ebola viruses

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In research published in Science, a team of scientists describe a new therapeutic strategy to target a hidden Achilles' heel shared by all known types of Ebola virus. Two antibodies developed with this strategy blocked the invasion of human cells by all five ebolaviruses. The team included scientists from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Integrated Biotherapeutics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and The Scripps Research Institute.



A cinematic approach to drug resistance

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

In a creative stroke inspired by Hollywood wizardry, scientists from Harvard Medical School and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have designed a simple way to observe how bacteria move as they become impervious to drugs.



Critical information needed in fight to save wildlife

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

An international group of 22 scientists is calling for a coordinated global effort to gather important species information that is urgently needed to improve predictions for the impact of climate change on future biodiversity.



Brain connections are more sophisticated than thought

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Inhibitory connections between neurons act as the brain's brakes, preventing it from becoming overexcited. Researchers thought inhibitory connections were less sophisticated than their excitatory counterparts because relatively few proteins were known to exist at these structures. But a new study by Duke scientists overturns that assumption, uncovering 140 proteins that have never been mapped to inhibitory synapses. Some of the proteins have already been implicated in autism, intellectual disability and epilepsy, suggesting new treatment avenues.



A tenth of the world's wilderness lost since the 1990s

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Sept. 8 show catastrophic declines in wilderness areas around the world over the last 20 years. They demonstrate alarming losses comprising a tenth of global wilderness since the 1990s -- an area twice the size of Alaska. The Amazon and Central Africa have been hardest hit.



Study estimates numbers of people with Down syndrome in the US since 1950

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

A new study has estimated, for the first time, the numbers of people with Down syndrome in the US, from 1950 until 2010. The total number arrived at by the investigation, which also is the first to break down its findings by ethnic group, is considerably less than previously estimated by several organizations.



New electrical stimulation therapy may improve hand function after stroke

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

New technique uses a glove on the unaffected hand to send electrical stimulation to nerves in the stroke-affected hand. The best improvement was noted in patients who had moderate hand impairment from their stroke less than two years earlier. The study also demonstrated that stroke survivors can effectively use technology for self-administered therapy at home.



Beer yeasts are dogs, wine yeasts are cats

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

People have been enjoying the ability of yeasts to produce beer and wine since the dawn of civilization. Researchers from VIB, KU Leuven, Ghent University found that yeasts used for beer and winemaking have been domesticated in the 16th century, around 100 years before the discovery of microbes. With a US research team, the Belgian teams analyzed genomes and fermentation characteristics of more than 150 industrial yeasts used to produce different beers, wines and bread.