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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:21:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Marijuana may help HIV patients keep mental stamina longer

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A chemical found in marijuana, known as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, has been found to potentially slow the process in which mental decline can occur in up to 50 percent of HIV patients, says a new Michigan State University study.



Late-breaking hematology abstracts signal new, near-term therapeutic options for patients

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

In four clinical trials being presented today during the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta, researchers report promising results suggesting patients with blood disorders and several types of cancer will soon have significantly expanded options for treatment. The announcements reflect the latest results from clinical trial data collected and analyzed within the past few months.



Depression's causal mechanisms identified with new method

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

People with major depressive disorder have alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain systems underlying reward and memory, according to a new study by the University of Warwick.



Stuttering: Stop signals in the brain disturb speech flow

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

'G-g-g-g-g-ood morning' is a daily obstacle for people who stutter. However, so far, not much is known about the causes of persistent developmental stuttering, which is the most frequent speech disorder. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, have recently discovered that a hyperactive network in the right frontal part of the brain plays a crucial role in this deficit. It inhibits speech movement planning and execution, thereby interrupting the flow of speech.



3-D printed microfibers could provide structure for artificially grown body parts

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Much as a frame provides structural support for a house and the chassis provides strength and shape for a car, a team of Penn State engineers believe they have a way to create the structural framework for growing living tissue using an off-the-shelf 3-D printer.



Don't mix business with pleasure

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

In working life it's now almost expected that employees answer work-related emails after hours, or take their laptops with them on holiday. But the blurring of boundaries between work and personal life can affect people's sense of well-being and lead to exhaustion. This is according to Ariane Wepfer of the University of Zurich in Switzerland who, together with her colleagues, published a study in Springer's Journal of Business and Psychology.



NRL researchers advance fleet weather predictions through innovation, collaboration

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Accurately predicting weather for the US Navy is an essential part of keeping the fleet safe and effective as they execute maritime missions around the world.



African immigrants: How race and gender shape the American dream

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Africans represent one of the fastest-growing immigrant groups in the United States, but women far outpace men for securing high-skilled jobs and earnings growth, indicates a new study led by a Michigan State University sociologist.



Why do some people hate cilantro? (video)

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Cilantro is a popular seasoning, adding flavor to tacos and noodle dishes across the globe. But to some people, it just tastes like soap. Why? Research suggests a genetic cause for cilantro repulsion. Reactions explains why some people can't help their cilantro-phobia: https://youtu.be/HF7Ni347Gvg.



Important new aspects are revealed about the control of cell division

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

University of Seville researchers from the Andalusian Centre for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa - Cabimer) have published a study on the fundamental role that the nucleus plays in the coordination of these processes



A gold-standard cancer treatment is in decline, and money may be why

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Offering brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer ends up costing hospitals money, potentially explaining its declining use even though it's considered the most effective treatment.



A new technology for producing nano-hydroxyapatite developed by Lobachevsky University chemists

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Today, deterioration of human health is one of the most pressing problems that modern medicine is facing. First of all, it concerns the widespread degradation of hard tissues -- bones and teeth. To solve this problem, it is necessary to create medical materials capable of restoring the structure of hard tissues. The chemical basis of such materials is provided by hydroxyapatite, an inorganic compound, which is one of the main components of bones and teeth.



New discovery may enhance chemotherapy's efficiency against leukaemia

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Portuguese researchers have found a mechanism through which certain types of leukaemia resist chemotherapy, revealing novel molecular targets to improve this therapy's efficiency.



Searching for the CRISPR swiss-army knife

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen, led by the Spanish Professor Guillermo Montoya, are investigating the molecular features of different molecular scissors of the CRISPR-Cas system to shed light on the so-called 'Swiss-army knives' of genome editing. Montoya's research group has visualized the atomic structures of the Cpf1 and Cas9 proteins to analyse each of their properties and peculiarities that make them ideal for different applications in gene modification.



AGU Fall Meeting: Accumulating sediment in Mississippi River threatens course change

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Accumulating sediment within the lower Mississippi River could, when coupled with a major flood, cause the river to abandon its current course, potentially ruining the drinking water source for roughly 1.5 million people, according to new research presented here today.



Scientists designed an instrument to identify unexploded artillery shells

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Society faces threats through the malicious use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and/or explosive (CBRNE) materials. The detection of illicit trafficking or other criminal acts, as well as many security and safety applications, call for novel material analysis techniques and instruments.



A drug to treat retinal diseases with drops instead of injections

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The Spanish firm Sylentis has developed a compound to treat diseases of the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, which will be administered by ophthalmic drops instead of intraocular injections. The drug, which has been tested in animals, is a small interfering RNA capable of penetrating the cells of the retina and blocking the formation of new blood vessels.



African genetic diversity to unlock disease susceptibility

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Wits scientists and partners have sequenced the genetic makeup of 24 South African individuals of different ethnolinguistic origins. The first government-funded human genomics research study performed on African soil, aimed at unlocking the unique genetic character of southern African populations, has revealed a high level of genetic diversity.



New mechanism to explain how El Niño influences East Asian and WN Pacific climate

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone (WNPAC, or referred to as Philippine Sea anomalous anticyclone) is the most important anomalous circulation pattern connecting El Niño and East Asian-western North Pacific monsoon. WNPAC persists from the El Niño mature winter to the following summer and thus is one of the most long-lasting anomalous circulation patterns over the entire tropical climate system. A new mechanism was proposed to explain the maintenance of the WNPAC, which was named as 'anomalous moist enthalpy advection mechanism'.



A whole-body approach to understanding chemosensory cells

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology and the Monell Chemical Senses Center in the US have found a key protein (Skn-1a) acts as a master regulator for the generation of chemosensory cells in mice. As these cells are known to detect bitter or toxic substances, the study provides insights into the body's innate defense mechanisms and could lead to the development of new drugs in future.



Research could pave the way for pre-hospital treatment for seriously injured patients

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists hope to have paved the way for the development of potentially new life-saving treatments to be administered to seriously injured patients in the critical first hour of injury.



Potassium is critical to circadian rhythms in human red blood cells

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

An innovative new study from the University of Surrey and Cambridge's MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, published in the prestigious journal Nature Communications, has uncovered the secrets of the circadian rhythms in red blood cells and identified potassium as the key to unravelling the mystery.



Fold formation of the cerebral cortex requires FGF signaling in the mammalian brain

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Although the folded surface (the gyrus) of the cerebral cortex is believed to be important for higher brain functions, research on the gyrus has been much retarded since the mouse, a widely used model animal, has a brain without gyri. With a technique developed for the ferret brain, FGF signaling was now identified as being important for gyrus formation. Also, inhibition of FGF signaling was found to reduce the number of neurons in gyri.



Action games expand the brain's cognitive abilities

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The human brain learns and adapts. Numerous research studies have focused on the impact of action video games on the brain by measuring cognitive abilities, such as perception and reaction time. An international team of psychologists, led by UNIGE has assembled data from the last fifteen years to quantify how action video games impact cognition. The research has resulted in two meta-analyses, which reveal a significant improvement in the cognitive abilities of gamers.



Computer scientists develop a simple tool to tell if websites suffered a data breach

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Computer scientists have built and successfully tested a tool designed to detect when websites are hacked by monitoring the activity of email accounts associated with them. The researchers were surprised to find that almost 1 percent of the websites they tested had suffered a data breach during their 18-month study period, regardless of how big the companies' reach and audience are.



HIV-1 regulation via protective human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

HIV-1 regulation by the HLA-B*52:01 allele has been established for some time. However, evidence of regulation by its companion, the HLA-C*12:02 allele, has been difficult to produce due to the strong linkage. Researchers from the Center for AIDS research in Kumamoto University, Japan have produced the first evidence of HLA-C's control of HIV-1, but they note that it comes with a price. Namely, the possibility of a different autoimmune disease.



New scientific yardstick to help early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) released a new scientific yardstick, in the form of a certified reference material, to help early detection of Alzheimer's disease.



Immune diseases inflict identical twins differently

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study by researchers at the Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine reports which epigenetic factors in certain chromosomes that make one twin more at risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases.



Role of transcriptional co-factor hints at possible inflammatory bowel disease treatment

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes inflammation and ulceration of the gut that are associated with an abnormal immune system. Researchers in Tokyo showed that a transcriptional co-factor expressed in scavenger white blood cells contributes to IBD disease development by altering the production of immune system signaling molecules, and modifying the cellular phenotype. Mice overexpressing this protein developed more severe inflammation than controls, suggesting that a treatment targeting the protein could be used to alleviate IBD.



Water without windows: Capturing water vapor inside an electron microscope

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists were able to demonstrate another way of viewing biological samples at high resolution.



Space weather, EarthScope, and protecting the national electrical grid

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Geomagnetic disturbances from solar storms or electromagnetic pulse weapons pose a high risk to the electrical power grid. This project examines a real-world example of 3-D mapping of the crust and mantle in the northwestern US from EarthScope data to determine risks posed by ground conductivity that could amplify or change how geomagnetic disturbances affect power lines. This new 3-D method detected surprising effects that the current 1-D method of risk assessment fails to detect.



UNIST researchers develop silicon chip-based quantum photonic devices

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

An international team of researchers, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. Their work has been published in the November issue of the prestigious journal, Nano Letters.



Cystic fibrosis: Discovery of a key molecule for improving treatments

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Canadian researchers identify a promising avenue for improving treatments for people with cystic fibrosis. They found that adding molecules called quorum-sensing inhibitors to current drugs not only reduces bacterial production of certain harmful residues but also restores the efficacy of existing treatments, such as Orkambi and Kalydeco, on the cells of cystic fibrosis patients. This breakthrough published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology paves the way for new personalized therapies.



Using computers to detect breast cancer

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Jeffrey Golden, MD, comments on new research exploring the use of computer algorithms in detecting the spread of breast cancer to lymph nodes.



Teaching antibiotics to be more effective killers

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Research from the University of Illinois at Chicago suggests bond duration, not bond tightness, may be the most important differentiator between antibiotics that kill bacteria and antibiotics that only stop bacterial growth.



Russian scientists suggested a new technology for creating magnet micro-structures

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team of scientists from Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center (Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences) and Siberian Federal University synthesized thin crystal ferromagnetic films and developed a technology for their shaping. Processed films can be used in electronic and spintronic chips. The results of the study were published in Thin Solid Films journal.



Recordings reveal deep credibility gap when doctors and parents discuss outcomes for critically ill

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

An analysis of 16 audiotaped conversations between parents of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and clinicians found that medical staff routinely downplay quality of life issues and leave families more optimistic about their babies' prognoses than the clinicians intended.



Smoking leads to less increase in life expectancy for less educated women

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Life expectancy in Sweden has risen steadily during the last few decades for most groups. One exception is women whose highest educational level is compulsory school. This is mostly because of smoking, says a new dissertation in sociology.'Life expectancy has stayed level in the last 20-30 years for women with only a compulsory schooling in Sweden, but it's increased for other social groups. A big piece of this puzzle is smoking,' say Olof Östergren, sociology researcher at Stockholm University.



MRI scans predict patients' ability to fight the spread of cancer

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A simple, non-invasive procedure that can indicate how long patients with cancer that has spread to the brain might survive and whether they are likely to respond to immunotherapy has been developed by researchers in Liverpool.



Telescopes team up to study giant galaxy

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Astronomers have used two Australian radio telescopes and several optical telescopes to study complex mechanisms that are fuelling jets of material blasting away from a black hole 55 million times more massive than the Sun.



Pokémon Go could help people who struggle socially

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Video games may have a reputation for attracting introverts, but when it comes to augmented reality games like Pokémon Go, extroverts tend to be better players. That's the key finding of a new University of British Columbia psychology study, the first to look at the impact of players' personalities, social competence and social anxiety when playing the hit mobile game.



Faster, more accurate cancer detection using nanoparticles, Rutgers-led study finds

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using light-emitting nanoparticles, Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists have invented a highly effective method to detect tiny tumors and track their spread, potentially leading to earlier cancer detection and more precise treatment.



Dementia and cognitive impairment more prevalent in rural than urban seniors

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers present the first nationally representative study to find that dementia and cognitive impairment have consistently been more prevalent among rural dwelling seniors than urban dwelling seniors. Their findings, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, further suggest that while lagging behind their urban counterparts, the cognitive health of seniors living in rural areas has benefited from early twentieth century investments in secondary education that led to rapid increases in high school graduation rates in rural communities.



Time of day affects severity of autoimmune disease

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Immune responses and the regulation of autoimmunity are affected by the time of day when the response is activated. There may be important differences in time-of-day response to drugs used to treat autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.



Scientists discover path to improving game-changing battery electrode

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from Stanford University, two Department of Energy national labs and the battery manufacturer Samsung created a comprehensive picture of how the same chemical processes that give cathodes their high capacity are also linked to changes in atomic structure that sap performance.



Forest resilience declines in face of wildfires, climate change

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The forests you see today are not what you will see in the future. That's the overarching finding from a new study on the resilience of Rocky Mountain forests.



Genetics preserves traces of ancient resistance to Inca rule

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The Chachapoyas region was conquered by the Inca Empire in the late 15th century. Inca oral histories, written down after the Spanish conquest, claim that the native population was forcibly resettled out of Chachapoyas and dispersed across the Inca Empire. However, a new study in Scientific Reports uses genetic evidence to reveal that despite Inca conquest, the population of Chachapoyas has remained genetically distinct, and not assimilated with that of the Inca heartland.



Life's building blocks observed in spacelike environment

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Where do the molecules required for life originate? It may be that small organic molecules first appeared on earth and were later combined into larger molecules, such as proteins and carbohydrates. But a second possibility is that they originated in space, possibly within our solar system. A study, published in this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics, shows that a number of small organic molecules can form in a cold, spacelike environment full of radiation.



Hot vibrating gases under the electron spotlight

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A Japanese research team led by the University of Tokyo studied the vibration of four gases using electron microscopy and spectroscopy by collaborating with Hitachi High-Technologies Corp. Combined with simulations, they measured the increased vibration at 1,000°C compared with room temperature. O2 and CH4 showed significant excitation, although the vibration of hot O2 was overestimated by the simulations. N2 and CO showed no increase in vibration, because of rigid bonds. The method can be used to design efficient gaseous reactions.



Artificial intelligence detects diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases among patients

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A computing system with artificial intelligence that can learn to do tasks that normally require human intelligence could detect retinal images that did and did not show diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases in multiethnic populations.



Thyroid medication did not improve pregnancy outcomes for women in China undergoing IVF

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Treatment with the thyroid medication levothyroxine did not improve pregnancy outcomes for women in China undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer for infertility.



Findings show potential use of artificial intelligence in detecting spread of breast cancer

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Computer algorithms detected the spread of cancer to lymph nodes in women with breast cancer as well as or better than pathologists.



Hormone therapy not recommended for prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the use of combined estrogen and progestin in postmenopausal women, or estrogen alone in postmenopausal women who have had a hysterectomy, to prevent chronic conditions such as heart disease, dementia and stroke.



Medical marijuana for children with cancer? What providers think

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Most providers willing to consider medical marijuana use in children with cancer, but those with legal eligibility to certify are less likely to approve.



Native fish species at risk following water removal from the Colorado River

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Agriculture and domestic activities consume much of the Colorado River water that once flowed to the Colorado Delta and Northern Gulf of California. The nature and extent of impact of this fresh-water loss on the ecology and fisheries of the Colorado Delta and Gulf of California is controversial. A recent publication in the journal PeerJ reveals a previously unseen risk to the unique local biodiversity of the tidal portion of the Delta.



Dinosaur parasites trapped in 100-million-year-old amber tell blood-sucking story

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Fossilized ticks discovered trapped and preserved in amber show that these parasites sucked the blood of feathered dinosaurs almost 100 million years ago, according to a new article published in Nature Communications today.



Researchers find common psychological traits in group of Italians aged 90 to 101

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

In remote Italian villages nestled between the Mediterranean Sea and mountains lives a group of several hundred citizens over the age of 90. Researchers at the University of Rome La Sapienza and University of California San Diego School of Medicine have identified common psychological traits in members of this group.



Battling white-nose syndrome in bats

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Millions of bats in North America have been wiped out by the disease white-nose syndrome caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, and scientists worry that a catastrophic reduction in the bat population will have pervasive ecological repercussions. Now, a new study in mBio shines light on where the fungus came from and how it spreads.



Pathological mechanisms in congenital myotonic dystrophy unveiled

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is a severe form of myotonic dystrophy characterized by muscle fiber immaturity not observed in adult DM, suggesting specific pathological mechanisms. However, the disease process of CDM has yet to be elucidated. A team of Osaka University-centered researchers recently found that the interleukin-6 (IL-6) myokine signaling pathway is upregulated in CDM muscles, indicating that enhanced RNA toxicity contributes to severe CDM phenotypes through aberrant IL-6 signaling.



Shatter-proof mobile phone screens a step closer with ANU research

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

An international study on glass led by The Australian National University (ANU) and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris in France could lead to the development of shatter-proof mobile phone screens.



Scientists sug­gest ti­ta­ni­um nit­ri­de in­ste­ad of gold in op­to­e­lec­tro­nics

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

An international team of scientists from Russia, Sweden and the USA suggested replacing gold and silver, which are used in optoelectronic devices, with an inexpensive material of titanium nitride. The results of the study are published in the journal Applied Physics Letters.



Omalizumab improves efficacy of oral immunotherapy for multiple food allergies

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Combining a 16-week initial course of the medication omalizumab with oral immunotherapy (OIT) greatly improves the efficacy of OIT for children with allergies to multiple foods, new clinical trial findings show. After 36 weeks, more than 80 percent of children who received omalizumab and OIT could safely consume two-gram portions of at least two foods to which they were allergic, compared with only a third of children who received placebo and OIT.



Transfusion dependence a barrier to quality end-of-life care for some with leukemia

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

For patients with advanced leukemia, access to high-quality end-of-life care appears to be reduced in those dependent on blood transfusions, according to a new study being presented during the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta. The study associates this reduced access and consequent diminished use of hospice services with a reduced quality of end-of-life care for these patients.



Two holograms in one surface

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Engineers at Caltech have developed a way to encode more than one hologram in a single surface with no loss of resolution.



People aged 75 years and older are underrepresented in blood cancer clinical trials

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

In the first comprehensive analysis of clinical trial enrollment among older adults with blood cancers, researchers from the US FDA found significant gaps in participation among those aged 75 and older when considered against the incidence of these malignancies in this age group, according to research being presented today during the 59th ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta.



New silicon structure opens the gate to quantum computers

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a major step toward making a quantum computer using everyday materials, a team led by researchers at Princeton University has constructed a key piece of silicon hardware capable of controlling quantum behavior between two electrons with extremely high precision.



Single-dose vaccine could provide faster protection in cholera epidemics

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Each year there are more than three million cases of cholera worldwide. Research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine now shows that giving a stronger single-dose of a live oral vaccine could be an effective tool in controlling outbreaks more quickly.



Survivorship care plan improves cancer care-related distress levels for HCT recipients

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Survivorship care plan improves patient cancer care-related distress levels for hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Results from a recent multicenter study presented at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting.



CAR T-cell therapies drive outcomes in lymphoma, myeloma

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

For people with certain types of aggressive, refractory blood cancers, treatment options are woefully limited. But three studies being presented today at the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta spotlight the emerging role played by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies in helping individuals mount a clinical response and, in some cases, achieve durable remission.



Drug suppresses spread of breast cancer caused by stem-like cells

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Rare stem-like tumor cells play a critical role in the spread of breast cancer, but a vulnerability in the pathway that powers them offers a strategy to target these cells using existing drugs before metastatic disease occurs, report University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center researchers.



Quality control is vital for the energy production of cells

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have uncovered a mitochondrial error-correction mechanism, which is vital for the construction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the energy production of cells.



Your mood depends on the food you eat, and what you should eat changes as you get older

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Diet and dietary practices differentially affect mental health in young adults versus older adults, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.



Researchers invent novel RNA nanotech to decorate exosomes for effective cancer therapy

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study shows that attaching antibody-like RNA nanoparticles to microvesicles can deliver effective RNA therapeutics specifically to cancer cells. Researchers used RNA nanotechnology to apply the RNA nanoparticles and control their orientation. The microscopic, therapy-loaded extracellular vesicles successfully targeted three types of cancer in animal models. The findings could lead to a new generation of anticancer drugs that use siRNA, microRNA and other RNA-interference technologies.



How do you track a secretive hawk? Follow the isotopes

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A study by the University of Cincinnati found that the rare Henst's goshawk of Madagascar hunts lemurs in low-lying areas that are most at risk to deforestation. Researchers could use this isotope analysis to study the habitat and prey needs of other threatened species that are difficult to track.



Researchers examine how errors affect credibility of online reviews

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Shoppers increasingly consult online reviews before making holiday purchases. But how do they decide which reviewers to trust?Recently published research from the Indiana University Kelley School of Business at IUPUI shows that consumer trust in online reviews is influenced by spelling errors and typos. But how much those errors influence each consumer depends on the type of error and that consumer's general tendency to trust others.



Violence a matter of scale, not quantity, researchers show

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the University of Notre Dame studying violence found the larger the population of a society, the smaller its war group size, proportionally -- which means fewer casualties in a conflict.



Natural route masters

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Few people draw a parallel between bumblebees and travelling salesmen but that's what comes after months of tracking the flight paths of the foraging pollinators as they refine their routes around multiple destinations and, in the process, provide insights into analogous problems in logistics and robotics and into how land might be used more efficiently.



Researchers find simpler way to deposit magnetic iron oxide onto gold nanorods

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have found a simpler way to deposit magnetic iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles onto silica-coated gold nanorods, creating multifunctional nanoparticles with useful magnetic and optical properties.



High-intensity exercise delays Parkinson's progression

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

High-intensity exercise three times a week is safe for individuals with early-stage Parkinson's disease and decreases worsening of motor symptoms, according to a new phase 2, multi-site trial led by University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Northwestern Medicine scientists.



Certain books can increase infant learning during shared reading, study shows

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Parents and pediatricians know that reading to infants is a good thing, but new research shows reading books that clearly name and label people and objects is even better.



Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Engineers at Duke University develop a realistic proposition for creating a water cloak that moves water around an object by applying forces on dissolved ions through a carefully designed electromagnetic field.



People say they want to live longer -- if in good health

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Individually most people only want to live long lives if they will be healthy, according to a new study that includes a University of Kansas gerontologist.



South Carolina & George Mason link women's sexual orientation to (un)happiness about birth

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Dr. Lisa Lindley and colleagues examined birth happiness among women by sexual orientation discordance using data from the 2006-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. They found that women's sexual orientation discordance was linked to (un)happiness about birth.



Scientists from UCLA, National Gallery of Art pioneer new way to analyze ancient artwork

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists from UCLA and the National Gallery of Art have used a combination of three advanced imaging techniques to produce a highly detailed analysis of a second century Egyptian painting. They are the first to use the specific combination -- which they termed "macroscale multimodal chemical imaging" -- to examine an ancient work of art.



New model for Zika developed to aid in testing vaccines and treatments

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

An alternative animal model that mimics key features of the Zika virus infection, including its lingering presence in bodily fluids, has been developed at Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio.



Disagreements can be a healthy antidote for biases

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

New research shows that people who are exposed to others who disagree with their views are more likely to let go of pre-existing biases.



How social networking keeps people healthy

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Microblogging may be a valuable online tool for reducing negative emotions for people who experience social anxiety.



Study finds variation within species plays critical role in health of ecosystems

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Concerns about biodiversity tend to focus on the loss of species, but a new study suggests that the loss of variation within species can also have important and unexpected consequences on the environment.



Patient satisfaction, caregiver communication can reduce risk of hospital readmission

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A survey of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has found that patients reporting greater levels of satisfaction with their care and good communication with the health care providers were significantly less like to readmitted to the hospital in the 30 days after discharge.



Poll: Younger women, college educated women more likely to say they have been harassed

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

This report is part of a series titled "Discrimination in America." The series is based on a survey conducted for National Public Radio, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. While many surveys have explored Americans' beliefs about discrimination, this survey asks people about their own personal experiences with discrimination.



Mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

The purpose of this article was to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors.



Artificial intelligence and supercomputers to help alleviate urban traffic problems

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and the City of Austin have developed a tool that uses artificial intelligence to recognize objects in raw traffic camera footage and characterize how those objects move and interact. This information can then be analyzed and queried by traffic engineers and officials to improve the safety and performance of the city's transportation network. The work will be presented at the IEEE Big Data conference this week.



Multi-year submarine-canyon study challenges textbook theories about turbidity currents

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

At the Fall 2017 meeting of the American Geophysical Union, scientists from around the world will present 19 talks and posters about the Coordinated Canyon Experiment -- the most extensive, long-term effort to monitor turbidity currents ever attempted. The results of this two-year project challenge existing paradigms about what causes turbidity currents, what they look like, and how they work.



Glioblastoma survival mechanism reveals new therapeutic target

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A Northwestern Medicine study, published in the journal Cancer Cell, has provided new insights into a mechanism of tumor survival in glioblastoma and demonstrated that inhibiting the process could enhance the effects of radiation therapy.



Glass with switchable opacity could improve solar cells and LEDs

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania have created glass that lets through a large amount of light while appearing hazy, a combination of properties that could help boost the performance of solar cells and LEDs.



Scientists identify promising new approach for immune system defense against cancer

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have identified a promising new strategy to fight infections and cancer. They uncovered a novel function for a protein known as 'Runx3' that is key to the development of killer T cells -- immune cells important for fighting infections and cancer. The researchers believe Runx3, if properly directed, could be combined with other approaches to help T cells recognize and destroy tumor cells and enhance vaccine efficacy.



Blueprints for anti-cancer drugs discovered in bacterial genomes

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

New research suggests these hidden genes hold the blueprints for designing new, even more effective cancer-targeting compounds.



Medicaid expansion popular among Americans connected to program

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

A concerted effort by Republicans in Congress to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act hit a surprising road block earlier this year: strong pushback against cuts to Medicaid. According to new findings from researchers at the University of Chicago, Medicaid is now seen as an important part of the middle-class social safety net, thanks to nearly 60 percent of Americans being connected to the program directly or through a family member or close friend.



AGU Fall Meeting: New simulations suggest meteors explode from the inside

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have identified an explosive new mechanism that breaks down meteors as they hurtle toward Earth. New simulations of falling meteors suggest air particles penetrate the space rocks' porous interiors as they careen through the atmosphere. These air particles create pockets of high pressure that ultimately lead the rock to explode from the inside, tens of kilometers above the Earth.



Study: Too many nutrients make microbes less responsive

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 EST

Bacteria in lakes play a key role in maintaining water quality by absorbing excess nitrogen and phosphorus. They also help store carbon, which has implications for our climate. But, as it turns out, their ability to do these tasks varies depending on the makeup of the lake in which they live, according to a new study by University of Minnesota researchers that was funded by the National Science Foundation. In short, location matters most.