Last Build Date: Fri, 09 Sep 2016 03:42:00 EDTCopyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA novel heart valve replacement method is revealed today that offers hope for the thousands of patients with rheumatic heart disease who need the procedure each year. The research is being presented at the SA Heart Congress 2016.
Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTUniversity of Maryland physicists have discovered that self-focused laser pulses generate violent swirls of optical energy that resemble smoke rings. In these light structures, known as 'spatiotemporal optical vortices,' light energy flows through the inside of the ring and loops back around the outside. The vortices travel with the laser pulse and control energy flow around it. The new optical structures are described in the Sept. 9, 2016, issue of the journal Physical Review X.
Fri, 09 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA misunderstanding of how the certain parts of the brain function has hampered the creation of pharmaceuticals to effectively address fear and anxiety disorders, a pair of researchers has concluded.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTNew research from the University of Wisconsin-Madison shows that Asian jumping worms, an invasive species first found in Wisconsin in 2013, may do their work too well, speeding up the exit of nutrients from the soil before plants can process them.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTSeveral national surveys have found that approximately 15 to 20 percent of adults in the US will report high levels of stress.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTRenowned Crnic Institute scientist, Dr. Espinosa, has found the interferon response is constantly activated in people with Down syndrome causing the body to fight a viral infection when such infection doesn't exist. Constant immune system activation would likely cause damaging side-effects and may explain cognitive deficit, increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders, higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, and protection against solid tumors. Testing FDA-approved drugs that block the interferon response could be an important next step.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA recent University of Washington study sought to understand why shark teeth are shaped differently and what biological advantages various shapes have by testing their performance under realistic conditions. The results appeared in August in the journal Royal Society Open Science.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTMIT biologists have discovered how an enigmatic type of RNA helps to control cell fate.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA study led by University of Cincinnati (UC) lipid metabolism researchers lends additional insight into how bacteria in the gut, or lack thereof, influences intestinal mast cells (MMC) activation and perhaps fat absorption.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA study of a new mouse model identifies a drug target that has the potential to increase social interaction in individuals with some forms of autism spectrum disorder.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn a Comment in Nature, CDDEP Director Ramanan Laxminarayan and other experts in antimicrobial resistance suggest that the United Nations should reframe global efforts against antimicrobial resistance by adopting a defensive stance. The suggested focus should be in building the resilience of society and maintaining diversity in the 'global microbiome'-- only a fraction of which causes human or animal disease.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTNew approaches that could spur the human body to produce HIV-blocking antibodies have been successful in mice mimicking the human immune system, according to five studies published today in the research journals Cell, Immunity and Science.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTInvestigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have identified a distinct gene module for T cell dysfunction distinct from activation in tumor-infiltrating T cells, thus paving the way for the development of new precision therapeutics.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPeople who receive a financial incentive to raise money for a charity they care about are actually less effective in soliciting donations, even when potential donors have no idea that incentives were involved, according to new findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The research suggests that incentives may have this effect because they result in the fundraisers coming off as less sincere to the people they're trying to persuade.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTTo understand how molecules undergo light-driven chemical transformations, scientists need to be able to follow the atoms and electrons within the energized molecule as it gains and loses energy. In a recent study, a team of researchers at Argonne, Northwestern University and the Technical University of Denmark used the ultrafast high-intensity pulsed X-rays produced by the Linac Coherent Light Source to take molecular snapshots of these molecules.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTNeutrophils use ROS concentration to determine when to stop migrating and start killing.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIs life better or worse after sticking your Fitbit in a drawer? UW researchers surveyed hundreds of people who had abandoned self-tracking tools and found emotions ranged from guilt to indifference to relief that the tracking experience was over.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA new molecular gel recipe developed at the University of Michigan is at the core of a prototype for a more accurate lead paint test.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA neuroscientist maps brain cell activity that occurs during the delay between sensation and action.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTMedical errors are the third leading cause of death in the US according to a published estimate, but many could be prevented with a shift in the medical industry from a production-driven to an integrative model of healthcare. The emphasis should be on value-based decision-making that takes into account the whole patient, says Editor-in-Chief John Weeks in an editorial in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTNew research has been published that suggests that a smartphone application vs. traditional methods can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPeople synchronize what they remember and what they forget after sharing memories with one another, according to Princeton University-led research. The findings, published in PNAS, have an applied scope: policymakers could use them to bust myths about certain topics, like how Zika virus is spread.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTGroundbreaking research from the University of Alberta has identified the structure of the infectious prion protein, the cause of 'mad cow disease' or BSE, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which has long remained a mystery.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA series of new studies led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative describe a potential vaccination strategy to jump-start the selection and evolution of broadly effective antibodies to prevent HIV infection. The researchers plan to test this strategy in an upcoming human clinical trial.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPlanting a multi-species mixture of cover crops -- rather than a cover crop monoculture -- between cash crops, provides increased agroecosystem services, or multifunctionality, according to researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTMost people remember where they were when the twin towers collapsed in New York. New research reveals why that may be the case. A study led by the University of Edinburgh has shed new light on the biological mechanisms that drive the process, known as flashbulb memory.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn extinct reptile related to crocodiles that lived 212 million years ago in present day New Mexico has been named as a new species, Vivaron haydeni, in a paper published this week by Virginia Tech's Department of Geosciences researchers.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTEven as researchers gain new insights into the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD), there's a pressing need to improve diagnosis and management of this devastating psychiatric condition. A scientific and clinical research update on BPD is presented in the September/October special issue of the Harvard Review of Psychiatry, published by Wolters Kluwer.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAcute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, are associated with significant long-term lung function loss, according to research published online, ahead of print in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTNASA's Aqua satellite passed over the US Southwest and captured infrared data on the clouds associated with former Tropical Cyclone Newton.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTSatellite imagery showed that Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine was just a swirl of clouds with no rainfall off the coast of southeastern Massachusetts on Thursday, Sept. 8. Just two days earlier, the GPM satellite saw that Hermine was still generating some rainfall.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers have identified mutations responsible for a disorder that causes the premature fusion of the suture along the top of a baby's skull. Their discovery will immediately help diagnose and counsel patients, and has broader for understanding the genetics of complex traits.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTHomosexual, bisexual, and transgender youth tend to have a higher risk for suicide-related thoughts and behaviors, but research on interventions to prevent suicide among sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth has been limited. New research should focus on interventions specifically targeted to SGM youth and their unique and diverse challenges, including health needs, according to a study published in LGBT Health.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTThe National Institute of Standards and Technology and the US Naval Observatory, which operate US civilian and military time standards, respectively, have worked with two companies -- Monroe, Louisiana-based CenturyLink, and Aliso Viejo, California-based Microsemi -- to identify a practical GPS backup possibility: commercial fiber-optic telecommunications networks.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTMost bivalves live in sand or mud or attached to rock surface. However, a new bivalve species described from Japan lives on a sea cucumber that burrows in mudflats. This species is attached to the host by thin threads and uses host burrows as shelter from predators. This species, published in the open-access journal ZooKeys, is one of the smallest species in the genus, which is probably an adaptation to a narrow host burrow.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA new study in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching indicates that undergraduates who participate in mentored research not only graduate more often with science degrees, but also attend graduate school and pursue STEM careers at higher rates.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn international group of researchers has for the first time identified a set of 30 inherited recessive genes that play a role in intellectual disability, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects as many as 213 million people around the world.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine urges Congress, federal and state agencies, and regulatory institutions to significantly increase their support for innovation for what the report's study committee calls 'increasingly clean' electric power technologies -- nuclear power, carbon capture and storage, and renewables such as solar and wind.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTThe effects of man-made climate change can hamper scientific projections of how key global weather patterns will act in the future, a new study has revealed.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA Johns Hopkins University researcher noticed the bats he works with cocked their heads to the side, just like his pet pug. As the article publishing in open-access journal PLOS Biology details, using high-tech recording devices, Wohlgemuth determined that a bat's fetching head waggles and ear wiggles sync with the animal's sonar vocalizations to help it hunt. The finding demonstrates how movement in bats can enhance signals used by senses like sight and hearing.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA University of Liverpool study of ants across three continents has revealed that their color and size is strongly influenced by their environment, and that the dominant color and average body size can change from year to year as temperatures vary. This finding has implications for how ant communities will cope with rising global temperatures.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTWomen face weight-based prejudice in the workplace -- even when their body mass index is within the healthy range, research led by a University of Strathclyde academic has found.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers from the School of Sport and Exercise Science (SSES) investigated elite British athletes from both swimming and boxing and their research suggests asthma related breathing problems should not be a barrier to sporting success, as long as they are well managed and controlled.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTOne in every two older persons who have suffered a hip fracture will never be as physically active and independent as they were before. The odds are even lower for the very old and those with dementia or other ailments, says Victoria Tang of the University of California in the US. She led an observational study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, published by Springer.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTExposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München, in collaboration with colleagues of the German Center for Diabetes Research, reported these results in the journal Diabetes.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTWhy do we -- and the fruit flies that sometimes inhabit our kitchens -- seek out protein-full foods when we're running on empty? And what does that preference mean for the odds of living a longer life, whether it's measured in decades for a human, or days for a fly? New research suggests that a brain chemical may have a lot to do with both questions.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTThree out of four (75 percent) people in the UK are unaware of the link between obesity and cancer, according to a new Cancer Research UK report published today.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn his Ph.D. thesis, David Nuñez, a UPV/EHU computer engineer, has improved the tools for predicting the trust that a user will place in another in his/her social environment and has come up with a new algorithm that selects in less time the minimum set of users of a social network capable of influencing the maximum possible number of users of the network.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA supercomputer recreated a blinking impossibly bright 'monster pulsar.' The central energy source of enigmatic pulsating Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULX) could be a neutron star according to numerical simulations performed by a research group led by Tomohisa Kawashima at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers at the University of Adelaide have shown how a complex mix of plant compounds derived from ancient clinical practice in China -- a Traditional Chinese Medicine -- works to kill cancer cells.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers at the University of Adelaide are urging doctors and patients to refrain from using a specific steroid treatment to treat infertility in women unless clinically indicated, because of its links to miscarriage, preterm birth and birth defects.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA new approach to modelling land use change developed at UBC could help cities and towns better coordinate their land-use planning efforts.The approach can enhance existing computer planning models, better enabling planners to consider how the land-use patterns of their neighbors could impact planning in their own communities.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTThe expression dog is man's best friend might have more weight in the case of first-year university students suffering from homesickness, according to a new UBC study.The study shows that animal-assisted therapy can help students combat homesickness and could be a useful tool in lowering post-secondary drop-out rates.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA unique new study of young adults finds that negative experiences on Facebook may increase the risk of depressive symptoms, suggesting that online social interactions have important consequences for mental health.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn international group of biologists is calling for data collection on a global scale to improve forecasts of how climate change affects animals and plants.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTScientists from Jerusalem and Duesseldorf have succeeded in generating induced pluripotent stem cells from a rare disorder called Nijmegen breakage syndrome and to push these cells to become early neurons, revealing the mechanisms leading to the neurological phenotype observed in these patients.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn algorithm developed at Carnegie Mellon University makes it easier to determine if someone has faked an Amazon or Yelp review or if a politician with a suspiciously large number of Twitter followers might have bought and paid for that popularity.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn acceleration in obesity among young teenagers could be explained by a 12-year-long study which found that the number of calories they burn while at rest drops suddenly in puberty.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn animal study suggests that resistance to tamoxifen therapy in some estrogen receptor positive breast cancers may originate from in utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. The study provides a new path forward in human research as about half of the breast cancers treated with this common cancer therapy do not respond well, say researchers at the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, who led the multi-institutional research.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn a study published online by JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Daniel C. Beachler, Ph.D., M.H.S., and Eric A. Engels, M.D., M.P.H., of the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md., evaluated the associations of chronic sinusitis with subsequent head and neck cancer in an elderly population.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA new study published online by JAMA Oncology is long-term analysis of prognostic factors among some patients with breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving therapy in the EORTC 'boost no boost' trial, which evaluated the influence of a 'boost' dose in radiotherapy.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn this issue of JCI Insight, researchers led by Iris Jaffe of Tufts Medical Center provide evidence that age-related reductions of a microRNA (miR-155) underlie age-associated hypertension.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTTwo studies in this issue of JCI Insight report the development and use of viral vector-based delivery of CFTR in pig models of cystic fibrosis.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn this issue of JCI Insight, Jonathan Perkins of University of Washington and colleagues analyzed infantile hemangioma tumor tissue, infantile hemangioma patient plasma, and non-infantile hemangioma vascular anomalies to identify a set of microRNAs that are specific for infantile hemangioma.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn this issue of JCI Insight, Pierre Henri Mangin and colleagues at the Etablissement Français du Sang-Alsace have shown that a molecule expressed on platelets, known as α6β1 integrin, participates in tumor metastasis by promoting interactions between tumor cells and platelets.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTUniversity of California, Irvine biologists Anne Calof and Arthur Lander and colleagues report that the role of genes in CHD is more complex than previously realized and that overall risk is determined by a combination of gene effects both inside and outside of the heart itself.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTMIT neuroscientists have identified two brain regions that are involved in creating panoramic memories. These brain regions, known as the OPA and RSC, help us to merge fleeting views of our surroundings into a seamless, 360-degree panorama.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPublic confidence in vaccines varies widely between countries and regions around the world, and the European region is the most skeptical about vaccine safety, according to the largest ever global survey of confidence in vaccines led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. With recent disease outbreaks triggered by people refusing vaccination, the authors believe the findings provide valuable insights, which could help policymakers identify and address issues.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA study finds parents say they want to know everything that turns up in newborn screening tests, but then don't use the information or use it inappropriately.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTBacteria fight their competitors with molecular spear guns, the so-called Type VI secretion system. When firing this weapon they also unintentionally hit their own kind. However, as Prof. Marek Basler from the Biozentrum of the University of Basel reports in the journal Cell, the related bacteria strains benefit from coming under fire. They recycle the protein components of the spear guns and use these to build their own weapons.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA major review of the available evidence on the safety and efficacy of statin therapy, published in The Lancet, intends to help doctors, patients and the public make informed decisions about the use of the drugs. The authors warn that the benefits of statin therapy have been underestimated, and the harms exaggerated, because of a failure to acknowledge properly both the wealth of evidence from randomized trials and the limitations of other types of studies.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPrisons provide one of the most significant opportunities to drive down the prevalence of hepatitis C, and help reach global WHO elimination goals, says new research presented at the 5th International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users today.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTKymab, the Scripps Research Institute, and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative show that a novel approach using Kymouse, a modified mouse that mimics human antibody responses, and an immunogen of HIV-protein nanoparticles is an effective platform for discovering and testing possible HIV vaccines. Immunized mice produced human antibodies against the virus protein, the first proof of principle that this strategy can work, triggering the response required to test components of a future vaccine.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA team of scientists has discovered an unexpected disruption in one of the most repeatable atmospheric patterns.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTTeens are more than 15 percent less likely to say they would purchase soft drinks and other sugary drinks that include health warning labels, according to a new study. The study is among the first to examine how warning labels on sugary drinks influence teens.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTScientists from the Senckenberg and the Giraffe Conservation Foundation have analyzed the genetic relationships of all major populations of giraffe in the wild. The large study, published today in Current Biology, shows that there are four distinct giraffe species. The new insights are set to improve protection efforts of these endangered animals in Africa.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAccording to a new study by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego, a large earthquake on one fault can trigger large aftershocks on separate faults within just a few minutes. These findings have important implications for earthquake hazard prone regions like California where ruptures on complex fault systems may cascade and lead to mega-earthquakes.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTScientists have implicated a type of stem cell in the calcification of blood vessels that is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The research will guide future studies into ways to block minerals from building up inside blood vessels and exacerbating atherosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTHaving a little bit of extra fat may help reduce the risk of developing diseases caused by toxic protein aggregation, such as Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. UC Berkeley scientists have discovered a new communication process between organelles inside the cell, including mitochondria, and shown how fat metabolism plays a central role in linking mitochondrial health to cytosolic protein homeostasis. Another study uncovers a new signaling pathway that may explain the peripheral wasting seen in Huntington's.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers have developed a large culturing device to track the evolution of bacteria as they mutate in the presence of antibiotics, revealing that, surprisingly, the fittest mutants were not those most likely to infiltrate higher antibiotic concentrations.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTScientists have shown that a two-pronged antibody can counteract the unique immune-evasion mechanism that filoviruses like Ebola have evolved.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAnts visually track the motion of objects as they move through their environment in order to determine the distance they have traveled, a new study reports.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPolitically excluded groups suffer from lower Internet access compared to groups in power, a new study reports.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTCurrent US policies on using drones for targeted killing are characterized by ambiguities in interpretations of international law and too many generalities, despite recent efforts by the Obama administration to clarify the policies, a new RAND Corporation report finds.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTCollege student marijuana use continues its nearly decade-long increase, according to the most recent national Monitoring the Future study.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers reporting in the journal Current Biology show catastrophic declines in wilderness areas around the world over the last 20 years.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTSometimes children with asthma live hundreds of miles away from the nearest allergist and therefore may not be getting the best and most cost-effective care.According to a new study, treatment via telemedicine can be as effective as an in-person visit for children suffering from asthma.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTChemists from Trinity College Dublin have devised a scanning technique for bones that does not expose patients to X-ray radiation but provides exceptional 3-D images from which diagnoses and prognoses can be made. Their technique now provides information on bone quality as well as quantity.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTElectromagnetic radiation is everywhere -- that's been the case since the beginning of the universe. But the proliferation of electronics in recent decades has contributed both to the volume of radiation generated on our planet and its noticeability. A group of researchers at Drexel University and the Korea Institute of Science & Technology is working on cleaning up this electromagnetic pollution by containing the emissions with a thin coating of a nanomaterial called MXene.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTDNA, our genetic material, normally has the structure of a twisted rope ladder. Experts call this structure a double helix. Among other things, it is stabilized by stacking forces between base pairs. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTThe genome of the ocean sunfish, the world's largest bony fish, has been sequenced for the first time by researchers from China National Genebank at BGI-Shenzhen and A*STAR, Singapore. The researchers, who include Nobel Laureate Sydney Brenner, publish their results in the open-access journal GigaScience. The ocean sunfish genome revealed several altered genes that may explain the fast growth rate and large size of the fish as well as its unusual endoskeleton.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTCongenital heart defects (CHDs) are a leading cause of birth defect-related deaths, but many of the critical genes involved are unknown, and those that are known often contribute only small increases in CHD risk. In new research publishing Sept. 8 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, Anne Calof, Arthur Lander and colleagues report that overall risk is determined by a combination of gene effects both inside and outside of the heart itself.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn research published in Science, a team of scientists describe a new therapeutic strategy to target a hidden Achilles' heel shared by all known types of Ebola virus. Two antibodies developed with this strategy blocked the invasion of human cells by all five ebolaviruses. The team included scientists from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Integrated Biotherapeutics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and The Scripps Research Institute.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTIn a creative stroke inspired by Hollywood wizardry, scientists from Harvard Medical School and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have designed a simple way to observe how bacteria move as they become impervious to drugs.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTAn international group of 22 scientists is calling for a coordinated global effort to gather important species information that is urgently needed to improve predictions for the impact of climate change on future biodiversity.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTInhibitory connections between neurons act as the brain's brakes, preventing it from becoming overexcited. Researchers thought inhibitory connections were less sophisticated than their excitatory counterparts because relatively few proteins were known to exist at these structures. But a new study by Duke scientists overturns that assumption, uncovering 140 proteins that have never been mapped to inhibitory synapses. Some of the proteins have already been implicated in autism, intellectual disability and epilepsy, suggesting new treatment avenues.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTResearchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Sept. 8 show catastrophic declines in wilderness areas around the world over the last 20 years. They demonstrate alarming losses comprising a tenth of global wilderness since the 1990s -- an area twice the size of Alaska. The Amazon and Central Africa have been hardest hit.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTA new study has estimated, for the first time, the numbers of people with Down syndrome in the US, from 1950 until 2010. The total number arrived at by the investigation, which also is the first to break down its findings by ethnic group, is considerably less than previously estimated by several organizations.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTNew technique uses a glove on the unaffected hand to send electrical stimulation to nerves in the stroke-affected hand. The best improvement was noted in patients who had moderate hand impairment from their stroke less than two years earlier. The study also demonstrated that stroke survivors can effectively use technology for self-administered therapy at home.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDTPeople have been enjoying the ability of yeasts to produce beer and wine since the dawn of civilization. Researchers from VIB, KU Leuven, Ghent University found that yeasts used for beer and winemaking have been domesticated in the 16th century, around 100 years before the discovery of microbes. With a US research team, the Belgian teams analyzed genomes and fermentation characteristics of more than 150 industrial yeasts used to produce different beers, wines and bread.