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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 22:00:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Culturally tailored obesity intervention a success for hispanic students

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An obesity intervention for Hispanic middle school students led by researchers at the University of Houston found that with consistent guidance from high school health mentors, called compañeros, students not only lost significantly more weight but also kept it off longer.



Bridging the terahertz gap

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Harvard researchers are exploring the possibility of using an infrared frequency comb to generate elusive terahertz frequencies. These frequencies -- which lie in the electromagnetic spectrum between radio waves and infrared light -- have long promised to transform communications and sensing but are very challenging to source. By harnessing a recently discovered laser state, SEAS researchers have discovered an infrared frequency comb in a quantum cascade laser that offers a new way to generate terahertz frequencies.



Fighting opioid addiction in primary care: new study shows it's possible

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

General physicians can deliver medication-assisted therapy for opioid addiction with help from the team members they likely already have in their practices, a new analysis concludes.



Colliding neutron stars seen by gravity waves and optical telescopes

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, astronomers have observed a celestial event through both conventional telescopes and gravitational waves. The collision of two super-dense neutron stars just 120 million light-years from Earth was captured by both gravity wave observatories (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory, LIGO in the US, and Virgo in Italy) and telescopes including the DLT40 survey based in Chile.



'Wasabi receptor' for pain discovered in flatworms

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A Northwestern University research team has discovered how scalding heat and tissue injury activate an ancient 'pain' receptor in simple animals. The findings, from a study of flatworms, could lead to new strategies for analgesic drug design for the treatment of humans. That planarian flatworms use the same molecular receptor as flies, mice and humans to detect potentially damaging or noxious stimuli from the environment shows a remarkable level of evolutionary conservation, the researchers say.



Navigational view of the brain thanks to powerful X-rays

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Imagine Google Earth with only the street view and a far-away satellite view but not much of a map view. Brain imaging, for the most part, has been missing just that, and a lot of research on how the brain computes happens on that map-like level. New imaging tackles this special view of the brain with the highest-energy X-rays in the country that illuminate thick sections of a mouse brain.



Many women do not follow contraception guidelines after weight-loss surgery, Pitt study finds

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Many women do not follow the recommended guidelines to avoid contraception for 18-months after bariatric surgery.



Live fast die young: Updating signal detection theory

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Signal Detection Theory holds that in a predator-prey relationship, prey animals will show more wariness and be more prone to flee as predators become more common. New work from UC Davis shows that in a more realistic model, animals may become less wary as the risks of predation increase. The work has implications in a wide range of fields.



How bright is the moon, really?

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is planning to take new measurements of the Moon's brightness, a highly useful property that satellites rely upon every day.



Study links chocolate production to increased deforestation in poor nations

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In newly published research, Mark Noble, visiting assistant professor of sociology and anthropology at Lehigh, focuses on the link between cocoa exports and deforestation in developing nations.



Fighting fires before they spark

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

With warm, dry summers comes a deadly caveat for the western United States: wildfires. Scientists say the hot, dry climates found west of the Mississippi, along with decades of fire suppression efforts, are creating a devastating and destructive combination -- leading to fires like the ones currently burning in California. Now, new research from The University of New Mexico is giving forest and fire management teams across the country the upper hand in reducing the severity of these events.



Therapeutic form of arsenic is a potential treatment for deadly type of brain cancer

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a study led by Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), this anti-cancer agent is being considered for use against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive type of deadly brain tumors. The study was published today in Molecular Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR).



New examination of occupational licensing contradicts decades of research

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

From doctors to engineers to carpet layers to massage therapists, more than one in three Americans is required to hold a license to work in their occupation. Broad consensus among researchers holds that licensure creates wage premiums by establishing economic monopolies, but according to Northwestern University research, licensure does not limit competition nor does it increase wages.



Yeast spotlights genetic variation's link to drug resistance

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have shown that genetic diversity plays a key role in enabling drug resistance to evolve. Scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the Institute for Research on Cancer and Ageing of Nice in France, show that high genetic diversity can prime new mutations that cause drug resistance. The study published today in Cell Reports has implications for our understanding of the evolution of resistance to antimicrobial and anticancer drugs.



New research opens the door to 'functional cure' for HIV

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists have for the first time shown that a novel compound effectively suppresses production of the virus in chronically infected cells.



Los Alamos researchers and supercomputers help interpret the latest LIGO findings

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Astrophysicist Chris Fryer was enjoying an evening with friends on Aug. 25, 2017, when he got the news of a gravitational-wave detection by LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.



Three of the most deadly cancers get critical funding for research

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Three of the most deadly cancers -- glioblastoma, sarcoma and ovarian -- get critical funding for clinical trials from Alliance for Cancer Gene Therapy.



Preservation for the (digital) ages

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers from the Texas Advanced Computing Center, working with classicists and computer scientists from The University of Texas at Austin, developed a method to preserve digital humanities databases. The preservation strategy allows scholars to re-launch a database application in a variety of environments -- from individual computers, to virtual machines, to future web servers -- without compromising its interactive features. They presented the work at the 2017 ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL).



A new compound targets energy generation, thereby killing metastatic cells

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Prof. Uri Nir, of the Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences at Bar-Ilan University, and his team have identified an enzyme that supports the survival and dissemination of metastatic cells, and developed a synthetic compound that targets the enzyme and kills the metastatic cells in mice with cancer. Their research has just been published in the journal Nature Communications.



Breast cancer treatments today -- and tomorrow (video)

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Fortunately, the rate at which we're learning about this disease means patients have a lot more treatment options and far better chances of survival than they did 100 years ago. In observance of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, Reactions describes what's changed about how we treat breast cancer and what patients can expect in the future: https://youtu.be/QcgnVuRx20s.



You would not ask a firefighter to perform open-heart surgery

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The concept of 'collective intelligence' is simple -- it asserts that if a team performs well on one task, it will repeat that success on other projects, regardless of the scope or focus of the work. While it sounds good in theory, it doesn't work that way in reality, according to an Iowa State University researcher.



MSU Geographer studied changes of weather in Moscow over the last century and a quarter

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A researcher from Lomonosov Moscow State University's Faculty of Geography Mikhail Lokoshchenko has discovered the complex nature of changes in temperature and relative humidity in Moscow over the period of many years, from the end of the 19th century to the present day. The results were published in Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.



RUDN University chemists developed a promising drug synthesis method

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from RUDN University jointly with their colleagues from Yaroslavl have developed a new way to synthesize 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives present in many drugs. 1,2,4-oxadiazoles include ataluren, the active ingredient of the drug used in genetic disorders treatment. The results of the work are published in the Tetrahedron Letters journal.



Experts devise plan to slash unnecessary medical testing

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at top hospitals in the US and Canada have developed an ambitious plan to eliminate unnecessary medical testing, with the goal of reducing medical bills while improving patient outcomes, safety and satisfaction.



Flexible 'skin' can help robots, prosthetics perform everyday tasks by sensing shear force

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

UW and UCLA engineers have developed a flexible sensor 'skin' that can be stretched over any part of a robot's body or prosthetic to accurately convey information about shear forces and vibration, which are critical to tasks ranging from cooking an egg to dismantling a bomb.



Wearables to boost security of voice-based log-in

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A security-token necklace, ear buds or eyeglasses developed at the University of Michigan could eliminate vulnerabilities in voice authentication -- the practice of logging in to a device or service with your voice alone.



NASA finds Tropical Storm Lan strengthening

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite revealed that Tropical Storm Lan was getting stronger as it moved through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.



To keep Saturn's A ring contained, its moons stand united

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For three decades, astronomers thought that only Saturn's moon Janus confined the planet's A ring -- the largest and farthest of the visible rings. But after poring over NASA's Cassini mission data, Cornell astronomers now conclude that the teamwork of seven moons keeps this ring corralled.



NSQIP geriatric surgery pilot study may help improve outcomes for older surgical patients

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Adding geriatric-specific risk factors to the blend of traditional risk factors could significantly improve the ability of surgeons to predict poor outcomes in older surgical patients, according to new study findings published online as an 'article in press' on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website.



Assessment shows metagenomics software has much room for improvement

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A recent critical assessment of software tools represents a key step toward taming the 'Wild West' nature of the burgeoning field of metagenomics.



A new way to harness wasted methane

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An MIT team has identified a process that could be used to harness methane that is now wasted by being burned off at wellheads.



Loops of liquid metal can improve future fusion power plants, scientists say

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

This article describes innovative liquid lithium loop to address needs of future fusion power plants.



New teleneurology curriculum provides guidelines for care

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Health professionals can deliver quality neurological care remotely to patients through the emerging field of teleneurology. However, medical training has not caught up with the field, and a lack of formalized education for teleneurology doesn't exist. Now, a researcher at the University of Missouri School of Medicine, as part of an American Academy of Neurology (AAN) team, has developed a standardized curriculum for providing remote neurology care via telecommunication.



Volcanic eruptions linked to social unrest in Ancient Egypt

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Did volcanic eruptions in the planet's high northern latitudes play a role in causing violent rebellions in Ancient Egypt? A new study suggests that the answer is yes. Researchers examined a range of evidence -- from climate records to papyri -- finding a close link between eruptions and political unrest in the Ptolemaic era. The connection comes from the capacity of volcanoes to cool the atmosphere, which can, in turn, disrupt the flow of the Nile River.



A new way to test body armor

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In response to several high profile body armor failures, NIST researchers have developed a new and extremely reliable way to test the ballistic fibers used in body armor.



Tropical beetles face extinction threat

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Climate change is putting many tropical high altitude beetles at risk of extinction, warn an international team of scientists.



Johns Hopkins finds training exercise that boosts brain power

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

One of the two brain-training methods most scientists use in research is significantly better in improving memory and attention. It also results in more significant changes in brain activity.



Study shows how water could have flowed on 'cold and icy' ancient Mars

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Research by planetary scientists at Brown University finds that periodic melting of ice sheets on a cold early Mars would have created enough water to carve the ancient valleys and lakebeds seen on the planet today.



North American first: University of Guelph researchers publish scientific study on cannabis production

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

University of Guelph researchers have published what is believed to be the first scientific paper in North America on improving medicinal cannabis plant production, helping move the industry into the realm of high-tech laboratories and evidence-based practices.This paper is the first of a series of studies University of Guelph researchers have conducted investigating ideal horticultural practices for indoor cannabis production in response to industry demand.



Scientists create most powerful micro-scale bio-solar cell yet

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York have created a micro-scale biological solar cell that generates a higher power density for longer than any existing cell of its kind.



Second Issue of Structural Heart: The Journal of the Heart Team is now available

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The Cardiovascular Research Foundation (CRF) is pleased to announce that the second issue of Structural Heart: The Journal of the Heart Team is now available online.



Scientists determine source of world's largest mud eruption

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

More than 11 years after the Lusi mud volcano first erupted on the Indonesian island of Java, researchers may have figured out why the mudflows haven't stopped: deep underground, Lusi is connected to a nearby volcanic system.



New imaging approach maps whole-brain changes from Alzheimer's disease in mice

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new imaging system that offers a better way to monitor the brain changes indicative of Alzheimer's in mouse models of the disease could help speed new drug development.



Crashing neutron stars observed for the first time

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An international research team, including physicists from the Weizmann Institute of Science, has for the first time succeeded in observing a merger of two colliding neutron stars. The merger was simultaneously picked up by three detectors built for this purpose: the two belonging to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, in the United States, and the Virgo detector in Italy.



Rivers carry plastic debris into the sea

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Every year, millions of tonnes of plastic debris ends up in the sea. The path taken by plastic to reach the sea must be elucidated before it will be possible to reduce the volume of plastic input. To date, there was only little information available on this. It has now been followed up by an interdisciplinary research team who were able to show that plastic debris is primarily carried into the sea by large rivers.



Resolving traffic jams in human ALS motor neurons

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team of researchers at VIB and KU Leuven used stem cell technology to generate motor neurons from ALS patients carrying mutations in FUS. They found disturbed axonal transport in these motor neurons, but also identified genetic and pharmacological strategies that mitigate this defect.



Need for speed makes genome editing efficient, if not better

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Rice University researchers have developed a computational model to quantify the mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas9 proteins find their genome-editing targets.



Matchmaking with consequences

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Myc proteins play an important role when cells become cancerous. Researchers from the University of Würzburg have studied just how they do this. They might thus open up ways to develop new therapies.



On-and-off fasting helps fight obesity

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Up to sixteen weeks of intermittent fasting without otherwise having to count calories helps fight obesity and other metabolic disorders. Such fasting already shows benefits after only six weeks. This is according to a study by Kyoung-Han Kim and Yun Hye Kim in the journal Cell Research which is published by Springer Nature.



New techniques boost performance of non-volatile memory systems

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Computer engineering researchers have developed new software and hardware designs that should limit programming errors and improve system performance in devices that use non-volatile memory technologies.



Researchers release the brakes on the immune system

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Many tumors possess mechanisms to avoid destruction by the immune system. For instance, they misuse the natural 'brakes' in the immune defense mechanism, which normally prevent an excessive immune response. Researchers at the University of Bonn have now been able to take off one of these brakes. The study, which involved colleagues from Hamburg and Würzburg, could pave the way for more effective cancer therapies. It is being published in the journal Cell Reports.



'Find the Lady' in the quantum world

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An international team of researchers has proposed a new way to make atoms or ions indistinguishable by swapping their positions. These particles are then expected to exhibit exotic properties. The study involved physicists from the University of Bonn, the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and the University of California. The work has now been published in Physical Review Letters.



'Revising the image of Islamic law'

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scholar of Islamic studies Norbert Oberauer explores the unknown legal genre of the 'maxims' - Study sheds new light on the legal history of Islam: far more alterations from the Middle Ages to the modern age than expected -- Formulas of the maxims systematized the law, an innovative step in history that had long been overlooked.



MIPT scientists revisit optical constants of ultrathin gold films

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The authors of the paper provide reference data on the optical constants of gold for a wide range of wavelengths for films that are 20 to 200 nanometers thick. These findings will be of use to researchers working on various nanophotonic devices and metamaterials.



Wits team involved in international breakthrough in astronomical observation

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time in history, Wits researchers have witnessed electromagnetic signals that are associated with the gravitational wave emission from the coalescence of two massive neutron stars.



Microbes leave 'fingerprints' on Martian rocks

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists around Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna are in search of unique biosignatures, which are left on synthetic extraterrestrial minerals by microbial activity. The biochemist and astrobiologist investigates these signatures at her own miniaturized 'Mars farm' where she can observe interactions between the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula and Mars-like rocks. These microbes are capable of oxidizing and integrating metals into their metabolism.



Missing link between new topological phases of matter discovered

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

HZB-Physicists at BESSY II have investigated a class of materials that exhibit characteristics of topological insulators. During these studies they discovered a transition between two different topological phases, one of which is ferroelectric, meaning a phase in the material that exhibits spontaneous electric polarisation and can be reversed by an external electric field.



Bringing the atomic world into full color

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A French and Japanese research group has developed a new way of visualizing the atomic world by turning data scanned by an atomic force microscope into clear color images. The newly developed method, which enables observation of materials and substances like alloys, semiconductors, and chemical compounds in a relatively short time, holds promise of becoming widely used in the research and development of surfaces and devices.



Electroplating: The birth of a single nucleus caught in camera

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Electroplating, or electrodeposition, is one of the most important processes in chemistry, in which a metal cation in solution can be reduced to its elemental form by applying an electrical potential to an electrode.



When teeth grow on the body

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Certain species of catfish are covered with bony plates bristling with thin teeth. These teeth are used for defense and seduce the females. Researchers at UNIGE wanted to understand how these teeth capable of regeneration can develop outside of the mouth. They discovered that the extra-oral teeth always grow on a bone, even in the absence of a bony plate. This suggests a role for bone in the induction of dental tissue.



HIV infection, even with antiretroviral therapy, appears to damage a growing child's brain

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

One of the largest and best-documented trials of children receiving early antiretroviral therapy -- the CHER clinical trial in South Africa -- finds ongoing white matter damage in HIV-positive children at the age of 7 years. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of brain development in HIV-infected and exposed children, as well as the impact of long-term antiretroviral treatment.



Domestication has not made dogs cooperate more with each other compared to wolves

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Following domestication, dogs should be more tolerant and cooperative with conspecifics and humans compared to wolves. But looking at both in more naturalistic living conditions, however, speaks for more cooperative behavior of wolves. Researchers at Vetmeduni Vienna now show that the wild ancestors are excelling their domesticated relatives in teamwork. In an experimental approach dogs but not wolves failed to cooperatively pull the two ends of a rope to obtain a piece of food. PNAS.



Corticosteroids aid healing -- if the timing is right

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A corticosteroid can improve the healing of damaged tendons, but it must be given at the right time, according to a new study from Linköping University in Sweden. In rats, the tendon became twice as strong. The results are presented in the journal Scientific Reports.



How bees find their way home

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

How can a bee fly straight home in the middle of the night after a complicated route through thick vegetation in search of food? For the first time, researchers have been able to show what happens in the brain of the bee.



Genomics researchers showcase their applications of Droplet Digital PCR at ASHG 2017 Annual Meeting

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

During the conference, researchers will discuss how Droplet Digital PCR helps them screen stem cells for harmful mutations as well as how Droplet Digital PCR provides early detection of transplant rejection and delivers absolute quantification of gene expression to investigate cancer.



Canadian study of gender-affirming surgery highlights patients' long, frustrating journey

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Access to gender-affirming surgery has improved in British Columbia over the past couple of years, but transgender people needing to access surgery still face complex and often unclear pathways, says a new study from the University of British Columbia.



Pair of discoveries illuminate new paths to flu and anthrax treatments

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Two recent studies led by biologists at the University of California San Diego have set the research groundwork for new avenues to treat influenza and anthrax poisoning. Published in PLOS Pathogens, the studies from Professor Ethan Bier's laboratory used a series of experiments to identify key pathways and mechanisms previously unknown or overlooked in the body's defenses, and possible treatments already developed.



'Hiding in plain sight' -- Discovery raises questions over scale of overlooked biodiversity

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from the University of Plymouth and the Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Barcelona have used cutting edge DNA technology to demonstrate that one of Europe's top freshwater predators is actually two species rather than one.



Saving hearts after heart attacks: Overexpression of a gene enhances repair of dead muscle

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

University of Alabama at Birmingham biomedical engineers report a significant advance in efforts to repair a damaged heart after a heart attack, using grafted heart-muscle cells to create a repair patch. The key was overexpressing a gene that activates the cell-cycle of the grafted muscle cells, so they grow and divide more than control grafted cells.



How we determine who's to blame

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Using eye-tracking technology, MIT cognitive scientists have obtained the first direct evidence that people use a process called counterfactual simulation to imagine how a situation could have played out differently to assign responsibility for an outcome.



New study: nearly half of US medical care comes from emergency rooms

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Nearly half of all US medical care is delivered by emergency departments, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. In recent years, the percentage of care delivered by emergency departments has grown. The paper highlights the major role played by emergency rooms in US health care.



Keratin, proteins from 54-million-year-old sea turtle show survival trait evolution

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers Japan have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54-million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. The work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting persistence of original molecules over millions of years and also provides direct evidence that a pigment-based survival trait common to modern sea turtles evolved at least 54 million years ago.



World first for reading digitally encoded synthetic molecules

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time ever, using mass spectrometry, French researchers have successfully read several bytes of data recorded on a molecular scale using synthetic polymers. Their work sets a new benchmark for the amount of data -- stored as a sequence of molecular units (monomers) -- that may be read using this routine method. It also sets the stage for data storage on a scale 100 times smaller than that of current hard drives.



Amazonian hunters deplete wildlife but don't empty forests

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Conservationists can be 'cautiously optimistic' about the prospect of sustainable subsistence hunting by Amazonian communities -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UK).The research team spent over a year working with 60 Amazonian communities and hiked for miles through trackless forests to deploy nearly 400 motion-activated camera traps -- in a bid to understand which species are depleted by hunting and where.



Worms learn to smell danger

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

University of Iowa researchers report that a roundworm can learn to put on alert a defense system important for protecting cells from damage. The finding could lead to a new approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases in humans caused by damaged cells.



Gene transcription in virus-specific CD8 T cells differentiates chronic from resolving HCV

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Massachusetts General Hospital investigators have identified differences in gene transcription within key immune cells that may distinguish those individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus who develop chronic infection from those whose immune systems successfully clear the virus.



'Busybody' protein may get on your nerves, but that's a good thing

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Salk researchers find that p75 protein is vital for signaling pain in nervous system.



Many pelvic tumors in women may have common origin -- fallopian tubes

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Most -- and possibly all -- ovarian cancers start, not in ovaries, but instead in the fallopian tubes attached to them.



New assay may boost targeted treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer and the most frequently diagnosed non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide (nearly 40 percent of cases). Recent advancements indicate that both the prognosis and choice of treatment of DLBCL may depend on identifying its molecular subtype. In a report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, researchers describe their development of a reliable, accessible, rapid, and cost-effective new gene expression signature assay that can enhance lymphoma management by helping to match tumors with the appropriate targeted therapy.



'You still end up with nothing': Reality of living in work poverty revealed

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

As the number of working families who live in poverty continues to rise in the UK, a new 'On the front line' article reveals the severe challenges that low pay, limited working hours and constrained employment opportunities bring.



Cleveland clinic study: Timing of melanoma diagnosis, treatment critical to survival

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new Cleveland Clinic study underscores the importance of early detection and treatment of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The research, published online today in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, indicates that the sooner patients were treated, the better their survival, particularly for stage I melanoma.



Reservoir explorers find extra HIV/SIV pond

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Yerkes scientists have identified an additional part of the HIV/SIV reservoir, immune cells that survive and harbor the virus despite long-term treatment with antiviral drugs. The cells display a molecule called CTLA4 -- information that should help those trying to eradicate HIV from the body.



Signaling pathway may be key to why autism is more common in boys

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers led by Ted Abel, director of the Iowa Neuroscience Institute at the University of Iowa, have discovered sex differences in a brain signaling pathway involved in reward learning and motivation that make male mice more vulnerable to an autism-causing genetic glitch.



New bowel cancer drug target discovered

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute have discovered a new drug target for bowel cancer that is specific to tumour cells and therefore less toxic than conventional therapies.



Schizophrenia disrupts the brain's entire communication system, researchers say

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Some 40 years since CT scans first revealed abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenia patients, international scientists say the disorder is a systemic disruption to the brain's entire communication system. The study sets the stage for future research on the debilitating mental illness that affects more than 21 million people worldwide. It is the largest analysis of 'white matter' differences in a psychiatric disorder to date.



Keeping active can help older people reduce the need for costly social care

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A concerted effort to encourage older people to keep active can help them live more independently and reduce the need for social care, argue experts in The BMJ today.



New anti-clotting drugs not associated with higher risk of major bleeding

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new group of drugs used to treat patients with serious blood clots are not associated with a higher risk of major bleeding compared with the older anti-clotting drug, warfarin, finds a study published by The BMJ today.



Pill for glycemic control for type 2 diabetes shows promise

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Among patients with type 2 diabetes, the drug semaglutide taken by pill resulted in better glycemic control than placebo over 26 weeks, findings that support phase 3 studies to assess longer-term and clinical outcomes, as well as safety, according to a study published by JAMA.



Risks associated with receipt of blood transfusion from previously pregnant donor

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Among patients who received red blood cell transfusions, receiving a transfusion from a donor who was ever pregnant, compared with a male donor, was associated with an increased risk of death among male recipients of transfusions but not among female recipients, according to a study published by JAMA



Pill for glycemic control for type 2 diabetes shows promise

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Among patients with type 2 diabetes, the drug semaglutide taken by pill resulted in better glycemic control than placebo over 26 weeks, findings that support phase 3 studies to assess longer-term and clinical outcomes, as well as safety, according to a study published by JAMA.



Receipt of blood transfusion from previously pregnant donor associated with increased risk of death

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Among patients who received red blood cell transfusions, receiving a transfusion from a donor who was ever pregnant, compared with a male donor, was associated with an increased risk of death among male recipients of transfusions but not among female recipients, according to a study published by JAMA.



Findings add to evidence of association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An examination of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Puerto Rico identified Zika virus infection as a risk factor, according to a study published by JAMA.



Study reshapes understanding of climate change's impact on early societies

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study linking paleoclimatology -- the reconstruction of past global climates --with historical analysis by researchers at Yale and other institutions shows a link between environmental stress and its impact on the economy, political stability, and war-fighting capacity of ancient Egypt.



High blood pressure linked to common heart valve disorder

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, a strong link has been established between high blood pressure and the most common heart valve disorder in high-income countries, by new research from The George Institute for Global Health at the University of Oxford.



Researchers show the potential of precision medicine for treating rare cancers

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, researchers have been able to identify effective treatments for patients with rare cancers by analyzing genes and proteins in their blood and tumors.



New approach helps rodents with spinal cord injury breathe on their own

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

One of the most severe consequences of spinal cord injury in the neck is losing the ability to control the diaphragm and breathe on one's own. Now, investigators show that two different sets of neural signals control the movement of the diaphragm -- one that originates in the brain and one that starts in the spinal cord. The researchers turned on this alternative nerve pathway and restore breath-like movements in rodents. The study appears in Cell Reports.



Youth football: How young athletes are exposed to high-magnitude head impacts

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers examined exposure to high-magnitude head impacts (accelerations greater than 40g) in young athletes, 9 to 12 years of age, during football games and practice drills to determine under what circumstances these impacts occur and how representative practice activities are of game activities with respect to the impacts. This type of information can help coaches and league officials make informed decisions in structuring both practices and games to reduce risks in these young athletes.



The drop that's good to the very end

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Two researchers in the UK, using laser-flash photography of microscopic droplet-particle collisions, have discovered that water droplets still have liquid tricks to reveal. Previous research has primarily examined droplet collisions with flat surfaces, such as a wall, but this research team examined the less studied case of a droplet having a head-on collision with a solid, spherical particle. They discuss their work in this week's Physics of Fluids.



Force field analysis provides clues to protein-ion interaction

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The importance of proteins and metal ion interactions is well understood, but the mechanistic interactions between the two are still far from a complete picture. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin, are working to quantitatively describe protein-ion interactions using what is called an atomic multipole optimized energetics for biomolecular applications force field. They describe their work in this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics.



Machine learning identifies breast lesions likely to become cancer

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A machine learning tool can help identify which high-risk breast lesions are likely to become cancerous, according to a new study. Researchers said the technology has the potential to reduce unnecessary surgeries.