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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 22 Aug 2017 05:00:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Frontline supervisors use micro-power strategies to cope with middle-manager status

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Probation and parole officers and their frontline supervisors widely differ on their views of the power of the frontline supervisor, according to a new study that includes a University of Kansas researcher.



Stretchable biofuel cells extract energy from sweat to power wearable devices

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team of engineers has developed stretchable fuel cells that extract energy from sweat and are capable of powering electronics, such as LEDs and Bluetooth radios. The biofuel cells generate 10 times more power per surface area than any existing wearable biofuel cells. The devices could be used to power a range of wearable devices.



New report finds growing number of people in Ontario treated for opioid addiction

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The rate at which people are being prescribed opioids to treat pain in Ontario has stabilized while the amount of drugs they receive has declined considerably, a new report has found.



Study: Contact in sports may lead to differences in the brains of young, healthy athletes

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

People who play contact sports show changes to their brain structure and function, with sports that have greater risk of body contact showing greater effects on the brain, a new study has found.



Common antiseptic ingredients de-energize cells and impair hormone response

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new in vitro study by University of California, Davis, researchers indicates that quaternary ammonium compounds, or 'quats,' used as antimicrobial agents in common household products inhibit mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, as well as estrogenic functions in cells. Quats are used as antiseptics in toothpastes, mouthwashes, lozenges, nasal sprays, eye drops, shampoos, lotions, intravaginal spermicidal sponges and household cleaners, to name a few.



Religious affiliation impacts language use on Facebook

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A study of 12,815 US and UK Facebook users finds use of positive emotion and social words is associated with religious affiliation whereas use of negative emotion and cognitive processes is more common for those who are not religious than those who are religious. The work replicates Ritter et al.'s 2013 results on religious and nonreligious language use on Twitter and appears in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science.



Close friendships in high school predict improvements in mental health in young adulthood

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new longitudinal study suggests that the types of peer relationships youth make in high school matter for mental health through young adulthood.



Mothers' responses to their babies' distress help predict infant attachment

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study sought to identify factors that predict infants' avoidance and resistance, looking specifically at how mothers respond physiologically and emotionally to their infants' distress.



Penn biologists show how plants turn off genes they don't need

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research led by University of Pennsylvania biologists and published this week in the journal Nature Genetics has identified small sequences in plant DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the placement of proteins that silence gene expression.



Using machine learning to improve patient care

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a new pair of papers, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) explore ways for computers to help doctors make better medical decisions.



Researchers produce new map of seismic hazards

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Builders of hydroelectric dams are required to perform seismic hazard studies before their designs are approved.



Hidden river once flowed beneath Antarctic ice

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Using the most precise seafloor maps ever created of Antarctica's Ross Sea, Rice University researchers have discovered a long-dead river system that once flowed beneath Antarctica's ice and influenced how ice streams melted after Earth's last ice age. The research appears online this week in Nature Geoscience.



Heart Safe program boosts CPR and AED use in participating communities

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Allina Health researchers say individuals in Heart Safe Communities who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) are four times more likely to receive chest compressions (CPR) and twice as likely to have automated external defibrillators (AEDs) placed by bystanders and first responders before EMS personnel arrive, according to a Minnesota study published in the August issue of the journal, Resuscitation.



Postnatal identification of Zika virus peptides from saliva

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, researchers are using proteomics to examine proteins and peptides in saliva in order to accurately detect exposure to Zika virus. With 70 countries and territories reporting evidence of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, there is an increased need for a rapid and effective test for the virus. This study, published online today in the Journal of Dental Research (JDR), offers a new, quicker and more cost-effect way to test for the virus.



Johns Hopkins materials scientists probe a protein's role in speeding Ebola's spread

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists have pinpointed how a tiny protein seems to make the deadly Ebola virus particularly contagious.



Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

University at Buffalo researchers have assembled a team of three antibiotics that, together, are capable of eradicating E. coli carrying mcr-1 and ndm-5 -- genes that make the bacterium immune to last-resort antibiotics.



Can 'reading' leaves lead to more drought-tolerant crops?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The study was based on observations that the more successful crops in areas typically affected by drought are usually protected by a thicker layer of leaf wax than other plants.



A tougher tooth

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Fewer trips to the dentist may be in your future, and you have mussels to thank.



Researchers find an alternative mode of bacterial quorum sensing

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have revealed the existence of a new quorum-sensing molecule that increases the virulence of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.



CRI scientists discover vitamin C regulates stem cell function, curbs leukemia development

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Not much is known about stem cell metabolism, but a new study from the Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern has found that stem cells take up unusually high levels of vitamin C, which then regulates their function and suppresses the development of leukemia.



People favor highly reviewed products, even when they shouldn't

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

When we're trying to decide which cell phone case to buy or which hotel room to book, we often rely on the ratings and reviews of others to help us choose. But new research suggests that we tend to use this information in ways that can actually work to our disadvantage.



Plants under heat stress must act surprisingly quickly to survive

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In The Plant Cell, UMass Amherst molecular biologist Elizabeth Vierling reports that heat-stressed plants not only need to produce new proteins to survive the stress, they need to make them right away. 'We found that a delay of even six hours of new protein translation will inhibit optimal growth and reproduction. The plants might not outright die, but they are severely impaired without the rapid synthesis of these new proteins.'



Gut microbes may talk to the brain through cortisol

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Gut microbes have been in the news lately. Recent studies show they can influence human health, behavior, and certain neurological disorders, such as autism. But just how do they communicate with the brain? Results from a new study suggest a pathway of communication between certain gut bacteria and brain metabolites, by way of a compound in the blood known as cortisol. And unexpectedly, the finding provides a potential mechanism to explain the characteristics of autism.



Research reveals potential target for alcohol liver disease

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Drinking too much alcohol can damage the liver, but investigators have discovered a protective response in the organ that might be targeted to help treat alcoholic liver disease. The team -- led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania -- also found that the same protective response may be involved in aversion to alcohol and could therefore help in the treatment of alcoholism.



Claim lines with diagnoses of anaphylactic food reactions climbed 377 percent from 2007 to 2016

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Private insurance claim lines with diagnoses of anaphylactic food reactions rose 377 percent from 2007 to 2016, according to data from FAIR Health, a national, independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to bringing transparency to healthcare costs and health insurance information. Consulting its database of over 23 billion privately billed healthcare procedures, FAIR Health investigated food allergies and anaphylaxis, a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction that certain foods, as well as other substances, can induce in susceptible individuals.



Searching for the 'signature' causes of BRCAness in breast cancer

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Breast cancer cells with defects in the DNA damage repair-genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a mutational signature known in cancer genomics as 'Signature 3.' But not all breast tumor cells exhibiting Signature 3 have BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Therefore, some consider Signature 3 a biomarker for 'BRCAness,' a sign of a breakdown in BRCA-related DNA repair in general and not BRCA damage in particular.



Collaborative effort aims to replace rabbit test for personal lubricant products

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A first-of-its kind collaborative project is underway to find a non-animal test method to replace the rabbit vaginal irritation test for personal lubricants. The US Food and Drug Administration gave the project a green light as part of the agency's program aimed at modernizing the tests used to develop and evaluate medical devices.



McLean researchers uncover security issues with health apps for dementia patients

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a recent paper, a team of McLean Hospital researchers reported that many health apps designed to assist dementia patients and their caregivers have inadequate security policies or lack security policies altogether.



New report proposes framework to identify vulnerabilities posed by synthetic biology

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Given the possible security vulnerabilities related to developments in synthetic biology -- a field that uses technologies to modify or create organisms or biological components -- a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine proposes a framework to identify and prioritize potential areas of concern associated with the field.



Mechanism that impairs production of bovine embryos is revealed

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A longstanding obstacle to the market for bovine embryos is about to be removed. Researchers have described a hitherto unknown mechanism of lipid accumulation in oocytes that limits the success of in vitro production of bovine embryos.



80 percent of Ebola survivors suffer disabilities one year after discharge

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research, conducted by the University of Liverpool and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, highlights the need for long-term rehabilitation of Ebola survivors after almost 80 percent of those interviewed were found to have major limitations in mobility, cognition and vision.



Warmer waters from climate change will leave fish shrinking, gasping for air

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Fish are expected to shrink in size by 20 to 30 per cent if ocean temperatures continue to climb due to climate change.



Do video game players make the best unmanned pilots?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research from the University of Liverpool highlights the usefulness of video game players as unmanned aircraft operators.



Computer algorithm automatically recognizes soccer formations and defensive strategies

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Though soccer players have assigned roles, it's routine for players to swap positions during the course of a game, or even of a single play. Other players and most fans recognize when this occurs and now, thanks to new work on multi-agent imitation learning, so can a computer.



How a non-coding RNA encourages cancer growth and metastasis

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A pro-tumor environment in the cell can encourage a gene to produce an alternative form of RNA that enables cancer to spread, report researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina in Nature Cell Biology.



Understanding brittle crack behaviors to design stronger materials

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a paper published in Nature Physics, Northeastern University Department of Physics Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor Alain Karma, in collaboration with his postdoctoral research associate Chih-Hung Chen and Professor Eran Bouchbinder of the Weizmann Institute of Science's Chemical Physics Department, discovered the mechanism that causes cracks to behave strangely when they spread very rapidly in brittle materials.



Our brains do change from early to mid-adulthood

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists in China have been able to accurately estimate an individual's age from their brain structure. The researchers found that significant microstructural changes occur in the brain from early to mid-adulthood. Until now, scientists thought that brain structure was relatively stable during this period of life, and this is one of the first studies to show that our brains continue to change throughout our early and mid-adulthood.



A good read: AI evaluates quality of short stories

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The idea that artificial intelligence will someday be able to understand and even generate narratives has inspired and motivated researchers for years. A question inextricably bound to both lines of research remains unresolved, however: can AI recognize a good story if it sees one? In the first large-scale attempt to tackle this challenging problem, scientists at Disney Research and the University of Massachusetts Boston have developed neural networks that can evaluate short narratives.



Harvard-Osher integrative medicine's mind-body partnership with JACM

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The Osher Center for Integrative Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital has engaged a partnership with JACM, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine to highlight the best new research in the mushrooming field of mind-body medicine.



Overcoming the last line of antibiotic resistance against bacterial infections

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A recent study published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology presents a comprehensive overview of S. aureus' remarkable resilience against our body's immune system and how to better protect against deadly infections, with implications for overcoming antibiotic resistance.



Satellite watches remnants of Tropical Storm Harvey near Honduras

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

NOAA's GOES-East satellite has been watching the remnants for former Tropical Storm Harvey as it tracks west across the Caribbean Sea. Early on Aug. 21 the remnants were just off the coast of eastern Honduras.



Spaser can detect, kill circulating tumor cells to prevent cancer metastases, study finds

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A nanolaser known as the spaser can serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of finding metastasized cancer cells in the blood stream and then killing these cells, according to a new research study.



New meta-analysis shows peer influence doubles smoking risk for adolescents

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Having friends who smoke doubles the risk that youth ages 10 to 19 will pick up the habit, finds new meta-analysis of 75 longitudinal teen smoking studies. This influence is more powerful in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic ones.



NASA sees major Hurricane Kenneth in Eastern Pacific

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Former Tropical Depression 13E has strengthened into a Major Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. NASA's Terra satellite passed over Kenneth and captured an image that showed a well-developed storm with a visible eye.



CAMH study shows global estimates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder among children

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Globally, nearly eight out of every 1,000 children in the general population is estimated to have Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), according to a new study by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH). In addition, it's estimated that one out of 13 women who consumed any alcohol at any point or frequency during pregnancy delivered a child with FASD.



Newly developed nomograms provide accurate predictions for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

NRG Oncology researchers recently developed and validated a nomogram that can predict 2-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with local-regionally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treated primarily with radiation-based therapy. This nomogram was developed with data from clinical trials NRG Oncology/RTOG 0129 and 0522. Results were published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology on Aug. 4, 2017.



CHEO researchers identify practices leading to safer outcomes in procedural sedation for children

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

This study represents the largest and most robust prospective emergency department procedural sedation cohort to date. It includes children from six emergency departments across Canada, sedated with six different medication combinations. The results of the study show that choice of sedation medication had the biggest impact on the incidence of adverse events and need for significant interventions in response to those events.



Both chimpanzees and humans spontaneously imitate each other's actions 

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Decades of research has shown that apes, in spite of their proverbial aping abilities, are rather poor imitators, especially when compared to human children. Current theories hold that apes are worse imitators because they lack this social and communicative side of imitation. A new study from Lund University, published in the journal Primates, has instead targeted the interactive side of imitation directly, and finds that the divide between humans and chimpanzees is less clear cut.



When fish swim in the holodeck

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Standard behavior experiments to investigate behavior in popular lab animals only incompletely mimic natural conditions. The understanding of behavior and brain function is thus limited. Virtual Reality helps in generating a more natural experimental environment but requires immobilization of the animal, disrupting sensorimotor experience and causing altered neuronal and behavioral responses. Researchers have now developed a VR system for freely moving animals to overcome most of these limitations.



Many young cancer patients do not receive adequate fertility information and support

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

All cancer patients of reproductive age should be provided with fertility information and referrals for fertility preservation.



'Lost city' used 500 years of soil erosion to benefit crop farming

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the University of York working on a 700-year-old abandoned agricultural site in Tanzania have shown that soil erosion benefited farming practices for some 500 years.



Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research reveals the mechanisms behind the effects of chronic stress and tiny inflammations in the brain on fatal gut failure.



A&E attendance for people with dementia is common and increasing

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new paper published today in the journal Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association found that accident and emergency (A&E) attendance among people with dementia in their last year of life is common and is increasing.



In Neptune, it's raining diamonds

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at HZDR have managed to demonstrate 'diamond showers' forming in the ice giants of our solar system. Using the ultra-strong X-ray laser and other facilities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, they simulated the conditions inside the cosmic giants. For the first time ever, they were able to observe the fission of hydrocarbon and the conversion of carbon into diamonds in real time. They published their results in the journal Nature Astronomy.



Heating quantum matter: A novel view on topology

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Certain quantities appear as integer multiples of fundamental and indivisible elements. This quantization of physical quantities at the heart of our description of Nature, made its way through the centuries, as evidenced by the antique concept of the atom. The discovery of quantized quantities has often been associated with a revolution in our understanding of nature's law, a striking example being the quantization of light in terms of photons, which led to our contemporary description of the microscopic world.



Research could help robots to correct errors on-the-fly and learn from each other

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New stochastic separation theorems proved by University of Leicester mathematicians could enhance capabilities of artificial intelligence.



Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Nagoya University researchers probe a mysterious phase transition in an organic molecular conductor using synchrotron X-ray radiation.



Biochemical 'fingerprints' reveal diabetes progression

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers from Umeå University in Sweden describe a new method to study biochemical changes that occur in the pancreas during the development of diabetes. The method, recently published in Scientific Reports, is based on molecular spectroscopy and can be used to extract biochemical profiles (or 'fingerprints') containing information about disease progression. The method could facilitate improved understanding of the mechanistic processes on molecular and cellular levels that are key to the development of diabetes.



Before the flood: What drives preparedness?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

More targeted efforts are needed from both the public and private insurance sectors in order to encourage people to take action to reduce their risk of flood damage, according to a new study of three European countries.



Systematically studying slippery surfaces

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Polymer brushes are polymers grown on surfaces, and are attractive for use in lubrication and anti-fouling applications. Kyushu University researchers varied the length of the chain separating negatively and positively charged functional groups in polymer brushes to investigate how chain length affected the interaction of the polymer brushes with water. They found that the chain length influenced the ionic strength sensitivity for the hydration of the polymer brushes in water but not their water uptake or hydration structure.



Post-whaling recovery of Southern Hemisphere

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

By 2100 some Southern Hemisphere whale species will not have reached half their pre-whaling numbers, while other species are expected to recover by 2050.



'Electronic skin' takes wearable health monitors to the next level

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Korean researchers developed a new, electronic skin which can track heart rate, respiration, muscle movement and other health data. The electronic skins offers several improvements over existing trackers, including greater flexibility, portability, and the ability to stick the self-adhesive patch.



Evolutionary arms 'chase'

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The study analyzed multiple species of Inga, a genus of tropical trees that produces defensive chemicals, and their various insect herbivores. The researchers found that closely-related plants evolved very different defensive traits. Additionally, their analysis revealed that herbivores may drive evolution of plant defenses, but may not show coevolutionary adaptations. Instead, they may 'chase' plants based on the herbivore's own traits at the time they encounter a new host.



Targeted forest regeneration: A blueprint for conserving tropical biological diversity?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new University of Utah-led study shows that targeted forest regeneration among the largest and closest forest fragments in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil can dramatically reduce extinction rates of bird species over time.



Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research has discovered a potential means to trigger damaged heart cells to self-heal. The discovery could lead to groundbreaking forms of treatment for heart diseases. For the first time, researchers have identified a long non-coding ribonucleic acid (ncRNA) that regulates genes controlling the ability of heart cells to undergo repair or regeneration. This novel RNA, called 'Singheart,' may be targeted for treating heart failure in the future.



Back-to-school worries for parents? 1 in 3 very concerned about bullying, cyberbullying

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

What parents are most worried about as their children prepare to head back to school.



Into the wild for plant genetics

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new paper by scientists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew reveals the opportunities for portable, real-time DNA sequencing in plant identification and naming. Using a handheld DNA sequencing device they conducted the first genomic plant sequencing in the field at a fraction of the speed of traditional methods, offering exciting possibilities to conservationists and scientists the world over.



Have flowers devised the ultimate weapon of distraction?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Nectar, the high-energy 'honey' produced by flowers, might be a brilliant distraction technique to help protect a flower's reproductive parts, according to new research.Rather than merely providing a 'come-on' to bees and other insects to attract them to pollinate the flower, nectar could be playing a much more subtle and entrancing role.



Racial stereotypes influence perception of NFL quarterbacks

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Racial stereotypes affect the public's perception of NFL quarterbacks and may, in some cases, become a self-fulfilling prophecy for black athletes, new University of Colorado Boulder research shows.



Researchers identify key compounds to resolve abnormal vascular growth in AMD

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A compound of specific bioactive products from a major family of enzymes reduced the severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a preclinical model, according to a new study led by Massachusetts Eye and Ear researchers.



Shocking gaps in basic knowledge of deep sea life

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Human interference in the deep sea could already be outpacing our basic understanding of how it functions. As a result, without increased research and an immediate review of deep ocean conservation measures, the creatures that live there face an uncertain future, Oxford University scientists have warned.



Our hairy insides

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

MIT engineers have predicted how tiny hairs lining blood vessels and intestines bend to flowing fluid. The results may help to design microfluidic devices such as hydraulic valves and diodes.



Rare resistance mutation reduces treatment choices for urinary tract infections

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Nearly 20 percent of women aged 15-29 are diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Now, investigators have uncovered a rare mutation that renders a UTI-causing pathogen resistant to levofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic used to treat UTIs. The research is published Aug. 21st in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.



Immune cells contribute to treatment resistance in aggressive breast cancers

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Although early detection and targeted therapies have improved patient survival, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in the United States. This week in the JCI, researchers in Jon Serody's lab at UNC Chapel Hill's Lineberger Cancer Center observed that a certain subtype of aggressive breast cancer contained high amounts of immunosuppressive cells and determined that these cells can reduce the efficacy of immune-targeting treatment strategies.



Virus reprograms ocean plankton

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A virus which infects ocean plankton can reprogram cells and change the way they absorb nutrients -- potentially changing how carbon is stored in the ocean, new research shows.



Link between cells associated with aging and bone loss

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Mayo Clinic researchers have reported a causal link between senescent cells -- the cells associated with aging and age-related disease -- and bone loss in mice. Targeting these cells led to an increase in bone mass and strength. The findings appear online in Nature Medicine.



Behavior theory may offer key to ensuring infants are put to sleep safely

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

It is still common for infants to be placed in unsafe sleeping positions by their caregivers, report researchers from Yale and Boston University (BU). Fewer than half of infants are always placed on their backs for sleep, the recommended safe sleep position.



Are there racial differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new article published by JAMA Neurology investigates how various blood pressure targets for older patients treated for hypertension were associated with cognitive function and if racial differences existed in long-term cognitive outcomes.



What is the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An article published by JAMA Pediatrics estimates the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among children and youth.



What hours are worked by women, men in dual-physician couples with kids?

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In dual-physician couples, women with children worked fewer hours than women without children but similar differences in hours worked were not seen among men, according to a new research letter published by JAMA Internal Medicine.



New tool identifies diabetes patients at risk for low blood sugar emergencies

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team led by Kaiser Permanente researchers has developed and validated a practical tool for identifying diabetes patients who are at the highest risk for being admitted to an emergency department or hospital due to severe hypoglycemia, or very low blood sugar. Their results are published today in JAMA Internal Medicine.



Polarization for controversial scientific issues increases with more education

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A commonly proposed solution to help diffuse the political and religious polarization surrounding controversial scientific issues like evolution or climate change is education.However, Carnegie Mellon University researchers found that the opposite is true: people's beliefs about scientific topics that are associated with their political or religious identities actually become increasingly polarized with education, as measured by years in school, science classes, and science literacy.



Analysis of a 'rusty' lunar rock suggests the moon's interior is dry

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The moon is likely very dry in its interior according to a new study from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the UC San Diego analyzing fragments of the 'Rusty Rock,' a rock collected from the moon's surface during the Apollo 16 mission in 1972.



Research reveals 'exquisite selectivity' of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a study appearing today in Nature Neuroscience, a team from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory uses advanced technologies to illuminate the connectivity pattern of chandelier cells, a distinctive kind of inhibitory cell type in the mammalian brain. They reveal for the first time how this candelabra-shaped cell interacts in a highly selective way with hundreds of excitatory cells in its neighborhood, receiving information from some, imparting information to others.



Scientists create 'diamond rain' that forms in the interior of icy giant planets

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In an experiment designed to mimic the conditions deep inside the icy giant planets of our solar system, scientists were able to observe 'diamond rain' for the first time as it formed in high-pressure conditions. Extremely high pressure squeezes hydrogen and carbon found in the interior of these planets to form solid diamonds that sink slowly down further into the interior.



Antarctic salt-loving microbes provide insights into evolution of viruses

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

UNSW Sydney scientists studying microbes from some of the saltiest lakes in Antarctica have discovered a new way the microbes can share DNA that could help them grow and survive.The research, based on 18 months of water sampling in remote Antarctic locations, could throw light on the evolutionary history of viruses. The team discovered some of the microbes contained small molecules of DNA called plasmids.



FANTOM5 releases first integrated atlas of microRNA expression in human primary cells

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

FANTOM, an international scientific consortium led by RIKEN, has created the first extensive atlas of microRNA expression in human primary cells. Leveraging the collection of RNA samples established as part of the fifth edition of FANTOM, the team has sequenced microRNA libraries of hundreds of human samples, including many cell types for which the microRNA presence had never been investigated before.



Comprehensive genomic analysis offers insights into causes of Wilms tumor development

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Mutations involving a large number of genes converge on two pathways during early kidney development that lead to Wilms tumor.



A holodeck for flies, fish and mice

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Inspired by Star Trek, biologists are enabling new experiments in virtual reality.



Zika virus stifles pregnant women's weakened immune system to harm baby, USC study finds

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The Zika virus suppresses a pregnant woman's immune system, enabling the virus to spread and increasing the chances an unborn baby will be harmed, study finds. The study is the first to report that the Zika virus targets specific white blood cells, handicapping a pregnant woman's immune system in a way that almost resembles HIV. Pregnant women are more prone to immune suppression. Zika exploits that weakness to infect and replicate.



Study sheds light on why some breast cancers have limited response to immunotherapy

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In the Journal of Clinical Investigation, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers report on their study that explored a perplexing question: Why were drugs designed to unleash the immune system against cancer ineffective in a type of triple negative breast cancer with a heavy presence of immune cells? Their findings could lead to a strategy to improve immunotherapy responses in the 'claudin-low' subtype of breast cancer.



Dino-killing asteroid could have thrust Earth into 2 years of darkness

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Tremendous amounts of soot, lofted into the air from global wildfires following a massive asteroid strike 66 million years ago, would have plunged Earth into darkness for nearly two years, new research finds. This would have shut down photosynthesis, drastically cooled the planet, and contributed to the mass extinction that marked the end of the age of dinosaurs.



CRC screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces risk for death

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A re-analysis of all-cause mortality in the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) evidence review for colorectal cancer screening found that flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces risk for death. These findings suggest that the USPSTF guidelines for colorectal cancer screening, which concluded that no colorectal cancer screening methods reduced all-cause mortality, could be reassessed.



Chemicals from gut bacteria maintain vitality in aging animals

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A class of chemicals made by intestinal bacteria, known as indoles, help worms, flies and mice maintain mobility and resilience for more of their lifespans, Emory scientists have discovered.



Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Duke scientists found a gene variant that affects cholesterol levels also could increase the risk of contracting typhoid fever. A common cholesterol-lowering drug could protect animal models against Salmonella Typhi, the culprit behind the potentially deadly infection. The findings give insight into the mechanisms that govern human susceptibility to infectious disease and point to possible avenues to protect against pathogens -- like Salmonella or Ebola -- whose entry into host cells is regulated by cholesterol.



Zebrafish larvae could be used as 'avatars' to optimize personalized treatment of cancer

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Every cancer is unique; so is every cancer patient. How, then, is it possible to choose the most efficient chemotherapy in each case? Two Portuguese scientists decided to test the idea of using zebrafish larvae to simulate in vivo the responses of human tumors to cancer drugs, literally transforming these larvae into 'avatar' of the patients. Their first results are very promising.



Comparison of screening recommendations indicates annual mammography

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

When to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates.



Sedentary behavior increases risk of death for frail, inactive adults

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Sedentary time, for example, time spent sitting, increases the risk of death for middle-aged and older people who are frail and inactive, but does not appear to increase the risk for non-frail people who are inactive, according to a new study published in CMAJ.



Afternoon slump in reward response

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Activation of a reward-processing brain region peaks in the morning and evening and dips at 2 p.m., finds a study of healthy young men published in The Journal of Neuroscience. This finding may parallel the drop in alertness people tend to feel in mid-afternoon.



Smart label could one day let you know when to toss food and cosmetics (video)

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Detecting food and cosmetic spoilage and contamination. Identifying new medicinal plants in a remote jungle. Authenticating tea and wine. Scientists have developed a low-cost, portable, paper-based sensor that can potentially carry out all of these functions with easy-to-read results. The researchers are presenting their results today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.