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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 09:21:02 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Professor publishes archaeological research on social inequality

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The origins of social inequality might lie in the remnants of ancient Eurasia's agricultural societies, according to an article recently published in the major science journal Nature.



A walk at the mall or the park? New study shows, for moms and daughters, a walk in the park is best

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

University of Illinois family studies researchers believed that if the attention restoration theory, which describes how interaction with natural environments can reduce mental fatigue and restore attention, worked for individuals it might also work for families to help facilitate more positive family interactions and family cohesion. They tested their theory by looking at sets of moms and daughters who were asked to take a walk together in nature and a walk in a mall.



A mom's support helps a child learn to handle negative emotions, but what if mom is distressed?

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

When children become upset, showing negative emotions or behaviors, some parents become distressed, while others are able to talk their child through the difficult situation. Studies have shown that a mothers' reaction -- positive or negative -- to her child's negative emotions can predict whether her child develops the ability to effectively regulate his emotions and behavior. A new University of Illinois study explores potential predictors of mothers' supportive or non-supportive behavior during emotional challenges.



Hibernating ground squirrels provide clues to new stroke treatments

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

In the fight against brain damage caused by stroke, researchers have turned to an unlikely source of inspiration: hibernating ground squirrels. While the animals' brains experience dramatically reduced blood flow during hibernation, just like human patients after a certain type of stroke, the squirrels emerge from their extended naps suffering no ill effects. Now, a team of NIH-funded scientists has identified a potential drug that could grant the same resilience to stroke patients.



Breakthrough could launch organic electronics beyond cell phone screens

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A discovery by an international team of researchers from Princeton University, the Georgia Institute of Technology and Humboldt University in Berlin points the way to more widespread use of an advanced technology generally known as organic electronics.



Small changes to organ procurement system could lead to more life-saving transplants

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Slight changes to the system for allocating deceased-donor kidneys could result in higher rates of organ procurement and lead to more kidney transplants across the country, according to new research co-authored by an Indiana University Kelley School of Business professor.



Not an illusion: Clever use of mirrors boosts performance of light-sheet microscope

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using a simple 'mirror trick' and not-so-simple computational analysis, scientists affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have considerably improved the speed, efficiency, and resolution of a light-sheet microscope, with broad applications for enhanced imaging of live cells and embryos.



Like a baby: The vicious cycle of childhood obesity and snoring

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a new longitudinal observational study, scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) looked at the relationships among maternal snoring, childhood snoring and children's metabolic characteristics -- including body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance, which reflects future risk for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease -- in approximately 1,100 children followed from gestation through early adolescence.



Argonne to install Comanche system to explore ARM technology for HPC

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Argonne National Laboratory is collaborating with Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) to provide system software expertise and a development ecosystem for a future high-performance computing (HPC) system based on 64-bit ARM processors.



When to fish: Timing matters for fish that migrate to reproduce

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new University of Washington study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certain fish and change the life history patterns of entire populations.



These ring-tailed lemurs raise a 'stink' when they flirt with potential mates

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Stink-flirting among ring-tailed lemurs come at a cost, but may also influence females in choosing a mate.



Mathematician's study of 'swarmalators' could direct future science

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of noted mathematician Steven Strogatz? As it turns out, quite prominently. Cornell researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploration of 'swarmalators' -- their term for systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together.



Decrease in sunshine, increase in rickets

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A University of Toronto student and professor have teamed up to discover that Britain's increasing cloudiness during the summer could be an important reason for the mysterious increase in rickets among British children over the past few decades.



Carbon emissions by plant respiration will have large impact on climate

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

New findings by researchers from the University of Minnesota College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, who partnered with scientists from across the world, suggest plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warn that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning.



Research shows drones could help crop management take off

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Initial results of an ongoing study show that aerial imagery produced by multi-spectral sensors as well as less-expensive digital cameras may improve accuracy and efficiency of plant stand assessment in cotton.



Scientific advances can make it easier to recycle plastics

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers report new approaches could dramatically increase the amount of plastic waste that can be successfully recycled.



New computational method provides optimized design of wind up toys

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team of leading computer scientists has developed a novel computational system to aid the design and fabrication of wind-up toys, focusing on automating the intricate interior machinery responsible for the toys' wind-up motion.



Investigating patterns of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to cause memory loss and cognitive decline, but other functions of the brain can remain intact. The reasons cells in some brain regions degenerate while others are protected is largely unknown. In a paper to be published in Stem Cell Reports, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital have found that factors encoded in the DNA of brain cells contribute to the patterns of degeneration, or vulnerability, in AD.



Infrared NASA imagery shows development of Tropical Depression 31W

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

NASA's Aqua satellite provided infrared imagery of the latest tropical cyclone in the South China Sea.



New study out of WSU further supports use of progesterone to fight preterm birth

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study published today -- World Prematurity Day -- in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology provides additional support for treatment with vaginal progesterone to reduce the risk of preterm birth, neonatal complications and infant death in pregnant women with a short cervix. A shortened cervix is the most powerful predictor of preterm birth.



eDNA tool detects invasive clams before they become a nuisance

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

When seeking a cure for a disease, early detection is often the key. The same is true for eliminating invasive species. Identifying their presence in a lake before they are abundant is vital. A recent University of Illinois study successfully used environmental DNA to detect invasive clams in California and Nevada lakes. Researchers believe this tool can help identify pests before they become a problem.



Inner clock: Biologists research the mechanism of an auxiliary clock

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

In December, the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology will be awarded for the identification of genes that control the inner clock. The honored academics examined fruit flies to determine the biorhythm. Biochemist Professor Dr. Dorothee Staiger of Bielefeld University has been researching the inner clock of plants for 20 years. Her team has now published a new study in the research journal Genome Biology.



Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from Rice University, UCLA, Michigan State and the University of New Mexico have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen. The research appears this week in Science Advances.



Taking a spin on plasma space tornadoes with NASA observations

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

New NASA mission results show that tornado-like swirls of space plasma create tumultuous boundaries in the near-Earth environment, letting dangerous high-energy particles slip into near Earth space.



Age and gut bacteria contribute to MS disease progression, according to Rutgers

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Gut bacteria at a young age can contribute to multiple sclerosis disease onset and progression.



Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Specially tailored, ultrafast pulses of light can trigger neurons to fire and could one day help patients with light-sensitive circadian or mood problems, according to a new study in mice at the University of Illinois. This study is the first demonstration of using coherent control to regulate function in a living cell.



Strain-free epitaxy of germanium film on mica

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Germanium was the material of choice in the early history of electronic devices, and due to its high charge carrier mobility, it's making a comeback. It's generally grown on expensive single-crystal substrates, adding another challenge to making it sustainably viable for most applications. To address this aspect, researchers demonstrate an epitaxy method that incorporates van der Waals' forces to grow germanium on mica. They discuss their work in the Journal of Applied Physics.



A sub-desert savanna spread across Madrid 14 million years ago

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The current landscape of Madrid city and its vicinity was really different 14 million years ago. A semi-desert savanna has been inferred for the center of the Iberian Peninsula in the middle Miocene. This ecosystem was characterized by a very arid tropical climatic regime with up to ten months of drought per year, according to a recent paper published in PLOS ONE. Scientists reached such conclusions after comparing mammal faunal with Africa and Asia ones.



Interstellar space probes: Where's the brakes?!

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

With a miniaturized space probe capable of being accelerated to a quarter of the speed of light, we could reach Alpha Centauri, our nearest star, in 20 to 50 years. However, without a mechanism to slow it down, the space probe could only collect data from the star and its planets as it zoomed past. A theoretical physicist at Goethe University Frankfurt has now examined whether interstellar spacecraft can be decelerated using 'magnetic sails.'



Brain activity buffers against worsening anxiety

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Boosting activity in brain areas related to thinking and problem-solving may also protect against worsening anxiety, suggests a new study by Duke University scientists. Using noninvasive brain imaging, the researchers found that at-risk people were less likely to develop anxiety if they had higher activity in a region of the brain responsible for complex mental operations. The results may be a step towards tailoring psychological therapies to the specific brain functioning of individual patients.



Link between obesity and cancer is not widely recognized

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study published in the Journal of Public Health has shown that the majority of people in the United Kingdom do not understand the connection between weight issues and cancer. Obesity is associated with thirteen types of cancer, including those of the breast, kidney, bowel, and womb. However, after surveying 3,293 adults, taken as representative of the UK population, researchers found that only a quarter of respondents were aware of the link between obesity and cancer.



Electrochemistry opens up novel access to important classes of substances

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany have succeeded in overcoming the problem of electrochemical polymer formation and in developing a sustainable and efficient synthesis strategy for these important products for the first time.



Anti-tumor and immune-potentiating Enterococcus faecalis-2001 β-glucans

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Enterococcus faecalis 2001 is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and has been used as a biological response modifier (BRM). From physiological limitation of bacterial preservation in storage and safety, the live E. faecalis 2001 has been heat-treated and the BRM components containing high level of β-glucan, named EF-2001, were prepared.



Brain astrocytes linked to Alzheimer's disease

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Astrocytes, the supporting cells of the brain, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. This is the first time researchers discovered a direct association between astrocytes and AD. Published in Stem Cell Reports, the study investigated the brain cell function of familial AD patients by using stem cell technologies.



Warmer water signals change for Scotland's shags

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

An increasingly catholic diet among European shags at one of Scotland's best-studied breeding colonies has been linked to long-term climate change and may have important implications for Scotland's seabirds.



Performance appraisal success depends on frequent feedback and good standard setting

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Appraisal of employees often gets a bad press, but recent research suggests if it involves frequent feedback between the formal appraisal and good prior planning and communication of standards then it can be successful and appreciated by employees.



BfR supports EFSA and ECHA with the development of European guidelines for the health assessment of endocrine disruptors

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

On behalf of the European Food Safety Authority, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment hosted a hearing of experts on the practicability of hormone measurements in toxicological studies in Berlin on Oct. 18-19, 2017.



University of Guelph professor identifies protein key to cancer cells ability to spread

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

U of G scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues.The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it decreased the adhesion and invasion rate of breast and brain cancer cells by up to 90 percent.



Study analyzes mutations in cerebrospinal fluid in lung cancer with brain metastases

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have explored the analysis of mutations in cerebrospinal fluid of lung cancer patients with brain metastases in a study presented at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress. Tumor tissue from brain metastasis is difficult to obtain and therefore less invasive methods are needed to identify and monitor the presence of known actionable mutations.



Semiconducting carbon nanotubes can reduce noise in carbon nanotube interconnects

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

This paper presents reduction of crosstalk and noise in CNT bundle interconnects. We propose the use of small diameter semiconducting CNTs as electromagnetic interference shields for CNT bundle interconnects.



First-graders fitter than expected

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Childhood obesity is often attributed to a lack of exercise. So what about sports among elementary school students? A team from the Technical University of Munich pursued this question and collected the results of fitness tests for first-year students over a period of one decade. Their study shows that students did not lose their strength. Speed or balance even increased over the time of 10 years. One change was in the boys, whose endurance decreased compared to the girls of the same age.



NIR-driven H2 evolution from water: Expanding wavelength range for solar energy conversion

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A Japanese research team at Kyushu University synthesized a compound that absorbs near-infrared light to produce hydrogen from water. The compound contains three ruthenium atoms connected by an organic molecule. The absorbed light stimulates electrons to 'jump' into orbitals that do not exist in other, similar compounds. This is the first successful use of infrared light to reduce water into hydrogen, which can be used for energy conversion and storage, and other industrial purposes in a future sustainable energy society.



ALEX study shows alectinib 600 mg more effective than crizotinib in Asian cancer patients

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A subanalysis of the phase III ALEX study has shown that alectinib 600 mg twice daily is more effective than standard of care crizotinib in Asian patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), researchers report at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress.



No more deer in the headlight: Study finds large mammals do use road crossing structures

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A pilot study finds that large mammals are more likely to use wildlife crossing structures than move past a random location in the surrounding habitat. Animal movement also varied between crossing structures in different locations, suggesting that location might be more important than design. These findings are a first step towards a better understanding of the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures.



Asthma attacks reduced in tree-lined urban neighborhoods

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

People living in polluted urban areas are far less likely to be admitted to hospital with asthma when there are lots of trees in their neighborhood, a study by the University of Exeter's medical school has found.



RUDN chemists synthesized a new catalyst for oil and gas processing

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team of scientists from the Research Institute of Chemistry of RUDN University together with colleagues from major scientific centers created a new catalyst -- a substance that activates oxidation processes in low-reactive components of oil and gas. The new method of hydrocarbon processing will help efficiently produce valuable organic substances such as acids and alcohols, using a reaction that requires only minor heating and no increased pressure.



Plant respiration could become a bigger feedback on climate than expected

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

New research suggests that plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warns that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning.



The tragedy of the seagrass commons

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Urgent action is required to stem the loss of the world's seagrass meadows to protect their associated fisheries.



What grosses out a chimpanzee?

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans.



Seagrass is a key fishing ground globally

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

New research demonstrates that seagrass meadows are important fishing grounds all around the globe. The work highlights that there is an urgent need to start appreciating and understanding this role to be able to build more sustainable fisheries. A study led by Dr. Lina Mtwana Nordlund at Stockholm University, published in the scientific journal Fish & Fisheries, examines the global extent to which these underwater meadows support fishing activity.



The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Leipzig. Forests fulfil numerous important functions, and do so particularly well if they are rich in different species of trees. In addition, forest managers do not have to decide on the provision of solely one function, such as wood production or nature conservation: several services provided by forest ecosystems can be improved at the same time. These are the results of two studies led by scientists from Leipzig University and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), and published in Ecology Letters.



Evaluation of novel hybrid membranes for carbon capture

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Hybrid materials known as mixed matrix membranes are considered a promising approach to capture carbon dioxide and mitigate against global warming. These materials are derived from a polymer combined with porous nanoparticles. We show that materials prepared using porous organic polymers are resilient to the acidic impurities present in industrial gas streams, whereas other hybrid materials fail. This means that they can be effective in carbon capture applications where these impurities are present.



Researchers tunnel to a new light source

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The Ohio State University researchers, with scientists at Wright State University and Naval Research Laboratory, describe a promising new semiconductor LED made with GaN-based materials that could boost wallsocket efficiency by reducing energy losses and self-heating. If this new technology can be harnessed for large light output, the breakthrough could enhance LED solid state lighting without a significant change to the existing LED manufacturing facility.



Vaginal progesterone reduces preterm birth and neonatal complications in women with a mid-trimester short cervix

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Prematurity is the main complication of pregnancy, and 15 million babies are born preterm worldwide each year. Physicians worldwide have investigated whether vaginal progesterone administration to women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix reduces the rate of preterm birth. Now physicians and researchers have found that when all available information is considered in an individual patient data meta-analysis, the results are clear: vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm birth at <28, <30, <32, <34, <35, and <36 weeks.



Surrey develops new 'supercatalyst' to recycle carbon dioxide and methane

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The University of Surrey has developed a new and cost-effective catalyst to recycle two of the main causes behind climate change -- carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).



Scientists capture colliding organic nanoparticles on video for first time

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A Northwestern University research team is the first to capture on video organic nanoparticles colliding and fusing together. This unprecedented view of 'chemistry in motion' will aid Northwestern nanoscientists developing new drug delivery methods as well as demonstrate to researchers around the globe how an emerging imaging technique opens a new window on a very tiny world.



The future of cell culture: A new continuous bioprocess developed

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists at Newcastle University, UK have developed a revolutionary technique to allow the continuous production and collection of cells.



Cardiorespiratory fitness is essential to reduce risk of coronary heart disease

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death for men in the US. Both cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the blood triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio (TG:HDL ratio) are strong predictors of death from CHD. In the current issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, two new studies highlight the importance of CRF on subsequent CVD and mortality risk. These articles contribute substantive evidence on the importance of achieving moderate to high levels of CRF in both adults and children.



How a poorly explored immune cell may impact cancer immunity and immunotherapy

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The immune cells that are trained to fight off the body's invaders can become defective. It's what allows cancer to develop. So most research has targeted these co-called effector T-cells. But a new study takes a step back and considers: What if the problem isn't with the effector T-cells but starts higher up the cellular chain?



Anti-malaria drug shows promise as Zika virus treatment

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

California researchers have discovered that a medication used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus. The drug, called chloroquine, has a long history of safe use during pregnancy, and is relatively inexpensive. The research was published today in Scientific Reports.



Dog ownership linked to lower mortality

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team of Swedish scientists have used national registries of more than 3.4 million Swedes aged 40 to 80 to study the association between dog ownership and cardiovascular health. Their study shows that dog owners had a lower risk of death due to cardiovascular disease or to other causes during the 12-year follow-up.



New theory rewrites opening moments of Chernobyl disaster

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A brand-new theory of the opening moments during the Chernobyl disaster, the most severe nuclear accident in history, based on additional analysis is presented for the first time in the journal Nuclear Technology, an official journal of the American Nuclear Society.



A popular tool to trace Earth's oxygen history can give false positives

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

If someone cries 'Eureka!' because it looks like oxygen appeared in Earth's ancient atmosphere long before the body of evidence indicated, be careful. If it was a chromium isotope system reading that caused the enthusiasm, it might need to be curbed.



Water world

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Following the path of radicals and being able to identify many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, expeditious and sensitive mass spectrometry, three scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms -- a strain of cyanobacteria -- to develop the first experimental map of that organism's water world.



Novel therapeutic target discovered for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Mount Sinai researchers identify new protein in a common subtype of breast cancer which can potentially offer more effective therapies for the future.



Flu vaccine prevents hospitalization in children

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Children vaccinated against influenza are significantly less likely to experience serious complications from the virus that could land them in hospital, new research from Public Health Ontario (PHO) and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has found.



When male voles drink alcohol, but their partner doesn't, their relationship suffers

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers find that the relationship between prairie vole couples suffers when the male has access to alcohol, but his female partner doesn't -- similar to what has been observed in human couples. The researchers also found changes in a specific brain region in the male voles. The results could help researchers find strategies to overcome the negative effects of alcohol on human relationships.



Risk of distracted driving predicted by age, gender, personality and driving frequency

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The first study of how personal traits affect driver distraction finds that young men, extroverted or neurotic people, and people who drive more often are more likely to report being distracted during driving, while older women and those who feel they could control their distracted behavior are less likely to report distraction. The study also proposes future directions for interventions to reduce distracted driving.



'Ion billiards' cue novel material synthesis method

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team of Hokkaido University researchers has developed a novel material synthesis method called proton-driven ion introduction (PDII) which utilizes a phenomenon similar to 'ion billiards.' The new method could pave the way for creating numerous new materials, thus drastically advancing materials sciences.



Using eDNA to identify the breeding habitat of endangered species

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using wide-ranging eDNA analysis combined with traditional collection survey methods, Japanese researchers have identified the breeding site of critically endangered fish species Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan. The findings were published on November 14 in the online edition of The Science of Nature - Naturwissenschaften.



Want safe travels? Find freeways with these features

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A solid median, wide shoulders, minimal hills -- and a high speed limit? Brigham Young University researchers explore freeway features that minimize crash risk.



Noninvasive brain imaging shows readiness of trainees to perform operations

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

While simulation platforms have been used to train surgeons before they enter an actual operating room (OR), few studies have evaluated how well trainees transfer those skills from the simulator to the OR. Now, a study led by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute that used noninvasive brain imaging to evaluate brain activity has found that simulator-trained medical students successfully transferred those skills to operating on cadavers and were faster than peers who had no simulator training.



NSF-supported scientists present research

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Find related stories on NSF's Critical Zone Observatories.



Detailed view of immune proteins could lead to new pathogen-defense strategies

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Biologists at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley used cryo-EM to resolve the structure of a ring of proteins used by the immune system to summon support when under attack, providing new insight into potential strategies for protection from pathogens. The researchers captured the high-resolution image of a protein ring, called an inflammasome, as it was bound to flagellin, a protein from the whiplike tail used by bacteria to propel themselves forward.



New therapy lessens impact of mistreatment at a young age

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Work underway in a laboratory at the University of Delaware suggest certain drugs can prevent and reduce changes to the brain caused by mistreatment at an early age.



Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The buildup of plaque in the heart's arteries is an unfortunate part of aging. But by studying the genetic makeup of people who maintain clear arteries into old age, researchers led by UNC's Jonathan Schisler, PhD, have identified a possible genetic basis for coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as potential new opportunities to prevent it.



A new way to store thermal energy

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new phase-change material developed at MIT provides a way to store heat in a stable chemical form, then release it later on demand using light as a trigger.



New method analyzes corn kernel characteristics

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

An ear of corn averages about 800 kernels. A traditional field method to estimate the number of kernels on the ear is to manually count the number of rows and multiply by the number of kernels in one length of the ear. With the help of a new imaging machine developed at the University of Illinois breeders can learn the number of kernels per ear, plus a lot more information than can be manually observed.



A new test to measure the effectiveness of CF drugs

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

UNC School of Medicine researchers have developed a new laboratory model to measure and compare the responses of CF and normal airway cells to CF-related infectious/inflammatory factors.



NSF makes new awards to advance Science of Learning

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded $8.2 million through its Science of Learning program to fund 24 new projects that will advance theoretical insights and fundamental knowledge of learning principles, processes, environments and constraints.



Unlocking the secrets of Ebola

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists have identified a set of biomarkers that indicate which patients infected with the Ebola virus are most at risk of dying from the disease. The results come from one of the most in-depth studies ever of blood samples from patients with Ebola. Researchers found 11 biomarkers that distinguish fatal infections from non-fatal ones and two that, when screened for early upon symptom onset, accurately predict which patients are likely to die.



Cross off that 'to do' list, study shows all daily activity can prolong life

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

That 'to do' list of chores and errands could actually provide a variety of health benefits, according to researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine. The study, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, found women over age 65 who engaged in regular light physical activity had a reduction in the risk of mortality.



Neuroscience research provides evidence the brain is strobing not constant

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

It's not just our eyes that play tricks on us, but our ears. That's the finding of a landmark Australian-Italian collaboration that provides new evidence that oscillations, or 'strobes', are a general feature of human perception.While our conscious experience appears to be continuous, the University of Sydney and Italian universities study suggests that perception and attention are intrinsically rhythmic in nature.



New tool predicts risk of heart attack in older surgery patients

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

A tool designed to more accurately predict the risk of heart attack in older patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery works significantly better than traditional risk assessment tools. By having more accurate information, older patients and their physicians can make an informed decision on whether to undergo surgery.



Fossil that fills missing evolutionary link named after UChicago professors

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists recently announced the discovery of a missing evolutionary link--a fossil of the first known member of the modern bryozoans to grow up into a structure. Called Jablonskipora kidwellae, it is named after UChicago geophysical scientists David Jablonski and Susan Kidwell.



Hot and bothered

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Environmental economists predict climate change will bring big manufacturing losses to China by mid-21st century.



Study says homeowners shouldn't count on property appreciation creating wealth

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

The American Dream of homeownership as the path to creating wealth may be due for a revision. A new study by faculty at Florida Atlantic University, Florida International University and the University of Wyoming finds that the property appreciation most homeowners expect when buying a home may be relatively meaningless in terms of building wealth.



A new way to reduce surgery complications stemming from high blood sugar

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using a different marker to track a patient's glycemic levels could help improve outcomes after surgery for diabetic and non-diabetic patients alike.



Defining the danger zone: New mapping software makes live-fire training safer

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

To better protect warfighters during live-fire training, the Office of Naval Research's (ONR) TechSolutions program has sponsored the development of a new Google Maps-style software tool to map out training areas in great detail.



Redefining obesity in postmenopausal women

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

There is no doubt the prevalence of obesity has increased significantly across all age groups, creating greater health risks. What exactly constitutes obesity, however, is subject to debate, especially for postmenopausal women who have a different body composition than younger women. A study published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS), demonstrates that the long-accepted BMI definition for obesity may no longer be accurate.



Research reveals biological mechanism of a leading cause of childhood blindness

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute (VTCRI) have revealed the pathology of cells and structures stricken by optic nerve hypoplasia, a leading cause of childhood blindness in developed nations.



One Health researchers identify hot spots of tick-borne diseases in Mongolia

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Given the critical role livestock play in Mongolia, transmission of tick-borne diseases can have very real health and economic implications for livestock and herders. George Mason University's Dr. Michael von Fricken and colleagues explored the interaction between nomadic herders, the livestock they own, and the tick-borne diseases they are exposed to.



NASA detects solar flare pulses at sun and Earth

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Two recent studies show how solar flares exhibit pulses or oscillations in the amount of energy being sent out. Such research provides new insights on the origins of these massive solar flares and the space weather they produce. This is key information as humans and robotic missions venture out into the solar system, farther and farther from Earth.



Using social media big data to combat prescription drug crisis

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers conducted a critical review of existing literature to determine whether social media big data can be used to understand communication and behavioral patterns related to prescription drug abuse. Their study found that with proper research methods and attention to privacy and ethical issues, social media big data can reveal important information concerning drug abuse, such as user-reported side effects, drug cravings, emotional states, and risky behaviors.



New physical model explains the origin of Earth's water

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Objects scattered to the inner region of the Solar System by Jupiter's growth brought most of the water now found on Earth. Authors of an journal Icarus article describe a computational model which simulates the gravitational interaction between celestial bodies during the era of planet formation, also providing basis for the hypothesis of the dragging of water-rich "planetesimals".



Women-run start-ups hampered by bias among male investors, Caltech study finds

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Michael Ewens of Caltech and Richard Townsend of UC San Diego examined data for nearly 18,000 start-ups and found that companies started by women have a harder time finding funding because male investors prefer companies started by men.



New imaging technique peers inside living cells

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Called Ultrasound Bioprobe, the non-invasive approach developed at Northwestern University allows researchers to view sub-cellular structures and their mechanical behavior at nanoscale resolution.



Workplace sexual harassment 'a chronic problem,' says APA president

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Sexual harassment in the workplace is a pervasive, chronic problem that can cause enduring psychological harm, according to the president of the American Psychological Association.



Environmental factors may trigger lupus onset and progression

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

While genetics play a role in the development of Lupus, a systemic autoimmune disease, so do environmental triggers, such as particulates in air pollution and ultraviolet light, says a University of Cincinnati researcher.



Computer program finds new uses for old drugs

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have developed a computer program to find new indications for old drugs. The computer program, called DrugPredict, matches existing data about FDA-approved drugs to diseases, and predicts potential drug efficacy. In a recent study published in Oncogene, the researchers successfully translated DrugPredict results into the laboratory, and showed common pain medications--like aspirin--can kill patient-derived epithelial ovarian cancer cells.