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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Thu, 08 Dec 2016 23:00:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Scientists have focused on certain p53 mutations that generate mutant proteins that promote cancer growth and metastasis. The variants studied are truncated -- they lack half of the domains, or units, of the full-length p53 protein, which enable full-length p53 to enter the cell nucleus and bind DNA, essential in its normal tumor-suppressor function. The truncated mutants act by perturbing mitochondrial function, the team proposes.



'Hyper-starburst' galaxy churns out stars, clues to universe's evolution

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A recently discovered galaxy is undergoing an extraordinary boom of stellar construction, revealed by a group of astronomers led by University of Florida graduate student Jingzhe Ma using NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory.



Meadow restoration studied for potential to build carbon credits in California

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Turning meadow restoration into cleaner air is the goal of researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno. Their Soil Science Laboratory recently partnered with the Earthwatch Institute to better understand how restoration and plant communities relate to the soil carbon in Sierra Nevada mountain meadows. The team aims to develop a model that can predict how much carbon is sequestered in a meadow. The data may be used by the State of California to sell carbon credits through their Cap and Trade program.



Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Scientists from WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society), The Nature Conservancy, and several partners in Brazil and Peru have produced a geographic information system (GIS) 'roadmap' to help guide conservation efforts at large scale in the Amazon River basin, a region roughly the size of the United States.



Perspectives on magnetic reconnection

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Article describes latest research on magnetic reconnection.



UMMS scientists co-discover first 'off-switches' for CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at UMass Medical School and the University of Toronto have discovered the first known 'off-switches' for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, providing much greater control over the edits, according to a new study published in Cell. Erik Sontheimer, PhD, led the research at UMMS.



UH Seidman cancer center expert presents triple-negative breast cancer immunotherapy trial

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A researcher from UH Seidman Cancer Center will discuss his upcoming immunotherapy clinical trial for triple-negative breast cancer at 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. Joseph Baar, MD, PhD, Director of Breast Cancer Research at UH Seidman Cancer Center, will share details about a phase II clinical trial testing the effectiveness of combining carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel with an immunotherapeutic agent called pembrolizumab in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.



Treating cancer, mental health neglect in rural America

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

OHSU Knight Cancer Institute oncologist publishes New England Journal of Medicine 'Perspective' on her experience treating a patient in rural Oregon with breast cancer, mental illness.



Investigating link btwn bedside nursing & avoidable readmissions for older black patients

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

As many as a quarter of all older adults discharged from an acute hospitalization will return within thirty days. Readmissions like these result in increased healthcare costs, functional decline and greater need for skilled nursing when transitioning back to community settings. Older black patients bear a disproportionate risk of readmissions according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and no single approach has been repeatedly effective in reducing readmissions for older black patients.



Study: Mobile money lifts Kenyan households out of poverty

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

MIT Prof. Tavneet Suri is co-author of a new paper showing that mobile-money services have had notable long-term effects on poverty reduction in Kenya -- especially among female-headed households -- and have inspired a surprising occupation shift among women.Published in today's issue of Science, the study estimates that, since 2008, access to mobile-money services increased daily per capita consumption levels of 194,000 -- or 2 percent -- of Kenyan households, lifting them out of extreme poverty.



Scientists determine how much damage memory devices can take in mass transit accidents

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) officials often rely on digital clues left behind in flash memories of any and all electronic devices at a crash site. With the physical forces and high-temperature fires associated with many crashes, memory units are often damaged and sometimes unreadable.Researchers at Binghamton University have figured out how much damage memory units can sustain before becoming unreadable and new repair techniques to retrieve clues off of damaged units, which might help prevent future tragedies.



Shooting, gang violence exposure leads to PTSD

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

The violence that women in disadvantaged neighborhoods experience and witness can result in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and full diagnoses, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study that examined a disadvantaged Chicago neighborhood.



Study finds less fragmentation in muzzleloading and black powder cartridge rifles

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A new study found that traditional bullets for muzzleloading rifles and black powder rifle cartridges fragment less upon impact and may leave far fewer lead fragments in game than a modern high-velocity rifle bullet.



Personality traits and psychiatric disorders linked to specific genomic locations

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified six loci or regions of the human genome that are significantly linked to personality traits, report researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine in this week's advance online publication of Nature Genetics. The findings also show correlations with psychiatric disorders.



Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Veterans Affairs researchers and colleagues are looking to satellites and airport visibility readings to learn about hazardous air conditions facing deployed troops.



Immune system's 'workaround' may explain heart disease in psoriasis patients

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Two new studies out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine describe how the inflammatory response to psoriasis can alter levels of several immune system molecules, ultimately increasing a person's risk of thrombosis, which can include fatal blood clots.



Protein disrupts infectious biofilms

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers discover a protein that inhibits biofilms of a bacterium responsible for many cystic fibrosis infections.



Illusion reveals that the brain fills in peripheral vision

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

What we see in the periphery, just outside the direct focus of the eye, may sometimes be a visual illusion, according to new findings published in Psychological Science. The findings suggest that even though our peripheral vision is less accurate and detailed than what we see in the center of the visual field, we may not notice a qualitative difference because our visual processing system actually fills in some of what we 'see' in the periphery.



In Colorado, self-harm is leading cause of death in new mothers

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Self-harm was the leading cause of pregnancy-associated deaths in Colorado from 2004 to 2014, ahead of car crashes, medical conditions and homicide, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.



Researchers identify biomarkers of response to treatment in invasive breast cancer

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers report at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium that they have identified biomarkers they believe can be used as part of a larger model to predict how patients with HER2-positive operative breast cancer will respond to the targeted treatment trastuzumab, commercially known as Herceptin, and chemotherapy.



Fishery bycatch rapidly driving Mexico's vaquita to extinction, new studies find

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

One of the most sophisticated networks of acoustic detectors ever developed for wildlife science has documented a devastating 34 percent per year decline of Mexico's critically endangered vaquita porpoise, according to a new study published today in the journal Conservation Biology. A companion paper published today in Conservation Letters uses both acoustic and visual surveys to estimate that only about 60 vaquitas remained, as of last year.



Scientists develop new drug screening tool for dystonia

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Duke University researchers have identified a common mechanism underlying separate forms of dystonia, a family of brain disorders that cause involuntary, debilitating and often painful movements, including twists and turns of different parts of the body. The research has led to the development of a new cell-based test that is being deployed on a large scale to identify new drug candidates to treat dystonia.



Neuroimaging categorizes 4 depression subtypes

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Patients with depression can be categorized into four unique subtypes defined by distinct patterns of abnormal connectivity in the brain, according to new research from Weill Cornell Medicine.



Researchers peer into atom-sized tunnels in hunt for better battery

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Battery researchers have used a special electron microscope with atomic-level resolution to show that certain large ions can hold open tunnels in a promising electrode material, so that charge-carrying ions like lithium can enter and exit the electrode easily and quickly -- boosting capacity.



Soil pHertility

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers create a global map of soil pH and illuminate how it changes between wet and dry climates.



Chemical trickery corrals 'hyperactive' metal-oxide cluster

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

After decades of eluding researchers because of chemical instability, key metal-oxide clusters have been isolated in water, a significant advance for growing the clusters with the impeccable control over atoms that's required to manufacture small features in electronic circuits.



Prostate cancer patients more likely to die of other diseases, say 15-year PLCO results

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

15-year PLCO results published this month in Cancer: 'Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die from their disease... now we need to focus on discovering the men that will,' says E. David Crawford, M.D., investigator at the University of Colorado Cancer Center.



Researchers map neural circuitry of songbird learning

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have begun to map the brain circuitry responsible for cultural transmission and species specificity in birdsong.



Research explains why some presents are great to give but not to receive

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

New research from Indiana University's Kelley School of Business highlights common mistakes that people will make this holiday season, including thinking more about the moment they expect when giving a present than the many moments after when their recipients keep and use the gift.



RNA modification important for brain function

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have shown that a new way of regulating genes is vital for the activity of the nervous system. They found that this form of regulation, a chemical modification on RNA called m6A, is also important in influencing whether flies become male or female. This study clearly shows that RNA modifications play an important role.



Scheduling leisure activities makes them less fun

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Nothing ruins a potentially fun event like putting it on your calendar. In a series of studies, researchers found that scheduling a leisure activity like seeing a movie or taking a coffee break led people to anticipate less enjoyment and actually enjoy the event less than if the same activities were unplanned.



NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Vardah spinning near Andaman Islands

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

As NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Bay of Bengal, Tropical Cyclone 05B was renamed Vardah and continued moving away from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.



Mixed results

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

The 2016 Ocean Health Index shows no major declines -- and few real improvements.



Rice scientists' study of human migration could help understand cancer metastasis

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A new Rice University study finds that migration for the first humans in America was easier moving east-west as opposed to north-south, largely because the knowledge needed to live in the same climate zones was easily transferable. Researchers said the findings could also shed light on the behavior of metastatic cancers.



UTHealth experts take part in US Surgeon General's first youth e-cigarette report

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from the Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) School of Public Health were the senior scientific editors for the first-ever US Surgeon General's Report on E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults, released today.



An anti-CRISPR for gene editing

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have discovered a way to program cells to inhibit CRISPR-Cas9 activity. 'Anti-CRISPR' proteins had previously been isolated from viruses that infect bacteria, but now University of Toronto and University of Massachusetts Medical School scientists report three families of proteins that turn off CRISPR systems specifically used for gene editing. The work, which appears December 15 in Cell, offers a new strategy to prevent CRISPR-Cas9 technology from making unwanted changes.



Scientists track restoration of communication in minimally conscious patient

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A severely brain injured woman, who recovered the ability to communicate using her left eye, restored connections and function of the areas of her brain responsible for producing expressive language and responding to human speech, according to new research from Weill Cornell Medicine scientists.



Survey: Wait times for voters in 2016 election improved in several key states

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

While many voters reported long lines at polling locations around the country during the 2012 presidential election, this year the overall amount of time people had to wait to vote improved significantly, according to a new survey examining voter experience during the 2016 presidential election. MIT Professor Charles Stewart III presented the preliminary findings of the Survey on the Performance of American Elections, during a conference hosted by the Pew Charitable Trusts.



Localized immunotherapy new possibility to treat bladder cancer

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Antibody-based immunotherapy is a new promising method to treat cancer. Unfortunately, today's treatments can result in adverse side effects. New findings from Uppsala University show an alternative way to administer the therapy, which has the same effect on the tumor but less impact other parts of the body.



Further improvement of qubit lifetime for quantum computers

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. An important prerequisite for the realization of high-performance quantum computers is that the stored data should remain intact for as long as possible. The researchers, including Jülich physicist Dr. Gianluigi Catelani, have developed and tested a technique that removes unpaired electrons from the circuits. These are known to shorten the qubit lifetime.



Collaboration between media and medical journals often leads to misinformation and hysteria

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

When flawed clinical research is reported in the media with hype and sensationalism, it has the potential to have a devastating effect on patients, physicians, the scientific community and eventually society as a whole. In a review article in the journal EMBO Reports, the authors question how controversial and weak studies are publicized by the media and often coupled with a narrative that is either false or with little scientific basis.



Protection against Zika just as important during winter

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Just because temperatures are cooling down as winter approaches, it's no time to let your guard down when it comes to mosquitoes that can carry the Zika virus. LSU Health New Orleans' Dr. James Diaz details characteristics of the mosquitoes capable of transmitting the Zika virus in the United States, their habitats and biting behaviors, as well as control measures, in a paper published in the December 2016, issue of Wilderness & Environmental Medicine.



How miniature predators get their favorite soil bacteria

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Tiny predators in the soil can literally sniff out their prey: soil bacteria, which communicate with each other using scent. A team of researchers from the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) has discovered that these predators -- called protists - 'eavesdrop' on the bacteria's communication. It's a discovery that opens up perspectives for agriculture. The results are available online this month in The ISME Journal, from the publishers of Nature.



Keeping electric car design on the right road

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Pushing nanoscale battery developments in the right direction can help create a sustainable transport sector.



Anxiety measure for children with autism proven reliable

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

In children on the spectrum, anxiety is often masked by the symptoms of autism. But a new variant to a standard anxiety screening method has now proven effective in separating the two and it is leading to important diagnoses.



New tool to help predict dementia risk in older people

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Preventing dementia is a major public health priority worldwide, and intense work is being conducted to formulate effective preventive strategies. Healthy lifestyle changes may help prevent cognitive decline and dementia, but the challenge is to detect early on those who are most at risk and to choose the most relevant preventive measures.



Jefferson Lab-NVIDIA collaboration uses Titan's to boost subatomic particle research

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A research team led by Jefferson Lab's Robert Edwards has been using computation to inform GlueX experiments at Jefferson Lab as well as corroborate experimental findings.



Metaphoring the police: It's all about the right choice of word

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A well-chosen metaphor does wonders to explain concepts, to persuade and to ensure buy-in into any given matter. So says Paul Thibodeau of Oberlin College in the US, lead author of an article in Springer's journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review on the use of metaphors as a form of explanation.



Uncertainties related to climate engineering limit its use in curbing climate change

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Climate engineering refers to the systematic, large-scale modification of the environment using various climate intervention techniques.



Drug use strong predictor for postpartum mental health problems

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

New research finds that a woman's lifetime history of drug use can help predict whether the woman will suffer from problems with stress and anxiety after childbirth. The finding could help health-care providers screen pregnant women for mental health problems and provide relevant treatment.



Review examines rates and predictors of recurrence following surgery for Crohn's disease

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Some patients with Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract, require surgery to remove part or all of the large intestine; however, surgery does not cure the condition and many patients relapse after surgery.



ABIVAX reports on ABX464 as HIV functional cure and treatment for inflammatory diseases

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

ABIVAX presented new preclinical data on ABX464, its first-in-class drug candidate for a functional cure of patients with HIV/AIDS, during this week's HIV DART (Frontiers in Drug Development for Antiretroviral Therapy) conference in Los Cabos, Mexico. The data also show a strong anti-inflammatory effect suggesting a broadening therapeutic potential. A clinical study in IBD will start in 2017.



Higher BMI in adolescence may affect cognitive function in midlife

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have found that higher Body Mass Index (BMI), if it begins in adolescence, can affect cognitive function in midlife. However, the effect appears to be restricted to adults who had a lower socioeconomic position as children.



EEG reveals information essential to users

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

In a study conducted by the Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT) and the Centre of Excellence in Computational Inference (COIN), laboratory test subjects read the introductions of Wikipedia articles of their own choice. During the reading session, the test subjects' EEG was recorded, and the readings were then used to model which key words the subjects found interesting.



GPs not dissatisfied with performance related pay, study finds

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Linking GPs' pay to their performance has no discernible effect on their job satisfaction, a University of Manchester study of almost 2,000 UK doctors over a four-year period has found.



Researchers find the incident commander in the brain's defence system

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark, have come closer to answering the question of how the brain defends itself against viral infections. In the long term, the discovery may turn out to be very important for the treatment of diseases of the brain in which the immune system is involved such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and potentially also psychiatric disorders.



Electron highway inside crystal

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.



Search engines 'could help young people find best mental health resources'

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Search engines and content providers could have a role to play in helping young people find the most reliable mental health resources online, research at the University of Strathclyde has found.



Newly discovered bacteria-binding protein in the intestine

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Deficiency in a certain protein in the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to lead to both inflammation and abdominal fat accumulation in mice. The discovery provides yet another piece of the puzzle of how humans are affected -- or not -- by the large quantities of intestinal bacteria we carry with us.



New biomarker is higher in suicide attempters and associated with stress response

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at Lund and Malmö universities in Sweden have measured a biomarker in cell-free blood plasma which can be linked to an overactive stress system in suicidal individuals. This biomarker can hopefully be used in future psychiatric studies.



UNIST engineers thermoelectric material in paintable liquid form

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A research team affiliated with Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology has developed liquid-like TE materials that can be painted on almost any surface. This new technology can convert exhaust heat into electricity for vehicles and other applications.



Honeybee memories: Another piece of the Alzheimer's puzzle?

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

The honeybee can form complex memories through processes much like those happening in human brains. This study shows that DNA methylation is one molecular mechanism that regulates memory specificity and re-learning, and as such, could control how experiences are integrated over a lifetime.



Role of protein in pancreatic secretion suggests potential method for treating diabetes

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Osaka University-led research revealed contrasting roles for the SNAP23 protein in pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin. Inhibiting SNAP23 with a potential new diabetes drug enabled an alternative related protein of higher efficacy to compensate for its function and increase insulin secretion in mice. The novel therapy also shows promise as a treatment for pancreatitis.



Heavy alcohol use changes adolescents' brain

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Heavy alcohol use during adolescence alters the development of brain, according to a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital. Cortical thinning was observable in young people who had been heavy drinkers throughout their adolescence.



Jumping water striders know how to avoid breaking of the water surface

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

When escaping from attacking predators, different water strider species adjust their jump performance to their mass and morphology in order to jump off the water as fast and soon as possible without breaking of the water surface.



Going with the flow: Facile synthesis of a complex biologically active oligopeptide

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology utilized micro-flow amide bond formation to achieve total synthesis of the structurally complex, biologically active natural product, feglymycin. The technique they developed allows for efficient preparation of requisite oligopeptides containing highly racemizable amino acids and could directly impact how these agents will be synthesized in the future.



Every grain of sand: Method efficiently renders massive assemblies of granular materials

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Be it sand, snow or a bowl of spices, rendering massive aggregations of granular materials is a challenge for animators. A new method developed by researchers from Disney Research, ETH Zurich and Dartmouth College, however, makes it possible to simulate the appearance of a variety of grains or their mixtures, and to do so with unprecedented computational efficiency.



New study shows contact lens therapy effective in slowing myopia progression in children

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A groundbreaking contact lens therapy has potential to impact the fast-growing issue of myopia (nearsightedness) among children. CooperVision Senior Manager of Clinical Research Paul Chamberlain shared two-year interim results from a clinical trial assessing a specially-designed, dual-focus myopia control one-day soft contact lens in reducing the rate of progression of juvenile-onset myopia. His results show that the therapy is effective in slowing myopia progression in children by 59 percent over two years.



WSU study finds people willing to pay more for new biofuels

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

When it comes to second generation biofuels, Washington State University research shows that consumers are willing to pay a premium of approximately 11 percent over conventional fuel.



Copeptin levels associated with renal and cardiac disease in type 1 diabetes patients

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Type 1 diabetes patients with elevated albumin in their urine had three times the risk of life-threatening kidney and cardiac disease as those with normal levels, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.



Contraception influences sexual desire in committed relationships

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

How often women in heterosexual couples desire sex depends on how committed the relationship is and what type of birth control the woman uses.



Dipole orientation: New dimension in super-resolution microscopy

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Recently, a new polarization-dipole azimuth-based super-resolution technique has been proposed by a group of researchers in Peking University (China), Tsinghua University (China), and University of Technology Sydney (Australia). It not only provides a new dimension for super-resolution, but also provides a timely solution to a recent hot debate in the field.



Insomnia prevalent in patients with asthma

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A team of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh has found that insomnia is highly prevalent in adults with asthma and is also associated with worse asthma control, depression and anxiety symptoms and other quality of life and health issues. The study results are published in the current issue of the journal CHEST.



New study finds mammals during age of dinosaurs packed a powerful bite

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A new study by Burke Museum and University of Washington paleontologists describes an early marsupial relative called Didelphodon vorax that lived alongside ferocious dinosaurs and had, pound-for-pound, the strongest bite force of any mammal ever recorded.



High altitudes hamper hummingbirds' ability to manoeuvre: UBC research

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Hummingbirds' ability to accelerate and turn diminishes at high altitudes, but it isn't a lack of oxygen to the body that limits the birds' performance -- it's physics. University of British Columbia researchers captured male adult hummingbirds and transported them to the White Mountain Research Centre in California. The center, situated at 3,800 metres (12,500 feet), allowed the researchers to evaluate the birds' ability to accelerate and turn, and compare them to baselines gathered closer to sea level.



Who needs a body? Not these larvae, which are basically swimming heads

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Most animals we study have adult-like bodies early in their development. But researchers at Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station have found that certain marine worms live for months as little more than a head.



Mobile money access lifted 2 percent of Kenyan households out of poverty, finds new study

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A new study shows the expansion of mobile money helped bring hundreds of thousands of Kenyans out poverty, especially those in female-headed households. The study, published in Science, examined how M-PESA, Kenya's text message-based payments system, spread across the country over six years. The researchers estimate that the expansion of M-PESA lifted 194,000 households, or 2 percent of households in the country, above the poverty line, partly driven by women's access to the technology.



Scientists reveal 'safety catch' within all dividing cells

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have made a major discovery about how cells control when to divide -- representing a step forward in scientists' understanding of one of the most fundamental processes of life.



Will Earth still exist 5 billion years from now?

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

What will happen to Earth when, in a few billion years' time, the sun is a hundred times bigger than it is today? Using the most powerful radio telescope in the world, an international team of astronomers has set out to look for answers in the star L2 Puppis. Five billion years ago, this star was very similar to the sun as it is today.



Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Bacterial resistance does not come just through adaptation to antibiotics, sometimes the bacteria simply go to sleep. An international team of researchers is looking at compounds that attack bacteria's ability to go dormant and have found the first oxygen-sensitive toxin antitoxin system.



Scientists unlock genetic code of diseased lung cells to find new treatments for IPF

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers cracked the complete genetic code of individual cells in healthy and diseased human lung tissues to find potential new molecular targets for diagnosing and treating the lethal lung disease Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). A team of scientists from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, in collaboration with investigators at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, publish their findings Dec. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insights (JCI Insights).



Artificial beta cells

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

ETH researchers have used the simplest approach yet to produce artificial beta cells from human kidney cells. Like their natural model, the artificial cells act as both sugar sensors and insulin producers.



A nano-roundabout for light

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

At TU Wien, it was possible to create a nanoscale optical element that regulates the flow of light particles at the intersection of two glass fibers like a roundabout. A single atom was used to control the light paths.



Pets offer valuable support for owners with mental health problems

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Pets can help people manage their long-term mental health conditions, according to research published in the open access journal BMC Psychiatry.



Antidepressant effects of ketamine

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

New preclinical evidence was put forward by investigators in a series of presentations at the recent meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology suggest that the a metabolite of ketamine can produce antidepressant-like effects in a mouse model of depression. The metabolite is produced when ketamine is broken down in the body. This finding may lead to further research to better understand ketamine's efficacy in depression and its potential side effects.



DNA methylation biomarker for prostate cancer shows promise for accurately determining patient risk

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a biomarker, PITX2 DNA methylation, which is capable of distinguishing cancerous tissue from non-cancerous tissue and predicting the risk of cancer recurrence using only small amounts of tissue obtained from core needle biopsies.



Scientists examine bacterium found 1,000 feet underground

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers find a bacterium 1,000 feet underground (called Paenibacillus) that is resistant to 18 different antibiotics and uses identical methods of defense as similar species found in soils. The scientists identified five novel pathways that were of potential clinical concern.



Tumor found in a 255-million-year-old mammalian ancestor

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A tumor in a 255-million-year-old mammalian ancestor called a gorgonopsian is detailed in a new research letter published online by JAMA Oncology.



Study examines potential effect of regular marijuana use on vision

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A small, preliminary study has found an abnormality involving the retina that may account for altered vision in regular cannabis users. The results are published online by JAMA Ophthalmology.



Study shows new treatment strategy in head & neck cancer not better than current standard

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Results of the largest Canadian clinical trial to date comparing standard treatment for locally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer with an experimental treatment did not show the new treatment is superior.



Fossilized evidence of a tumor in a 255-million-year-old mammal forerunner

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Paleontologists at the University of Washington report that an extinct mammal relative harbored a benign tumor in its jaw made up of miniature, tooth-like structures. The tumor, a compound odontoma, is common to mammals today. But this animal lived 255 million years ago, before mammals even existed.



Blood-borne HPV antibodies indicate head, neck cancer prognosis

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A new study in JAMA Oncology finds that the presence of particular antibodies of human papillomavirus in blood serum are reliable indicators of five-year head and neck cancer survival.



Tracking breast cancer cell genetics reveals longer potential treatment window

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Breast cancer cells break away and spread to other parts of the body relatively late on in breast tumor development, an international team of scientists has shown. The research, jointly led by Dr. Peter Van Loo at the Francis Crick Institute, could help refine cancer therapy and is published in the journal Genome Biology.



Vaping robots measure e-cig vapor delivered to lung cells in the lab

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

New research proves that e-cigarette aerosol droplets are effectively delivered to cell surfaces in lab-based biological tests. There have been several studies comparing the impact of e-cigarette vapor with that of cigarette smoke on cellular models. In order to be confident in the results, it is necessary to demonstrate that the aerosol is effectively delivered to the cells used in these tests.



New test to identify obese women at high risk of developing diabetes in pregnancy

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

In a new study published today in the journal PLOS ONE, a team of researchers led by King's College London have successfully developed a method that more accurately identifies those obese women at high risk of gestational diabetes, than what is currently being used.



Report proposes standards for sharing data and code used in computational studies

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A new report by leaders in computational methods and reproducibility lays out recommendations for ways researchers, institutions, agencies and journal publishers can work together to standardize sharing of data sets and software code. The paper 'Enhancing reproducibility for computational methods' appears in the journal Science.



Against the tide: A fish adapts quickly to lethal levels of pollution

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Evolution is working hard to rescue some urban fish from a lethal, human-altered environment, according to a study led by the University of California, Davis, and published Dec. 9 in the journal Science. Atlantic killifish living in four polluted East Coast estuaries have adapted to levels of highly toxic industrial pollutants that would normally kill them.



Amateur astronomer helps uncover secrets of unique pulsar binary system

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

A professional astrophysicist and an amateur astronomer have teamed up to reveal surprising details about an unusual millisecond pulsar (MSP) binary system comprising one of the fastest-spinning pulsars in our Galaxy and its unique companion star.



Graphene-infused silly putty detects human respiration, spider footsteps

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have created a highly sensitive and effective sensor out of an unusual combination of materials -- graphene sheets and a commercial polymer known as Silly Putty.



Brain neurons help keep track of time

Thu, 08 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST

Turning the theory of how the human brain perceives time on its head, a novel analysis in mice reveals that dopamine neuron activity plays a key role in judgment of time, slowing down the internal clock.