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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 28 May 2017 22:21:02 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Genomics tracks migration from lost empires to modern cities

Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New genomic tools are enabling researchers to overturn long-held beliefs about the origins of populations. Until recently, assumptions about origins were based on where people were buried, but this does not take into account the migrations that scientists now know took place thousands of years ago.



New genomic analysis promises benefit in female urinary incontinence

Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Urinary incontinence in women is common, with almost 50 percent of adult women experiencing leakage at least occasionally. Genetic or heritable factors are known to contribute to half of all cases, but until now studies had failed to identify the genetic variants associated with the condition.



World first study reveals increase in premature deaths in Australian nursing homes

Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The first comprehensive study of deaths in Australian nursing homes has been published today (May 29), revealing a more than 400 percent increase in the incidence of premature and potentially preventable deaths of nursing home residents over the past decade.



Obesity can cause cardiovascular ill-health, even in the young

Sat, 27 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Higher than normal body mass index (BMI) is known to lead to cardiovascular ill-health in mid-to-late life, but there has been limited investigation of its effect in young, apparently healthy, adults. Researchers have now shown that having a higher BMI can cause worse cardiovascular health in those aged as young as 17.



Marine species distribution shifts will continue under ocean warming

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists using a high-resolution global climate model and historical observations of species distributions on the Northeast US Shelf have found that commercially important species will continue to shift their distribution as ocean waters warm two to three times faster than the global average through the end of this century. Projected increases in surface to bottom waters of 6.6 to 9 degrees F (3.7 to 5.0 degrees C) from current conditions are expected.



'Tiny clocks' crystallize understanding of meteorite crashes

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from Western University and the University of Portsmouth are using new imaging techniques to measure the atomic nanostructure of ancient crystal fragments at meteorite impact sites. The end goal? To understand when impacts ended and life began.



Conch shells may inspire better helmets, body armor

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

MIT engineers have uncovered the secret to the exceptional toughness of conch shells, and say the same principles can be used for body armor and helmets.



Study finds Congo's miners often resort to hunting wildlife for food

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study by WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) has revealed how mining for valuable minerals in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a major driving factor in the illegal hunting of great apes and other wildlife for food.



Chemical array draws out malignant cells to guide individualized cancer treatment

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Melanoma is a particularly difficult cancer to treat once it has metastasized, spreading throughout the body. University of Illinois researchers are using chemistry to find the deadly, elusive malignant cells within a melanoma tumor that hold the potential to spread. Once found, the stemlike metastatic cells can be cultured and screened for their response to a variety of anti-cancer drugs, providing the patient with an individualized treatment plan based on their own cells.



Camera on NASA's Lunar Orbiter survived 2014 meteoroid hit

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Images from LRO show a brief violent movement of one of the Narrow Angle Cameras in October of 2014.



A 3-D look at the 2015 El Niño

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

El Niño is a recurring climate pattern characterized by warmer than usual ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific. Two back-to-back 3-D visualizations track the changes in ocean temperatures and currents, respectively, throughout the life cycle of the 2015-2016 El Niño event, chronicling its inception in early 2015 to its dissipation by April 2016.



Increased facial and head injuries after motorcycle helmet law change in Michigan

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Skull fractures and other head and facial injuries from motorcycle trauma in Michigan have doubled since that state relaxed its motorcycle helmet laws, reports a study in the June issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). The new study is one of the first to focus on how helmet laws affect CMF trauma rates.



Total abdominal wall transplantation for complex transplant cases -- experts outline technique

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For some patients undergoing intestinal or multi-organ transplantation, closing the abdominal wall poses a difficult surgical challenge. Total abdominal wall transplantation provides an alternative for abdominal closure in these complex cases, according to a state-of-the-art approach presented in the June issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.



Why communication is vital -- even among plants and fungi

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A plant protein vital to chemical signalling between plants and fungi has been discovered, revealing more about the communication processes underlying symbiosis. Understanding this important relationship could have major consequences for developing more efficient and sustainable agricultural practices around the world.



HIV patients sticking with therapy longer, Medicaid data show

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A large new study based on Medicaid data identifies a clear trend of people staying on their HIV medications longer than they used to.



Tornado spawning Eastern US storms examined by NASA's GPM satellite

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

On Wednesday May 24, 2017, severe weather affected a large area of the eastern United States. That's when the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed over the area and found extremely heavy rainfall and towering clouds in the system.



New insights into the ancestors of all complex life

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team of scientists led by the University of Bristol has provided new insights into the origins of the Archaea, the group of simple cellular organisms that are the ancestors of all complex life.



Darwin was right: Females prefer sex with good listeners

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Almost 150 years after Charles Darwin first proposed a little-known prediction from his theory of sexual selection, researchers have found that male moths with larger antennae are better at detecting female signals.



Alzheimer's Association calls for new strategies against dementia in Scientific American

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The time has come for advancing combination therapies against Alzheimer's disease, explains James A. Hendrix, Ph.D., Alzheimer's Association director of global science initiatives, in a new post appearing this week on Scientific American's 'Observations' blog.



High levels of PFOA found in mid-Ohio River Valley residents from 1991 to 2013

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research from the University of Cincinnati reveals that residents of the mid-Ohio River Valley had higher than normal levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) based on serum samples collected over a 22-year span. The exposure source was likely from drinking water contaminated by industrial discharges upriver. This is the first study of PFOA serum concentrations in US residents in the 1990s.



No green light for latest traffic light app following expert evaluation

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Psychologist Dr Kyle Wilson takes a 'human look' at a new vehicle traffic light app ahead of plans to introduce similar devices into 'connected vehicles'



Study examines role of business angels during periods of austerity

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Government support for 'business angels' is essential even in times of austerity, according to research involving the University of East Anglia (UEA) and University of Glasgow.Business angels - typically wealthy, entrepreneurial individuals who provide capital in return for a proportion of a company's equity -- are recognised in both developed and emerging economies as playing a significant role in stimulating entrepreneurial activity.



Scientists jump hurdle in HIV vaccine design

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have made another important advance in HIV vaccine design.



Dog skull study reveals genetic changes linked to face shape

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A study of dog DNA has revealed a genetic mutation linked to flat face shapes such as those seen in pugs and bulldogs.



Coroners unable to agree on what caused a person's death

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A FORMER top detective turned University of Huddersfield researcher has published his findings that coroners in England and Wales are seemingly unable to agree on what caused a person's death or whether it merits an inquest, even when faced with identical case information.



Venetian physician had a key role in shaping early modern chemistry

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Newly discovered notes show for the first time the Venetian doctor who invented the thermometer and helped lay the foundations for modern medical treatment also played a key role in shaping our understanding of chemistry.



NASA's SDO sees partial eclipse in space

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

On May 25, 2017, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory saw a partial solar eclipse in space when it caught the moon passing in front of the sun. The lunar transit lasted almost an hour, with the moon covering about 89 percent of the sun at the peak of its journey across the sun's face.



Laptops and tablets in the classroom: How to integrate electronic devices in the university

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the authors, the high correlation between student tablet use and greater activity on social networks is worrying. They define this devices as a double-edged sword, as they can be the Trojan horse in which online entertainment invades the classroom in a massive way.



Methicillin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Egypt

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In this article that appeared in Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, Dr. AlaaAbouelfetouh, Associate Professor of Microbiology at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, is gathering the published data describing methicillin resistance in S. aureus (MRSA) in Egypt.



Nagoya University researchers break down plastic waste

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Nagoya University team develops ruthenium catalysts to hydrogenate inert amide bonds under mild conditions. Molecular design of the catalyst framework promotes a key step of the reaction, the transfer of hydrogen to the amide, to greatly improve reactivity. This new low-energy approach may enable designer peptide synthesis and facilitate break down of plastic waste into more useful compounds.



Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier -- by many orders of magnitude -- has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.



Vitamin D in pregnancy may help prevent childhood asthma

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study published today in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has found that taking Vitamin D supplements in pregnancy can positively modify the immune system of the newborn baby, which could help to protect against asthma and respiratory infections, a known risk factor for developing asthma in childhood.



New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new oxygen-deficient titanium dioxide prepared with Mg reduction method drastically improves the carbon dioxide conversion efficiency up to three times the efficiency of existing photocatalyst. It is expected to be applied for carbon dioxide resources and reduction technology.



Self-healing catalyst films for hydrogen production

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Chemists at the Centre for Electrochemical Sciences at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a catalyst with self-healing properties. Under the challenging conditions of water electrolysis for hydrogen production, the catalyst material regenerates itself, as long as the components required for this are present in the electrolyte solution.



Knowledge gap on the origin of sex

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

There are significant gaps in our knowledge on the evolution of sex, according to a research review on sex chromosomes from Lund University in Sweden. Even after more than a century of study, researchers do not know enough about the evolution of sex chromosomes to understand how males and females emerge.



Penn Medicine's Irene Hurford receives Exemplary Psychiatrist Award

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Irene Hurford, MD, an assistant professor in the department of Psychiatry, has received a 2017 Exemplary Psychiatrist Award from the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI).



Penn study finds gray matter density increases during adolescence

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study published by Penn Medicine researchers this month and featured on the cover of the Journal of Neuroscience may help resolve this puzzle, revealing that while volume indeed decreases from childhood to young adulthood, gray matter density actually increases.



Study takes step toward mass-producible quantum computers

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Study takes step toward mass-producible quantum computers.



Fungal enzymes team up to more efficiently break down cellulose

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Cost-effectively breaking down bioenergy crops into sugars that can then be converted into fuel is a barrier to commercially producing sustainable biofuels. Bioenergy researchers are looking to fungi for help; collectively, they can break down almost any substance on earth, including plant biomass. Enabled by US Department of Energy Office of Science User Facilities, a team reports for the first time that early lineages of fungi can form enzyme complexes capable of degrading plant biomass.



People match confidence levels to make decisions in groups

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

When trying to make a decision with another person, people tend to match their confidence levels, which can backfire if one person has more expertise than the other, finds a new study led by UCL and University of Oxford researchers.



Isolated Greek villages reveal genetic secrets that protect against heart disease

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A genetic variant that protects the heart against cardiovascular disease has been discovered by researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators. Reported today in Nature Communications, the cardioprotective variant was found in an isolated Greek population, who are known to live long and healthy lives despite having a diet rich in animal fat.



Open-access genetic screening for hereditary breast cancer is feasible and effective

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Offering open-access genetic testing for the inherited breast cancers BRCA1 and 2 to Ashkenazi women unaffected by cancer, regardless of their family history, enables the identification of carriers who would otherwise have been missed.



Losing sleep over climate change

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

UC San Diego study of US data suggests a sleep-deprived planet by century's end. Researchers show that unusually warm nights can harm human sleep and that the poor and elderly are most affected. Rising temperatures will make sleep loss more severe.



Mind-controlled device helps stroke patients retrain brains to move paralyzed hands

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Stroke patients who learned to use their minds to open and close a plastic brace fitted over their paralyzed hands gained some ability to control their own hands when they were not wearing the brace, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The participants, all of whom had moderate to severe paralysis, showed significant improvement in grasping objects.



Penn State DNA ladders: Inexpensive molecular rulers for DNA research

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New license-free tools will allow researchers to estimate the size of DNA fragments for a fraction of the cost of currently available methods. The tools, called a DNA ladders, can gauge DNA fragments ranging from about 50 to 5,000 base pairs in length.



Statins associated with improved heart structure and function

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Statins are associated with improved heart structure and function, according to research presented today at EuroCMR 2017. The benefits were above and beyond the cholesterol lowering effect of statins.



New drug reduces transplant and mortality rates significantly in patients with hepatitis C

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Patients with hepatitis C who suffer from advanced stages of liver disease have renewed hope, thanks to findings by researchers who have discovered that a new drug significantly reduces their risk of death and need for transplantation.



Designer viruses stimulate the immune system to fight cancer

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Swiss scientists from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and the University of Basel have created artificial viruses that can be used to target cancer. These designer viruses alert the immune system and cause it to send killer cells to help fight the tumor. The results, published in the journal Nature Communications, provide a basis for innovative cancer treatments.



Diesel pollution linked to heart damage

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Diesel pollution is linked with heart damage, according to research presented today at EuroCMR 2017.



Researchers develop faster and cheaper cardiac imaging test for developing countries

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers in the UK and Peru have developed a faster and cheaper cardiac imaging test that can be used in developing countries, according to the results of the INCA-Peru study presented today at EuroCMR 2017. The scan is three times faster, less than one-fifth of the cost, and changed clinical management in 33 percent of patients.



Researchers studying century-old drug in potential new approach to autism

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a small, randomized Phase I/II clinical trial (SAT1), researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine say a 100-year-old drug called suramin, originally developed to treat African sleeping sickness, was safely administered to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who subsequently displayed measurable, but transient, improvement in core symptoms of autism.



Study sweetens connection between cancer and sugar

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a new study, scientists at the University of Texas at Dallas have found that some types of cancers have more of a sweet tooth than others. 'It has been suspected that many cancer cells are heavily dependent on sugar as their energy supply, but it turns out that one specific type -- squamous cell carcinoma -- is remarkably more dependent,' said Dr. Jung-whan 'Jay' Kim, senior author of the study.



New cellular target may put the brakes on cancer's ability to spread

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have discovered a biochemical signaling process that causes densely packed cancer cells to break away from a tumor and spread the disease elsewhere in the body.



Dramatic shift in gut microbes and their metabolites seen after weight loss surgery

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study compares the two most common surgical therapies for obesity, known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The results demonstrate that RYGB -- the more aggressive of the two surgeries -- produces profound changes in the composition of microbial communities in the gut, with the resulting gut flora distinct from both obese and normal weight patients, due to the dramatic reorganization of the gut caused by RYGB surgery, which increases microbial diversity.



Small non-profit's unconventional approach offers new hope with autism suramin trial

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Results from a new clinical trial at UCSD School of Medicine using an old drug, suramin, in boys with autism may represent one of the most dramatic advances in autism yet. The findings offer both a new view of what autism is and the possibility of the first-ever treatment for its core symptoms. The trial was supported by N of One: Autism Research Foundation, a small non-profit that has previously demonstrated success funding unorthodox autism research.



Ontario town's 10-year, $2.7 million effort to save endangered turtles offers global lessons, template

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

With C$2.7 million in government and private funding from Canada and the US, a 10-year community-led project on the north shore of Lake Erie has dramatically reduced roadkill on a thoroughfare running through a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve. A new paper estimates 89 percent fewer turtles and 28 percent fewer snakes now venture onto Ontario's Long Point Causeway, an important achievement in protecting at-risk species offering a model for other communities worldwide.



Scientists identify protein linked to chronic heart failure

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers in Japan have identified a receptor protein on the surface of heart cells that promotes chronic heart failure. The study, 'Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 exacerbates chronic cardiac dysfunction,' which will be published May 26 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that inhibiting this protein could help treat a disease that affects more than 20 million people worldwide.



Bioelectricity new weapon to fight dangerous infection

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Changing natural electrical signaling in non-neural cells improves innate immune response to bacterial infections and injury. Tadpoles that received therapeutics, including those used in humans for other purposes, which depolarized their cells had higher survival rates when infected with E. coli than controls. The research has applications for treatment of emerging diseases and traumatic injury in humans.



Latin-Americans with different Native-American ancestry show different health risks

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Latin-Americans originate from a mix of people with Native-American, European and African ancestry. A new study finds that different types of original Native-American ancestry can be associated to different causes of death. Justo Lorenzo Bermejo and Felix Boekstegers from Heidelberg University in Germany, and their Chilean colleagues report these findings in a new study published May 26, 2017, in PLOS Genetics.



Argonne scientists make vanadium into a useful catalyst for hydrogenation

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a new study, Argonne chemist Max Delferro boosted and analyzed the unprecedented catalytic activity of an element called vanadium for hydrogenation -- a reaction that is used for making everything from vegetable oils to petrochemical products to vitamins.



Government transparency limited when it comes to America's conserved private lands

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study led by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison examined why private-land conservation data is sometimes inaccessible and found that limited capacity within some federal agencies as well as laws prohibiting others from disclosing certain information are to blame.



Engines of twingenuity: NASA's twin study investigators have a meeting of the minds

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

NASA's Twins Study investigators met in Houston this week to discuss findings from the final data collections.



Changing climate could have devastating impact on forest carbon storage

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research from a multi-university team of biologists shows what could be a startling drop in the amount of carbon stored in the Sierra Nevada mountains due to projected climate change and wildfire events.



Bouldering envisioned as new treatment for depression

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

UA researcher Eva-Maria Stelzer and her colleagues involved more than 100 individuals in a bouldering intervention in Germany, where some hospitals have begun to use climbing as a therapeutic treatment. The team found the social, mental and physical endurance of bouldering could be successful psychotherapy for treating depression in adults. Stelzer co-led the team, based in Germany, with Katharina Luttenberger of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.



ATS 2017 Wrap-up: Rapid sepsis treatment, predicting mortality after the ICU and more

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Thousands of critical care and pulmonology specialists from across the world gathered this week for the American Thoracic Society International Conference in Washington, D.C., to share research, medical developments and best practices for patient care. Here, we highlight a few standouts.



Tiny shells indicate big changes to global carbon cycle

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Experiments with tiny, shelled organisms in the ocean suggest big changes to the global carbon cycle are underway, according to a study from the University of California, Davis.



Look at Eva, 4 months old and standing

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Both the literature and practice indicate that children can stand without support starting at around 9 months old."But with some training, children can stand much sooner than that, even before they're 4 months old," says Professor Hermundur Sigmundsson at NTNU's Department of Psychology.



The 'ideal' teacher? It's all in your mind

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Two Concordia researchers are turning to Reddit for a more accurate picture of public perceptions of teachers and teaching.



First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Astronomers publish predictions of planetary phenomena on Jupiter that informed spacecraft's arrival.



New medicine shows potential to reduce oral steroid use in severe asthma patients

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The results of the trial, published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine, demonstrate that patients treated with a potential new medicine and antibody, called benralizumab, were more than four times likely to reduce their usage of oral corticosteroids than those taking a placebo.



Kidney transplants from diabetic donors will save more lives, sooner

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a study published today in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, have found that the best chance of survival, for older patients, those who live in areas with long waits for transplantation, or those who already have diabetes, may come from accepting a kidney from a deceased donor who had diabetes.



Sediment from Himalayas may have made 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake more severe

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Sediment that eroded from the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau over millions of years was transported thousands of kilometers by rivers and in the Indian Ocean -- and became sufficiently thick over time to generate temperatures warm enough to strengthen the sediment and increase the severity of the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake.



Research could bring 'drastically' higher resolution to your TV and smartphone

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

By developing a way to tune the color of individual pixels, researchers have eliminated the need for subpixels -- allowing a greater density of pixels and much higher resolution for video displays.



Jupiter's complex transient auroras

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Combined observations from three spacecraft show that Jupiter's brightest auroral features recorded to date are powered by both the volcanic moon Io and interaction with the solar wind.



Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

How water relates to and interacts with biological systems -- like DNA, the building block of all living things -- is of critical importance, and a Cornell University group has used a relatively new form of spectroscopy to observe a previously unknown characteristic of water.



The big star that couldn't become a supernova

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time in history, astronomers have been able to watch as a dying star was reborn as a black hole. It went out with a whimper instead of a bang.



Collapsing star gives birth to a black hole

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Astronomers have watched as a massive, dying star was likely reborn as a black hole.



Landscape-scale erosion instabilities in the northern Gabilan Mesa, California

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

If you ever fly from L.A. to San Francisco, California, you may notice the Gabilan Mesa off to the east as you begin your descent into San Francisco International Airport. If you look carefully, you might notice two strange things: a series of bleach-white scars, where rock outcrops disrupt the smooth, grassy hillslopes, and a strong asymmetry in the orientation of tributaries, with many flowing south and few flowing north.



New approach predicts threats to rainforests

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study by scientists from the universities of Oxford, Montana, and the US Forest Service highlights novel approaches to tackling deforestation. The team focused their research on Borneo, an island that has lost a staggering 30 percent of its forest since the 1970s and is among the most biodiverse and threatened on the planet. The loss of Bornean forests threatens species such as the orangutan, Sumatran rhino, and the Sunda clouded leopard; as well as emitting significant amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.



Cellular stress in the brain may contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight shows that cellular stress in the brain may contribute to development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.



Why this IndyCar driver is outpacing diabetes

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New Michigan State University research is the first to help a professional race car driver with diabetes improve his performance during competition, helping him capture two top-5 finishes at the Indianapolis 500.



In fruit fly and human genetics, timing is everything

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Using fruit flies, UNC-Chapel Hill researchers discovered a cascade of molecular signals that program gene activity to drive the fly from one stage of maturation to the next, like a baby turning into an adult. Part of this programming involves alterations to the way DNA is packaged. Those alterations open certain regions of DNA to allow gene activity and close off other regions to prevent gene activity. These changes to DNA accessibility occur in sequence.



Preliminary: BRCA variations may work alongside COMT variation to reduce breast cancer

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

George Washington University researchers, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, find through looking at genetic data sets of presumed cancer-free women who carry BRCA 1/2 variants, the co-occurrence of a rare COMT genetic variant in some women. This research outlines a strategy for looking at large genetic data sets for clues as to why a genetic carrier may never develop the associated diseases.



SwRI-led Juno mission to Jupiter delivers first science results

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

NASA's Juno mission, led by Southwest Research Institute's Dr. Scott Bolton, is rewriting what scientists thought they knew about Jupiter specifically, and gas giants in general, according to a pair of Science papers released today. The Juno spacecraft has been in orbit around Jupiter since July 2016, passing within 3,000 miles of the equatorial cloudtops.



Ancient genetic markers in sockeye salmon can help manage healthier fish stocks

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A recent study from UBC's Okanagan campus identifies new genetic markers in sockeye salmon that can help improve management of fish populations.



CRKL in 22q11.2; a key gene that contributes to common birth defects

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The research findings imply that patients with genitourinary birth defects due to 22q11.2 changes in gene dosage should also be evaluated for other potential birth defects seen in patients with DiGeorge syndrome that would affect the patient's future health.



Can fat 'feel' fat?

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the University of Iowa have discovered that a molecule which can sense the swelling of fat cells also controls a signaling pathway that allows fat cells to take up and store excess glucose. Mice missing this protein, known as SWELL1, gain less weight (fat) than normal mice on a high-fat diet, but also develop diabetes.



Solving the riddle of the snow globe

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new Tel Aviv University study finds the sedimentation of asymmetric objects in liquid is very different from that of symmetrical objects like spheres. The research may have practical applications in improving water treatment and industrial processes.



Aggressive care at end of life for advanced lung cancer patients linked to poorer outcomes

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For patients with advanced cancer, aggressive care -- chemotherapy, mechanical ventilation, acute hospitalizations and intensive care unit admissions -- at the end of life is commonplace. Yet until now, little is known about the relationship between patients' and families' satisfaction with this aggressive care within the last 30 days of life.



Study finds tai chi significantly reduces depression symptoms in Chinese-Americans

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A Massachusetts General Hospital study finds that a 12-week program of instruction and practice of the Chinese martial art tai chi led to significantly reduced symptoms of depression in Chinese-Americans not receiving any other treatments.



Study implicates 2 genetic variants in bicuspid aortic valve development

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers report a key protein is affected during heart valve formation, in the first genome-wide study of bicuspid aortic valve.



MIT researchers engineer shape-shifting food

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers from MIT's Tangible Media Group have concocted something akin to edible origami, in the form of flat sheets of gelatin and starch that, when submerged in water, instantly sprout into three-dimensional structures, including common pasta shapes such as macaroni and rotini.



Study provides understanding of how nerve cells are damaged by accumulation of abnormal proteins

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study has uncovered a molecular mechanism in the prion protein, a protein responsible for neurodegenerative diseases, which may explain why nerve cells degenerate in these disorders.The findings, which appear in the journal eLife, may one day lead to better therapies and treatments for these diseases



An inflammatory inference

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The surface proteins responsible for navigating immune cells to sites of inflammation are identified.



Targeted conservation could protect more of Earth's biodiversity

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study finds that major gains in global biodiversity can be achieved if an additional 5 percent of land is set aside to protect key species.Scientists from Yale University and the University of Grenoble said such an effort could triple the protected range of those species and safeguard their functional diversity. The findings underscore the need to look beyond species numbers when developing conservation strategies, the researchers said.



How fear can develop out of others' traumas

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

What happens in the brain when we see other people experiencing a trauma or being subjected to pain? Well, the same regions that are involved when we feel pain ourselves are also activated when we observe other people who appear to be going through some painful experience. This is shown in a study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in Nature Communications.



Nation's beekeepers lost 33 percent of bees in 2016-17

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Beekeepers across the United States lost 33 percent of their honey bee colonies during the year spanning April 2016 to April 2017, according to the latest preliminary results of an annual nationwide survey. Rates of both winter loss and summer loss -- and consequently, total annual losses -- improved compared with last year. Winter losses were the lowest recorded since the survey began in 2006-07.



How to prevent lying and drinking in teens, according to research

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Adolescents who have a greater tendency to lie to their parents are also more likely to start using alcohol at an earlier age, while excessive parental supervision may aggravate rather than solve the problem. Both honesty and a lower risk of developing a drinking habit are usually the result of a trusting relationship between a teenager and parents, according to a joint study by New York University and HSE researchers, published at Journal of Adolescence.



Safe space for illegal drug consumption in Baltimore would save $6 million a year

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new cost-benefit analysis conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and others suggests that $6 million in costs related to the opioid epidemic could be saved each year if a single 'safe consumption' space for illicit drug users were opened in Baltimore.



Researchers find new way to control light with electric fields

Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers from North Carolina State University have discovered a technique for controlling light with electric fields.