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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2018 06:21:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Self-esteem key to treating mental health

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Improving how mental health patients perceive themselves could be critical in treating them, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.



Assassination of political leaders connected to increase in social conflict

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

An increase in social conflict increases the likelihood of assassinations of political leaders, according to new research co-conducted by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.



Blacks with atrial fibrillation have significantly higher risk of stroke than whites

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Blacks have a higher incidence of stroke and stroke-associated disability than whites. However, few studies have evaluated racial differences in stroke before a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF). A new report published in HeartRhythm examined stroke risk in the short term prior to a diagnosis of AF. Investigators determined that, although blacks have a lower risk of developing AF, blacks with AF have a significantly higher risk of stroke during this period compared with whites with AF.



African Americans with atrial fibrillation at significantly higher risk for stroke compared to Caucasians with the disease

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

African Americans with atrial fibrillation (AF) -- a quivering or irregular heartbeat that can lead to a host of dangerous complications -- have a significantly higher risk of stroke than Caucasians with the condition, according to new research published today in HeartRhythm by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.



Past encounters with the flu shape vaccine response

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from the University of Chicago, Harvard University and others show that poor immune responses, not egg adaptions, may explain the low effectiveness of the vaccine that year.



Health: Are the dice rolled before ten years of age?

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at UNIGE found that socio-economically disadvantaged individuals in childhood are a greater risk of low muscle strength at an older age. Moreover, this risk is not offset by an improvement in their socio-economic status as adults. This means that inequalities in childhood are biologically embodied to literally 'get into the skin'. Why? They suggest that a physiological deregulation caused by stress in childhood might change the body's ability to maintain good health along time.



Identifying frailty in older patients can predict adverse outcomes after surgery

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Identifying frailty in surgical patients, especially those without apparent disability, will help predict risk of adverse events and repeat hospitalizations, according to research in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).



Parenting behavior in adoptive families

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new longitudinal study of adoptive families looked at whether symptoms of depression in adoptive fathers is also related to over-reactive parenting and behavior problems in children; the study also examined how social support networks affect parenting. It found that fathers' symptoms of depression were related to harsh, over-reactive parenting, but not to children's subsequent behavior problems.



MRI technique differentiates benign breast lesions from malignancies

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

An MRI breast imaging technique that requires no contrast agent, combined with sophisticated data analysis, could reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies, according to a new study.



Younger and older siblings contribute positively to each other's developing empathy

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new longitudinal study looked at whether younger siblings also contribute to their older sisters' and brothers' empathy in early childhood, when empathic tendencies begin to develop. The research found that beyond the influence of parents, both older and younger siblings positively influence each other's empathic concern over time.



Fifteen new genes identified that shape our face

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from KU Leuven (Belgium) and the universities of Pittsburgh, Stanford, and Penn State (US) have identified fifteen genes that determine our facial features. The findings were published in Nature Genetics.



Unconventional superconductor may be used to create quantum computers of the future

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

With their insensitivity to decoherence what are known as Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of a quantum computer. The problem is that they only occur under very special circumstances. Now researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have succeeded in manufacturing a component that is able to host the sought-after particles.



Global grazing lands increasingly vulnerable to a changing climate

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new study shows precipitation variability has increased significantly on 49 percent of the world's grazing lands.



Electrical implant reduces 'invisible' symptoms of man's spinal cord injury

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

An experimental treatment that sends electrical currents through the spinal cord has improved 'invisible' yet debilitating side effects for a Canadian man with a spinal cord injury.



Computers aid discovery of new, inexpensive material to make LEDs with high color quality

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Computers have helped researchers develop a new phosphor that can make LEDs cheaper and render colors more accurately. Researchers predicted the new phosphor using supercomputers and data mining algorithms, then developed a simple recipe to make it in the lab. Unlike many phosphors, this one is made of inexpensive, earth-abundant elements and can easily be made using industrial methods. As computers predicted, the new phosphor performed well in tests and in LED prototypes.



An enzyme's evolution from changing electric fields and resisting antibiotics

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Bacteria can produce enzymes that make them resistant to antibiotics; one example is the TEM beta-lactamase enzyme, which enables bacteria to develop a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins. Researchers at Stanford University are studying this area -- how an enzyme changes and becomes antibiotic-resistant -- and will present their work during the Biophysical Society's 62nd Meeting, held Feb. 17-21, 2018.



In living color: Brightly-colored bacteria could be used to 'grow' paints and coatings

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have unlocked the genetic code behind some of the brightest and most vibrant colors in nature. The paper, published in the journal PNAS, is the first study of the genetics of structural color -- as seen in butterfly wings and peacock feathers -- and paves the way for genetic research in a variety of structurally colored organisms.



Fake news 'vaccine': Online game may 'inoculate' by simulating propaganda tactics

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new experiment, launching today online, aims to help 'inoculate' against disinformation by providing a small dose of perspective from a "fake news tycoon". A pilot study has shown some early success in building resistance to fake news among teenagers.



Study looks at how newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new study published today found that a newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels when it senses inadequate blood flow to tissues.



Farming crops with rocks to reduce CO2 and improve global food security

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Farming crops with crushed rocks could help to improve global food security and reduce the amount of CO2 entering the atmosphere, a new study has found.



Real-time Captcha technique improves biometric authentication

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new login authentication approach could improve the security of current biometric techniques that rely on video or images of users' faces. Known as Real-Time Captcha, the technique uses a unique 'challenge' that's easy for humans -- but difficult for attackers who may be using machine learning and image generation software to spoof legitimate users.



Biodiversity loss raises risk of 'extinction cascades'

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

New research shows that the loss of biodiversity can increase the risk of 'extinction cascades', where an initial species loss leads to a domino effect of further extinctions.



Plants colonized the earth 100 million years earlier than previously thought

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new study on the timescale of plant evolution, led by the University of Bristol, has concluded that the first plants to colonise the Earth originated around 500 million years ago -- 100 million years earlier than previously thought.



Just a few minutes of light intensity exercise linked to lower death risk in older men

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Clocking up just a few minutes at a time of any level of physical activity, including of light intensity, is linked to a lower risk of death in older men, suggests research published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.



Grey's Anatomy TV drama may be distorting public expectations of trauma care

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

The television drama, Grey's Anatomy, may be giving viewers a false impression of the realities of trauma care, including the speed at which patients recover after sustaining serious injuries, finds research published in the online journal Trauma Surgery & Acute Care Open.



2016 junior doctor strikes in England had 'significant impact' on healthcare provision

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

The 2016 junior doctors strikes in England had a 'significant' impact on the provision of healthcare, with thousands of appointments cancelled, and significantly fewer admissions and A&E attendances than expected, reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Open.



Pausing evolution makes bioproduction of chemicals affordable and efficient

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Circumventing evolution in cell factories can pave the way for commercializing new biobased chemicals to large-scale.



Association of risk of death and cigar, pipe and cigarette use

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Contemporary population estimates suggest that like cigarette-only smokers, current cigar-only and pipe-only smokers have a higher risk of dying from cancers known to be caused by tobacco, and cigarette and cigar smokers have a higher risk of death from any cause compared with people who never used tobacco.



Calcium may play a role in the development of Parkinson's disease

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have found that excess levels of calcium in brain cells may lead to the formation of toxic clusters that are the hallmark of Parkinson's disease.



Duplicate genes help animals resolve sexual conflict

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Duplicate copies of a gene shared by male and female fruit flies have evolved to resolve competing demands between the sexes. New genetic analysis by researchers at the University of Chicago describes how these copies have evolved separate male- and female-specific functions that are crucial to reproduction and fertility.



Pattern formation: The paradoxical role of turbulence

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

The formation of self-organizing molecular patterns in cells is a critical component of many biological processes. Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have proposed a new theory to explain how such patterns emerge in complex natural systems.



Insulin goes viral

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center have identified four viruses that can produce insulin-like hormones that are active on human cells. The discovery brings new possibilities for revealing biological mechanisms that may cause diabetes or cancer.



Study identifies traces of indigenous 'Taíno' in present-day Caribbean populations

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A thousand-year-old tooth has provided the first clear genetic evidence that the Taíno -- the indigenous people whom Columbus first encountered on arriving in the New World -- still have living descendants today, despite erroneous claims in some historical narratives that these people are extinct. The findings are likely to have particular resonance for people in the Caribbean and the US who claim Taíno ancestry, but have until now been unable to prove definitively that such a thing is possible.



Unique role of gender is featured in Circulation journal's Go Red For Women issue focused on women's heart health

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

The second Go Red For Women issue of Circulation, a journal of the American Heart Association, features eleven original articles and research letters dedicated to women's heart health. Topics include cardiovascular aspects of pregnancy and its complications; risk factors; symptoms of heart attack and mental stress among others.



Lack of guidance may delay a child's first trip to the dentist

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Without a doctor or dentist's guidance, some parents don't follow national recommendations for early dental care for their children, a new national poll finds.



How the brain responds to injustice

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Punishing a wrongdoer may be more rewarding to the brain than supporting a victim. That is one suggestion of new research published in JNeurosci, which measured the brain activity of young men while they played a 'justice game.'



How companies can restore trust after CEO misconduct

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new study published today in the Journal of Trust Research reveals how boards of directors can proactively address CEO misconduct to increase public trust towards an organization.



Mouse model of intellectual disability isolates learning gene

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Adult male mice lacking a gene linked to intellectual disability have trouble completing and remembering mazes, with no changes in social or repetitive behavior, according to new research published in JNeurosci. This animal model provides a new way to study the role of this gene in learning and memory and provides a rodent model of pure intellectual disability.



TB vaccine trial results offer potential for BCG Revaccination, hope for subunit vaccines

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Aeras, a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing vaccines against tuberculosis (TB), today announced results from an innovative clinical trial that provides encouraging new evidence that TB vaccines could prevent sustained infections in high-risk adolescents. In a prevention-of-infection Phase 2 trial conducted in South Africa, revaccination with the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine significantly reduced sustained TB infections in adolescents. An experimental vaccine candidate, H4:IC31, also reduced sustained infections, although not at statistically significant levels.



Hydroxychloroquine no more effective than placebo for relieving osteoarthritis hand pain

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Hydroxychloroquine is no more effective than placebo for relieving moderate to severe hand pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. The findings of a randomized trial are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.



First video of 'Dumbo' octopod hatchling shows that they look like mini-adults

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers who've gotten the first look at a deep-sea 'dumbo' octopod hatchling report in Current Biology on Feb. 19 that the young octopods look and act much like adults from the moment they emerge from an egg capsule. Dumbo octopods are so named because their fins resemble Dumbo the elephant's ears.



Electric eel-inspired device reaches 110 volts

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

In an effort to create a power source for future implantable technologies, a team of researchers developed an electric eel-inspired device that produced 110 volts from gels filled with water, called hydrogels. Their results show potential for a soft power source to draw on a biological system's chemical energy. Anirvan Guha will present the research during the 62nd Biophysical Society Annual Meeting, Feb. 17-21.



Earthquakes follow wastewater disposal patterns in southern Kansas

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Wastewater created during oil and gas production and disposed of by deep injection into underlying rock layers is the probable cause for a surge in earthquakes in southern Kansas since 2013, a new report in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America concludes.



College roommates underestimate each other's distress, new psychology research shows

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

College roommates are sensitive to their roommates' distress but tend to underestimate the level of distress being experienced by others.



The new bioenergy research center: building on ten years of success

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

The Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, recently embarked on a new mission: to develop sustainable alternatives to transportation fuels and products currently derived from petroleum.



Why bees soared and slime flopped as inspirations for systems engineering

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Honeybees gathering nectar inspired an algorithm that eased the burden of host servers handling unpredictable traffic by about 25 percent. Nature can inspire some great engineering, but it can also lead to some flops. Take slime mold: Standard algorithms beat it hands down to model connectivity. AAAS annual meeting presentation by systems researcher Craig Tovey.



Blood and urine tests developed to indicate autism in children

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

New tests which can indicate autism in children have been developed by researchers at the University of Warwick.The academic team who conducted the international research believe that their new blood and urine tests which search for damage to proteins are the first of their kind.



Using mutant bacteria to study how changes in membrane proteins affect cell functions

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Phospholipids are water insoluble "building blocks" that define the membrane barrier surrounding cells and provide the structural scaffold and environment where membrane proteins reside. During the 62nd Biophysical Society Annual Meeting, held Feb. 17-21, William Dowhan from the University of Texas-Houston McGovern Medical School will present his group's work exploring how the membrane protein phospholipid environment determines its structure and function.



Ras protein's role in spreading cancer

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Protein systems make up the complex signaling pathways that control whether a cell divides or, in some cases, metastasizes. Ras proteins have long been the focus of cancer research because of their role as 'on/off switch' signaling pathways that control cell division and failure to die like healthy cells do. Now, a team of researchers has been able to study precisely how Ras proteins interact with cell membrane surfaces.



What makes circadian clocks tick?

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Circadian clocks arose as an adaptation to dramatic swings in daylight hours and temperature caused by the Earth's rotation, but we still don't fully understand how they work. During the 62nd Biophysical Society Meeting, held Feb. 17-21, Andy LiWang, University of California, Merced, will present his lab's work studying the circadian clock of blue-green colored cyanobacteria. LiWang's group discovered that how the proteins move hour by hour is central to cyanobacteria's circadian clock function.



Studying mitosis' structure to understand the inside of cancer cells

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Cell division is an intricately choreographed ballet of proteins and molecules that divide the cell. During mitosis, microtubule-organizing centers assemble the spindle fibers that separate the copying chromosomes of DNA. While scientists are familiar with MTOCs' existence and the role they play in cell division, their actual physical structure remains poorly understood. Researchers are now trying to decipher their molecular architecture, and they will present their work during the 62nd Biophysical Society Annual Meeting, held Feb. 17-21.



New study sheds light on illegal global trade of pangolins

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Animal traffickers are taking advantage of remote ivory trade routes to smuggle pangolins -- one of the world's most endangered animals -- out of Central Africa, a new study has found.



Research team uncovers hidden details in Picasso Blue Period painting

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A partnership of the Northwestern University/Art Institute of Chicago Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts, the Art Gallery of Ontario and the National Gallery of Art has used multiple modes of light to uncover details hidden beneath the visible surface of Pablo Picasso's painting 'La Miséreuse accroupie', a major work from the artist's Blue Period. The researchers found images connected to other works by Picasso as well as a landscape -- likely by another Barcelona painter -- underneath Picasso's painting.



Unprecedented study of Picasso's bronzes uncovers new details

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Musee national Picasso-Paris and the Northwestern University/Art Institute of Chicago Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts have completed the first major material survey and study of the Musee national Picasso-Paris' Pablo Picasso bronzes using portable instruments. The international research team of scientists, art conservators and curators used the instruments and a database of alloy 'fingerprints' to non-invasively analyze a group of 39 bronzes and 11 painted sheet metal sculptures, revealing new details about the modern master's art.



Personalized curriculum captures students' imagination, interest

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Focusing on their personal DNA and genealogies, middle school students appear to have learned as much as their peers who used case studies, according to a Penn State researcher.



Asteroid 'time capsules' may help explain how life started on Earth

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

In popular culture, asteroids play the role of apocalyptic threat, get blamed for wiping out the dinosaurs -- and offer an extraterrestrial source for mineral mining. But for Georgia Tech researcher Nicholas Hud, asteroids play an entirely different role: that of time capsules showing what molecules originally existed in our solar system. Having that information gives scientists the starting point they need to reconstruct the complex pathway that got life started on Earth.



To sleep, perchance to forget

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

People and other animals sicken and die if they are deprived of sleep, but why is sleep so essential? Psychiatrists Chiara Cirelli and Giulio Tononi proposed the 'synaptic homeostasis hypothesis' (SHY) in 2003. This hypothesis holds that sleep is the price we pay for brains that are plastic and able to keep learning new things. A few years ago, they started research that could show direct evidence for their theory. The result offers visual proof of SHY.



Japanese researchers develop ultrathin, highly elastic skin display

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new ultrathin, elastic display that fits snugly on the skin can show the moving waveform of an electrocardiogram recorded by a breathable, on-skin electrode sensor. Combined with a wireless communication module, this integrated biomedical sensor system -- called 'skin electronics' -- can transmit biometric data to the cloud.



Newborn babies who suffered stroke regain language function in opposite side of brain

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A stroke in a baby -- even a big one -- does not have the same lasting impact as a stroke in an adult. A study led by Georgetown University Medical Center investigators found that a decade or two after a 'perinatal' stroke damaged the left 'language' side of the brain, affected teenagers and young adults used the right sides of their brain for language.



Stretchable electronics a 'game changer' for stroke recovery treatment

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A first-of-its-kind sensor that sticks to the throat and measures speech and swallowing patterns could be a game-changer in the field of stroke rehabilitation.



Understanding roots opens students to science, diversity

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Focusing science education on students through genetic and genealogical studies may be the way to increase minorities in the pipeline and engage students who would otherwise deem science too hard or too uninteresting, according to a Penn State anthropologist.



Scientists shed light on biological roots of individuality

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new study illuminates the biology that guides behavior across different stages of life in worms, and suggests how variations in specific neuromodulators in the developing nervous system may lead to occasional variations.



NASA sees Tropical Storm 10S form along Western Australia Coast

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

After days of lingering off the west Kimberley coast of Western Australia as a slowly organizing low pressure area, Tropical Storm 10S has formed about 50 miles west of Broome, Australia.



How to train like the world's most successful female cross-country skier

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

If you want to be as fast or as strong as the world's most decorated female winter Olympian ever, you'll have to train a lot -- more than 900 hours a year. But don't worry -- most of that training will be low intensity.



Walls, toxicity and explosions: How plant cells protect themselves from salinity in soil

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Roots face many challenges in the soil in order to supply the plant with the necessary water and nutrients. New work shows that one of these challenges, salinity, can cause root cells to explode if the risk is not properly sensed. Salinity has deleterious effects on plant health and limits crop yields, because salt inhibits water uptake and can be toxic for plants. But plant biologists discovered a never-before-described effect that salt has on the plant cell wall.



Cells communicate in a dynamic code

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Caltech scientists discover an unexpectedly dynamic vocabulary for the language of cellular communication.



Children's Hospital Colorado doctors complete first-ever EXIT to ventricular pacing

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at Children's Hospital Colorado completed the first-ever EXIT (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment) to ventricular pacing procedure. The patient, a 36-week fetus with complete atrioventricular block and cardiac dysfunction, was at high risk of pre-term death. While attached to its mother via umbilical cord, the baby received a temporary pacemaker, which stabilized its dangerously low and irregular heart rate and ensured enough blood flow from the heart to the rest of its body for delivery.



NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Gita weakening

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite and the GPM core satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Gita is it began weakening from vertical wind shear.



UNLV study finds no testosterone changes in esports gamers

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Players of the competitive esports video game League of Legends showed no change in testosterone during game play, UNLV researchers have found.



A mineral blueprint for finding Burgess Shale-type fossils

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Scientists have identified a mineral signature for sites that are more likely to contain rare fossils that preserve evidence of soft tissue -- essential information to understanding ancient life.



Researchers demonstrate promising method for improving quantum information processing

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes, work that could spur advancements in quantum information processing and distributed quantum computing.



Penn engineers test drug transfer using placenta-on-a-chip

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and Applied Science have demonstrated the feasibility of their 'organ-on-a-chip' platform in studying how drugs are transported across the human placental barrier.



Link between hallucinations and dopamine not such a mystery, finds study

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) and New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) found that people with schizophrenia who experience auditory hallucinations tend to hear what they expect, an exaggerated version of a perceptual distortion that is common among other people without hallucinations. The researchers found that elevated dopamine could make some patients rely more on expectations, which could then result in hallucinations.



Computers outperform lab rats in detecting toxic chemicals

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

UL, the science safety company, and Johns Hopkins University have embarked on joint research that has resulted in findings that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is superior in finding toxic substances to traditional animal testing. Beyond being more effective, UL's Cheminformatics REACHAcross™ software computer processing can be performed in a matter of seconds and at a fraction of the cost to traditional testing methods.



Stanford scientists eavesdrop on volcanic rumblings to forecast eruptions

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Sound waves generated by burbling lakes of lava atop some volcanoes point to greater odds of magmatic outbursts. This finding could provide advance warning to people who live near active volcanoes.



Pilot study in Kenya shows link between chronic pain and glutamate consumption

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Preliminary research from a small pilot study carried out in Meru, in eastern Kenya, shows a link between chronic pain and consumption of glutamate, a common flavor enhancer found in Western and non-Western diets worldwide.



Immune signature predicts asthma susceptibility

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease driven by the interplay of genetics, environmental factors and a diverse cast of immune cells. In their latest study, researchers at La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI) identified a subset of T cells, whose frequency serves as early childhood immune signature that predicts the risk of developing asthma later on.



Lab-grown human cerebellar cells yield clues to autism

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Increasing evidence has linked autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with dysfunction of the brain's cerebellum, but the details have been unclear. In a new study, researchers at Boston Children's Hospital used stem cell technology to create cerebellar cells known as Purkinje cells from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic syndrome that often includes ASD-like features.



Chinese research advances highlighted in special issue of Human Gene Therapy

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

China is helping to advance gene and cell therapy and genome editing research and clinical development by creating novel viral and nonviral vectors for gene delivery and innovative applications of CRISPR technology in a broad range of disease areas.



'Liquid biopsy' can help predict outcomes in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A clinically relevant 'liquid biopsy' test can be used to profile cancer genomes from blood and predict survival outcomes for patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), according to new research published by a multi-institutional team of researchers with The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James), the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.



Bringing a hidden superconducting state to light

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Using high-intensity pulses of infrared light, scientists found evidence of superconductivity associated with charge 'stripes' in a material above the temperature at which it begins to transmit electricity without resistance--a finding that could help them design better high-temperature superconductors.



Breast reconstruction patients often less satisfied than expected post surgery

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Many breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy with or without immediate reconstruction mispredict future satisfaction with aspects of physical and sexual health post-surgery, according to a new study published by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC -- James).



High levels of microplastics found in Northwest Atlantic fish

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new study finds 73 percent of mesopelagic fish caught in the Northwest Atlantic had microplastics in their stomachs -- one of the highest levels globally. Typically living at depths of 200-1,000 meters, these fish could spread microplastic pollution throughout the marine ecosystem, by carrying microplastics from the surface down to deeper waters. They are also prey for fish eaten by humans, meaning that microplastics could indirectly contaminate our food supply.



New approaches in neuroscience show it's not all in your head

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Our own unique experiences shape how we view the world and respond to the events in our lives. But experience is highly subjective. These differences can matter, especially as a growing body of research shows that our thoughts about and interpretations of our experiences can have physical consequences in our brains and bodies, says University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Healthy Minds founder and director Richard Davidson, in a talk titled: How the Mind Informs the Brain: Depression and Well-Being.



Expanding Hepatitis C testing to all adults is cost-effective and improves outcomes

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

According to a new study, screening all adults for hepatitis C (HCV) is a cost-effective way to improve clinical outcomes of HCV and identify more infected people compared to current recommendations. Using a simulation model, researchers from Boston Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Stanford University found that this expanded screening would increase life expectancy and quality of life while remaining cost-effective.



Even without the clean power plan, US can achieve Paris Agreement emissions reductions

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Carnegie Mellon University researchers have calculated that the US can meet -- or even beat -- the near-term carbon dioxide emission reductions required by the United Nations Paris Agreement, despite the Trump Administration's withdrawal of the Clean Power Plan (CPP).



Dallas researchers study Texas' first federally endangered mussel species

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A team of Texas A&M AgriLife scientists led by Dr. Charles Randklev in Dallas works alongside collaborators to understand the ecology and taxonomy of Texas' first federally endangered mussel species.



ASU professor Davies addresses why we have yet to find extraterrestrial life

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Are we alone in the universe? Few questions have captured the public imagination more than this. Yet to date we know of just one sample of life, that which exists here on Earth. Arizona State University Regents Professor and noted cosmologist Paul Davies will talk about efforts to identify extraterrestrial life at a press briefing Feb. 16 at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Austin, Texas.



Contacting the molecular world through graphene nanoribbons

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Scientists from CIC nanoGUNE, Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Materials Physics Center (CFM) and CiQUS (Center for Research on Biological Chemistry and Molecular Materials) create the tiniest magnetic device contacted, made of a single molecule.



Precision experiments reveal gaps in van der Waals theory

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

An international research team led by Japan's University of Tsukuba and Denmark's Aarhus University used single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements to establish the electron density of TiS2. Given the broad range of applications for 2-D materials, this fundamental understanding is expected to have a wide-reaching influence on their uses, such as in topological insulators, electrode materials, catalysts, and charge-density-wave materials.



First multiplex test for tick-borne diseases

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

A new blood test called the Tick-Borne Disease Serochip (TBD Serochip) promises to revolutionize the diagnosis of tick-borne disease by offering a single test to identify and distinguish between Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and seven other tick-borne pathogens. Led by scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, the research team report details on the new test in the journal Nature: Scientific Reports.



Study sheds light on how plants get their nitrogen fix

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Legumes are widely-consumed plants that use soil bacteria to obtain nitrogen through root nodulation. The process is energetically costly, and so legumes inhibit nodulation when soil nitrate is available. However, the mechanism that drives this inhibition is unknown. Researchers at the University of Tsukuba found that NRSYM1 is responsible for inhibiting nodulation in the presence of nitrate, and acts by directly regulating gene expression. The findings may aid agricultural efforts to improve the crop efficiency of legumes.



Hidden talents: Converting heat into electricity with pencil and paper

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest of components: a normal pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint are sufficient to convert a temperature difference into electricity via the thermoelectric effect. This has now been demonstrated by a team at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.



Fungal enzymes could hold secret to making renewable energy from wood

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

An international team of researchers, including scientists from the University of York, has discovered a set of enzymes found in fungi that are capable of breaking down one of the main components of wood. The enzymes could now potentially be used to sustainably convert wood biomass into valuable chemical commodities such as biofuels.



Study: Rural ranchers face less access to water during drought than urban counterparts

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

The findings highlight a rural-urban divide and show that ranchers' access to water was neither equal nor valued during the drought in Mexico's Baja California Sur state from 2006 to 2012.



New tech for commercial Lithium-ion batteries finds they can be charged 5 times fast

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at WMG at the University of Warwick have developed a new direct, precise test of Lithium-ion batteries' internal temperatures and their electrodes potentials and found that the batteries can be safely charged up to five times faster than the current recommended charging limits.



New treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease from the animal kingdom

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Biomimetics offers an innovative approach to solving human problems by imitating strategies found in nature. Medical research could also benefit from biomimetics, as a group of international experts from various fields, including a scientists from Vetmeduni Vienna, point out using the example of chronic kidney disease. In future research, they intend to study the mechanisms that protect the muscles, organs and bones of certain animals during extreme conditions such as hibernation. Nature Reviews.



Newly-hatched salmon use geomagnetic field to learn which way is up

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers who confirmed in recent years that salmon use the Earth's geomagnetic field to guide their long-distance migrations have found that the fish also use the field for a much simpler and smaller-scale migration: When the young emerge from gravel nests to reach surface waters.



Evolutionary origin of termite gut microbiome revealed

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have shown that the bacterial communities in termite guts came about through both inheritance and transfer between colonies.



How #MeToo, awareness months and Facebook are helping us heal

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at Drexel University, who study our relationships with social network sites, examined how and why women decide to disclose pregnancy loss on Facebook. Their study sheds light on a shift in our social media behavior that is making it easier for people to come forward and share their painful, personal and often stigmatized stories.