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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Thu, 27 Apr 2017 20:21:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Slender face identified as novel marker for left-handedness

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Individuals with a slender lower face are about 25 percent more likely to be left-handed. This unexpected finding was identified in 13,536 individuals who participated in three national surveys conducted in the United States. This association may shed new light on the origins of left-handedness, as slender jaws have also been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, a disease that has shaped human evolution and which today affects 2 billion people.



Rising carbon dioxide levels, ocean acidity may change crucial marine process

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Climate change may be putting cyanobacteria that are crucial to the functioning of the ocean at risk as the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases and the acidity of ocean water changes.



Food insecurity can affect your mental health

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Food insecurity (FI) affects nearly 795 million people worldwide. Although a complex phenomenon encompassing food availability, affordability, utilization, and even the social norms that define acceptable ways to acquire food, FI can affect people's health beyond its impact on nutrition. A new study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine determined that FI was associated with poorer mental health and specific psychosocial stressors across global regions (149 countries), independent of individuals' socioeconomic status.



Protein 'spy' gains new abilities

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Rice University scientists discover a method to rapidly trigger the universal tagging of proteins being produced by a cell. The tagging can be turned on like a switch, which enables researchers to acquire a snapshot of proteins being produced by a cell at a given time.



A little support from their online friends calms test-anxious students

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Reading supportive comments, 'likes' and private messages from social media friends prior to taking a test may help college students who have high levels of test-anxiety significantly reduce their nervousness and improve their scores, a new study by University of Illinois computer science researchers suggests.



UA trauma surgeon seeing rise in burns from electronic cigarettes

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Dr. Gary Vercruysse, a UA-Banner burn surgeon, and his colleagues are seeing a rise in burns from electronic cigarettes. Their study appears in the May 2017 issue of the journal Burns and points to lithium ion battery failure as the culprit.



NRL breakthrough enables safer alternative to lithium-ion batteries

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at NRL have developed a breakthrough alternative to fire-prone lithium-ion batteries.



Staking self-worth on the pursuit of money has negative psychological consequences

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Although people living in consumer-based cultures such as the US often believe that they will be happier if they acquire more money, the findings of a newly published paper by a University at Buffalo research team suggest that there may be downsides to this pursuit.



Allina Health shares LifeCourse model at the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In an Allina Health study, the LifeCourse care model improved patient experience and reduced costs for people with serious illnesses. Researchers say the model is ready for replication.



Treatment improved overall survival in elderly patients with early-stage esophageal cancer

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Elderly patients with early-stage esophageal cancer that received treatment had an increased 5-year overall survival when compared to patients who received observation with no treatment.



Mouse teeth providing new insights into tissue regeneration

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers hope to one day use stem cells to heal burns, patch damaged heart tissue, even grow kidneys and other transplantable organs from scratch.



NASA sees vertical wind shear affecting Tropical Storm Muifa

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Vertical wind shear can weaken a tropical cyclone and that's what's happening to the now weaker Tropical Depression Muifa in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. NASA gathered rainfall information about the storm as wind shear continued to weaken it.



Pregnancy does not increase expectant mothers' melanoma risk

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Expectant mothers need not be concerned that they are more prone to develop melanoma, or will have a worse prognosis if they do get this serious skin cancer, than women who are not pregnant, according to study results published online as an 'article in press' on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website ahead of print publication.



Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Ice cores drilled from a glacier in a cave in Transylvania offer new evidence of how Europe's winter weather and climate patterns fluctuated during the last 10,000 years, known as the Holocene period.



Can early experiences with computers, robots increase STEM interest among young girls?

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Girls start believing they aren't good at math, science and even computers at a young age -- but providing fun STEM activities at school and home may spark interest and inspire confidence. A study from the University of Washington's Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences (I-LABS) finds that, when exposed to a computer-programming activity, 6-year-old girls expressed greater interest in technology and more positive attitudes about their own skills and abilities than girls who didn't try the activity.



NASA sees formation of Tropical Storm Frances near Darwin

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Tropical Storm Frances has formed in the Beagle Gulf, east of the Timor Sea near Darwin, Australia, and NASA's Aqua satellite captured a clear image of the storm.



Analysis: Gender differences in depression appear at age 12

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An analysis just published online has broken new ground by finding gender differences in both symptoms and diagnoses of depression appearing at age 12.



Legal marijuana stores lead to increases in property crime

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Legal marijuana shops are linked to higher levels of property crime in nearby areas, according to a nearly three-year study in Denver.



Strong parent connections enhance children's ability to develop healthy response to stress

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Children in low-income families have an increased chance of thriving when their caregiver relationships include certain positive characteristics, according to new research. Using data from more than 2,200 low-income families surveyed as part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, researchers found that school-age children who reported high levels of parent involvement and supervision were more likely to report behaviors associated with positive emotional development and social growth.



The upside of worrying

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Worry -- it does a body good. And, the mind as well. A new paper by Kate Sweeny, psychology professor at the University of California, Riverside, argues there's an upside to worrying.



Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Investigators report that an ingestible electronic capsule, complete with a capsule-sized antenna capable of receiving a radio signal wirelessly, can safely power a device in the gastrointestinal tract in preclinical models.



Lutein and zeaxanthin isomers demonstrates improved psychological stress levels

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Lutein and zeaxanthin isomers -- known as the macular carotenoids -- are traditionally associated with eye health, but researchers at the University of Georgia found an interesting connection to their function in brain health, showing that they improved psychological stress levels and reduced serum cortisol. The LAMA II (an acronym for Lutein, Vision and Mental Acuity II) study was the subject of a recent paper, which was published in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience, 2017 (Stringham, et al.).



A quarter of nursing home residents are colonized with drug-resistant bacteria

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The significant presence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB), such as E. coli, among nursing home residents demonstrates the need for heightened infection control prevention and control measures in nursing homes, according to a meta-analysis published in the May issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).



A turbo engine for tracing neurons

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Putting a turbo engine into an old car gives it an entirely new life -- suddenly it can go further, faster. That same idea is now being applied to neuroscience, with a software wrapper that can be used on existing neuron tracing algorithms to boost their ability to handle not just big, but enormous sets of data. The wrapper, called UltraTracer, is highlighted this month in Nature Methods.



Survey: Another good year for Chesapeake Bay's underwater grasses

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An annual survey led by researchers at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science shows the abundance of underwater grasses in Chesapeake Bay increased 8 percent between 2015 and 2016, continuing an upward trend initiated in 2012.



Team science critical to diagnosis, prevention, treatment of diseases

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Tackling complex biomedical research increasingly requires the development of new approaches to facilitate innovative, creative and impactful discoveries. A group of scientists from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) show that a team science approach is critical to solving complex biomedical problems and advancing discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human disease.



Using rooster testes to learn how the body fights viruses

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Our bodies are constantly under siege by foreign invaders; viruses, bacteria and parasites that want to infiltrate our cells. Using rooster testes, scientists shed light on how germ cells -- sperm and egg -- protect themselves from viruses so that they can pass accurate genetic information to the next generation. The findings could help researchers better fight viruses in chickens and in people.



Molecule identified that helps give resident T cells in the skin their anti-cancer punch

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The molecule CD103 is key to the long-term residence of T cells in the skin and to their anti-tumor function, report a collaborative team of researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina and Dartmouth In the April 14, 2017 Science Immunology. This finding supplements the ground-breaking discovery by the Dartmouth researchers that T cells residing in the skin are responsible for a potent anti-tumor response against melanoma.



Computational research details the activation mechanism of p38α

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

p38α is a protein involved in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, among other pathological conditions.Published in the journal eLife, the study provides a deeper understanding of the structure of this protein, thereby paving the way for the development of more effective inhibitors.These findings are the result of combining fundamental biological data using computational techniques.



Study shows link between maternal marijuana use and low birth weight

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at Lawson Health Research Institute, Western University and Brescia University College found that women who used marijuana while pregnant were almost three times more likely to have an infant with low birth weight. It is the first large-scale study in Canada to show this association between maternal marijuana use and low birth weight infants.



What causes gene transfer to trigger T cell activation and exhaustion?

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers are beginning to gain a clearer understanding of how the immune system responds, in both a reactive and tolerant way, to gene therapy delivered using what has become the preferred gene delivery vector, adeno-associated viruses (AAV). A new review that takes a comprehensive look at both the AAV-mediated immune reactivation response to gene transfer and the role that regulatory and exhausted T cells play in the development of tolerance to AAV.



Spatial epidemiology used to identify 3 key hepatitis C hotspots in Massachusetts

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Public health researchers from Tufts and colleagues conducted a spatial epidemiology study to identify hotspot clusters of hepatitis C infections in Massachusetts. The information may help to make the best use of funding for education, prevention, testing, and treatment.



Animals actively choose to match their surroundings to avoid predation

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Animals can match their background to avoid detection by predators. For instance, numerous species have evolved color patterns that help them blend into their surroundings and avoid predators -- a phenomenon called crypsis. A new experimental study found that ghost crabs in the Solomon Islands may achieve crypsis by actively choosing to live in sand background that matches their body color.



New analysis of brain network activity offers unique insight into epileptic seizures

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Little is known about which specific areas of the brain contribute to a patient's epileptic network or the roles these different areas play. As a group of researchers in Germany now reports this week in Chaos, one way to get closer to the complex wiring of the human brain is by merging concepts from a timed-based synchronization theory and space-based network theory to construct functional brain networks.



Antidepressant may enhance drug delivery to the brain

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research from the National Institutes of Health found that pairing the antidepressant amitriptyline with drugs designed to treat central nervous system diseases, enhances drug delivery to the brain by inhibiting the blood-brain barrier in rats. The blood-brain barrier serves as a natural, protective boundary, preventing most drugs from entering the brain. The research, performed in rats, appeared online April 27 in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.



Light has new capacity for electronics

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In 'Minority Report,' the protagonist uses gloves that give him the power of virtual manipulation. The light seems to allow him to control the screen as if it were a touchscreen, but he's touching nothing but air. That technology is still science fiction, but a new study may bring it closer to reality. Researchers report in Applied Physics Letters that they have discovered the photodielectric effect, which could lead to laser-controlled touch displays.



Feeling the heat

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

How has thermal comfort changed in recent decades over China against the background of the global warming? Scientists carried out an investigation over the Chinese mainland using the index of effective temperature (ET), which combines the effects of temperature, humidity and wind speed.



Keratin hydrogels show significant potential to regenerate lost muscle tissue & function

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The use of human hair-derived keratin biomaterials to regenerate skeletal muscle has shown promise in new research that documents significant increases in both new muscle tissue formation and muscle function among mouse models of volumetric muscle loss.



Scientists examine impact of high-severity fires on conifer forests

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The ability of some Western conifer forests to recover after severe fire may become increasingly limited as the climate continues to warm, scientists from the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) and Harvard Forest found in a new study published today in Global Change Biology.



New eye test detects earliest signs of glaucoma

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at University College London (UCL) and the Western Eye Hospital have developed a simple, inexpensive diagnostic tool DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells). In clinical trials it allowed for the first time visualization of individual nerve cell death in patients with glaucoma. Early detection means doctors can start treatments before sight loss begins. Initial clinical trials will be published in BRAIN. Ongoing trials are investigating the potential of the test for other neurodegenerative conditions.



National mental-health survey finds widespread ignorance, stigma

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Less than half of Americans can recognize anxiety. Most people don't know what to do about depression even when they spot it. And nearly 8 in 10 don't recognize prescription drug abuse as a treatable problem.



Can yoga reduce symptoms of menstrual disorders?

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A systematic review of the published literature on yoga practice and common menstrual disorders found that all of the studies evaluated reported a beneficial effect and reduced symptoms.



How shifts in excitation-inhibition balance may lead to psychiatric disorders

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a special issue of Biological Psychiatry titled 'Cortical Excitation-Inhibition Balance and Dysfunction in Psychiatric Disorders', guest editors Dr. Alan Anticevic and Dr. John Murray, both of Yale University, bring together seven reviews that highlight advancements in understanding the balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling in the brain, and what might happen when it goes awry.



A new technique makes it possible to extract the DNA from hominids preserved in sediments

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The sediments forming the layers or strata at archaeological sites can be very rich in bone remains, but until now their possible fossil DNA content had not attracted the attention of paleoanthropologists. Now, a new technique developed by an international team, in which the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) has participated, allows the remains of groups of hominids in these sediments to be traced, even in caves or in strata which have no skeletal remains. The results are published in the latest issue of Science.



Winemakers lose billions of dollars every year due to natural disasters

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Every year, worldwide wine industry suffers losses of more than ten billion US dollars from damaged assets, production losses, and lost profits due to extreme weather events and natural disasters. A multidisciplinary European-Australian team of researchers led by Dr. James Daniell of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) examines the extent to which regions are affected by the risks and how climate change influences wine industry.



Wanting more self-control could hinder our efforts to exert self-control, study finds

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study shows that, ironically, wanting to have more self-control could actually be an obstacle to achieving it. It appears that the mere existence of a desire for self-control undermines one's confidence and brings one to disengage from self-control challenges (regardless of one's actual level of self-control).



Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

11.5 percent of bullying victims have extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4 percent of bullies and 8.8 percent of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- compared with less than 1 percent of those who are unaffected by bullying.



Mushrooms get defensive

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Some mushrooms produce long-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids as their chemical defense against insect larvae. The biosynthesis of these polyenes relies on only one enzyme, as German scientists have now discovered. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, they report the unprecedented multiple double-bond-shifting activity by the enzyme, which is representative of a yet uncharacterized phylogenetic clade of polyketide synthases.



Fukomys livingstoni, I presume?

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Two new species of African mole-rat have been discovered by researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), together with colleagues in Tanzania and at the University of Pretoria.



Researchers find key mechanism to control antibody production

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The study may hold implications in future clinical applications concerning more efficient vaccine development or treatment of autoimmune diseases.



Scientists at MIPT explain the way Weyl particles 'dance' on crystal surface

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a theoretical study supervised by MIPT's Prof. Vladimir Volkov, Zhanna Devizorova, a Ph.D. student at MIPT solved the system of Weyl's equations for two valleys "by hand" taking into account the derived boundary conditions, thus analytically finding the shape of Fermi arcs. In effect, they offered a quantitative as well as qualitative description of experimental data and proved that Fermi arc formation is mainly driven by strong intervalley interaction under Weyl fermion scattering on crystal surface.



Shortage of essential diphtheria treatment drugs needs international action, experts warn

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

International action is needed to tackle a global shortage of medicine in Western nations which could hinder the ability of doctors to treat diphtheria, experts have warned.



'Outstanding' results announced from new blood cancer study

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Research led by University of Leicester and University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust reveals 'transformative outcomes' for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.



The key to long female lives may be heterogeneity

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In sparrowhawks diversity in frailty and robustness helps females live longer.



E-cigarettes do not promote cancer growth in lab tests

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study found no evidence that a commercially available e-cigarette vapor promotes the development of cancer in laboratory cells. In contrast, smoke from a reference cigarette was positive for cancer-promoting activity at very low concentrations.



Twitter could have predicted the outcome of the Brexit vote

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Leave campaigners were not only victorious in the June 2016 Brexit vote but also in the battle of the twittersphere, a new study in the British Journal of Politics and International Relations reports.



Cold-water corals: Acidification harms, warming promotes growth

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa is able to counteract negative effects of ocean acidification under controlled laboratory conditions when water temperature rises by a few degrees at the same time. Whether this will also be possible in the natural habitat depends on the degree of change in environmental conditions, researchers from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel argue in a publication in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science.



Metal nanoparticles induced visible-light photocatalysis: Mechanisms, applications, ways of promoting catalytic activity and outlook

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Photocatalysis induced by light absorption of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged as a promising strategy for exploiting efficient visible-light-responsive composites for solar-energy conversion. Lequan Liu et al. from the TU-NIMS International Collaboration Laboratory, Tianjin University, reviewed the mechanisms proposed, its application and possible strategies in promoting catalytic activity of metal-induced photocatalysis (MIP). This work, entitled 'Metal nanoparticles induced photocatalysis,' was published in National Science Review.



Landmark clinical trial to help juvenile idiopathic arthritis sufferers

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A clinical trial funded by Arthritis Research UK and the National Institute for Health Research led by professors from the universities of Liverpool and Bristol has discovered a drug combination that could help thousands of children with arthritis.



Looking for the quantum frontier

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier' -- the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. The team, whose work was highlighted in the first edition of Quantum journal this week, demonstrate that these computations can be performed with near-term, intermediate, quantum computers.



A close look into the barley genome

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An international consortium, with the participation of the Helmholtz Zentrum München, Plant Genome and Systems Biology Department (PGSB), has published methodologically significant data on the barley genome. Their findings are contributing to the development of resistant varieties. The publication appeared in Nature.



Mechanism of the influence of the Tibetan-Iranian Plateaus on the circulation and climate in summer

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The Iranian-Tibetan Plateaus have both dynamic and thermal influences on Asian climate and global circulation. Scientists have been puzzled the mechanism of the influence. Now researchers in Beijing have identified the interactions and feedbacks among the heating over the two plateaus and circulation as well as the associated impacts of such interactions on Asian summer monsoon.



Mental Qigong can be just as rewarding as its physical cousin

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

New research in Frontiers in Psychology demonstrated through an extensive series of EEG measurements and statistical tests that mental practice of the dynamic Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi has the same effect on EEG brain activity as physical training of Qigong.



Flawed forensic science may be hampering identification of human remains

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Research from The Australian National University (ANU) has cast doubt on a method used in forensic science to determine whether skeletal remains are of a person who has given birth.



Exercise and vitamin D better together for heart health

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Johns Hopkins researchers report that an analysis of survey responses and health records of more than 10,000 American adults for nearly 20 years suggests a 'synergistic' link between exercise and good vitamin D levels in reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.



For first time, researchers measure forces that align crystals and help them snap together

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, researchers have measured the force that draws tiny crystals together and visualized how they swivel and align. Called van der Waals forces, the attraction provides insights into how crystals self-assemble, an activity that occurs in a wide range of cases in nature, from rocks to shells to bones.



UBC instructor uses math to investigate possibility of time travel

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

After some serious number crunching, a UBC researcher has come up with a mathematical model for a viable time machine.



Mother's family history could pose risk for preterm birth -- Ben-Gurion U. study

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The results of the study show that the medical history of a pregnant woman's mother and aunts should also be taken into account when considering the risk of pregnancy complications such as premature birth.



Control of molecular motion by metal-plated 3-D printed plastic pieces

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

EPFL scientists have combined 3-D-printing with electroplating to easily produce high-quality metal electrodes that can be used as a molecular beam-splitter.



Discovery in northern lakes may be key to understanding early life on Earth

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team of researchers has discovered that many Canadian lakes can provide new insights into ancient oceans, and their findings could advance research about greenhouse gas emissions, harmful algal blooms, and early life forms.



Stem cells edited to fight arthritis

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Using CRISPR technology, a team of researchers led by Farshid Guilak, Ph.D., at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, rewired stem cells' genetic circuits to produce an anti-inflammatory arthritis drug when the cells encounter inflammation. The technique eventually could act as a vaccine for arthritis and other chronic conditions.



Engineers investigate a simple, no-bake recipe to make bricks from Martian soil

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Explorers planning to settle on Mars might be able to turn the planet's soil into bricks without needing to use an oven or additional ingredients. Instead, they would need to apply pressure to compact the soil--the equivalent of a blow from a hammer. These are findings of a study published in Nature Scientific Reports on April 27, 2017. The study was authored by a team of engineers at the University of California San Diego.



DNA from extinct humans discovered in cave sediments

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have developed a new method to retrieve hominin DNA from cave sediments -- even in the absence of skeletal remains.



Follow-up colonoscopies associated with a significantly lower incidence of bowel cancer

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Patients at risk of developing bowel cancer can significantly benefit from a follow-up colonoscopy, finds research published today in Lancet Oncology.



England's Cancer Drugs Fund 'failed to deliver meaningful value to patients and society'

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Analysis of the drugs that were approved for use by the NHS Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England has shown that the fund was not good value for patients and society and may have resulted in patients suffering unnecessarily from toxic side effects of the drugs. The review by Professor Richard Sullivan and Dr. Ajay Aggarwal is published in Annals of Oncology with an accompanying editorial by Dr. Kapil Dhingra.



Findings suggest underdiagnosis of AMD not uncommon in primary eye care

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Approximately 25 percent of eyes deemed to be normal based on dilated eye examination by a primary eye care ophthalmologist or optometrist had macular characteristics that indicated age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to a study published by JAMA Ophthalmology.



Cleveland Clinic discovers opportunities to overcome cancer treatment resistance

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A collaborative Cleveland Clinic, University of Oxford and Moffitt Cancer Center team of researchers has proven the theory that, while resistance to targeted treatment in cancer is truly a moving target, there are opportunities to overcome the resistance that develops.



Symptoms of cystitis probably caused by bacterial infection, even when tests are negative

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The majority of women suffering with pain when urinating, or needing to urinate often or urgently probably do have a bacterial infection, even when nothing is detected by standard urine testing.



Ocean warming to cancel increased CO2-driven productivity

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

University of Adelaide researchers have constructed a marine food web to show how climate change could affect our future fish supplies and marine biodiversity.



Unification could be good for North Korea, RAND report asserts

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new RAND report identifies the likely concerns of North Korean elites about their possible fates under various unification scenarios and recommends actions that the Republic of Korea (ROK), also known as South Korea, could take now to help North Korean elites feel more positive about, or at least less resistant to, unification.



Ripples in the cosmic web

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team of astronomers has made the first measurements of small-scale ripples in primeval hydrogen gas using rare double quasars.



Study supporting glycated CD59 as a novel alternative for gestational diabetes screening

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Mellitus, LLC reports publication of results from a prospective, investigator-initiated study conducted at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) demonstrating the potential clinical utility of glycated CD59 (GCD59) as a novel biomarker for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).



How do students with debt fare in community college?

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Community college students who borrow up to $1,999 in student loans during their first two years of community college complete 17 percent fewer academic credits in that same time period than their peers who take out $2,000 to $3,999 in loans or do not take out any loans at all. This finding and more were published in a new study out today in The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (a SAGE Publishing journal).



Diagnosed autism linked to maternal grandmother's smoking in pregnancy

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from the University of Bristol have looked at all 14,500 participants in Children of the 90s and found that if a girl's maternal grandmother smoked during pregnancy, the girl is 67 percent more likely to display certain traits linked to autism, such as poor social communication skills and repetitive behaviors.



Weather extremes and trade policies were main drivers of wheat price peaks

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Price peaks of wheat on the world market are mainly caused by production shocks such as induced for example by droughts, researchers found. These shocks get exacerbated by low storage levels as well as protective trade policies, the analysis of global data deriving from the US Department of Agriculture shows. In contrast to widespread assumptions, neither speculation across stock or commodity markets nor land-use for biofuel production were decisive for annual wheat price changes in the past four decades.



Overweight/obese people with diabetes at increased risk of brain abnormalities

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) reveals that overweight and obese individuals with early stage type 2 diabetes (T2D) had more severe and progressive abnormalities in brain structure and cognition compared to normal-weight study participants.



Chemoresistance in breast cancer is related to varying tumor cell populations

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

IDIBELL scientists have recreated and characterized the process of acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy in orthotopic animal models of breast cancer, unveiling the possibility of reversing this resistance after a period of rest from the treatment.



New blood test may better predict gestational diabetes

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have found that a single measurement of GCD59, a novel biomarker for diabetes, at weeks 24-28 of gestation identified, with high sensitivity and specificity, women who failed the glucose challenge test as well as women with gestational diabetes. It was also associated with the probability of delivering a large-for-gestational-age newborn.



Scientists uncover interactions between bacteria that infect the lungs in cystic fibrosis

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Substances produced by a harmful bacterium in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients may enhance the growth of other bacteria that, in turn, inhibit the harmful bacterium's biofilm, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens.



ECDC report shows strong potential of E-health to increase vaccination coverage in Europe

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Twenty one EU/EEA countries have developed or are in the process of developing systems to digitally record information about vaccination, according to a new 'ECDC survey report on immunization information systems implementation and system characteristics'. Fourteen of these countries already have a system in place, whereas innovative systems are being piloted in 7 countries.



Ocean acidification could impair the nitrogen-fixing ability of marine bacteria

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

While increased carbon dioxide levels theoretically boost the productivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the world's oceans, because of its 'fertilizing' effect, a new study reveals how increasingly acidic seawater featuring higher levels of this gas can overwhelm these benefits, hampering the essential service these bacteria provide for marine life.



How domestication altered the genome of ancient horses

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Analyses of 14 ancient horse genomes reveal the significant selective pressures domestication put on these animals, and highlight a relatively recent loss in their genetic diversity.



Human DNA uncovered in caves without bones

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In cave sediments lacking skeletal remains, scientists report having found DNA from ancient humans.



Study quantifies kidney failure risk in living kidney donors

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have developed a risk calculator that estimates the risk of kidney failure after donation. Overall risk was low, but black race and male sex were associated with increased risks of developing kidney failure in living kidney donors. Older age was associated with greater kidney failure risk in nonblack donors, but not in in black donors. Higher BMI and a close biological relationship to the recipient were also associated with increased risks of kidney failure.



Diabetes app forecasts blood sugar levels

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Glucoracle is a new app for people with type 2 diabetes that uses a personalized algorithm to predict the impact of particular foods on blood sugar levels.



New fiber optic probe brings endoscopic diagnosis of cancer closer to the clinic

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In an important step toward endoscopic diagnosis of cancer, researchers have developed a handheld fiber optic probe that can be used to perform multiple nonlinear imaging techniques without the need for tissue staining.



Neurons' faulty wiring leads to serotonin imbalance, depression-like behavior in mice

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Columbia scientists have identified a gene that allows neurons that release serotonin to evenly spread their branches throughout the brain. Without this gene, these branches become entangled, leading to haphazard serotonin distribution, and signs of depression in mice. These observations shed light on how neuronal wiring is critical to overall brain health, while also revealing a promising new research focus for psychiatric disorders associated with serotonin imbalance -- such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism.



Scythian horse breeding unveiled: Lessons for animal domestication

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study led by Professor Ludovic Orlando and published in Science unveils the secrets of horse breeding by Iron Age Scythian nomads. The genomes reconstructed from 14 archaeological horses also provide important insights into the process of animal domestication, supporting changes in the neural crest development pathway as key to the emergence of common domestic traits and revealing major changes in breeding practice during the last 2,300 years.



Hospital acquired complications may be especially dangerous for kidney disease patients

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Potentially preventable hospital acquired complications were associated with increased risks of dying while hospitalized or within 90 days of discharge, as well as with a greater likelihood of staying longer in the hospital and needing to be readmitted. The magnitude of these associations was larger in patients with chronic kidney disease than in those with normal kidney function.



Why do we like our classes? And each other? Our brain waves tell us, new research shows

Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The synchronization of brainwaves among students during class reflects how much they like the class and each other, a team of neuroscientists has found.