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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Sun, 25 Jun 2017 08:21:02 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Atomic imperfections move quantum communication network closer to reality

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications.



Research accelerates quest for quicker, longer-lasting electronics

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In the world of electronics, where the quest is always for smaller and faster units with infinite battery life, topological insulators (TI) have tantalizing potential.In a paper published today in 'Science Advances,' Jing Shi, a professor of physics and astronomy at UC Riverside and colleagues MIT and Arizona State University report they have created a TI film just 25 atoms thick that adheres to an insulating magnetic film, creating a 'heterostructure.'



NASA adds up Tropical Storm Cindy's rainfall

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Tropical storm Cindy was downgraded to a tropical depression after moving onshore near the Texas and Louisiana Border on Thursday June 22, 2017 and bringing a lot of rain with it. That rainfall was measured by NASA using satellite data.



Genes, ozone, and autism

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Exposure to ozone in the environment puts individuals with high levels of genetic variation at an even higher risk for developing autism than would be expected just by adding the two risk factors together, a new analysis shows. The study is the first to look at the combined effects of genome-wide genetic change and environmental risk factors for autism.



Making ferromagnets stronger by adding non-magnetic elements

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered that they could functionalize magnetic materials through a thoroughly unlikely method, by adding amounts of the virtually non-magnetic element scandium to a gadolinium-germanium alloy.



Bird's eye perspective

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Harvard Medical School researchers have now provided the first insight into the perplexing question of how humans developed their daytime vision.



Targeted drug shows promise in rare advanced kidney cancer

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Some patients with a form of advanced kidney cancer benefited from an experimental drug targeted to an abnormal genetic pathway causing cancerous growth, according to research led by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists.



Does the emperor have clothes?

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Discovered more than two decades ago, the hormone leptin has been widely hailed as the key regulator of leanness. Yet, the pivotal experiments that probe the function of this protein and unravel the precise mechanism of its action as a guardian against obesity are largely missing.



Cut US commercial building energy use 29 percent with widespread controls

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The US could slash its energy use by the equivalent of what is currently used by 12 to 15 million Americans if commercial buildings fully used energy-efficiency controls nationwide.



New 3-D model predicts best planting practices for farmers

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The University of Illinois and the Partner Institute for Computational Biology in Shanghai developed a computer model to predict the yield of different crop cultivars in a multitude of planting conditions. Published in BioEnergy Research, the model depicts the growth of 3-D plants, incorporating models of the biochemical and biophysical processes that underlie productivity.



By far, men garner most coveted speaking slots at virology meetings

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In their recent study, published in the Journal of Virology, the University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers examined 35 years worth of invited speaker rosters from four prominent virology meetings, including the American Society for Virology, which is hosting its annual meeting in Madison, Wisconsin starting June 24, 2017. They found that men were overwhelmingly represented. For example, between 1982 and 2017, 77 percent of the speakers at ASV's annual meetings were male.



Lights out: The neural relationship between light and sleep

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

While a great deal is known about how light affects circadian rhythms, little is known about the direct effects of light on sleep: Why do we tend to wake up if the lights are flipped on in the middle of the night? Why does darkness make us sleepy? Caltech researchers in the laboratory of Professor of Biology David Prober say they have discovered at least part of the answer: a specific protein in the brain that responds to light and darkness to set the correct balance between sleep and wakefulness.



Anti-epilepsy drug restores normal brain activity in mild Alzheimer's disease

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a recent feasibility study, BIDMC tested an anti-epileptic drug for its potential impact on the brain activity of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. The team documented changes in patients' EEGs that suggest the drug could have a beneficial effect.



Patient race & gender are important in predicting heart attack in the emergency department

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the George Washington University published research finding that certain symptoms are more and less predictive of patients' risk for acute coronary syndrome, which includes heart attack, in patients of different gender and race.



Bioengineers create more durable, versatile wearable for diabetes monitoring

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas are getting more out of the sweat they've put into their work on a wearable diagnostic tool that measures three diabetes-related compounds in microscopic amounts of perspiration. In a study published recently in Nature Scientific Reports, the team describes their wearable diagnostic biosensor that can detect three interconnected compounds - cortisol, glucose and interleukin-6 - in perspired sweat for up to a week without loss of signal integrity.



More breast cancers were diagnosed at early stage after Affordable Care Act took effect

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A Loyola University Chicago study published this month has found an increase in the percentage of breast cancer patients who were diagnosed in early Stage 1, after the Affordable Care Act took effect. The increases in Stage 1 diagnoses were higher among African American and Latina breast cancer patients, compared to white patients.



NIST/CU team launches 'comb and copter' system to map atmospheric gases

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado Boulder have demonstrated a new mobile, ground-based system that could scan and map atmospheric gas plumes over kilometer distances.



Algorithm generates origami folding patterns for any shape

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new algorithm generates practical paper-folding patterns to produce any 3-D structure.



Self-folding origami

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Plastic with a thousand faces: A single piece of Nafion foil makes it possible to produce a broad palette of complex 3-D structures. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, researchers describe how they use simple chemical 'programming' to induce the foil to fold itself using origami and kirigami principles. These folds can be repeatedly ;erased' and the foil can be 'reprogrammed'.



Chatter in the deep brain spurs empathy in rats

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

By combining electrical monitoring of neural activity with machine learning, a team of Duke and Stanford University neuroscientists has tuned into the brain chatter of rats engaged in helping other rats. The results clarify earlier conflicting findings on the role of specific brain regions, such as the insula, in guiding antisocial and psychopathic behavior, and may shed light on how to encourage altruistic behavior in humans.



Safety-net providers can adopt medical home models and improve primary care

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The medical home model of advanced primary care is being adopted by practices across the nation, but there have been questions about whether the approach can be accomplished in safety net settings. A new study finds that federally qualified health centers that participated in a program to help them adopt a medical home model were successful in doing so, but it did not decrease the use of specialty care, acute care services or Medicare expenditures.



Treating Lyme disease: When do symptoms resolve in children?

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Mattia Chason, M.D., and colleagues in infectious disease examined how quickly Lyme disease symptoms typically resolve in children, a research question that has received little prior study.



More democracy through mathematics

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For democratic elections to be fair, voting districts must have similar sizes. When populations shift, districts need to be redistributed -- a complex and, in many countries, controversial task when political parties attempt to influence redistricting. Mathematicians at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now developed a method that allows the efficient calculation of optimally sized voting districts.



Senate health reform proposal jeopardizes care for us all as we age, AGS experts

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Newest proposal in a line of legislation to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act will harm access to key health services for older Americans, families, caregivers, and healthcare professionals, the AGS has said in a statement.



Leisure activities lower blood pressure in Alzheimer's caregivers

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Going for a walk outside, reading, listening to music--these and other enjoyable activities can reduce blood pressure for elderly caregivers of spouses with Alzheimer's disease, suggests a study in Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine, the official journal of the American Psychosomatic Society. The journal is published by Wolters Kluwer.



Dune ecosystem modelling

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Using the acacia as an example, researchers show that the location has an effect on interaction with other species.



Sweet bribes for ants are key to crops bearing fruit, study shows

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Some flowering crops, such as beans and cotton, carefully manage the amount and sweetness of nectar produced on their flowers and leaves, to recruit colonising ants which deter herbivores. This strategy balances their needs for defence and reproduction.



Special issue of Future Medicinal Chemistry explores advances in neurodegenerative disease therapy

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Future Medicinal Chemistry, a leading MEDLINE indexed journal for medicinal chemists, has published two Special Focus issues on Medicinal Chemistry Advances in Neurodegenerative Disease Therapy.



MRI without contrast agents? Yes, with sugar!

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), in collaboration with colleagues from Heidelberg University Hospital, have been able to visualize brain cancer using a novel MRI method. They use a simple sugar solution instead of conventional contrast agents, which can have side effects in the body.



A unique amino acid for brain cancer therapy

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers discover potential application of amino acid taurine in photodynamic therapy for brain cancer.



Equipping form with function

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Mechanical structures in steerable cars are optimized to fit exactly one particular shape of the toy. If designers want to reuse such a mechanism with different shapes, the necessary adjustments to the components were often unmanageable for non-experts. Scientists at IST Austria have developed an interactive design tool that allows users to easily adjust a mechanical template to the shape of their choice. The tool will be presented at this year's prestigious "SIGGRAPH" conference.



Immunotherapy kinder than chemotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The immunotherapy nivolumab is kinder than chemotherapy for people with advanced head and neck cancer -- easing many of the negative effects of the disease on patients' quality of life.



Does dark matter annihilate quicker in the Milky Way?

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe.



Is it okay for children to count on their fingers?

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Is it OK for children to count on their fingers? Generations of pupils have been discouraged by their teachers from using their hands when learning maths. But a new research article shows using fingers may be a much more important part of maths learning than previously thought.



How insulin in the brain may suppress the subjective feeling of hunger

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Insulin in the brain may help regulate the hunger sensation and improve functional connectivity in certain cognitive brain regions (default-mode network, DMN *) as well as in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. This is the finding of a new study by researchers at the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) in Tübingen.



Following a friend leads to unsafe driving behavior

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study inspired by a court case involving a driver seriously hurt in an accident when following another car to a destination, provides evidence to show that the car behind makes risky driving maneuvers. Driving faster, more erratically, closer to the car in front and jumping traffic lights are all blamed on a fear of getting lost. Drivers are advised to provide the follower with a map or navigational guide before setting off.



Neutron-rich nucleus shapeshifts between a rugby ball and a discus

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers have shown that there are two coexisting, competing quantum shapes at low energy in 98Kr, never before seen for neutron-rich Kr isotopes. The team also showed that these isotopes experience a gentle onset of deformation with added neutrons, in sharp contrast with neighboring isotopes of rubidium, strontium, and zirconium, which change shapes suddenly at neutron number 60. This study marks a decisive step towards an understanding of the limits of this quantum phase transition region, and was published in Physical Review Letters.



How the climate can rapidly change at tipping points

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

During the last glacial period, within only a few decades the influence of atmospheric CO2 on the North Atlantic circulation resulted in temperature increases of up to 10 degrees Celsius in Greenland -- as indicated by new climate calculations from researchers at the Alfred Wegener Institute and the University of Cardiff.



NUS study: Plants sacrifice 'daughters' to survive chilly weather

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A new study by a team of plant biologists from the National University of Singapore found that some plants may selectively kill part of their roots to survive under cold weather conditions.



New research reveals impact of seismic surveys on zooplankton

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Marine seismic surveys used in petroleum exploration could cause a two to three-fold increase in mortality of adult and larval zooplankton, new research published in leading science journal Nature Ecology and Evolution has found. Scientists from IMAS and the Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST) at Curtin University studied the impact of commercial seismic surveys on zooplankton populations by carrying out tests using seismic air guns in the ocean off Southern Tasmania.



Protein mingling under blue light

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

IBS scientists developed a new faster and more efficient optogenetic tool to manipulate protein clusters under blue light.



Don't leave baby boomers behind when designing wearable technology

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Accounting for age-related cognitive and physical challenges can increase adoption rates for older users who need help managing their health.



Dietary and lifestyle recommendations for patients at risk of macular degeneration

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe visual impairment in older populations and is characterized by progressive destruction of the retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptors due to low-grade inflammation, ischemia and oxidative stress. Studies show evidence that carotenoids and antioxidants derived either from the diet or from supplements may significantly reduce the risk of visual loss in these patients.



Putting others first can cost lives in emergencies

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Selfless heroism isn't the best strategy in life-and-death disaster situations involving groups of people, a new study from the University of Waterloo suggests.



Existing drugs could benefit patients with bone cancer, genetic study suggests

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A subgroup of patients with osteosarcoma -- a form of bone cancer -- could be helped by an existing drug, suggest scientists from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators. In the largest genetic sequencing study of osteosarcoma to date, scientists discovered that 10 percent of patients with a genetic mutation in particular growth factor signalling genes may benefit from existing drugs, known as IGF1R inhibitors.



Fungal toxins easily become airborne, creating potential indoor health risk

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Toxins produced by three different species of fungus growing indoors on wallpaper may become aerosolized, and easily inhaled. The findings, which likely have implications for 'sick building syndrome,' were published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.



Experts uncover first molecular events of organ rejection

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Toronto have uncovered the first molecular steps that lead to immune system activation and eventual rejection of a transplanted organ.



Discovery of a new mechanism involved in the migration of cancer cells

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A team of young French researchers has discovered a new mechanism which facilitates cell migration. On the surface of its membrane, the cell develops multiple small hooks which help it to attach to fibers outside the cell and move along them. This action helps us to understand better how a cell escapes from the tumor mass and moves around the body to form a new focus.



Correct connections are crucial

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Working with colleagues from Harvard Medical School and Würzburg, researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have been examining the use of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Parkison's disease in an attempt to optimize treatment effectiveness. The results, describing an effective network profile of deep brain stimulation has been reported in the journal Annals of Neurology*.



Public health guidelines aim to lower health risks of cannabis use

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Canada's Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines, released today with the endorsement of key medical and public health organizations, provide 10 science-based recommendations to enable cannabis users to reduce their health risks. The guidelines, based on a scientific review by an international team of experts, are published in the American Journal of Public Health.



ACP expresses 'strongest opposition' to Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The American College of Physicians (ACP) expresses our strongest possible opposition to the Better Care Reconciliation Act (BCRA) of 2017, legislation to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA).



Turtle go-slow zone extensions needed

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

James Cook University marine scientists are calling for an extension of go-slow zones in turtle habitats to reduce boat strikes on the threatened creatures.



Researchers design sounds that can be recorded by microphones but inaudible to humans

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the University of Illinois have designed a sound that is completely inaudible to humans (40 kHz or above) yet is audible to any microphone. The sound combines multiple tones that, when interacting with the microphone's mechanics, create what researchers call a 'shadow,' which is a sound that the microphones can detect.



Changes to diet, physical activity & behavior may reduce obesity in children, adolescents

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Latest health evidence shows that making changes to diet, physical activity and behavior may reduce obesity in children and adolescents.



Combined molecular biology test is the first to distinguish benign pancreatic lesions

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

When performed in tandem, two molecular biology laboratory tests distinguish, with near certainty, pancreatic lesions that mimic early signs of cancer but are completely benign. The lesions almost never progress to cancer, so patients may be spared unnecessary pancreatic cancer screenings or operations. The two-test combination is the only one to date that can accurately and specifically identify these benign pancreatic lesions.



Child safety or parental duty: New study maps out core concepts in the vaccination debate

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

'A single phrase can conjure up completely different images in our minds, depending on how that concept is organized in our mental models,' said Samarth Swarup, a research assistant professor at Virginia Tech.



Lessons from whale population collapse could help future species at risk

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A study of historic whaling records has revealed there were warning signs that populations of commercially harvested whales were heading for global collapse up to 40 years before the event.The research by scientists from IMAS and Switzerland's University of Zurich has the potential for application to other species to pinpoint early warning signs that a population is at risk of collapse due to pressures such as overfishing or climate change.



New report examines evidence on interventions to prevent cognitive decline, dementia

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Cognitive training, blood pressure management for people with hypertension, and increased physical activity all show modest but inconclusive evidence that they can help prevent cognitive decline and dementia, but there is insufficient evidence to support a public health campaign encouraging their adoption, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.



Researchers show first evidence of using cortical targets to improve motor function

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine's Dr. Monica A. Perez, Associate Professor, Department of Neurological Surgery and The Miami Project, and colleagues, recently published 'A novel cortical target to enhance hand motor output in humans with spinal cord injury' in the June issue of Brain that provides the first evidence that cortical targets could represent a novel therapeutic site for improving motor function in humans paralyzed by spinal cord injury.



Patient-inspired research uncovers new link to rare disorder

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Peroxisomal biogenesis disorder, which has been linked only to lipid metabolism, is also associated with sugar metabolism.



Tourette Syndrome risk increases in people with genetic copy variations

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An international team that just conducted the largest study of Tourette Syndrome has identified genetic abnormalities that are the first definitive risk genes for the disorder.



Scientists uncover origins of the sun's swirling spicules

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, a computer simulation -- so detailed it took a full year to run -- shows how spicules form, helping scientists understand how spicules can break free of the sun's surface and surge upward so quickly.



Seafood poisoning bug thwarts a key host defense by attacking the cell's cytoskeleton

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The leading cause of acute gastroenteritis linked to eating raw seafood disarms a key host defense system in a novel way: It paralyzes a cell's skeleton, or cytoskeleton.



Snake fungal disease identified in wild British snakes for first time

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Europe's wild snakes could face a growing threat from a fungal skin disease that has contributed to wild snake deaths in North America, according to an international collaborative study, led by conservation charity ZSL (Zoological Society of London) alongside partners including the US Geological Survey. The new study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.



Bacterial organizational complexities revealed

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

For the first time, scientists have visualized the fine details of bacterial microcompartment shells -- the organisms' submicroscopic nanoreactors, which are comprised completely of protein.



Intensive blood pressure lowering benefits patients with chronic kidney disease

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In individuals with chronic kidney disease, targeting a systolic blood pressure to <120 mm Hg resulted in lower risks of cardiovascular events and premature death, compared with standard targeting to <140 mm Hg. There was a slightly faster decline in kidney function in the intensive group, but no increase in rates of kidney failure or serious adverse events.



Research suggests sexual appeals in ads don't sell brands, products

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Ads with sexual appeals are more likely to be remembered but don't sell the brand or product, according to a meta-analysis of nearly 80 advertising studies, published online this week by the International Journal of Advertising. Researchers found no positive effect on study participants' ability to remember the brands featured in such ads or on their intention to buy the product. The research was led by University of Illinois advertising professor John Wirtz.



Mouse study suggests how hearing a warning sound turns into fearing it over time

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

An adult mouse model reveals that changes in lattice-like structures in the brain known as perineuronal nets are necessary to 'capture' an auditory fear association and 'haul' it in as a longer-term memory.



New design improves performance of flexible wearable electronics

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a proof-of-concept study, North Carolina State University engineers have designed a flexible thermoelectric energy harvester that has the potential to rival the effectiveness of existing power wearable electronic devices using body heat as the only source of energy.



A rising star

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

It's a tiny marine invertebrate, no more than 3 millimeters in size. But closely related to humans, Botryllus schlosseri might hold the key to new treatments for cancer and a host of vascular diseases.



How do genes get new jobs? Wasp venom offers new insights

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In a study published in Current Biology on June 22, the lab of Professor John Werren at the University of Rochester describes how four closely related species of parasitic wasps change their venoms rapidly in order to adapt to new hosts, and proposes that co-option of single copy genes may be a common but relatively understudied mechanism of evolution for new gene functions, particularly under conditions of rapid evolutionary change.



New biomarker assay detects neuroblastoma with greater sensitivity

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Investigators at The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles have developed and tested a new biomarker assay for quantifying disease and detecting the presence of neuroblastoma even when standard evaluations yield negative results for the disease. Researchers provide the first systematic comparison of standard imaging evaluations versus the new assay that screens for five different neuroblastoma-associated genes and determine that the new assay improves disease assessment and provides prediction of disease progression.



UM research points to previously unknown pine marten diversity

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The elusive American pine marten, a little-studied member of the weasel family, might be more diverse than originally thought, according to new research published by a University of Montana professor.



Study examines gun policy preferences across racial groups

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Support for all forms of gun control is stronger among Latinos and blacks than whites, according to researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago.



UK chemistry researchers develop catalyst that mimics the z-scheme of photosynthesis

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Published in Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, the study demonstrates a process with great potential for developing technologies for reducing CO2 levels.



Tiny nanoparticles offer significant potential in detecting/treating disease new review of work on exosomes

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Exosomes - tiny biological nanoparticles which transfer information between cells - offer significant potential in detecting and treating disease, the most comprehensive overview so far of research in the field has concluded. Areas which could benefit include cancer treatment and regenerative medicine.



How pythons regenerate their organs and other secrets of the snake genome

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Snakes exhibit incredible evolutionary adaptations, including the ability to rapidly regenerate their organs and produce venom. The Castoe group at the University of Texas at Arlington studied these adaptations using genetic sequencing and advanced computing. Supercomputers of the Texas Advanced Computing Center helped the team identify a number of genes associated with organ growth in Burmese pythons, study secondary contact in related rattlesnake species, and develop tools to recognize evolutionary changes caused by natural selection.



Proton pump inhibitors do not contribute to dementia or Alzheimer's disease

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Noting that the prescription of proton pump inhibitors is on the rise among middle-aged and older adults, a team of researchers designed a new study to examine PPIs and the risk of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. They published their study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.



High fat diet reduces gut bacteria, Crohn's disease symptoms

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have shown a high fat diet may lead to specific changes in gut bacteria that could fight harmful inflammation -- a major discovery for patients suffering from Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, a type of inflammatory bowel syndrome, causes debilitating intestinal swelling, cramping, and diarrhea. The disease affects half a million people in the United States, but its cause is yet unclear.



NASA's infrared and radar eyes in space cast on Tropical Storm Cindy

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

NASA's Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Cindy in infrared light to identify areas of strongest storms and the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM satellite found locations of heaviest rainfall as Cindy was making landfall along the US Gulf Coast states.



Popular prostate drug linked to serious side effects

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the commonly prescribed Avodart (Dutsteride) may put men at an increased risk for diabetes, elevated cholesterol levels, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and worsening erectile dysfunction.



Sea sponges stay put with anchors that bend but don't break

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The anchors that hold Venus' flower basket sea sponges to the ocean floor have an internal architecture that increases their ability to bend, according to a new study. Understanding that natural architecture could inform future human-made materials.



NASA's Webb telescope gets freezing summertime lodging in Houston

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope was placed in Johnson Space Center's historic Chamber A on June 20, 2017, to prepare for its final three months of testing in a cryogenic vacuum that mimics temperatures in space.



Holey pattern boosts coherence of nanomechanical membrane vibrations

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute have introduced a new type of nanomechanical resonator, in which a pattern of holes localizes vibrations to a small region in a 30 nm thick membrane. The pattern dramatically suppresses coupling to random fluctuations in the environment, boosting the vibrations' coherence. The researchers' quantitative understanding and numerical models provide a versatile blueprint for ultracoherent nanomechanical devices. Among others, this enables a new generation of nanomechanical sensors to probe quantum limits of mechanical measurements, and more sensitive force microscopy.



White people show race bias when judging deception

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

When making judgments about who is lying and who is telling the truth, new research shows that White people are more likely to label a Black person as a truth-teller compared with a White person, even though their spontaneous behavior indicates the reverse bias. The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.



How eggs got their shapes

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

The evolution of the amniotic egg -- complete with membrane and shell -- was key to vertebrates leaving the oceans and colonizing the land and air but how bird eggs evolved into so many different shapes and sizes has long been a mystery. Now, an international team of scientists took a quantitative approach to that question and found that adaptations for flight may have been critical drivers of egg-shape variation in birds.



Uncomfortable summer heat makes people moody and unhelpful, new research finds

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Associate professor Liuba Belkin of Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Maryam Kouchaki, assistant professor at Northwestern in Evanston, Illinois, conclude in a new study, that when when it's uncomfortably hot, we're less likely to be helpful or 'prosocial.'



Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them.



Unexpected rotation in a stone-dead galaxy

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

joint European-US study led by experts from Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at University of Copenhagen, Denmark, reveals a rotating stellar disk à la the Milky Way in a stone-dead galaxy 10 billion light-years from Earth. This has never been shown before. The galaxy examined is an early version of elliptical-shaped galaxies.



A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

EPFL researchers have found a way around what was considered a fundamental limitation of physics for over 100 years. They were able to conceive resonant systems that can store electromagnetic waves over a long period of time while maintaining a broad bandwidth. Their study, which has just been published in Science, opens up a number of doors, particularly in telecommunications.



On polygamous females and single-parent males

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

On polygamous females and single-parent males Behavioral researchers at Bielefeld University are studying ploversMale plovers survive more successfully in the wild than females. Behavioral researchers at Bielefeld University have studied how sex biases develop across the life span of the plover. They report on the consequences of the surplus of males for rearing chicks in the research journal 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences'.



Negative tweets can trash TV programs for other viewers

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Negative social media comments about a television show tend to lower enjoyment for other viewers, while positive comments may not significantly boost their enjoyment, according to researchers.



Bug spray accumulation in the home

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A newly published article in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry reports that pyrethroids, a common household pesticide known to cause skin irritation, headache, dizziness and nausea, persists in the home for up over one year.



The two faces of rot fungi

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Yogurt, beer, bread and specialties such as tasty blue cheeses or good wine -- special microorganisms and refining processes first produce the pleasant flavors and enticing aromas of many foodstuffs. Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have now investigated the formation of rot in grapes and have shown that when this is caused by certain kinds of mold fungi, the resultant wine can have not only moldy but also floral aromas.



Alzheimer's disease study links brain health and physical activity

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

People at risk for Alzheimer's disease who do more moderate-intensity physical activity, but not light-intensity physical activity, are more likely to have healthy patterns of glucose metabolism in their brain, according to a new UW-Madison study. Results of the research were published today online in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.



Authenticity key to landing a new job

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

At job interviews, relax and be yourself -- if you're good, being yourself may be the best way to secure a job offer, according to a new study involving UCL researchers.



Diabetes patients still produce insulin

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Some insulin is still produced in almost half of the patients that have had type 1 diabetes for more than ten years. Patients with remaining insulin production had much higher levels in blood of interleukin-35, They also had much more immune cells that produce interleukin-35 and dampen immune attacks.



Clinics cut pregnancy risks for obese women

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Specialist antenatal clinics for severely obese mums-to-be can help cut rates of pregnancy complications, research has found. Women who received the specialist care were eight times less likely to have a stillbirth and health experts say the clinic helps them to spot signs of complications sooner.



Video games can change your brain

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

Scientists have collected and summarized studies looking at how video games can shape our brains and behavior. Research to date suggests that playing video games can change the brain regions responsible for attention and visuospatial skills and make them more efficient. The researchers also looked at studies exploring brain regions associated with the reward system, and how these are related to video game addiction.



How pheromones trigger female sexual behavior

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EDT

A study by a group of Japanese scientists showed how a male pheromone in mice enhances sexual behaviors in females -- and how it may enhance a different behavior, aggression, in males -- by identifying distinct neural circuits and neurons that generate a particular behavioral response to specific chemical signals. The findings point to a model for further investigating how sex-specific innate behaviors in living things are controlled.