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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 16:21:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



From tiny phytoplankton to massive tuna

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Phytoplankton are the foundation of ocean life, providing the energy that supports nearly all marine species. Levels of phytoplankton in an ocean area may seem like a good predictor for the amount of fish that can be caught there, but a new study by Nereus Program researchers finds that this relationship is not so straightforward.



Wildlife-snaring crisis in Asian forests

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A very important article co-authored by WCS scientist Tony Lynam has been published in this week's Science about a crisis emerging in Asia from snaring, which is wiping out wildlife in unprecedented numbers.



PPPL physicist uncovers clues to mechanism behind magnetic reconnection

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Physicist Fatima Ebrahimi has published a paper showing that magnetic reconnection -- the process in which magnetic field lines snap together and release energy -- can be triggered by motion in nearby magnetic fields.



FSU scientist's findings on carbon cycle feed climate research

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

FSU Assistant Professor Michael Stukel explains how carbon is transported to deeper waters and why it is happening more rapidly in certain areas of the ocean.



Archaeologists uncover new clues to Maya collapse

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using the largest set of radiocarbon dates ever obtained from a single Maya site, a team of archaeologists, led by the University of Arizona, developed a high-precision chronology that sheds new light on patterns leading up to the two major collapses of the Maya civilization.



U-M researchers discover what makes drug for ulcerative colitis tick

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

For approximately 70 years, physicians have used a medication containing the active agent mesalamine to treat ulcerative colitis, but little was known about how the drug targeted the inflammatory bowel disease.



How race consciousness influences your likelihood of getting a flu shot

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A study led by Professor Sandra Crouse Quinn in the University of Maryland School of Public Health is the first to explore racial factors and how they may influence attitudes and behaviors towards the flu vaccine.



Penn research describes missing step in how cells move their cargo

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A study led by Wei Guo, a professor of biology in the University of Pennsylvania's School of Arts & Sciences, has identified a key activation mechanism that leads to vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane, a part of exocytosis.



Catalyst adds fluorine-containing groups to make new compounds

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

MIT and Boston College chemists have discovered and developed a new class of catalysts that can transfer a fluorine-containing chemical group to other molecules. This reaction should allow researchers to rapidly gene rate potential new drugs, including antibiotics and anticancer agents.



Researcher finds potential way to reduce drug cravings

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new preclinical study led by a University of Texas at Dallas researcher shows that vagus nerve stimulation therapy might have the potential to help people overcome drug addiction by helping them learn new behaviors to replace those associated with seeking drugs.



Post-concussion, peripheral vision reaction times substantially impaired

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A study from the University of Cincinnati reported that patients who sustained a concussion, followed by symptoms of visual dysfunction, experienced significantly delayed central and peripheral vision reaction times.



This man is revolutionizing our understanding of motor neuron diseases and dementias

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Wang's team published a study in the January 2017 issue of Molecular Therapy that is seen as confirming the relevance of this neurotoxic pathway, according to an accompanying editorial by Eloise Hudry, Ph.D., of the Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit at Harvard Medical School. This paper also confirms TDP-43 inhibition as a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of neurologic disorders, including Alzheimer disease.



Improving birthing deliveries with less physical trauma to mom and baby

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Friday, Jan. 27, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with Community Medical Center in Missoula, Montana; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md.; and Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgery Center, San Antonio, Texas, will present their study titled, SAFE PASSAGES implementation reduces perineal trauma.



Study suggests that yoga and exercise fail to improve sleep in midlife women

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study indicates that yoga and aerobic exercise interventions did not significantly reduce objectively measured sleep disturbances among midlife women who were experiencing hot flashes.



Researchers detail novel underlying mechanism involved in PTSD and other anxiety disorders

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Neurobiologist Lynn Dobrunz has discovered a novel mechanism for how stress-induced anxiety -- which can produce post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD -- affects circuit function in the hippocampus, the area of the brain where aversive memories are formed. These studies fill an important gap in knowledge between the molecular, circuit and behavioral effects of the brain-signaling molecule called neuropeptide Y, and could lead to new therapeutic targets for patients with anxiety disorders.



New technique identifies micropollutants in New York waterways

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Cornell University engineers have developed a new technique to test for a wide range of micropollutants in lakes, rivers and other potable water sources that vastly outperforms conventional methods. The new technique -- using high-resolution mass spectrometry -- assessed 18 water samples collected from New York state waterways. A total of 112 so-called micropollutants were found in at least one of the samples.



Enhancing health care

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In Canada, rates of type 2 diabetes are 3 to 5 percent higher in Indigenous peoples when compared to non-Indigenous peoples. Not only this, but Indigenous Canadians typically have poorer health outcomes during treatment of diabetes.



Wasps, ants, and Ani DiFranco

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A University of California, Riverside graduate student has discovered several news species of wasps, including one that she named after musician Ani DiFranco.



New steps in the meiosis chromosome dance

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Where would we be without meiosis and recombination? A new paper published online Jan. 6 in the journal Science describes how proteins called SUMO and ubiquitin and molecular machines called proteasomes play a crucial role in DNA recombination during meiosis.



Arctic melt ponds form when meltwater clogs ice pores

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team including University of Utah mathematician Kenneth Golden has determined how Arctic melt ponds form, solving a paradoxical mystery of how a pool of water actually sits atop highly porous ice.



80-million-year-old dinosaur collagen confirmed

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Utilizing the most rigorous testing methods to date, researchers from North Carolina State University have isolated additional collagen peptides from an 80-million-year-old Brachylophosaurus.



NYC toddlers exposed to potentially harmful flame retardants

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) within the Mailman School of Public Health report evidence of potentially harmful flame retardants on the hands and in the homes of 100 percent of a sample of New York City mothers and toddlers. The study also found that on average toddlers in New York City had higher levels of common flame-retardants on their hands compared to their mothers.



Synthetic nanoparticles achieve the complexity of protein molecules

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Chemists at Carnegie Mellon have demonstrated that synthetic nanoparticles can achieve the same level of structural complexity, hierarchy and accuracy as biomolecules. The study, published in Science, also reveals the atomic-level mechanisms behind nanoparticle self-assembly, providing an important window into how nanoparticles form. The findings could help guide the construction of nanoparticles, including those that can be used in the creation of computer chips, materials, drugs and drug delivery devices.



Insects and umami receptors

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Insects, like mammals including humans, sort chemicals by taste into a few categories and use this information to decide whether to ingest or reject food. University of California, Riverside researchers have identified a receptor playing a key role in insect identification of amino acid, or umami, taste.



Choreographing the microRNA-target dance

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Molecular biologists at UT Southwestern Medical Center were able to uncover a new mechanism that choreographs a complex molecular dance by applying the latest in gene editing technology combined with a traditional method of making a microRNA target produce a fluorescent green protein. The successful 'dance move' -- called Argonaute phosphorylation -- enables a microRNA to switch messenger RNA dance partners more efficiently.



Nicotine normalizes brain activity deficits that are key to schizophrenia

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A steady stream of nicotine normalizes genetically-induced impairments in brain activity associated with schizophrenia, according to new research involving the University of Colorado Boulder. The finding sheds light on what causes the disease and why those who have it tend to smoke heavily.



Jet lag impairs performance of Major League Baseball players

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A Northwestern University study of how jet lag affects Major League Baseball players traveling across just a few time zones found that when players travel in a way that misaligns their internal 24-hour clock with the natural environment and its cycle of sunlight, they suffer negative consequences. The researchers found that jet lag negatively affects the base running of home teams but not away teams and that home and away pitchers both give up more home runs when jet-lagged.



ASU scientist finds advanced geometry no secret to prehistoric architects in US Southwest

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

New research by ASU scientists reveals that the prehistoric Pueblo people of the American Southwest, despite not having a written language or number system, created architectural complexes using advanced geometry -- with incredible mathematical accuracy.



Using simulation tools to optimize soft robotic systems

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Simulation is a valuable tool to improve the energy efficiency of machines and it is now being used to analyze and optimize soft robotic systems to increase their utility, as described in an article published in Soft Robotics.



MacKinnon lab charts the anatomy of three molecular channels

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

By determining the three-dimensional structures of these molecules down to the level of atoms, the researchers have unlocked key details as to how they function in the body.



New health care model cut costs and reduced need for medical services for pregnant women and newborn

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Friday, Jan. 27, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers will present their findings for a study titled, Pregnancy medical home: Outcomes and cost-savings.



Bioinvasion is jeopardizing Mediterranean marine communities

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Non-indigenous species are harming indigenous species and habitats in the Mediterranean Sea, impairing potentially exploitable marine resources and raising concern about human health issues, according to a new Tel Aviv University study.



Scientists say mom's cervical bacterial may be key to preventing premature birth

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A team of researchers that has confirmed the presence of bacteria in a woman's vagina and cervix may either increase the risk of premature birth or have a protective effect against it, has won the March of Dimes Award for Best Abstract on Prematurity at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™. The findings will be presented Thursday, January 26, at 1:15 p.m. PST at Caesars Palace Augustus Ballroom in Las Vegas.



Nurse practitioners step in to fill growing need for house calls

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Nurse practitioners are increasingly providing house calls for frail and elderly patients, eclipsing any other specialties in number of home visits in 2013, new research reveals. However, regulations are hindering the profession's growth in many states even as demand for in-home care climbs, one researcher reports.



On target: UNC researcher arms platelets to deliver cancer immunotherapy

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Tiny blood cells called platelets rush in to start the post-surgical healing process. What if those platelets could carry anti-cancer drugs to wipe out those microtumors? UNC and NC State scientists have developed a way to do just that, and they have shown success in animal studies.



Your Android device's Pattern Lock can be cracked within 5 attempts

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

The popular Pattern Lock system used to secure millions of Android phones can be cracked within just five attempts -- and more complicated patterns are the easiest to crack, security experts reveal.



Study looks at how changes in maternal diet impact human milk oligosaccharides and the milk microbio

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral plenary session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas and University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, will present their findings on a study titled, Maternal Diet Structures the Breast Milk Microbiome in Association with Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Gut-Associated Bacteria.



Trees supplement income for rural farmers in Africa

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Trees may be easy to spot on the plains of Africa but they are often overlooked as a source of income for farmers. A University of Illinois study shows trees on farms may help reduce rural poverty and maintain biodiversity. The study used satellite images showing forest cover and nationally representative household-level data gathered from in-person interviews in Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.



How nicotine acts on the brains of schizophrenic patients

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Several studies have indicated that schizophrenic patients are likely to show a high level of nicotine dependence. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and the ENS used a mouse model to elucidate the mechanism of action of nicotine on cells in the prefrontal cortex. They visualized how nicotine has a direct impact on the restoration of normal activity in nerve cells (neurons) involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.



Not just funny: Satirical news has serious political effects

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Satirical news programs, often dismissed as mere entertainment, have real political effects on the people who watch them, new research suggests.



We need to talk about school start times

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Delaying school start times could help Canadian teenagers sleep better -- giving them a better chance for success, according to McGill University researchers.



Convincing food truck operators to improve nutritional offerings is possible, study finds

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Mobile food trucks called loncheras are common sources of inexpensive away-from-home foods among working-class Latinos and others people in Los Angeles and many other cities. But the food offerings are often nutritionally poor. A new study finds that convincing lunch truck operators and their customers to embrace healthier food is possible, but regulation of menus and better marketing may be needed to make long-lasting changes.



Microscopic submarines for your stomach

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Tiny 'submarines' that speed independently through the stomach, use gastric acid for fuel (while rapidly neutralizing it), and release their cargo precisely at the desired pH: Though it may sound like science fiction, this is a new method for treating stomach diseases with acid-sensitive drugs introduced by scientists in the journal Angewandte Chemie. The technique is based on proton-driven micromotors with a pH-dependent polymer coating that can be loaded with drugs.



Crop achilles' heel costs farmers 10 percent of potential yield

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

When top and bottom leaves are placed in the same low light, the lower canopy leaves showed lower rates of photosynthesis. Shaded corn leaves are 15 percent less efficient than top leaves -- and worse, lower leaves are 30 percent less efficient than the top leaves of Miscanthus, a perennial bioenergy crop. Considering the crop as a whole, this loss of efficiency in lower leaves may costs farmers about 10 percent of potential yield.



A gene's journey from covert to celebrated

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Unmasking a previously misunderstood gene, University of North Carolina scientists discover an unlikely potential drug target for gastrointestinal cancers.



What matters most to Huntington's disease patients? New survey

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Huntington's disease (HD) has no cure and no therapies to slow the course of this fatal disease. HD patients can experience a wide range of cognitive, physical, and psychiatric symptoms. In an effort to gather the perspectives of both HD and Juvenile Huntington's disease (JHD) patients and their caregivers, the Huntington's Disease Society of America (HDSA), in conjunction with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), conducted two surveys.



To improve health and exercise more, get a gym membership, Iowa State study suggests

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

If your New Year's resolution was to exercise more in 2017, chances are you've already given up or you're on the verge of doing so. To reach your goal, you may want to consider joining a gym, based on the results of a new study from a team of Iowa State University researchers.



How do people choose what plants to use?

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

There are about 400,000 species of plants in the world. Humans use approximately 10-15 percent of them to cover our basic needs, such as food, medicine and shelter, as well as other needs, such as recreation, art, and craft. But why and how have humans selected only a small fraction of all plants to utilize?



Engineers eat away at Ms. Pac-Man score with artificial player

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using a novel approach for computing real-time game strategy, engineers have developed an artificial Ms. Pac-Man player that chomps the existing high score for computerized play.



World still 'grossly underprepared' for infectious disease outbreaks

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

The world remains 'grossly underprepared' for outbreaks of infectious disease, which are likely to become more frequent in the coming decades, warn a team of international experts in The BMJ today.



Positive outcomes after obesity surgery in adolescents

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Obesity surgery has proven to be just as effective for teenagers as for adults. Five years on, those who underwent the procedure as teenagers weighed, on average, 28 percent less than prior to the surgery. There were, however, complications associated with this type of surgery the new study shows.



Spanish scientists create a 3-D bioprinter to print human skin

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists from the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), CIEMAT (Center for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research), Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, in collaboration with the firm BioDan Group, have presented a prototype for a 3-D bioprinter that can create totally functional human skin. This skin is adequate for transplanting to patients or for use in research or the testing of cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical products.



Nutritional considerations for healthy aging and reduction in age-related chronic disease

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Improving dietary resilience and better integration of nutrition in the health care system can promote healthy aging and may significantly reduce the financial and societal burden of the 'silver tsunami.' This is the key finding of a 'Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease,' a new paper initiated under the auspices of the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science Working Group on Nutrition for Aging Population, and published in Advances in Nutrition.



The discrepancy between the results of a system of biological interest is resolved

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A piece of research in which a group in the UPV/EHU's department of Physical Chemistry collaborated has resolved the tautomeric equilibrium of a model system of great biological interest. The research has thus put an end to the controversy that existed between the prior experiments and theoretical calculations that yielded contradictory and inconclusive results. This research has been selected to form the front cover of the scientific journal Chemistry - A European Journal.



A new index for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become a global epidemic. There is not only a great interest worldwide to understand the causes and consequences of fatty liver disease, but also to diagnose fatty liver disease at an early stage. Under the direction of Professor Norbert Stefan researchers of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) generated a new index from clinical data which can predict the presence of fatty liver disease with high accuracy.



Forests 'held their breath' during global warming hiatus, research shows

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Global forest ecosystems, widely considered to act as the lungs of the planet, 'held their breath' during the most recent occurrence of a warming hiatus, new research has shown.The international study examined the full extent to which these vital ecosystems performed as a carbon sink from 1998-2012 -- the most recent recorded period of global warming slowdown.



Scientists spin artificial silk from whey protein

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A Swedish-German team of researchers has cleared up a key process for the artificial production of silk. With the help of DESY's X-ray light source PETRA III, the scientists could watch how small protein pieces, called nanofibrils, lock together to form a fibre. Surprisingly, the best fibres are not formed by the longest protein pieces but by short and curved protein nanofibrils, as the team reports in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.



UNIST researchers get green light to commercialize metal-air batteries

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), has introduced a new way to increase energy efficiency of metal-air batteries.



Hormone can enhance brain activity associated with love and sex

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

The hormone kisspeptin can enhance activity in brain regions associated with sexual arousal and romantic love, according to new research.



Conserved role for Ovo protein in reproductive cell development in mice and fruit flies

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

University of Tsukuba-led research identified a role for the Ovo protein in the development of both mouse and Drosophila germ cells. Drosophila Ovo was found to activate genes for egg and sperm production, while suppressing expression of genes for development of somatic tissues of the body. The mouse Ovo was also shown to play an important role in germ cell development, revealing a mechanism conserved throughout evolution.



How plant cells regulate growth shown for the first time

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers have managed to show how the cells in a plant, a multicellular organism, determine their size and regulate their growth over time. The findings overturn previous theories in the field and are potentially significant for the future of agriculture and forestry -- as it reveals more about one of the factors which determine the size of plants and fruits.



Can the donut-shaped magnet 'CAPPuccino submarine' hunt for dark matter?

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

IBS scientists clarify that toroidal magnets can also look for axions, one of the particle candidates for the mysterious dark matter.



Mummy visualization impresses in computer journal

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Using visualisation technology developed at Linköping University under the auspices of Visualization Center C, visitors to the British Museum can reveal the murder of the mummified Geberlein Man, 5,500 years ago. This world-leading technology has been described in a prestigious journal of computer science, Communications of the ACM.



Online media use shows strong genetic influence

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Online media use such as social networking and gaming could be strongly influenced by our genes, according to a new study by researchers from King's College London.



Transplanted neurons incorporated into a stroke-injured rat brain

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Today, a stroke usually leads to permanent disability -- but in the future, the stroke-injured brain could be reparable by replacing dead cells with new, healthy neurons, using transplantation. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have taken a step in that direction by showing that some neurons transplanted into the brains of stroke-injured rats were incorporated and responded correctly when the rat's muzzle and paws were touched.



Where belief in free will is linked to happiness

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Free will describes the ability to make independent choices, where the outcome of the choice is not influenced by past events. In this study, researchers show that Chinese teenagers who believe in free will also show increased happiness, suggesting that this phenomenon is not influenced by Western/Asian cultural differences.



Getting closer to treatment for Parkinson's

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

More than 10 million people worldwide have Parkinson´s disease. A groundbreaking study from the University of Bergen, may answer why some develop the disease while others do not.The researchers suggest that Parkinson's disease may be caused by failure of the microscopic powerhouses of the cell, called mitochondria, to adapt to the effects of aging.



Switching off the brain

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Switching off specific brain regions in a laboratory animal is an important type of experiment used to better understand how the brain works. A study published in Nature Methods by Singapore-based researchers identified effective inhibitors of brain activity in the important animal model Drosophila melanogaster, the common vinegar fly. These new tools are enabling researchers to better understand the relationship between neural circuits and behavior, expanding our knowledge of the brain.



Smoking increases substantially during military service, Israeli research shows

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers in Israel found that cigarette smoking increased by almost 40 percent during compulsory military service in the Israel Defense Forces, from 26.2 percent at recruitment to 36.5 percent at discharge. The large increase in smoking during service, combined with high subsequent mortality of smokers, should serve as a wake-up call to governments and health systems in countries lacking strong military tobacco control policies.



Serum micoRNAs may serve as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Serum micoRNAs may serve as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis.



Evaluation of recombinant antithrombin vs. placebo in preterm preeclampsia

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers with the PRESERVE-1 Study Group University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston -- McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas, and Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., present findings of a study titled Randomized double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of recombinant Antithrombin versus placebo in preterm preeclampsia. The study was sponsored by rEVO Biologics Inc.



Experiment resolves mystery about wind flows on Jupiter

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A UCLA geophysicist and colleagues have recreated Jupiter's jets in the laboratory for the first time and shown that they likely extend thousands of kilometers below Jupiter's visible atmosphere.



Scientists discover large extinct otter

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists discover large extinct otter, Siamogale melilutra, from the Miocene Shuitangba site in northeastern Yunnan Province in China. New prehistoric otter was the size of a modern wolf and is one of the largest otter species known to science.



CU Boulder research targets cookstove pollution using supercomputers and NASA satellites

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

New air quality research is investigating a major, but often overlooked contributor to outdoor pollution and climate: burning of solid fuel for cooking and heating.



Breaking the optical bandwidth record of stable pulsed lasers

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from the team of Roberto Morandotti at INRS has redefined the limitations and constraints for ultra-fast pulsed lasers. They have produced the first pulsed passively mode-locked nanosecond laser, with a record-low and transform-limited spectral width of 105 MHz. With a compact architecture, modest power requirements, and the unique ability to resolve the full laser spectrum in the RF domain, the laser paves the way towards full on-chip integration for novel sensing and spectroscopy implementations.



New research on wine fermentation could lead to better bouquet

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

The taste of wine arises from a symphony of compounds that are assembled as yeast ferment the must from grapes. But much of what happens in this process remains obscure. Now a team of researchers from France, a country that is synonymous with good wine, has begun to unveil the outlines of how yeast manage nitrogen, an essential element that comprises about 16 percent of proteins, and four percent of all organic matter.



Regulating 'gasotransmitters' could improve care for sleep apnea

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Unbalanced signaling by two molecules that regulate breathing leads to sleep apnea in mice and rats. Injection of a substance that reduces production of one of those signals can prevent apneas. This approach may help people suffering from multiple forms of sleep-disordered breathing.



Coral reefs grow faster and healthier when parrotfish are abundant

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A new study by Smithsonian scientists and colleagues that reveals 3,000 years of change in reefs in the eastern Caribbean provides long-term, compelling evidence that parrotfish, which eat algae that can smother corals, are vital to coral-reef growth and health.



Patients with severe chronic rhinosinusitis show improvement with Verapamil treatment

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

A clinical trial studying the use of Verapamil (a drug currently in use for cardiovascular disease and cluster headache) in alleviating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps revealed significant improvement in the symptoms of this subset of patients. The clinical trial results suggest that Verapamil represents a promising novel therapy for the treatment of CRS with nasal polyps.



Identifying early markers of cardiac dysfunction in pregnancy

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Friday, Jan. 27, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with the Maternal and Child Health Research Center and the Department of Cardiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, will present findings of a study titled Cardiac Dysfunction in Preeclampsia is Present at Diagnosis and Persists Postpartum.



Today's rare meteorites were once common

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Four-hundred and sixty-six million years ago, there was a giant asteroid collision in outer space, and the debris from that collision has been falling to Earth ever since. But for the first time, scientists have created a reconstruction of the kinds of meteorites that fell before this collision. They discovered that today's common meteorites were once rare, while many meteorites that are rare today were common before the collision.



Study reveals new genetic mechanism driving breast cancer

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have discovered 'hotspots' of mutations in breast cancer genomes, where mutations thought to be inactive 'passengers' in the genome have now been shown to possibly drive further cancerous changes. Reported in Nature Genetics today, the study found 33 mutation hotspots, which act like backseat drivers for cancer development.



Cookware made with scrap metal contaminates food

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Aluminum cookware made from scrap metal in countries around the world poses a serious and previously unrecognized health risk to millions of people according to a new study. Researchers at Ashland University and Occupational Knowledge International tested 42 samples of aluminum cookware made in 10 developing countries and more than one-third pose a lead exposure hazard. The cookware also released significant levels of aluminum, arsenic and cadmium.



Autism symptoms improve after fecal transplant, small study finds

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Children with autism may benefit from fecal transplants -- a method of introducing donated healthy microbes into people with gastrointestinal disease to rebalance the gut. Behavioral symptoms of autism and gastrointestinal distress often go hand-in-hand, and both improved when a small group of children with the disorder underwent fecal transplant and subsequent treatment.



Noninvasive ultrasound pulses used to precisely tweak rat brain activity

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Biomedical engineers at Johns Hopkins report they have worked out a noninvasive way to release and deliver concentrated amounts of a drug to the brain of rats in a temporary, localized manner using ultrasound.



Immune defense without collateral damage

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Researchers from the University of Basel in Switzerland have clarified the role of the enzyme MPO. In fighting infections, this enzyme, which gives pus its greenish color, produces a highly aggressive acid that can kill pathogens without damaging the surrounding tissue. The findings, published in the current issue of Nature Microbiology, may provide new approaches for immunity strengthening therapies.



Breast cancer drugs stop working when tumors 'make their own fuel'

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

Scientists have discovered why a type of breast cancer drug stops working in some patients.



New crab species shares name with 2 'Harry Potter' characters and a hero researcher

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

While not much is known about the animals living around coral reefs, ex-Marine turned researcher Harry Conley would often take to the island of Guam, and dig deep into the rubble to find fascinating critters as if by magic learnt at Hogwarts. Years after his discoveries and his death, a secret is revealed on the pages of the open access journal ZooKeys -- a new species and genus of crab, Harryplax severus.



Big Brother will have some difficulty 'watching you' in future

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

New research done at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, has exciting implications for fast and secure data transfer in the future and will aid technological advances that seek to establish more secure quantum communication links over long distances.



What is good quality sleep? National Sleep Foundation provides guidance

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

The National Sleep Foundation (NSF) recently released the key indicators of good sleep quality, as established by a panel of experts.



Evaluation of the use of human umbilical cord for in-utero spina bifida repair

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Saturday, Jan. 28, in the oral concurrent session at 8:45 a.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers evaluated a possible regenerative patch by using human umbilical cord in two studies.



Comparing skin closure options for cesarean delivery

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, New York, will present their findings in a study.



Study finds recurrent hypertensive disease of pregnancy associated with early mortality

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Friday, Jan. 27, in the oral plenary session at 8 a.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Intermountain Healthcare and the Huntsman Cancer Institute (all in Salt Lake City, Utah), will present the study, Long-term mortality risk and life expectancy following recurrent hypertensive disease of pregnancy.



Reduction of the most common cause of maternal death worldwide

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Friday, Jan. 27, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative, based at Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif., will present Reduction of Severe Maternal Morbidity from Hemorrhage (SMM-HEM) Using a State-Wide Perinatal Collaborative.



Study finds an association between day of delivery and maternal-fetal mortality

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Friday, Jan. 27, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, presented the study titled Association between day and month of delivery with maternal-fetal mortality: weekend effect and July phenomenon in current obstetric practice.



Evaluation of the effects of laser tissue welding for spina bifida repair

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Saturday, Jan. 28, in the oral concurrent session at 8:45 a.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; IBEX, Logan, Utah; and Laser Tissue Welding Inc., Houston, Texas, collaborated on a study titled, Evaluation of the effects of laser tissue welding on the spinal cord and skin in a 30-day study of simulated spina bifida repair in rabbits.



Study looks at a new method for filtering results from genetic studies

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers verified genetic results from one large study of women with spontaneous preterm birth, and highlighted 13 key genes in both mothers and babies which may be involved in preterm birth while also identifying 123 genes as top candidates for further study.



Glucose supplementation significantly reduces length of induced labor in childbirth

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with the Université de Sherbrooke in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, will present their findings in a study titled, Reduction of total labor length through the addition of parenteral dextrose solution in induction of labor in nulliparous: results of DEXTRONS prospective randomized controlled trial.



Skin closure options for cesarean delivery: Glue vs. subcuticular sutures

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral concurrent session at 1:15 p.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers will present their findings in a study titled, Comparison of skin closure at cesarean delivery, Glue (Dermabond) versus Intra-cuticular (Monocril) sutures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.



Limiting gestational weight gain did not improve pregnancy complications

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral plenary session at 8 a.m. PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers with Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, will present their findings for a study titled, MOMFIT: A randomized clinical trial of an intervention to prevent excess gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women.