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Urban Research



A collection of online open-access materials about urban studies



Updated: 2017-06-21T20:13:02.086-07:00

 



Active Transport to School and Children's Body Weight: A Systematic Reivew

2017-05-02T02:06:24.601-07:00

By Houshmand E. Masoumi, Because of decreasing physical activity of children, they are becoming more obese. Moreover, commuting to school has become more passive during the past decades. The objective was to update the previous systematic reviews by narrowing down the topic to body mass index of children (3-12 years) as a representative of body composition. Applying search terms such as (image)



REDUCING CRIME BY SHAPING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT WITH ZONING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF LOS ANGELES

2017-04-07T00:32:25.425-07:00

By JAMES M. ANDERSON, JOHN M. MACDONALD, RICKY BLUTHENTHAL & J. SCOTT ASHWOOD The idea of using law to change the built environment in ways that reduce opportunities to commit crimes has a long history. Unfortunately, this idea has received relatively little attention in the legal academy and only limited rigorous empirical scrutiny. In this Article, we review the considerable literature on the(image)



A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF DENSITIES WITHIN THE PEDESTRIAN SHEDS AROUND METRO STATIONS: THE CASE OF TEHRAN

2017-03-30T02:46:02.399-07:00

By HOUSHMAND E. MASOUMI and MARYAM SHAYGAN Evaluation of spatial accessibility to public transportation has a weak background in many emerging countries, including Iran. Transit-Oriented Development is of great interest among Iranian planners and academics, but little is known about transit orientation provided by major public transport systems exemplified by the Tehran Metro. Statistical (image)



URBANIZATION TRENDS AND URBAN PLANNING STRATEGIES IN THREE MAJOR MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES: IRAN, EGYPT, AND TURKEY

2016-12-23T04:49:17.753-08:00

By MARYAMSADAT HOSSEINI, AMR AH. GOUDA, HOUSHMAND E. MASOUMI Rapid urbanization has turned into a problematic phenomenon laying negative effects on the Middle Eastern cities and their peripheries. Although fast increase in urban population of the countries of the region has been well-researched, the connections to urban development strategies and patterns are being neglected. This paper (image)



What shapes local public transportation in Europe? Economics, mobility, institutions, and geography

2016-12-09T01:11:48.976-08:00

By Daniel Albalate and Germà Bel This paper analyzes factors explaining supply and demand of local public transportation. Together with variables related to traditional economic factors and mobility, we consider variables reflecting institutional characteristics and geographical patterns. Being a political capital increases supply and demand of local public transportation, inequality is (image)



Urban Transformations of the Mediterranean Cities in Light of Developments in the Modern Era

2016-12-07T01:32:37.161-08:00

By Bakr Hashem Paumey Ahmed Alashwal The urban transformation processes in its framework and its general significance became a fundamental and vital subject of consideration for both the developed and the developing societies. It has become important to regulate the architectural systems adopted by the city, to sustain the present development on one hand, and on the other hand, to facilitate (image)



TENSIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE MASTER PLANNING PROCESS OF ISTANBUL

2016-12-07T01:21:54.698-08:00

 By James STEELE and Rania SHAFIK, Istanbul has been described as a city on the edge, of Europe, of modernization, of fundamentalism, of the future. But it would be more accurate to describe it as a city in between: split between Europe and Asia, modernization and tradition, poverty and wealth, an industrial and post-industrial ethos and financial system, secularism and spirituality, past, (image)



Policies for Sustainable Accessibility and Mobility in Urban Areas of Africa

2016-12-06T03:33:12.442-08:00

By SSATP-Africa Transport Policy Program Addressed to policy- and decision-makers, this paper proposes a set of policies which aim to improve accessibility and mobility in urban areas of Africa. Large and small, urban areas of Africa are currently experiencing the fastest population growth in the history of the planet. As a result, policy- and decision-makers face enormous challenges in meeting(image)



URBAN PLANNING: CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

2016-12-02T00:50:05.274-08:00

By Mila Freire, The advent of 2007 marks the year when, for the first time in the history of humanity, half the world’s population will be living in cities. Urban populations are expected to increase by 1.5 billion over the next 20 years, while the number of megacities will double. By 2015 the UN predicts that there will be 358 "million cities" with one million or more people and 27 "(image)



Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies

2016-11-30T00:57:20.115-08:00

By UN Indicators perform many functions. They can lead to better decisions and more effective actions by simplifying, clarifying and making aggregated information available to policy makers. They can help incorporate physical and social science knowledge into decision-making, and they can help measure and calibrate progress toward sustainable development goals. They can provide an early (image)



A Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Methodologies

2016-11-29T01:58:28.248-08:00

By Emmanuel Adinyira, Samuel Oteng-Seifah, and Theophilus Adjei-Kumi Sustainability has emerged as a planning concept from its beginnings in economics and ecological thinking and has widely been applied to urban development. Urban sustainability is simply described as a desirable state or set of urban conditions that persists overtime. Just as the task of defining sustainability has progressed (image)



Urban Sprawl: A view from developing and developed Countries

2016-10-20T02:34:00.123-07:00

By Ebenezer Adaku, Though urban sprawl is often discussed without a specific definition, the term generally, connotes development patterns that are undesirable. In developed countries, this phenomenon of urban sprawl has a significant attention with regard to how it is described as well as its impacts. However, the nature of this phenomenon in developing countries still requires attention and (image)



Upgrading informal settlements in Egypt towards a sustainable urban development

2016-10-07T00:54:21.051-07:00

By Prof. Khaled Dewidar, Dr Ayman Hassan, Inji Kenawy, Nourhan Magdy Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone,  now and for generations to come. This requires meeting four key objectives that are the social progress which (image)



Planning and Partnerships for the Renewal of Urban Neighborhoods

2016-07-29T02:06:47.878-07:00

By Stephen A. Sterrett, Urban universities are a key resource for municipal government, businesses, community organizations, and citizens to foster partnerships for successful renewal of distressed urban neighborhoods. From its experience over the past decade, the Ohio State University has created a successful model for engagement with its neighborhoods and the City of Columbus. This model is (image)



Introduction to Achieve Sustainable Neighborhoods

2016-07-21T01:43:12.629-07:00

By Abolfazl Dehghanmongabadi, Şebnem Önal Hoşkara, and Nina Shirkhanloo As results of the rapid development of cities and urban settlements during the nineteenth century as well as changes in conditions and aspects that are affective on development of cities in recent years, urban neighborhoods find especial position in the formation of cities. Besides, concept of sustainable development (image)



Toward an understanding of children’s perceptions of their transport geographies: (non)active school travel and visual representations of the built environment

2016-07-14T02:00:52.579-07:00

By Caroline Fusco, Fiona Moola, Guy Faulkner, Ron Buliung, Vanessa Richichi Environmental measures that are designed to facilitate changes in opportunities for active school transport (AST) do not often account for individuals’ interpretations of the built environment (BE) in different urban contexts. The Built Environment and Active School Transport (BEAT) project was undertaken to explore the(image)



Smart Growth and Transit- Oriented Development at the State Level: Lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia

2016-07-01T05:12:31.594-07:00

By John L. Renne The states of California, New Jersey, and Western Australia encourage smart growth through the employment of transit-oriented development (TOD). This article documents each state’s approach and highlights the importance of interagency cooperation at the state-level and intergovernmental cooperation between state and local governments. This article discusses the importance of (image)



The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran

2016-07-04T01:37:26.295-07:00

By Amr Ah. Gouda, Maryamsadat Hosseini, and Houshmand E. Masoumi The circumstances of urban sprawl in the Middle Eastern cities have been basically examined; now we are aware of the existence of a crawling sprawl in the growth pattern of the region’s cities. Nevertheless, the extent and the causes of this phenomenon have not yet been clearly explained. Thus, two questions are still unanswered: (image)



Bicycling as a Way of Life: A Comparative Case Study of Bicycle Culture in Portland, OR and Amsterdam

2016-06-24T01:58:15.373-07:00

By Peter Pelzer, Over the last decade, bicycling has found itself a place on both the policy and academic agenda. The bike is becoming an important part of urban transportation and life. Most academic research focuses either on determinants of bicycle use or emphasises bicycling as a cultural phenomenon. This paper attempts to bridge these two strands by arguing that ‘bicycle culture’ consists (image)



TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

2016-06-21T02:18:11.753-07:00

By Geetam Tiwari A sustainable transport system must meet the mobility and accessibility needs of people by providing safe and environmentally friendly modes of transportation. This is a complex and difficult task in the mega-cities of developing countries because the needs of people belonging to various income groups are not only different, but also often conflicting in nature. For example, (image)



Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

2016-06-13T05:48:29.735-07:00

By David R. Bassett, Jr., John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationship between active transportation (defined as the percentage of trips taken by walking, bicycling, and public transit) and obesity rates (BMI ≥ 30 kg · m−2) in different countries. Methods: National surveys of travel behavior and health (image)



Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics

2016-04-20T04:32:58.292-07:00

By JAN K. BRUECKNER, strong sentiment against the phenomenon known as “urban sprawl” has emerged in the United States over the past few years. Critics of sprawl argue that urban expansion encroaches excessively on agricultural land, leading to a loss of amenity benefits from open space as well as the depletion of scarce farmland resources. The critics also argue that the long commutes (image)



Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

2016-03-07T03:32:02.822-08:00

By Murray C. Lee, Marla R. Orenstein, and Maxwell J. Richardson Background: The recent decline in children’s active commuting (walking or biking) to school has become an important public health issue. Recent programs have promoted the positive effects of active commuting on physical activity (PA) and overweight. However, the evidence supporting such interventions among schoolchildren has not (image)



Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

2016-02-12T05:01:21.954-08:00

By Noreen C. McDonald Childhood obesity has doubled in the last thirty years. At the same time, youth travel patterns have changed greatly. In 1969, 42% of students walked or biked to school; now 13% do. These two trends have caught the attention of policymakers who have identified walking to school as a way to reintroduce physical activity into children’s lives. However, these policies have(image)



An Analysis of Car Ownership in Latin American Cities: a Perspective for Future Research

2016-01-20T05:32:37.309-08:00

By Daniela Roque and Houshmand E. Masoumi Car dependence must be avoided to achieve sustainable transportation; the diversity of studies available give a better perspective of the situation and how to tackle it. The reasons behind the increasing car use are still unknown in some regions such as Latin America. The gaps in the current literature are not just for location; some topics and methods(image)