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Urban Research

A collection of online open-access materials about urban studies

Updated: 2018-03-05T20:36:05.842-08:00


Promoting Schoolchildren's Physical Activity by Change in Transport to School Behavior: Statistical Analysis


By Houshmand E. Masoumi During the past decade, a number or researchers have focused on the interdisciplinary topic of active transport to school (ATS) and children’s health and wellbeing including their body weight and Body Mass Index (BMI). Most of the recent studies are focused on a handful of high-income societies, leaving other countries less researched. Thus, this study targeted (image)

A comparative study of the morphological characteristics of residential areas in San Francisco


By Mehmet TOPCU and Michael SOUTHWORTH This study compares residential neighborhoods with different gridiron patterns in terms of some morphological properties. Nine different gridiron street patterns of San Francisco neighborhoods were chosen to assess the livability of residential areas in terms of several morphological evaluation criteria including accessibility (local and global spatial (image)

Urban Design and the Changing Context of Urban Regeneration in the Netherlands


By Paul STOUTEN, Urban design schemes accompanied by avant-garde design of space have been an outcome of economic growth of cities and countries in many periods of time. At the beginning of the 21st century, Nieuw Crooswijk in Rotterdam was the largest area involved in nationally launched policies. Many times the conflicts surrounding the plan were in the news, particularly concerning the aim (image)

Longitudinal correlations of car ownership with socio-economics, urban form, and transport infrastructure in Latin America: Example from Ensenada, Mexico


By Daniela Roque & Houshmand E. Masoumi Car-orientated modal splits represent problems for the city in economic, environmental and social terms. The implementation of policies and other measures can fail if the causes are not well recognized. Mid-sized cities in Mexico are not well-represented in studies where only the capital and other bigger cities are studied. This research aims to recognize(image)

Children’s Travel to School and their Body Weight; Results of a Survey in Seven European Countries: Technical Report


By Masoumi, Houshmand, E.; Zanoli, Gabriele; Papageorgiou, Athanasios; Smaga, Soultana; Miloš, Ana; Van Rooijen, Martin; Łuczak, Monika; Komorek, Joanna; Çağan, Birol; Calabrese, Carla; (image)

The Role of the Built Environment in Human Life. Selected Issues


By Mariusz Lamprecht, Creation of the built environment and research in this field pose a particularly difficult challenge nowadays. The pace of social and technological change does not allow for evolutionary development of cities and the formation of their land use according to current conditions. Creating spatial solutions that are unmatched in their contexts is becoming not only (image)

Active Transport to School and Children's Body Weight: A Systematic Reivew


By Houshmand E. Masoumi, Because of decreasing physical activity of children, they are becoming more obese. Moreover, commuting to school has become more passive during the past decades. The objective was to update the previous systematic reviews by narrowing down the topic to body mass index of children (3-12 years) as a representative of body composition. Applying search terms such as (image)



By JAMES M. ANDERSON, JOHN M. MACDONALD, RICKY BLUTHENTHAL & J. SCOTT ASHWOOD The idea of using law to change the built environment in ways that reduce opportunities to commit crimes has a long history. Unfortunately, this idea has received relatively little attention in the legal academy and only limited rigorous empirical scrutiny. In this Article, we review the considerable literature on the(image)



By HOUSHMAND E. MASOUMI and MARYAM SHAYGAN Evaluation of spatial accessibility to public transportation has a weak background in many emerging countries, including Iran. Transit-Oriented Development is of great interest among Iranian planners and academics, but little is known about transit orientation provided by major public transport systems exemplified by the Tehran Metro. Statistical (image)



By MARYAMSADAT HOSSEINI, AMR AH. GOUDA, HOUSHMAND E. MASOUMI Rapid urbanization has turned into a problematic phenomenon laying negative effects on the Middle Eastern cities and their peripheries. Although fast increase in urban population of the countries of the region has been well-researched, the connections to urban development strategies and patterns are being neglected. This paper (image)

What shapes local public transportation in Europe? Economics, mobility, institutions, and geography


By Daniel Albalate and Germà Bel This paper analyzes factors explaining supply and demand of local public transportation. Together with variables related to traditional economic factors and mobility, we consider variables reflecting institutional characteristics and geographical patterns. Being a political capital increases supply and demand of local public transportation, inequality is (image)

Urban Transformations of the Mediterranean Cities in Light of Developments in the Modern Era


By Bakr Hashem Paumey Ahmed Alashwal The urban transformation processes in its framework and its general significance became a fundamental and vital subject of consideration for both the developed and the developing societies. It has become important to regulate the architectural systems adopted by the city, to sustain the present development on one hand, and on the other hand, to facilitate (image)



 By James STEELE and Rania SHAFIK, Istanbul has been described as a city on the edge, of Europe, of modernization, of fundamentalism, of the future. But it would be more accurate to describe it as a city in between: split between Europe and Asia, modernization and tradition, poverty and wealth, an industrial and post-industrial ethos and financial system, secularism and spirituality, past, (image)

Policies for Sustainable Accessibility and Mobility in Urban Areas of Africa


By SSATP-Africa Transport Policy Program Addressed to policy- and decision-makers, this paper proposes a set of policies which aim to improve accessibility and mobility in urban areas of Africa. Large and small, urban areas of Africa are currently experiencing the fastest population growth in the history of the planet. As a result, policy- and decision-makers face enormous challenges in meeting(image)



By Mila Freire, The advent of 2007 marks the year when, for the first time in the history of humanity, half the world’s population will be living in cities. Urban populations are expected to increase by 1.5 billion over the next 20 years, while the number of megacities will double. By 2015 the UN predicts that there will be 358 "million cities" with one million or more people and 27 "(image)

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies


By UN Indicators perform many functions. They can lead to better decisions and more effective actions by simplifying, clarifying and making aggregated information available to policy makers. They can help incorporate physical and social science knowledge into decision-making, and they can help measure and calibrate progress toward sustainable development goals. They can provide an early (image)

A Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Methodologies


By Emmanuel Adinyira, Samuel Oteng-Seifah, and Theophilus Adjei-Kumi Sustainability has emerged as a planning concept from its beginnings in economics and ecological thinking and has widely been applied to urban development. Urban sustainability is simply described as a desirable state or set of urban conditions that persists overtime. Just as the task of defining sustainability has progressed (image)

Urban Sprawl: A view from developing and developed Countries


By Ebenezer Adaku, Though urban sprawl is often discussed without a specific definition, the term generally, connotes development patterns that are undesirable. In developed countries, this phenomenon of urban sprawl has a significant attention with regard to how it is described as well as its impacts. However, the nature of this phenomenon in developing countries still requires attention and (image)

Upgrading informal settlements in Egypt towards a sustainable urban development


By Prof. Khaled Dewidar, Dr Ayman Hassan, Inji Kenawy, Nourhan Magdy Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone,  now and for generations to come. This requires meeting four key objectives that are the social progress which (image)

Planning and Partnerships for the Renewal of Urban Neighborhoods


By Stephen A. Sterrett, Urban universities are a key resource for municipal government, businesses, community organizations, and citizens to foster partnerships for successful renewal of distressed urban neighborhoods. From its experience over the past decade, the Ohio State University has created a successful model for engagement with its neighborhoods and the City of Columbus. This model is (image)

Introduction to Achieve Sustainable Neighborhoods


By Abolfazl Dehghanmongabadi, Şebnem Önal Hoşkara, and Nina Shirkhanloo As results of the rapid development of cities and urban settlements during the nineteenth century as well as changes in conditions and aspects that are affective on development of cities in recent years, urban neighborhoods find especial position in the formation of cities. Besides, concept of sustainable development (image)

Toward an understanding of children’s perceptions of their transport geographies: (non)active school travel and visual representations of the built environment


By Caroline Fusco, Fiona Moola, Guy Faulkner, Ron Buliung, Vanessa Richichi Environmental measures that are designed to facilitate changes in opportunities for active school transport (AST) do not often account for individuals’ interpretations of the built environment (BE) in different urban contexts. The Built Environment and Active School Transport (BEAT) project was undertaken to explore the(image)

Smart Growth and Transit- Oriented Development at the State Level: Lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia


By John L. Renne The states of California, New Jersey, and Western Australia encourage smart growth through the employment of transit-oriented development (TOD). This article documents each state’s approach and highlights the importance of interagency cooperation at the state-level and intergovernmental cooperation between state and local governments. This article discusses the importance of (image)

The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran


By Amr Ah. Gouda, Maryamsadat Hosseini, and Houshmand E. Masoumi The circumstances of urban sprawl in the Middle Eastern cities have been basically examined; now we are aware of the existence of a crawling sprawl in the growth pattern of the region’s cities. Nevertheless, the extent and the causes of this phenomenon have not yet been clearly explained. Thus, two questions are still unanswered: (image)

Bicycling as a Way of Life: A Comparative Case Study of Bicycle Culture in Portland, OR and Amsterdam


By Peter Pelzer, Over the last decade, bicycling has found itself a place on both the policy and academic agenda. The bike is becoming an important part of urban transportation and life. Most academic research focuses either on determinants of bicycle use or emphasises bicycling as a cultural phenomenon. This paper attempts to bridge these two strands by arguing that ‘bicycle culture’ consists (image)