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Preview: Washminster

"Washminster" - from J David Morgan

For everyone interested in the work of Britain's Parliament; the US Congress; the European Parliament and the French Parlement. Discuss Practice, Procedure, History and current issues.

Updated: 2018-04-16T09:53:07.791+01:00


The Queen's Speech 2017


After the Queen's Speech, each House will adjourn then start a series of debates on the content of the Speech and the legislative programme which the Speech has set out.The House of Lords debates will involve a short session on Wednesday afternoon, where formal (often amusing) speeches will be made. The serious, in depth debate will begin on the following day, Thursday June 22nd. House of Lords Briefing Papers on each debate can be accessed by clicking on the links underlined for each day.The robes will have disappeared and Peers will wear their usual working clothes.Queen's Speech 2017: Day 1 - covering Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs; Defence; International Trade & International Development. (Thursday 22nd June)Queen's Speech 2017: Day 2 - Business; Economic Affairs; Transport; Energy and the Environment and Agriculture . (Monday 26th June)Queen's Speech 2017: Day 3 - Home Affairs; Communities & Local Government; Justice; Constitutional Affairs; Devolved Affairs. (Tuesday 27th June)Queen's Speech 2017: Day 4 - Exiting the European Union (Wednesday 28th June)Queen's Speech 2017: Day 5 - Education; Health; Welfare; Pensions and Culture. (Thursday 29th June)The Speakers' list for each day is available for each day at[...]

What is Obstruction of Justice?


From the Washington Post
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Magna Carta Day


802 years ago, King John was forced to do a deal with rebel barons on the meadows of Runnymede. They had become exasperated with his abuse of executive power - and demanded a halt.

I|n doing so they forced him to concede a principle which is central to the modern British Constitution - that the Executive must operate within the bounds of its legal authority.

It was a start - and although John sought to renege on it (and provoked a civil war which ended with his death)"., the principle remains. It has been developed further.But today we can rightly celebrate what happened on those Surrey meadows over eight centuries ago.

A City Shining on a Hill?


There has been much to admire about the United States- a revolution based on the principle of "no taxation without representation"- a Constitution which enforces a strict separation of powers- a Constitution, as amended, which includes rights that Citizens can enforce- the assertion in their 'Declaration of Independence' that "all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed"- fantastic technical innovation - including sending men to the moon; playing a leading role in the development of and use of computers and information technology- its' "can do" attitudes- some excellent academic institutions and think tanks.I have loved visiting the United States, especially Washington DC and NoVa (Northern Virginia). I'm an American Football fan; and an addict of American politics.John Winthrop, in a speech made as the Pilgrim Fathers approached their new land, is credited with applying this phrase taken from the Bible to the role that 'America' could play in the world. Presidents, including John F Kennedy -  and Ronald Reagan have made stirring speeches on this subject.Yet, I write this post in great sadness. In recent years there has been coming out of certain quarters in the USA a poison which we in the UK and Europe need to protect ourselves from. It was prompted by the news that a gunman had opened fire in an area I deeply love, the Del Ray area of Alexandria, Virginia - injuring (as far as we know as I write this) a number of people, including the Majority Whip of the House of Representatives. It is reported that between 50 and 100 shots were fired from a set-automatic rifle (The Hill : Rep Mo Brooks [quoted in a BBC Report]).The effort to weaken gun control has been part of the poison - each time I stay in Virginia, I hear of new changes to the law of that State which make it easier for anyone to get hold of some deadly lethal weapons - I've sat in gallery of the House of Representatives as very limited measures to improve safety were opposed and thrown out. THE NRA has been on the offensive - and despite the number and frequency of mass shootings, have gained the support of some Members of Congress, and of State legislatures - not only to reject sensible restrictions, but to push away restrictions that had existed.We've seen the rise of a rabid populism - and fake news, culminating in the election of a man wholly unfitted to be the President of the United States. Last night I was appalled at the poor performance of the Attorney Officer of the United States - as he displayed a worrying inability to remember certain things as he testified before a Senate Committee.We've seen a determined push to make it more difficult for certain parts of the American electorate to register to vote - for purely party political objectives.We've seen the World Economy (as well as the American economy) taken to the brink by some Congressmen who threatened to let the USA default on its debts. We've seen the USA pull out of the Paris Climate Accord - and restart activities which threaten to further degrade the state of our planet.There is a common theme. The push towards these developments has come from a particular part of the American political spectrum. A movement calling itself "conservative" has been behind a determined effort to push very radical ideas. Fifty-three years ago Barry Goldwater was their standard bearer - and he was given a beating at the Presidential Election. But the movement kept on planning, and spending, and removing Republican moderates. The election of Donald Trump was the, perhaps inevitable, result of their activities. Moderation was hunted down - some very black (political) arts were used to achieve the takeover of the Republican Party - a[...]

House of Commons Library - A Resource for Citizens


The House of Commons Library is not just a collection of books. It provides a first class research service to MPs. MPs can seek answers to specific questions - but they also produce a range of non-partisan research briefings on a multitude of subjects.

These papers - ranging from short 'Standard Notes' to lengthy, in depth research papers, are made available to the public on the Parliamentary website - and you can subscribe to email notifications about new publications.

Yesterday, I received a number of emails from the Library announcing publication of a number of papers - across all policy areas. As a lecturer in Constitutional Law, I have recommended many of their papers which explain the workings of our Constitution and Parliament. As a researcher, House of Commons Library Papers have provided useful background information - and the starting point for further research. As someone with specific policy interests - they are invaluable for keeping myself informed about the issues.

Do visit
All their publications are free - and of a very high standard. The page above is easy to use for searching particular issues - and includes a link to sign up for notifications of new (and updated) publications) -

Empowering Citizens


Britain should be proud of its constitutional history, and its Parliament which has developed over the centuries. Yet we make limited efforts to enable citizens to understand how our political system - and Parliament itself - actually works.

In many countries school pupils are required to learn about the institutions and practices of all levels of government. Here, it can rely on an enthusiastic teacher - or on citizen's finding out for themselves. I acknowledge the fantastic work that is done by some teachers, by organisations promoting greater knowledge - such as the Hansard Society and by Parliament itself. But the fact is, it is not easy for citizens to get the full picture of how our democracy operates - and how we can play our part.

If we are to empower citizens - we need to make access to information about our system more readily available. Who do they go to if they have a problem - or want to have their opinion heard? How can they make sense of the procedures which seem so strange?

Since Washminster Blog began in 2007, I have sought on the blog to explain the workings of Westminster (and other systems) to students and interested citizens. In the months ahead I will be posting about all areas of the British system of Government - from Parish Councils to the influence of international bodies. I will be linking to websites and other resources that explain how things work - and how citizens can use the power they have. If you have any questions, suggestions or comments - please post a comment. (The link is at the end of every post - where it states how many comments have been made).

This is a good week to watch Parliament in action. Many MPs are already at Westminster, and tomorrow (Tuesday 13th June), the Speaker of the new Parliament will be elected - do see the link in yesterday's post to the FAQs about the Election of a Speaker.

The Parliamentary Website is a fantastic resource. It has background information - as well as the tools to follow what will be happening. You can read details of forthcoming business at The Business papers for each House are also available - so when a Member rises to "ask the question standing in my name on the order paper" or says "Question four, Mr Speaker"- you can read what the question is.

Please do subscribe to Washminster - and share with your friends.

Washminster is back....


The June 2017 election is over (will this be another Parliament - like those of 1974 - to be known not only by their year, but by their month?) - and lots of questions about constitutional rules and political practice arise. Now that I've stopped walking the streets of Milton Keynes (which armfuls of leaflets and letters) and calling on peoples' doors - I am back to write about the events as they unfurl.

Next week MPs will head for Westminster - as the new Parliament begins to swing into action. The key events will be -

MPs take their oaths - which is done on an individual basis. Forward thinking MPs elected for the first time in this election will be keen to be amongst the first of their group - if they wish to be "father of the House" in a few decades time. [The longest serving MP gets that honour - and where a number arrive at the same time, the first of them to have taken the oath is deemed to be the longest serving] -

State Opening of Parliament - due on Monday 19th June. The Queen's Speech will set out the legislative plans of the Government. It is followed by days of debate - and a vote. In the past a defeat on the Queen's Speech would lead to the fall of the Government. In 1924 the Conservative Government fell, and the next day the first Labour (Minority) Government was formed. If the Government were defeated this time - the Prime Minister would be expected to resign - and the Queen would invite the person most likely to form a new Government to become her Prime Minister. We are then into delicate issues of who that might be - could it be the leader of the next largest party? (Labour) or could another Conservative stand a better chance of pulling together sufficient support? The Queen would rely heavy on advice - but there could be a danger of the Monarch being involved in controversy. An immediate General Election is unlikely, and the loss of the vote, on the Queen's Speech is not mentioned in the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011 - so either a vote of no-confidence would have to be lost or two thirds of MPs would have to vote to dissolve Parliament would be needed.

Criminal Law Exams


If you are revising for an undergraduate criminal law exam (such as the Open University's W201 exam), remind yourself that

1 No undergraduate course in Criminal Law requires you to know about every criminal offence in existence - your course is limited to a finite number of offences.

2 For each offence within that finite set of offences - you need to be able to describe and explain the Actus Reus; Mens Rea and any defences specific to that offence (Murder is the one that has some specific defences that you should know) - and briefly apply the leading cases.

3 A useful revision exercise - which produces a tool that you can use for further revision - is to go through your manual or text book and create a spreadsheet. For each offence [and these are described in the rows across] - you should fill in cells, set out in columns
- Name of the Offence
- Relevant source (section of the relevant Act of Parliament; or 'common law offence (you might want to state a leading case which illustrates that it is a common law offence)
- Actus Reus - in numbered or bullet point list (within that cell)
- Mens Rea - in numbered or bullet point list (within that cell)
- any specific defences
- any related sections (such as definitions of elements of the AR or MR)
- a couple of key cases

4 Cases are useful - but beware of trying to memorise too many, and concentrating mainly on describing the facts. Your focus in cases must be on how that case helps us understand the point of law at stake.

This is the last Washminster post that I will be writing for exams in 2017. So I finish with this IMPORTANT message

Facing a Law exam?


There are four matters to concentrate on. For each topic (for example -doctrines such as - Separation of Powers; Rule of Law; Parliamentary Supremacy : or criminal offences such as Homicide; Theft; Rape; Attempts....) make sure that you can succinctly deal with the key

* Concepts
* Arguments
* Cases
* Legislation

Could you describe and explain them to an intelligent friend? or deal with any question that they might fire back at you? (this is the value of working with other students as you prepare). Could you make a coherent argument in response to a request to discuss the strengths/weaknesses of the existing law - or for/against reform?

Are you confident that you know; could explain and use the relevant legislation or cases?

The diagram below might help you prepare your thoughts. [CLICK THE PICTURE FOR THE FULL SIZED VERSION]

"Condensing" is an important part of revision. [so you could review the topics and draw a diagram like the one below for each specific topic].

So is rehearsing explanations and arguments.

Is there a flow diagram you've seen - or could construct to logically set out your argument or solve a practical problem? (My students can use the Judicial Review diagram (W201) as a starter).

Are there any tables you could construct which summarise arguments - with a column for Strengths (with a second column for your evaluation of those claimed strengths) and a column for weaknesses (with a fourth for evaluation).

For Criminal Law you could draw up a table setting out in columns the Actus Reus; Mens Rea; and defences for each offence, along with the leading cases and a sentence to remind you of the key facts.

Revision is not about memorising lots of facts - and regurgitating them. It's about demonstrating your handling of the concepts; arguments; and authorities. Train for the exam, not like a child preparing for a spelling bee competition, but a football player - ready to flexibly respond to whatever strategy the opposing team uses on match day. Flexibility and skilful use of your acquired resources (your knowledge and understanding) are the key.

How to answer a JR exam Question


Faced with a problem question in a law exam about whether Judicial Review can be used? This flowchart suggests a logical approach to structuring your answer.

(click on the image for a full sized version)

Don't forget that as well as problem questions on Judicial Review - which are all about specific decisions, the issue of Judicial Review is relevant to the Constitutional issues of Separation of Powers and Parliamentary supremacy. So do reflect on those issues.

Freedom of Expression


Traditional 'freedom of expression' in England rested upon the principle that anyone is free to do what they want, unless the behaviour is specifically banned. Liberty is one sense, but a fragile one. The problem is that one person's use of the freedom may interfere with someone else's rights.

So throughout English history freedom of expression has been limited. The criminal law has been used to prevent obscenity; revelation of state secrets; sedition; inciting troops to mutiny; and in everyday life threatening, insulting or abusive words and behaviour are banned. Incitement to racial and religious hatred will bring criminal sanctions. There is criminal liability for contempt of court.

If someone's rights have been interfered with, there are remedies available in the civil courts - through actions for the torts of defamation and breach of confidence.

The European Convention on Human Rights, Article 10 states:-

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. this right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.
  2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or the rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.
This is not an absolute right - Section 2 makes that clear - but the right is also balanced against the rights of others set out elsewhere in the ECHR. Article 8 sets out the right to privacy - "Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence."

There is some useful caselaw on balancing these rights, including -

Thompson and Venables v News Group Newspapers
Campbell v Mirror Group Newspapers
Murray (by his Litigation Friends) v Express Newspapers plc

There's an excellent resource here on current privacy law.

ECHR - Key Rights & Restrictions


What are the key rights in the European Convention on Human Rights? - and when can these be restricted? The answers can be found in the Convention itselfBut it can be easy to lose sight of the key points - so I have prepared a hand-out for my Open University W201 students, which reformats the text to highlight what the rights cover - and when States can interfere with them. This is a revision document - so if it is of help to you - or you have friends studying Constitutional; or  Administrative Law (UK) or Human Rights Law - please feel free to use it, or share this post (Facebook; Twitter; Email - or whatever)Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life 1.    Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.2.    There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 1.    Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.2.    Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.Article 10 – Freedom of expression 1.    Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.2.    The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association 1.    Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.2.    No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of[...]

Human Rights


Back in the early 1980s I was a law student in Sheffield. One of my "legal heroes" then was a solicitor for the National Council for Civil Liberties, who had won an important case - Harman v United Kingdom. She went on to become a key player in the Labour Party - and was its acting Leader in 2015.I appreciate that we are in the middle of a General Election - and you might not like her politics - but if you are preparing for an exam on Human Rights (such as the W201 Open University course), it's worth reading a speech she made back in June 2015 - during the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. I should also note that she is a QC.Yesterday we celebrated the anniversary of Magna Carta which laid the foundations for our democracy, human rights and the rule of law in this country and throughout the world. Today we are determined to defend our Human Rights Act.Labour values are about social and economic rights. And they are also about the civil and political rights embodied in the Human Rights Act. British values – evolved over centuries.But these are not just Labour values – they are British values and universal human values.The horrors of the Second World War inevitably made people think afresh about the rights to which every human person is entitled by virtue of their humanity - and how those rights could be protected.An international endeavour - including Britons - set out a Charter which aimed at nothing less than establishing the norms of international decency, which would apply everywhere and protect everyone.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights – adopted in 1948 – and the European Convention on Human Rights agreed in 1950, and which we ratified in 1951, embodies those efforts.Simple but powerful, enshrining:• The right to life, liberty and security• The right to a fair trial• Protection from torture• Freedom of thought, conscience, religion, speech and assembly• The right to free elections• The right not to be discriminated againstThe Human Rights Act inherits and embodies those universal values, and people around the world are still fighting for the rights it contains and we enjoy today. It has done an immeasurable amount to raise standards across European countries who suffered so much in WW2 which was its aim. The impact of the Human Rights Act has been profound.It gives individuals rights which they can enforce here, in our courts, without having to traipse to Europe and wait years. But its impact has been much more far-reaching than the giving to individuals litigable rights - important though that is. It has precipitated good cultural and organisational change. It has changed the way public authorities reach decisions – both in respect of policies and individuals. It requires them to think not just about their own organisational exigencies but also about the rights of the individuals and communities affected by what they do.When difficult judgements have to be made The Human Rights Act sets the framework for what has to be taken into account. The competing rights which have to be weighed in the balance. Like balancing the right of an individual to privacy against the right of freedom of the press. Or when considering the qualification of those rights. Where there is a right but it is not absolute – such as the right to family life which is protected except where it is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security public safety or the economic wellbeing of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.  Often there is no easy right or wrong decision. But The Human Rights Act makes the thought process rig[...]

The Rule of Law


Another key concept in UK Constitutional Law!Beware of treating this as a wishy-washy general idea about acceptable legal behaviour. There are some very specific meanings to the phrase.Dicey proposed three aspects(1) No person is punishable except for a distinct breach of law established in the ordinary legal manner before the ordinary courts of the land - therefore there should be no 'arbitrary' justice - behaviour should be prohibited in advance - not after the event - people we think might have mischievous intent shouldn't be locked up because they might commit a crime (despite the exasperation of certain Home Secretaries that the Courts are reluctant to deport or intern people who aren't convicted of anything, but are clearly evil.)(2) No person is above the law - the ordinary law of the land applies to everyone, and as Barnett comments, "there must not only exist a system of courts available locally but the cost of having recourse to the courts must be such that there is real - rather than symbolic - access to the courts. For the law to be attainable, adequate legal advice and assistance must be provided at a cost affordable by all." (Once upon a time....)(3) the general principles of the constitution are the result of ordinary cases in which rights have been determined.- Dicey meant that in the UK we don't have special courts for Administrative Law, but the ordinary courts applied the same approach whether they were dealing with bureaucrats or ordinary citizens involved in disputes with other citizens. (Perhaps a bit quaint in this era of judicial review and multi-national corporations.)NOTE - I've tried to be deliberately provocative - how who you respond to such opinions in an exam question?Reasoned evaluation is the key - and examiners look for it. You can practice by looking at newspaper headlines in the coming week - apply the "Rule of Law" to what the editor or the politician is arguing. There are some useful cases to reflect upon - Prohibitions del Roy (1607); Entick v Carrington (1765) R v IRC ex parte Rossminster Ltd; R v Horseferry Road Magistrates Court ex parte Bennett; Phillips v Eyre; In re M (1993) - worth making brief casenotes on!There are also some useful questions to consider as you revise. Do reflect on how the concept of the Rule of Law relates to other constitutional principles. There's an excellent book on the Rule of Law and related subjects by the late Lord Bingham. frameborder="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" scrolling="no" src="//®ion=GB&placement=014103453X&asins=014103453X&linkId=&show_border=true&link_opens_in_new_window=true" style="height: 240px; width: 120px;">[...]

A little more on Parliamentary Supremacy/Sovereignty


One of the first writers to discuss the concept was Jean Bodin (1529/30 - 1596), who published in 1576 "Les Six Livres de la Republique". Cambridge University Press have taken some of the chapters and published them as "On Sovereignty" which was edited by Julian Franklin. frameborder="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" scrolling="no" src="//®ion=GB&placement=0521342066&asins=0521342066&linkId=&show_border=true&link_opens_in_new_window=true" style="height: 240px; width: 120px;"> The context was that the idea of being "English" or "French" was changing from the feudal idea of being the subject of a particular king (as in "I am English because I owe my allegiance to the King of England") to being from a particular geographic area (the modern idea of "I am English because I was born/live permanently in England). Ideas of states based on geography, and have a single source of constitutional power began to develop.Parliamentary Sovereignty is a concept based on that idea of there being a single source of power. Once the King was sovereign (this is not a pun!) - but after the English Civil War, and certainly after the "Glorious Revolution" in which Parliament 'chased James II out of town' and chose William and Mary to be the new Monarchs - it was recognised that power derives from Parliament. It can make or dissolve any institution (it can create, and subsequently abolish a Scottish Parliament; institutions of local government; Courts...); and define who can become King (Act of Settlement 1701).Dicey is the most well known academic who sought to describe and define the principle. To slightly paraphrase him - it means1 Parliament can pass any law it wants (unlike the US Congress which can have its laws struck down by the Supreme Court if in conflict with the Constitution)2 A Parliament is not bound by its predecessors (so there can be no entrenched legislation which forces a later Parliament to use special procedures to change specific laws - like a 2/3 majority, or a referendum)3 What Parliament has done cannot be questioned in the Courts (another aspect of the first meaning)But Parliamentary Sovereignty has been challenged. It sits uneasily with British membership of the European Union. By passing the European Communities Act 1972. Our membership involves agreeing to limit our legislative freedom - and to be subject to decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union.In the Thoburn case it was recognised that the usual principle of "implied repeal" didn't apply to the European Communities Act. Of course the answer to a claim that Parliamentary Sovereignty is dead - is that Parliament retains the sovereign right to repeal the European Communities Act.Dicey is not the only view of the doctrine. There is an excellent, thought provoking book by Jeffrey Goldsworthy frameborder="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" scrolling="no" src="//®ion=GB&placement=0521140196&asins=0521140196&linkId=&show_border=true&link_opens_in_new_window=true" style="height: 240px; width: 120px;"> Most Constitutional Textbooks rehearse the various arguments. If you are a law student sitting exams shortly - be sure that you are able to define the doctrine and discuss the various ar[...]

R (Miller) v SoS for Exiting the EU


Have you read, in full, the judgment in R (Miller) v SoS for Exiting the EU?

If you are taking an Exam involving Constitutional Law this summer - then I would advise you, as strongly as I am able, to

(1) Download the case - from the link above

(2) Read the case - what are the main arguments discussed? How do the judges deal with each of them?

(3) Evaluate - for yourself - the arguments made, accepted or rejected.

(4) Prepare revision cards on the case - and its arguments

(5) Practice explaining the case - and its reasoning - you don't need to torture a spouse or a friend (may be an ex- after you do so) - but go for a walk and work out how you would put it; or put a soft toy in a comfortable seat & explain to them (advantage - no awkward questions!)

Dicey and Parliamentary Supremacy


One of the greatest writers about the British Constitution was Albert Venn Dicey. He lived from February 4, 1835 to April 7, 1922. His first major work, "An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution" appeared in 1885. He is most famous for his work in describing and defining the doctrines of "Parliamentary Sovereignty" and the "Rule of Law".The doctrine of parliamentary supremacy was summarised by Dicey in three points:Parliament can make law concerning anything. - this is in contrast to the position in many countries where the acts of the legislature can be struck down for conflicting with the Constitution (as can happen in the USA after the Supreme Court claimed the power in Marbury v Madison)No Parliament can bind a future parliament (that is, it cannot pass a law that cannot be changed or reversed by a future Parliament) - put another way, no incoming Parliament is bound by previous parliaments. Again this contrasts with other countries where certain rules are 'entrenched' - meaning the rule can either never be repealed (as with the French Constitution Art 89 "The republican form of government shall not be the object of any amendment") or requires special procedures to amend ( such as Art 5 of the US Constitution requiring 2/3rd of all States or 2/3rd of both House of Congress to propose an amendment - and ratification of the amendment by3/4th of all state legislatures)A valid Act of Parliament cannot be questioned by the court. Parliament is the supreme lawmaker.There is a very useful article on recent developments on Wikipedia (NOT A SOURCE I WOULD GENERALLY USE OR TRUST) - but whoever the author was, they have produced a useful resource.Recent developmentsParliamentary sovereignty prevents judicial review of primary legislation passed by Parliament. However, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the notion of parliamentary supremacy was modified under the influence of five principal sources: The devolution of power to regional assemblies in Scotland (Scottish Parliament), Wales (Welsh Assembly) and Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland Assembly). All three assemblies can pass primary legislation within the areas that have been devolved to them. As the system remains devolved and not federal, the powers of these assemblies stems from the UK Parliament and can be suspended.The UK's membership of the European Economic Community, later the European Union, from 1973. The EU represents, as the European Court of Justice ruled in 1963 in the case Van Gend en Loos, a "new legal order of international law for the benefit of which the [Member] States have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited fields". The UK became part of that legal order - though the fact that UK membership of the EU has been brought about through Acts of Parliament - principally the European Communities Act 1972 - raises the possibility that Parliament could, as a matter of UK law, pass further legislation unilaterally withdrawing the UK from the Union, or selectively barring the application of European law within the UK. {As subsequent events have shown!}Following the case of Thoburn v Sunderland City Council certain statutes are protected as Constitutional Statutes. The case involved amendments to the Weights and Measures Act 1985 by the Weights and Measures Act 1985 (Metrication) (Amendment) Order 1994 pursuant to Directive 80/181/EEC. This stated that Imperial measurements could be displayed so long as the metric measurements were displayed in larger type beside them. Thoburn was convicted for only using Imperial measurements. In his defence he argued that allowing even limited use of Imper[...]

Separation of Powers


The US Constitution is built upon the foundation of a separation of powers. Montesquieu (pictured above), amongst others, had highlighted the importance of ensuring that the differing functions of legislating (making law); executing the laws (carrying out the laws and providing day to day administration) ; and judging - both interpreting the laws and deciding in invidual cases - should be in the hands of separate groups of individuals. Hence a member of Congress cannot be at the same time a member of the Executive (serving the President) or a member of the judiciary.On the face of it, Britain seems to show a fusion, rather than a separation of powers. The doctrines of ministerial responsibility are based on the principle that Government Ministers will also be members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords. The Lord Chancellor was for centuries a member of Parliament (almost invariably in the House of Lords); the presiding officer and major player in the Lords; a member of Cabinet and an active judge.However - it is useful to remember that Montesquieu actually praised Britain as a shining example of 'separation of powers'. It can be fairly described as a major principle of the British system. True fusion of powers ended with the decline of absolute royal power. The House of Commons Library have produced an excellent paper on separation of powers. It is available here. Students of UK Constitutional Law (including Open University W201 course) will find that the process of condensing the information in this paper will assist their revision immensely.[...]

Thoughts about Revision


Back in 2011 I recorded some thoughts about techniques for revision.

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Revision Cards


Law Students in particular, but many students in general, have a tradition of using "revision cards" to assist in the final stages of revision. Of course they are even more useful the earlier they are prepared.Case cards are a particularly useful tool for law students. It's useful to have a VERY brief outline of the facts and key legal points established by a particular leading case. (A word of warning - volume  is the enemy of the student who wishes to be effective - don't do too many cases, concentrate on the cases that you are likely to need for the exam - a thousand case cards looks impressive, but may not concentrate the mind! Similarly, don't try and write as much as you possibly can - in the smallest writing. Condensing the information is the key to successful recall)One of my students introduced me to "Quizlet" an internet based tool for creating cards; revising & testing oneself; and sharing with colleagues. [a 'Spaced Repetition' tool - there's a good article about them, and why they work  at]  He, and some other Open University students collaborated in developing some revision cards which they then shared and tested each other on. I strongly commend such activities - it makes learning more fun & discussion can (and does) arise which enhances every participants understanding of the subject matter.Revision cards are useful not just for learning cases - but definitions, or quotations, for dates & translated words. I've started using them for my own leisure and professional use. Quizlet allows you to make your own cards - and if you choose, to share them with everyone - or with a defined group of colleagues. It also allows you to find existing card sets.So if you are taking an exam in 2017 - make your resolution to improve your results by using revision cards. The ones you make yourself are the most useful (because you are forced to condense information - a key to successful memory). Using cards made by others can be useful, but less effective (I for example found on Quizlet a set of cards, each of which has the name; state and photograph of a member of the current US Senate - and use it to improve my recall of faces (not my strongest point) and linking Senators to their States.)If you want to try Quizlet out - go to [...]

The Washminster Blog during April, May & Early June


The pace of posts may drop in the coming few weeks. There's a General Election on in the UK - and that means I have less time to research and post, and to comment on events here in the UK, France, the EU and the USA - but do subscribe, or return occasionally - I hope to get some posts published in the weeks ahead.For students facing exams (particularly on the Open University's W201 course - but I also have advice and information that may be useful, for law and political science students, as well as anyone facing exams) - I will be continuing to post on revision topics.My "Washminster" posts are aimed at anyone interested in the workings of legislatures, politics generally - and have in the past covered specific elections - not to seek to encourage people to vote in a particular way. However my knowledge and experience comes from a rather long time being actively involved in British, European and US politics.So if you want to see what happens in elections, and can put up with my partisanship - then you are welcome to follow me on: FACEBOOK : the 2001 and 2005 General Elections, or the 2009 European Parliament Elections - and various local government elections - I will not be standing as a candidate myself.I will however be encouraging all progressives to back pro-EU candidates standing in parliamentary constituencies where they have the best chance of defeating the Conservative hard or passive Brexit supporters (which I think is everyone but Kenneth Clarke).A guide to voting effectively can be found here - - the spreadsheet is based on is available here.[...]



It can be very useful to look at old exam papers (OU Law Students can access these through 'Elite') - but even more useful to take a look at examiners reports. These often highlight common mistakes that have arisen. If you read a few reports you'll see that the same issues frequently turn up.One comment I'd like to stress appeared one year (though it is a perennial) - "Some students in fact forgot to apply the law to the facts at all, and simply listed cases; although these were usually relevant ... it was very apply the rules and principles as well as setting them out." Cases are important - especially in English Law where precedent plays a key role - but there can be a tendency to fixate on memorising case names and facts. I've known students who have sought to memorise over a hundred cases. (to which I say, how many cases can you discuss in a three hour exam in which up to an hour can profitably be spent choosing the best questions to answer; planning the answers; writing them; and reviewing them?)Use cases to illustrate a point you are making; to support your argument; to demonstrate different approaches to the issue - but never just recite cases and their facts. How should you "revise" cases?The first task is to select the cases that you plan to revise. As you revise each topic, think about which cases are most important. Clues can also be found elsewhere - what has the manual; textbook; tutor stressed most? (My students will be familiar with me banging on about ...)[W201] Entick v Carrington; Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza; Campbell v MGN; Carltona v Commissioner of Works; Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury; The GCHQ case (Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service); Porter v Magill; R v Ghosh; R v R (Marital Rape); R v Cunningham; R v G (Recklessness)...Prepare brief notes. Students, almost since "time immemorial", have used revision cards to prepare for exams. The value of these cards are that they require you to condense the information. This is a (the?) key process in revision - (there are some professionally written cards on sale - some value, but you lose the process of condensing yourself - similarly, copying out from a text or revision book has the same value-deficit). There is some value in reviewing the finished cards frequently.Consider the application of cases. Cases should not be used as decoration. They are a vital part of legal argument. Consider where and how you would deploy these cases. This is where using old exam papers can come in useful.[...]

Mind Mapping


I've been a long term 'fan' of mind-mapping. I was first introduced to it as a teenager - and have found it very useful throughout my career, first as a student, then as an academic (and also for dealing with the masses of information I was using as a parliamentary candidate). As with any system - it is good to adapt to your own style and strengths. My problem is that I am useless at drawing (I know there are those who claim that anyone can be taught to draw, but is beyond me - I couldn't draw to save my life!). That has meant that I lost one of the advantages of mind-mapping - which is to use all the senses. My "mind-maps" were closer to "spidergrams" - sometimes I used colour - but essentially I used two dimensional diagrams, without drawings. However it has assisted me in studying; writing essays and preparing presentations and speeches. Most of all - it has helped when I prepared for exams.Tony Buzan, a key developer and populariser of Mind Maps has gone hi-tech  Now I can do it on screen - I have MindMaps loaded on my home PC and on my iPad.It may work for you - it may not. Each of us has our own learning style. For me it works - and works VERY well. I'm not good at remembering masses of information (and getting worse as I get older). But organising related information by drawing mind maps is a great help. I also find it an invaluable "thinking device".Previously, I found them most useful for exam revision - thankfully I'm not facing any exams in the near future - but if you are - or you have a friend who is - then it's worth considering whether Mind Maps can help.If you want further information - press here. It tells you something about the products available. But you can do them with pen (though pencil works best) and paper. The link is that you see the relationships between ideas. You can link key ideas in an argument by linking 'clouds' containing the key ideas together in a chain. You can develop different levels of mind maps - for example* What is needed for a successful Judicial review claim;* the elements of a specific offence (Actus Reus, Mens Rea and Defences);* or the key facts of a particular case.Why not try to list some topics you could prepare mind maps for?[...]

What's the point of revision?


A question I often ask myself! Without it, one is less likely to demonstrate one's knowledge and skills to an examiner. But I want to take the answer to a more practical level.

Revision is about 'training for the exam' - being in 'top condition' for the challenge that the exam sets.  It's about having the key facts at one's fingertips. What are the appropriate legal rules to solve the problem? What are the key arguments around central ideas in the law? What are the key cases in a particular area? It is NOT about memorisation for the sake of memorisations - it is about marshalling the resources you will deploy in the exam room.

Answering exam questions is not about dumping a load of facts, cases and slogans on a piece of paper - it's about marshalling them TO ANSWER THE SPECIFIC QUESTION SET.

So you do need to be able to

- use key cases to advance and/or prove the argument you are making
- set out - and EVALUATE - key arguments (for example about the level of 'Separation of Powers in the UK Constitutional System' or 'balancing conflicting rights arising from the European Convention on Human Rights')
- solve key problems (for example, assess whether a certain set of facts could give rise to a successful Judicial review claim, or a prosecution for a particular offence.)

Single facts, or single cases, are not by themselves key to success - it is the relationships between them.

Rigidity is an enemy of success. I've read many an exam answer which is little more than the dumping of all the facts the student can remember about the subject. That is not the way to success. As stated above, success comes from being able to effectively deploy your knowledge and understanding to answering the specific questions set.

Revision is about
- identifying the key facts, arguments, rules and cases
- recognising the links between your areas of knowledge (it's much easier to remember if you linked your knowledge)
- becoming flexible about how you use your knowledge (so you answer the specific question set, not just dump pre-learned material in the answer book).
- becoming fluent in explaining concepts and making arguments.

I'll be exploring some of these ideas in forthcoming posts.

Exam Revision


Do you (or a friend) have exams coming up? Over the years Washminster has published a number of posts designed for exam preparation - with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on Undergraduate Law exams. For my (likely) final group of students on the Open University W201 Law - the Individual and the State course (Constitutional Law; Administrative Law; Human Rights Law; Criminal Law) - I will be re-publishing some of those posts. I will start with general principles and advice for revision - then move on to specific topics covered by the course.

Please do use yourself - (and) / or share this blog with students facing exams. The series starts next Wednesday.