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EurekAlert! - Biology



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 18:12:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



No longer lost in translation

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology) Mouse models have advanced our understanding of immune function and disease in many ways but they have failed to account for the natural diversity in human immune responses. As a result, insights gained in the lab may be lost in translation. In their latest study, researchers at La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, developed a new approach to model human immune variation in the lab that overcomes the limitations of traditional mouse models.



Company innovates by using magnetic resonance to evaluate food quality

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) A Brazilian company has developed a low-field NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) device that takes a few seconds to perform chemical and physical analyses of fruit, grains, olive oil, milk and meat, among other products.



New grant supports comprehensive research on traumatic brain injury

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Brown University) With a better understanding how traumatic brain injuries occur, a Brown-led research team hopes to develop new standards for head protection and next-generation helmets.



University of Rochester awarded $19 million to coordinate national science program

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Rochester Medical Center) The University of Rochester has been awarded $19 million from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) at the National Institutes of Health to coordinate a network of more than 50 institutions across the country. The network aims to help researchers turn scientific discoveries into health benefits faster.



UAlberta and McGill scientists uncover a hidden calcium cholesterol connection

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry) It's well known that calcium is essential for strong bones and teeth, but new research shows it also plays a key role in moderating another important aspect of health -- cholesterol.Scientists at the University of Alberta and McGill University have discovered a direct link between calcium and cholesterol, a discovery that could pave the way for new ways of treating high blood cholesterol.



Investigation tests new methods of water recycling in space

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(NASA/Johnson Space Center) The Capillary Structures investigation uses capillary action, or the ability for a liquid to flow through a narrow spaces, such as small tubes, to move liquids and gases in microgravity, a task that can't be tested in Earth's gravity environment.



This week from AGU: Researchers uncover 200-year-old sunspot drawings in Maine

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Geophysical Union) This week from AGU is a compilation of recent publications featuring research published in an AGU journal.



How bacteria maintain and recover their shape

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences) Bacteria have an extraordinary ability to maintain and recover their morphology even after being twisted out of shape. Researchers know that shape is determined by the cell wall, yet little is known about how bacteria monitor and control it. Since the cell wall is the target of most antibiotics, understanding how bacteria grow their cell walls may provide insight into more effective medicines. Now, a team of researchers has found that Escherichia coli (E. coli) may use mechanical cues to keep their shape.



Physicists gain new insights into nanosystems with spherical confinement

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Theoretical physicists led by Professor Kurt Binder and Dr. Arash Nikoubashman at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have used computer simulations to study the arrangement of stiff polymers in spherical cavities.



Stanford researchers engineer 3-D hydrogels for tissue-specific cartilage repair

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Unlike the one-size-fits-all, homogeneous approach to tissue engineering for cartilage replacement, a new study reports the ability to encapsulate cartilage-forming chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells in 3-D hydrogels within a stiffness gradient.



Inventions by young KTU researchers can identify early stages of flatfeet condition

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Kaunas University of Technology) Of all human organs, the most pressure is endured by the feet, which are carrying all the weight of a person while walking. The change of feet pressure can serve as a perfect indicator for diagnosing occurrence and development of certain heath conditions, such as feet pathologies from diabetes, toe deformation and flatfeet condition.



Quantifying lower limb muscle weakness in Osteogenesis Imperfecta type IV

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(International Osteoporosis Foundation) To date, muscle function, and in particular that of the lower extremity, in OI type IV has not been investigated systematically. This study now assesses upper and lower extremity muscle function finding that lower limb weakness may contribute to limitations in mobility in people with OI Type IV despite multidisciplinary treatment.



A new bird which humans drove to extinction discovered in Azores

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology) Inside the crater of a volcano on Graciosa Island in the Azores archipelago, in the Atlantic Ocean, an international team of researchers has discovered the bones of a new extinct species of songbird, a bullfinch which they have named Pyrrhula crassa. The remains were found in a small cavity through which time ago the lava flowed. This bird disappeared a few hundreds of years ago due to human colonization of the islands and the introduction of invasive species.



Research at Lake Baikal -- for the protection of a unique ecosystem

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ) As part of the Helmholtz Russia Research Group LaBeglo, UFZ researchers are studying the impact of climate change and environmental toxins on the lake's fauna. In a recent study, together with researchers from the Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the University of Irkutsk, they addressed the question of how Baikal amphipods that fulfil important ecological functions in the lake react to pollutants in the water.



Studies help understand why some people are so sure they're right

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Case Western Reserve University) Two studies examine the personality characteristics that drive dogmatism in the religious and nonreligious. In both groups, higher critical reasoning skills were associated with lower levels of dogmatism. But these two groups diverge in how moral concern influences their dogmatic thinking.



Is extended-release guanfacine effective in children with chronic tic disorders?

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A new study assessed the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of extended-release guanfacine in children 6-17 years of age who have chronic tic disorders including Tourette's disorder.



Longer-lasting fragrance is just a shampoo away, thanks to peptides

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Chemical Society) Many people select their shampoo based on smell. Unfortunately, that scent usually doesn't last long on hair. Now, one team reports in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces a new way to help the fragrance 'stick' to hair longer.



Identifying major transitions in human cultural evolution

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History) Over the past 10,000 years human cultures have expanded from small groups of hunter-gatherers to colossal and complexly organized societies. The secrets to how and why this major cultural transition occurred have largely remained elusive. In an article published on July 24 by Russell Gray and Joseph Watts in PNAS they outline how advances in computational methods and large cross-cultural datasets are beginning to reveal the broad patterns and processes underlying our cultural histories.



Drug combination shows better tolerance and effectiveness in metastatic renal cell cancer

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center) A novel combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab for patients with metastatic kidney cancer is proving to be a more effective treatment with more durable tumor response than the two immunotherapies used separately. The promising combination therapy demonstrated manageable safety, notable antitumor activity, and durable responses with better long term overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer.



Experts win support to tackle rising threat of antibiotic resistance

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Edinburgh) Experts are to tackle one of the biggest health challenges facing society -- the ability of common infections to resist drug treatment -- in a new facility being created at the University of Edinburgh.



The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017 Annual Meeting

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(American Institute of Biological Sciences) For this episode of BioScience Talks, we chatted with presenters and personnel from SICB's 2017 annual meeting, which was held earlier this year in New Orleans.



A hybrid material to spot organic contaminants in the atmosphere

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Elhuyar Fundazioa) The chemist Paula Moriones-Jiménez has obtained a type of hybrid material made up of organic and inorganic components and which is highly porous, a feature of interest for industrial sectors such as the pharmaceutical, automotive and electronic sectors, according to her Ph.D. thesis read at the NUP/UPNA-Public University of Navarre. This material has been applied to detect organic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene or xylene, in the atmosphere.



New 10-MW offshore wind generator prototype

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Elhuyar Fundazioa) Tecnalia has led a European consortium to develop a novel, 10-MW wind generator that is light and reliable and based on superconducting materials.



Queen's University Belfast researcher turning dirty tinfoil into biofuel catalyst

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(Queen's University Belfast) A researcher at Queen's University Belfast has discovered a way to convert dirty aluminum foil into a biofuel catalyst, which could help to solve global waste and energy problems.



Study sheds light on how body may detect early signs of cancer

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Edinburgh) Fresh insights into how cells detect damage to their DNA -- a hallmark of cancer -- could help explain how the body keeps disease in check. Scientists at the University of Edinburgh have discovered how damage to the cell's genetic material can trigger inflammation, setting in motion processes to remove damaged cells and keep tissues healthy.