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EurekAlert! - Biology



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2018 20:12:02 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Oncotarget: Cancer pioneer employs physics to approach cancer in last research article

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Rapamycin Press) In the cover article of Tuesday's issue of Oncotarget, James Frost, MD, PhD, Kenneth Pienta, MD, and the late Donald Coffey, Ph.D., use a theory of physical and biophysical symmetry to derive a new conceptualization of cancer. Co-author Dr. Coffey, ex-deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Professor of Urology, died before this paper was published at 85.



Climate change, evolution, and what happens when researchers are also friends

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Colorado State University) A new study in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, which addresses how climate change is affecting the evolution of organisms, underscores the need for evolutionary, ecosystem and climate scientists to work together to better understand eco-evolutionary feedback dynamics.



Scientists poised to win the race against rust disease and beyond

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Minnesota) In a race to prevent and control rust disease epidemics, scientists have positioned themselves to better understand how rust fungi infect crops and evolve virulence.



Purdue injected drug combination could expedite bone fracture healing

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Purdue University) Purdue researchers are developing and commercializing a targeted drug combination that once injected into a patient could speed up and improve bone fracture healing, and significantly cut recovery costs.



Helping in spite of risk: Ants perform risk-averse sanitary care of infectious nest mates

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Institute of Science and Technology Austria) Ants care for their sick nest mates in different ways, depending on their own immune status. When they themselves are susceptible to dangerous superinfections, they use a different method to care for sick colony members compared to ants that are not susceptible, thus protecting themselves from infection. This is the result of a study of Professor Sylvia Cremer's research group at IST Austria, with first authors Matthias Konrad and Christopher Pull published today in PNAS.



Open data help scientists to unravel Earth systems

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Helsinki) Understanding nature and its processes has greatly benefitted from open data. Open remotely sensed data make hard-to-reach wilderness areas more accessible -- at least from above. These advances provide new opportunities for Earth system research, such as in a recent soil moisture study by BioGeoClimate Modelling Lab from the Department of Geosciences and Geography at the University of Helsinki.



MicroRNA could help treat cancer and asthma

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Purdue University) MiR-223 shows promise for treating inflammatory disease.



Green toads with multiple genomes have ancestors that are only distantly related

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Forschungsverbund Berlin) Dr. Matthias Stoeck from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and researchers from the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) and the Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) have just published an extensive phylogenetic tree for the Eurasian green toads. This phylogenetic tree shows that polyploid species are hybrids and only descend from parental species with a very high degree of genetic divergence.



Governance of emerging technologies: Aligning policy analysis with social values

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(The Hastings Center) A new special report examines how we can make wise policy decisions about emerging technologies.



As climate changes, so could the genes of the Eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Notre Dame) Researchers warn climate change can not only influence the geographic distribution of a species in response to changing conditions -- it could also affect the evolutionary trajectories of interbreeding species.



'Demographic compensation' may not save plants facing changing climate

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(North Carolina State University) A large-scale study shows mixed results for hypothesis on how plants deal with climate change.



Deconstructing lupus -- could some of its makeup be part of its cure?

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Houston) University of Houston biomedical engineer Chandra Mohan is examining the protein ALCALM to find a cure for lupus and its complications. ALCALM appears in patients that have kidney disease and lupus. Mohan says it's like finding a suspect at the scene of different crimes.



Beluga whales dive deeper, longer to find food in Arctic

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) Beluga whales that spend summers feeding in the Arctic are diving deeper and longer to find food than in earlier years, when sea ice covered more of the ocean for longer periods, according to a new analysis led by University of Washington researchers



Scientists deliver high-resolution glimpse of enzyme structure

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Using a state-of-the-art type of electron microscopy, an MIT-led team has discovered the structure of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which is crucial for maintaining an adequate supply of DNA building blocks in human cells



Spare parts from small parts: Novel scaffolds to grow muscle

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(RMIT University) Australian biomedical engineers have developed a 3-D material that successfully mimics nature to transform cells into muscle.



Rooting out Ebola's biomechanical enabler

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Lehigh University) In a new study supported by the National Institutes of Health, researchers at Lehigh University seek to elucidate quantitatively -- for the first time -- the biomechanical mechanism of Ebola-host cell interaction, providing potential new targets for antiviral drug development.



Researchers invent tiny, light-powered wires to modulate brain's electrical signals

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Chicago) A new University of Chicago study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to manipulate electrical signaling between neurons. Published Feb. 19 in Nature Nanotechnology, the study offers a new avenue to shed light on -- and perhaps someday treat -- brain disorders.



Scientists find new antimalarial drug targets

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(The Francis Crick Institute) Researchers have discovered crucial new processes that allow malaria parasites to escape red blood cells and infect other cells, offering potential new treatment targets. The team are already working with pharmaceutical companies to use this knowledge to develop new antimalarial drugs - a critical step in the battle against drug-resistant malaria.



'Click chemistry' reactions may boost cancer-fighting drug potency

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Scripps Research Institute) Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed a quick and easy way to simultaneously modify dozens of drugs or molecules to improve their disease-fighting properties.



Bacteria-eaters to prevent food poisoning?

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Helsinki) Bacteria-killing viruses could be employed not just in health care, but also in the food industry, a study conducted at the University of Helsinki indicates. The researchers have been investigating the possibility of utilising phages in eradicating foodborne pathogens and preventing food poisoning



Brain size of human ancestors evolved gradually over 3 million years

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(University of Chicago Medical Center) Modern humans have brains that are more than three times larger than our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos. Scientists don't agree on when and how this dramatic increase took place, but new analysis of 94 hominin fossils shows that average brain size increased gradually and consistently over the past three million years.



European Geosciences Union meeting: Program online, press conferences

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(European Geosciences Union) The program for the 2018 EGU General Assembly is now online. At the meeting, with over 14,000 scientists, journalists can hear about the latest research in the Earth and space sciences. The conference (8-13 April in Vienna, Austria) features debates on low-risk geoengineering and on threats for life on Earth. Press conference topics include: new results from ESA and NASA missions, what's at risk from coastal hazards, and the 2017 wildfire season.



The Forsyth Institute & Photomedics Inc. announce intraoral antibacterial light device

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Forsyth Institute) Photomedics, an oral health technology company, with a corporate headquarters based out of The Forsyth Institute, a pioneer in oral health research, has developed and designed a functional, proprietary intraoral light device with proven ability to reduce the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the mouth that can cause gum disease, bad breath and are linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, premature birth and low birth weight.



Noise from ships scares porpoises

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(Aarhus University) Porpoises communicate with each other using sounds. Therefore, they are highly sensitive to noise, such as ship noise. A new study shows, for the first time, that porpoises flee from and stop feeding when disturbed by heavy ship noise.



Faster and better development of biorefinery processes through modeling

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 EST

(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) In his dissertation, Senior Scientist and M.Sc. (Eng.) Kristian Melin of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a modelling and evaluation method for identifying which biorefinery processes.