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EurekAlert! - Biology



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Fri, 09 Sep 2016 02:12:01 EDT

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



Better chemistry through...chemistry

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of California - Santa Barbara) Award-winning UCSB professor Bruce Lipshutz is out to make organic chemistry better for the planet



Voracious Asian jumping worms strip forest floor and flood soil with nutrients

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Wisconsin-Madison) New research from the University of Wisconsin-Madison shows that Asian jumping worms, an invasive species first found in Wisconsin in 2013, may do their work too well, speeding up the exit of nutrients from the soil before plants can process them.



Healthy ageing. Three days reality check.

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Biogerontology Research Foundation) The Eurosymposium on Healthy Ageing (EHA) www.eha-heales.org is an international event that provides a unique opportunity for researchers, government officials, biotech executives, entrepreneurs, and non-governmental institutions from around the world to meet, network, and forge new scientific collaborations.



Global DS Foundation funds research showing impact of trisomy 21 on interferon signaling

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Global Down Syndrome Foundation) Renowned Crnic Institute scientist, Dr. Espinosa, has found the interferon response is constantly activated in people with Down syndrome causing the body to fight a viral infection when such infection doesn't exist. Constant immune system activation would likely cause damaging side-effects and may explain cognitive deficit, increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders, higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, and protection against solid tumors. Testing FDA-approved drugs that block the interferon response could be an important next step.



Gladstone investigator receives $5.8M career grant

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Gladstone Institutes) Gladstone senior investigator Katerina Akassoglou, PhD, was awarded a prestigious multi-year, multi-million dollar grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Akassgolou will use the award to advance her research on the intersection of the brain, immune, and vascular systems, and their role in neurological diseases.



How do shark teeth bite? Reciprocating saw, glue provide answers

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Washington) A recent University of Washington study sought to understand why shark teeth are shaped differently and what biological advantages various shapes have by testing their performance under realistic conditions. The results appeared in August in the journal Royal Society Open Science.



Linking RNA structure and function

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT biologists have discovered how an enigmatic type of RNA helps to control cell fate.



New vaccination strategies coach immune system to make HIV-neutralizing antibodies

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(International AIDS Vaccine Initiative) New approaches that could spur the human body to produce HIV-blocking antibodies have been successful in mice mimicking the human immune system, according to five studies published today in the research journals Cell, Immunity and Science.



Reactive oxygen species switch immune cells from migratory to murderous

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Illinois at Chicago) Neutrophils use ROS concentration to determine when to stop migrating and start killing.



Newly discovered infectious prion structure shines light on mad cow disease

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry) Groundbreaking research from the University of Alberta has identified the structure of the infectious prion protein, the cause of 'mad cow disease' or BSE, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which has long remained a mystery.



Flying beauties photoshoot: School kids in the Philippines learn what insects do for rice

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Pensoft Publishers) Science advances society and fosters sustainability, so why not involve everyone in building a better future? Culminating in the first citizen science workshop for arthropods to take place in the Philippines, one of the main objectives of the five-year, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research coordinated research project, LEGATO, was also to find ways to engage society in collecting research data and applying research findings in practice.



TSRI and IAVI researchers harness antibody evolution on the path to an AIDS vaccine

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Scripps Research Institute) A series of new studies led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative describe a potential vaccination strategy to jump-start the selection and evolution of broadly effective antibodies to prevent HIV infection. The researchers plan to test this strategy in an upcoming human clinical trial.



European Research Council awards €1.5 million to arm cereals against pathogens and diseases

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Earlham Institute) Announced today by the European Research Council, Dr. Ksenia Krasileva, Group Leader at the Earlham Institute and the Sainsbury Laboratory has been awarded a €1.5 million Starting Grant (over five years) to investigate the immune system of our most important crops. Her research into plants' immune system could create new genetic solutions for protecting plant health and future sustainable crop production.



Researchers name a new species of reptile from 212 million years ago

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Virginia Tech) An extinct reptile related to crocodiles that lived 212 million years ago in present day New Mexico has been named as a new species, Vivaron haydeni, in a paper published this week by Virginia Tech's Department of Geosciences researchers.



New Kuwaiti law on the collection of human DNA threatens scientific collaboration

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(European Society of Human Genetics) The law requiring compulsory DNA testing of all Kuwaiti residents, as well as of all those visiting the country for whatever purpose, is a serious assault on the right to privacy of individuals, and is also likely to lead to the isolation of Kuwaiti scientific research and researchers, according to the European Society of Human Genetics.



Rare and common genetic variants combine to cause skull-fusion disorder

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Rockefeller University) Researchers have identified mutations responsible for a disorder that causes the premature fusion of the suture along the top of a baby's skull. Their discovery will immediately help diagnose and counsel patients, and has broader for understanding the genetics of complex traits.



Living together in mud: New bivalve species dwelling on a sea cucumber discovered in Japan

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Pensoft Publishers) Most bivalves live in sand or mud or attached to rock surface. However, a new bivalve species described from Japan lives on a sea cucumber that burrows in mudflats. This species is attached to the host by thin threads and uses host burrows as shelter from predators. This species, published in the open-access journal ZooKeys, is one of the smallest species in the genus, which is probably an adaptation to a narrow host burrow.



Researchers uncover new potential genetic links to common brain disorder

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Maryland School of Medicine) An international group of researchers has for the first time identified a set of 30 inherited recessive genes that play a role in intellectual disability, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects as many as 213 million people around the world.



AMP to recognize Eric Lander with 2016 Award for Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Association for Molecular Pathology) Eric Lander, Ph.D., has earned this year's Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) Award for Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics for his countless contributions to the field. The award will be presented at the AMP 2016 Annual Meeting. Following the award presentation, Dr. Lander will deliver a special lecture on his 35-year journey uncovering insights to benefit human health.



JIC scientist awarded prestigious 5 year European Research Council starting grant

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(John Innes Centre) Dr Diane Saunders an early career scientist at the John Innes Centre (JIC) in partnership with the Earlham Institute has been awarded a prestigious European Research Council (ERC) starting grant to pursue her chosen area of research.



Kill them with cuteness: The adorable thing bats do to catch prey

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(PLOS) A Johns Hopkins University researcher noticed the bats he works with cocked their heads to the side, just like his pet pug. As the article publishing in open-access journal PLOS Biology details, using high-tech recording devices, Wohlgemuth determined that a bat's fetching head waggles and ear wiggles sync with the animal's sonar vocalizations to help it hunt. The finding demonstrates how movement in bats can enhance signals used by senses like sight and hearing.



Yellow or black, large or small? Ant color and body size respond strongly to environment

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Liverpool) A University of Liverpool study of ants across three continents has revealed that their color and size is strongly influenced by their environment, and that the dominant color and average body size can change from year to year as temperatures vary. This finding has implications for how ant communities will cope with rising global temperatures.



The impact of extreme exercise on breathing in GB Olympic boxers and swimmers

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(University of Kent) Researchers from the School of Sport and Exercise Science (SSES) investigated elite British athletes from both swimming and boxing and their research suggests asthma related breathing problems should not be a barrier to sporting success, as long as they are well managed and controlled.



Diabetes: Risk factor air pollution

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health) Exposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München, in collaboration with colleagues of the German Center for Diabetes Research, reported these results in the journal Diabetes.



Sensory cells of the balance organ can regenerate after injury

Thu, 08 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EDT

(Umea University) Research at Umeå University in Sweden shows that in the utricle -- which is one of the internal ear's balance organs in mammals -- epithelial cells can be regenerated, resulting in healthy sensory hair cells and surrounding supporting cells.