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EurekAlert! - Biology



The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.



Last Build Date: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 16:12:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.
 



TGen identifies compound that could improve drug development against deadly brain cancer

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) A study led by scientists at TGen has identified 'a potent inhibitory compound' in the elusive hunt for an improved treatment against glioblastoma, the most common and deadly type of adult brain cancer. Aurintricarboxylic Acid (ATA) is a chemical compound that in laboratory tests was shown to block the chemical cascade that otherwise allows glioblastoma cells to invade normal brain tissue and resist both chemo and radiation therapy, according to a TGen-led report published today in the scientific journal Oncotarget.



World's first total-body PET scanner takes a big step forward

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - Davis) The UC Davis-based EXPLORER consortium, which aims to build a revolutionary total-body PET (positron emission tomography) scanner, has announced the selection of two industry partners to help build the prototype device. They are United Imaging Healthcare America, a North American subsidiary of Shanghai United Imaging Healthcare, and SensL Technologies of Cork, Ireland.



Researchers zero-in on cholesterol's role in cells

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Chicago) For the first time, by using a path-breaking optical imaging technique to pinpoint cholesterol's location and movement within the cell membrane, chemists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have made the surprising finding that cholesterol is a signaling molecule that transmits messages across the cell membrane.



Ludwig study reveals why cancer cells spread within the body

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research) Findings uncover an ancient mechanism that makes cancer cells invasive, explains melanoma's resistance to therapy and opens the door to development of novel cancer therapies



The devil is in the details

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Medical University of South Carolina) Medical University of South Carolina investigators report preclinical research showing that the tumor-promoting properties of neuropilin-2 reside predominantly on isoform NRP2b, while NRP2a has the opposite effects in non-small cell lung cancer, in the Jan. 17, 2017 issue of Science Signaling. In mouse models, NRP2a inhibited tumor cell proliferation, while NRP2b promoted metastasis and progression. This new understanding may lead to improved therapies that specifically target NRP2b, while sparing the tumor-inhibiting functions of NRP2a.



Moving up the food chain can beat being on top

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rice University) When it comes to predators, the biggest mouths may not take the biggest bite. According to a new study from bioscientists at Rice University, some predators have their greatest ecological impacts before they reach adulthood.



NREL pioneers better way to make renewable hydrogen

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Scientists at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a method which boosts the longevity of high-efficiency photocathodes in photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices.



Millions of people with metabolic syndrome may need more vitamin E

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Oregon State University) New research has shown that people with metabolic syndrome need significantly more vitamin E -- which could be a serious public health concern, in light of the millions of people who have this condition that's often related to obesity.



Non-ambient conditions in the investigation and manufacturing of drug forms

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Bentham Science Publishers) To achieve control over the drug forms and the processes used for their robust manufacturing, one needs to take into account both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of their transformations. The review contains over 400 references and provides a comprehensive guide through the vast ocean of publications in this field.



Study challenges potential pancreatic cancer target

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Michigan Health System) A protein thought to fuel pancreatic cancer development plays a much more complicated role, a new study finds. PDX1 is critical for cancer growth, but blocking it may lead to more aggressive tumors.



ReSeqTB Data Platform now available to public

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(The Critical Path Institute (C-Path)) The Rapid Drug Susceptibility Testing Consortium, an arm of the Critcal Path to TB Drug Regimens initiative, announces the public launch of the Relational Sequencing TB Data Platform (ReSeqTB): a user-friendly interface to identify and categorize M.tb mutations associated with drug resistance. Current drug susceptibility tests can take several months. ReSeqTB can change this paradigm by enabling clinicians and researchers to simultaneously identify mutations to all drugs.



Largest Populus SNP dataset holds promise for biofuels, materials, metabolites

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have released the largest-ever single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset of genetic variations in poplar trees, information useful to plant scientists as well as researchers in the fields of biofuels, materials science, and secondary plant metabolism.



Study shows signs of hope for endangered sea turtles

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of California - San Diego) Bones from dead turtles washed up on Mexican beaches indicate that Baja California is critical to the survival of endangered North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles, which travel some 7,500 miles from their nesting sites in Japan to their feeding grounds off the coast of Mexico.



Epigenetic factors linked to obesity-related disease

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Boston Children's Hospital) The study is one of the largest to date to examine the link between BMI, obesity-related disease and DNA methylation -- a type of epigenetic modification that influences whether genes are turned on or off. Findings were published online Jan. 17 by PLOS Medicine.



Delayed clamping prevents anemia

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Uppsala University) When clamping of the umbilical cord is delayed, iron deficiency up to six months of age can be prevented, according to a new study from Uppsala University, published in JAMA Pediatrics. The study was conducted in Nepal.



New tool can help policymakers prioritize information needs for synthetic biology tech

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(North Carolina State University) New technologies are developed at a rapid pace, often reaching the marketplace before policymakers can determine how or whether they should be governed. Now researchers have developed a model that can be used to assess emerging synthetic biology products, well before they are ready for the market, to determine what needs to be done to inform future policies.



Molecular clocks will turn back time on what wiped out the dinosaurs

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Bath) Scientists from the Milner Centre for Evolution, based at the University of Bath, have been awarded almost £1 million by the Leverhulme Trust to investigate the mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs.



Microbiologists make big leap in developing 'green' electronics

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) Microbiologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst report that they have discovered a new type of natural wire produced by bacteria that could greatly accelerate the researchers' goal of developing sustainable 'green' conducting materials for the electronics industry.



Discovery of a protein that protects against fatty liver

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)) A team co-headed by scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine and the IDIBAPS Biomedical Research Institute (part of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona) has revealed the capacity of the CPEB4 protein to prevent fatty liver disease.



Are you ready to explore baby's genome?

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of North Carolina Health Care) A national consortium of clinical geneticist is studying the ins and outs of potentially using genome sequencing for newborn health screenings and beyond.



Wheat virus crosses over, harms native grasses

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Michigan State University) Once upon a time, it was thought that crop diseases affected only crops. New research shows, however, that a common wheat virus can spread and harm perennial native grasses.



Unveiling the biology behind nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) EPFL scientists have discovered a new biological mechanism behind nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.



Opioids produce analgesia via immune cells

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin) Opioids are the most powerful painkillers. Researchers at the Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have now found that the analgesic effects of opioids are not exclusively mediated by opioid receptors in the brain, but can also be mediated via the activation of receptors in immune cells. Results from this research have been published in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.



Why 'platonic' flies don't copulate and what that could mean for humans

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Tohoku University) By studying the sexual behavior of a mutant strain of fruit fly called 'platonic,' researchers at the Tohoku University Graduate School of Life Sciences have found parallels between humans and flies in the neural control of copulation.



Cell biology: Take the mRNA train

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) Messenger RNAs bearing the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins are delivered to defined sites in the cell cytoplasm by molecular motors. Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have elucidated how the motors recognize their mRNA freight.