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EurekAlert! - Biology

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Last Build Date: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 22:12:01 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); All rights reserved.

Changes in young people's sexual practices over the last 20 years revealed

Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine) Young people today are taking part in a wider range of sexual practices, such as oral and anal sex, with opposite-sex partners compared to 20 years ago, according to new analysis by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and UCL.

Homes should not be abandoned after a big nuclear accident

Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Bristol) New research suggests that few people, if any, should be asked to leave their homes after a big nuclear accident, which is what happened in March 2011 following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

UTSA researchers receive grant to help prevent contaminations in Edwards Aquifer

Sat, 18 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Texas at San Antonio) Vikram Kapoor, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, and Drew Johnson, professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Texas at San Antonio, have been awarded a $692,452 funding agreement through the City of San Antonio's Proposition 1 Edwards Aquifer Protection Program to design and implement a way to track fecal bacteria in the Edwards Aquifer so that major contamination can be stopped before it starts.

Hibernating ground squirrels provide clues to new stroke treatments

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) In the fight against brain damage caused by stroke, researchers have turned to an unlikely source of inspiration: hibernating ground squirrels. While the animals' brains experience dramatically reduced blood flow during hibernation, just like human patients after a certain type of stroke, the squirrels emerge from their extended naps suffering no ill effects. Now, a team of NIH-funded scientists has identified a potential drug that could grant the same resilience to stroke patients.

Not an illusion: Clever use of mirrors boosts performance of light-sheet microscope

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Marine Biological Laboratory) Using a simple 'mirror trick' and not-so-simple computational analysis, scientists affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have considerably improved the speed, efficiency, and resolution of a light-sheet microscope, with broad applications for enhanced imaging of live cells and embryos.

When to fish: Timing matters for fish that migrate to reproduce

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Washington) A new University of Washington study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certain fish and change the life history patterns of entire populations.

These ring-tailed lemurs raise a 'stink' when they flirt with potential mates

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) Stink-flirting among ring-tailed lemurs come at a cost, but may also influence females in choosing a mate.

Mathematician's study of 'swarmalators' could direct future science

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Cornell University) How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of noted mathematician Steven Strogatz? As it turns out, quite prominently. Cornell researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploration of 'swarmalators' -- their term for systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together.

Decrease in sunshine, increase in rickets

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Toronto) A University of Toronto student and professor have teamed up to discover that Britain's increasing cloudiness during the summer could be an important reason for the mysterious increase in rickets among British children over the past few decades.

Research shows drones could help crop management take off

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture) Initial results of an ongoing study show that aerial imagery produced by multi-spectral sensors as well as less-expensive digital cameras may improve accuracy and efficiency of plant stand assessment in cotton.

Scientific advances can make it easier to recycle plastics

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Houston) Researchers report new approaches could dramatically increase the amount of plastic waste that can be successfully recycled.

eDNA tool detects invasive clams before they become a nuisance

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) When seeking a cure for a disease, early detection is often the key. The same is true for eliminating invasive species. Identifying their presence in a lake before they are abundant is vital. A recent University of Illinois study successfully used environmental DNA to detect invasive clams in California and Nevada lakes. Researchers believe this tool can help identify pests before they become a problem.

Inner clock: Biologists research the mechanism of an auxiliary clock

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Bielefeld University) In December, the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology will be awarded for the identification of genes that control the inner clock. The honored academics examined fruit flies to determine the biorhythm. Biochemist Professor Dr. Dorothee Staiger of Bielefeld University has been researching the inner clock of plants for 20 years. Her team has now published a new study in the research journal Genome Biology.

Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rice University) Researchers from Rice University, UCLA, Michigan State and the University of New Mexico have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen. The research appears this week in Science Advances.

Age and gut bacteria contribute to MS disease progression, according to Rutgers

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Rutgers University) Gut bacteria at a young age can contribute to multiple sclerosis disease onset and progression.

Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Specially tailored, ultrafast pulses of light can trigger neurons to fire and could one day help patients with light-sensitive circadian or mood problems, according to a new study in mice at the University of Illinois. This study is the first demonstration of using coherent control to regulate function in a living cell.

New interdisciplinary research program in biomedical innovation law

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Law) The Novo Nordisk Foundation has awarded a grant of DKK 35 million to Timo Minssen, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen for establishing a Collaborative Research Programme in Biomedical Innova-tion Law (CeBIL).The aim of CeBIL is to analyse the most important legal obstacles to pharmaceutical innovation and thereby contribute to translating innova-tive biomedical research into new effective, affordable and easily acces-sible forms of treatment.

Electrochemistry opens up novel access to important classes of substances

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany have succeeded in overcoming the problem of electrochemical polymer formation and in developing a sustainable and efficient synthesis strategy for these important products for the first time.

Anti-tumor and immune-potentiating Enterococcus faecalis-2001 β-glucans

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Bentham Science Publishers) Enterococcus faecalis 2001 is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and has been used as a biological response modifier (BRM). From physiological limitation of bacterial preservation in storage and safety, the live E. faecalis 2001 has been heat-treated and the BRM components containing high level of β-glucan, named EF-2001, were prepared.

Warmer water signals change for Scotland's shags

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Centre for Ecology & Hydrology) An increasingly catholic diet among European shags at one of Scotland's best-studied breeding colonies has been linked to long-term climate change and may have important implications for Scotland's seabirds.

BfR supports EFSA and ECHA with the development of European guidelines for the health assessment of endocrine disruptors

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment) On behalf of the European Food Safety Authority, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment hosted a hearing of experts on the practicability of hormone measurements in toxicological studies in Berlin on Oct. 18-19, 2017.

University of Guelph professor identifies protein key to cancer cells ability to spread

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(University of Guelph) U of G scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues.The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it decreased the adhesion and invasion rate of breast and brain cancer cells by up to 90 percent.

No more deer in the headlight: Study finds large mammals do use road crossing structures

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Frontiers) A pilot study finds that large mammals are more likely to use wildlife crossing structures than move past a random location in the surrounding habitat. Animal movement also varied between crossing structures in different locations, suggesting that location might be more important than design. These findings are a first step towards a better understanding of the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures.

Plant respiration could become a bigger feedback on climate than expected

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Centre for Ecology & Hydrology) New research suggests that plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warns that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning.

The tragedy of the seagrass commons

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 EST

(Swansea University) Urgent action is required to stem the loss of the world's seagrass meadows to protect their associated fisheries.