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Preview: Brightsurf Science News :: HIV Transmission News

HIV Transmission Current Events and HIV Transmission News from Brightsurf

HIV Transmission Current Events and HIV Transmission News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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Giant intrinsic chirality from planar dielectric nanostructures

Fri, 23 Feb 18 00:16:30 -0800

Harvard researchers have developed a metasurface, comprised of a single planar layer of nanostructures, which exhibits strong optical chirality in transmission. This means it can let circularly polarized light of one polarization pass through almost unhindered, while light of the opposite helicity is completely diffracted away. Such capabilities are incredibly useful for a host of applications, such as circular dichroism spectroscopy in the analysis of drug samples, and polarization filters in telecommunications. This work challenges some long-held notions about chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces.

Disease-bearing mosquitoes gain from shrinkage of green spaces

Thu, 22 Feb 18 00:16:10 -0800

A study conducted in São Paulo, Southern Hemisphere's biggest city, shows that mosquitoes belonging to vector species make up for seven out of the eight most common species found in municipal parks; adapted to urban environment, they benefit from the fragmentation of green areas, a process which leads to the extinction of wild species.

IBM reveals novel energy-saving optical receiver with a new record of rapid power-on/off time

Thu, 22 Feb 18 00:02:30 -0800

Group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project 'ADDAPT,' have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers.

Modification of CRISPR guide RNA structure prevents immune response in target cells

Thu, 22 Feb 18 00:08:30 -0800

CRISPR-mediated genome editing has become a powerful tool for modeling of disease in various organisms and is being developed for clinical applications. Preassembled Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) composed of the recombinant Cas9 protein and in vitrotranscribed (IVT) guide RNA complexes can be delivered into cells without risk of foreign DNA integration into the host genome and with fewer off-target effects. However, in a study published today in Genome Research, scientists discovered in vitro-transcribed gRNAs, containing a 5' triphosphate (5'ppp) moiety, activate the immune response in human cells leading to cell death.

NYU researchers adapt HIV test in developing rapid diagnostic test for Zika virus

Thu, 22 Feb 18 00:14:40 -0800

Researchers at New York University College of Dentistry, in collaboration with Rheonix, Inc., are developing a novel test for Zika virus that uses saliva to identify diagnostic markers of the virus in a fraction of the time of current commercial tests.

PHAT Life: Effective HIV intervention for youth in the criminal justice system

Wed, 21 Feb 18 00:01:50 -0800

A group risk-reduction intervention that uses role-playing, videos, games, and skill-building exercises to promote knowledge about HIV/AIDS, positive coping, and problem-solving skills for high-risk teens in the juvenile justice system, showed great potential for reducing sexual risk-taking. The findings were published in Health Psychology and funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), part of the National Institutes of Health.

Splitting crystals for 2-D metallic conductivity

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:11:30 -0800

Adding oxygen atoms to a perovskite-like crystal material splits it into layers, giving it unique electrical properties.

New safety data for the most commonly used drug to treat Chagas disease

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:12:30 -0800

The frequency of adverse reactions to benznidazole is high when treating chronic Chagas patients, although they were mostly mild effects, according to a study led by ISGlobal, in collaboration with the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. The results point to the need of finding drug combinations or dosages in order to maintain efficacy but decrease its toxicity.

Stigma increases risk of depression for people with Multiple Sclerosis

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:13:40 -0800

People with Multiple Sclerosis -- MS -- who feel stigmatized are more likely to suffer from depression, according to researchers, who add that having a support system of friends and family and a sense of autonomy may help reduce the harmful effects of stigma.

Improving family-based comm. Key to enhancing sexual health outcomes of GBQ adolescents

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:15:00 -0800

Studies have shown that talking with teens about sex-related topics is a positive parenting practice that facilitates important sexual health outcomes with heterosexual adolescents. But for LGBTQ youth, the topic of sexuality and sexual health is often ineffectively addressed at home.

AI to fight the spread of infectious diseases

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:01:30 -0800

Public outreach campaigns can prevent the spread of devastating yet treatable diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), malaria and gonorrhea. But ensuring these campaigns effectively reach undiagnosed patients, who may unknowingly spread the disease to others, is a major challenge for cash-strapped public health agencies. Now, a team of USC Viterbi School of Engineering researchers has created an algorithm that can help policymakers reduce the overall spread of disease.

Helping in spite of risk: Ants perform risk-averse sanitary care of infectious nest mates

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:06:00 -0800

Ants care for their sick nest mates in different ways, depending on their own immune status. When they themselves are susceptible to dangerous superinfections, they use a different method to care for sick colony members compared to ants that are not susceptible, thus protecting themselves from infection. This is the result of a study of Professor Sylvia Cremer's research group at IST Austria, with first authors Matthias Konrad and Christopher Pull published today in PNAS.

TB vaccine trial results offer potential for BCG Revaccination, hope for subunit vaccines

Mon, 19 Feb 18 00:07:10 -0800

Aeras, a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing vaccines against tuberculosis (TB), today announced results from an innovative clinical trial that provides encouraging new evidence that TB vaccines could prevent sustained infections in high-risk adolescents. In a prevention-of-infection Phase 2 trial conducted in South Africa, revaccination with the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine significantly reduced sustained TB infections in adolescents. An experimental vaccine candidate, H4:IC31, also reduced sustained infections, although not at statistically significant levels.

Infection site affects how a virus spreads through the body

Mon, 19 Feb 18 00:04:40 -0800

A person is more likely to get infected by HIV through anal intercourse than vaginal, but no one knows quite why. A new study by scientists at the Gladstone Institutes shows that infection sites could affect the immune system's response to a virus and the way the virus spreads through the body.

Evolutionary origin of termite gut microbiome revealed

Fri, 16 Feb 18 00:13:20 -0800

Researchers have shown that the bacterial communities in termite guts came about through both inheritance and transfer between colonies.

Amyloid protein transmission through neurosurgery

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:13:10 -0800

Amyloid beta pathology -- protein deposits in the brain - might have been transmitted by contaminated neurosurgical instruments, suggests a new UCL-led study. For the paper, published in Acta Neuropathologica, researchers studied the medical records of four people who had brain bleeds caused by amyloid beta build-up in brain blood vessels. All four people had undergone neurosurgery two or three decades earlier as children or teenagers, raising the possibility that amyloid beta deposition may be transmissible.

Antioxidant treatment prevents sexual transmission of Zika in mice

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:09:50 -0800

The antioxidant drug ebselen can prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus from male to female mice, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens by Yogy Simanjuntak and colleagues at Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. The results hint at a potential role for ebselen in preventing Zika spread among humans.

Biochemical networks mapped in midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:08:30 -0800

Scientists have mapped for the first time the midgut metabolites of the Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that can transmit viruses that cause dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever to humans.

Watching myelin patterns form: Evidence for sheath remodeling revealed by in vivo imaging

Wed, 14 Feb 18 00:01:00 -0800

Nerve fibers are surrounded by a myelin sheath. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now made the first-ever

A new class of drug to treat herpes simplex virus-1 infection

Wed, 14 Feb 18 00:08:30 -0800

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have now identified a small drug molecule that can clear the HSV-1 infection in the cells of the cornea -- the clear outer layer of the eyeball -- and works completely differently than the currently-available drugs, making it a promising potential option for patients who have developed resistance.

Scientists realize breakthrough in controlling the transmission of light

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:04:30 -0800

In the cover-story paper published in today's Nature Electronics, researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY) and at the University of Texas at Austin detail the development of a new light wave-isolation method.

Ebola virus infects reproductive organs in monkeys

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:03:30 -0800

Ebola virus can infect reproductive organs of male and female macaques, according to a new study, suggesting humans could be similarly infected. Prior studies have revealed sexual transmission of Ebola virus, and viral RNA persisting in semen following recovery. While little is known about viral persistence in female reproductive tissues, pregnant women with Ebola virus disease have a maternal death rate of more than 80 percent and a fetal death rate of nearly 100 percent.

Veterans health administration outlines recommendations to combat 'crisis' of MDROs
The Veterans Health Administration is leading efforts to prevent the spread of dangerous multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs), as detailed in a series of articles published in the February issue of Infection Control