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We are moving!jameswatts1990

Fri, 18 Feb 2011 13:46:07 +0000

After a few years being hosted on I feel the time has come when the site has outgrown the capabilities of the standard wordpress hosting. WordPress however also offers self-hosting, which gives many more benefits than the standard capabilities of So, over the next few days the site will be moving to [&hellip

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Surviving Sub-Zerojameswatts1990Osmotic Shock

Thu, 20 Jan 2011 14:03:34 +0000

Introduction Pure water has both a freezing point and melting point of 0˚C; however water also has colligative properties meaning that the freezing point can vary depending on the number of molecules dissolved in it. As the concentration of molecules increases, the freezing point decreases (and the boiling point increases). For example, pure water will [&hellip

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Bacterial Virulence Factors & Secretion Systemsjameswatts1990

Wed, 12 Jan 2011 19:07:56 +0000

Introduction Virulence is the ability of a microorganism to produce disease. Virulence depends on the number of infecting bacteria, their route of entry into the body, the response of the host immune system and any characteristics specific to that bacteria – its virulence factors. Bacterial virulence factors are typically proteins or molecules synthesized by protein [&hellip

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Bacterial Pathogens of the Respiratory Tractjameswatts1990

Wed, 12 Jan 2011 13:45:06 +0000

Mannheimia haemolytica M. haemolytica is responsible for causing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a bacterial disease which causes pneumonia and inflammation of the lung membranes. It is a Gram-negative coccobacillus (elongated, rod spheres) which shows mild haemolysis when plated on blood agar plates. This species comprises of 12 capsular serotypes (of which some are more responsible for [&hellip

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Antibiotic Resistancejameswatts1990

Tue, 11 Jan 2011 16:42:05 +0000

Introduction The generic purpose of an antibiotic is to prevent the growth and/or survival of invading organisms whilst causing minimal damage and toxicity to the host. The typical mechanism of antibiotic action involves targeting specific enzymes or substrates of the invading bacterial species. Antibiotics may be either bacteriocidal (i.e. kill bacteria, e.g. β-lactam antibiotics) or [&hellip

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Staphylococci Virulencejameswatts1990

Mon, 10 Jan 2011 21:38:57 +0000

Introduction Staphylococcus is a gram positive, cocci shaped, genus of bacteria. Observed under a microscope will reveal they exist in microscopic ‘grape-like’ clusters. One species of staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, can grow at temperature ranges of 15-45ºC and at  a relatively high NaCl concentration of 15%. Catalase Test One of the main tests used to differentiate [&hellip

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Evolution of Bacterial Virulencejameswatts1990

Sun, 09 Jan 2011 14:57:20 +0000

Point Mutations Much like humans, bacteria are subject to evolution. Evolution occurs through beneficial mutations in the DNA. Because bacteria have much shorter generation times than humans, the process of evolution occurs much more rapidly. An example of how bacteria evolve through mutation is point mutation. Point mutation is the random mutation of DNA nucleotides [&hellip

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Diagnostic Tests Used for Virusesjameswatts1990haemagglutinationELISA

Fri, 07 Jan 2011 16:19:00 +0000

Haemagglutination Assay Introduction A simple and rapid method of quantifying the amount of virus in a sample. Haemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells. Viruses with envelops or surface proteins are able to bind to the sialic acid, N-Acetylneuraminic acid found in the cell membrane of red blood cells. Because each agglutinating molecule (in [&hellip

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Thu, 06 Jan 2011 19:42:06 +0000

Introduction Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterial genus Leptospira. Leptospires are spirochetes, a group of Gram-negative bacteria with long, thin, spiral structures and an internal flagella used for movement. The size of a typical leptospire is around 0.1μm wide and 6-20μm long. This narrow, helical structure enables them to burrow in to [&hellip

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Become an Author for VetScijameswatts1990

Mon, 03 Jan 2011 16:50:37 +0000

If you would like to become an author for VetSci and help thousands of people each month, then please take the time to fill out the form below. If possible, please supply an example of your work, be this graphics, articles, quizzes etc. and if you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask! [&hellip

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