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Injection Molding Troubleshooting

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Sleeping Sickness: Parasites - African Trypanosomiasis

Thu, 15 Mar 2012 11:04:00 +0000

African Trypanosomiasis, also called as "sleeping sickness," is caused by microscopic parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei. It is carried by the tsetse fly (Glossina species), which is found only in rural Africa. Although the infection is not found in the United States, historically, it has been a serious public health problem in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, about 10,000 new cases each year are reported to the World Health organization; however, it is conceived that many cases go undiagnosed and unreported. Sleeping sickness is curable with medication, but is disastrous if left untreated.


All persons diagnosed with African Trypanosomiasis should get treatment. The specific drug and treatment course will depend on the type of infection (T. b. gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense) and the disease stage (i.e. whether the central anxious system has been invaded by the parasite). Pentamidine, which is the recommended drug for first stage T. b. gambiense infection, is widely available in the U.S. The other drugs (suramin, melarsoprol, eflornithine, and nifurtimox) used to treat African trypanosomiasis are available in the U.S. only from the CDC. Physicians can look up with CDC staff for advice on diagnosis and management and to find otherwise unavailable treatment drug.

Prevent and Control

Control of African trypanosomiasis rests on two schemes: reducing the disease reservoir and controlling the tsetse fly vector. Because humans are the significant disease reservoir for T. b. gambiense, the main control strategy for this subspecies is active case-finding through population screening, followed by treatment of the infected persons that are identified.

AFIX - Health Quality Improvement Strategy

Mon, 06 Feb 2012 14:01:00 +0000

AFIX (Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and eXchange) 

AFIX is a choice improvement strategy used by grantees to raise immunization coverage levels and improve standards of practices at the provider level. The acronym for this four-part dynamic scheme stands for

Assessment of the healthcare provider's vaccination reportage levels and immunization practices,

Feedback of results to the provider along with recommended strategies to better processes, immunization practices, and coverage levels,

Incentives to distinguish and reward improved performance, and

Exchange of healthcare information and resources require to facilitate improvement.

Aerosols Hazards & Exposures

Thu, 12 Jan 2012 13:57:00 +0000

This page provides links to a variety of information regarding the measurement, control, exposure characterization & health effects associated with aerosols in the workplace. The definition of an aerosol, as used here, is a suspension of small particles or droplets in the air, such as dusts, mists, or fumes. These particles may be inhaled or absorbed by the skin, & can sometimes cause adverse heath effects for workers. NIOSH has carried out extensive research to minimize the adverse health effects associated with aerosol exposures. Results of such research are available through the links on this page.

Aerosol Sampling

While looking for ways to improve the collection and analysis of bioaerosols, a NIOSH scientist has developed a brand spanking new design for a cyclone bioaerosol sampler. A cyclone sampler draws air in to a cylindrical chamber where the air flow is rotated. Particles of a sufficiently huge size move toward the walls of the chamber by centrifugal force, where they are collected.

Adverse Event Vaccine Reporting System (VAERS)

Thu, 22 Dec 2011 13:39:00 +0000

Vaccines are developed with the highest standards of safety. However, as with any medical procedure, vaccination has some risks. Individuals react differently to vaccines, & there is no way to foretell how individuals will react to a specific vaccine.
  • Detect new, unusual, or rare vaccine adverse events
  • Monitor increases in known adverse events
  • Identify potential patient risk factors for particular types of adverse events
  • Identify vaccine lots with increased numbers or types of reported adverse events
  • Assess the safety of newly licensed vaccines
Approximately 30,000 VAERS reports are filed yearly, with 10-15% classified as serious (leading to permanent disability, hospitalization, life-threatening illnesses or death). Somebody can file a VAERS document, including health care providers, manufacturers, & vaccine recipients or their parents or guardians. The VAERS form requests the following information:

  • The type of vaccine received
  • The timing of the vaccination
  • The onset of the adverse event
  • Current illnesses or medication
  • Past history of adverse events following vaccination 
  • Demographic information about the recipient

Adverse Drug Events from Opioid Analgesics

Mon, 28 Nov 2011 09:44:00 +0000

In the United States, the use of opioids (narcotics) (analgesics) as part of pain management systems has contributed to an epidemic of poisoning. Between 1999-2002, the poisoning of opioid analgesics poisoning surpassed cocaine and heroin as the most common type of drug intoxication in death certificates.

The increase in drug intoxication coincides with an increase in the prescription of the main types of opioid analgesics, as physicians were encouraged to prescribe stronger analgesics (ie opioids) for pain management. When sales of opioid analgesics increased occurrences of opioid analgesics on death certificates increased at a similar rate. The overall objective should be to identify ways to reduce deaths from opioid analgesics without diminishing the quality of care of patients with a legitimate need for pain management.

Adverse Drug Events from Select Medication Classes and Antibiotics

Fri, 18 Nov 2011 12:19:00 +0000

Antibiotics are one of the major classes of drugs as a result of emergency room visits for adverse drug events. There are more than 140,000 visits to emergency rooms reactions to antibiotics each year. 

In general, antibiotics are responsible for almost one in five (19%) emergency room visits for adverse drug events

In children (18 years or less), antibiotics are the most common cause of emergency room visits for adverse drug events

Nearly four in five (79%) ED visits for antibiotic-associated adverse reactions are due to allergic reactions.

Adults and Elderly aAdverse Drug Events - Medication Safety

Tue, 08 Nov 2011 10:12:00 +0000

Medicines cure infectious diseases, avoid chronic diseases, and relieve pain and suffering for millions of Americans every day. But the medication can cause harm. When someone has been harmed by a medication, who have had an adverse effect. To reduce the risk of harm from adverse drug events than adults:

  •  Keep a list of your medicines 
  •  Follow directions 
  •  Keep up with the blood tests recommended by your doctor
  •  Some drugs require blood tests and these are more likely to cause serious adverse effects. 
  •  Unintentional overdose of painkillers cause many deaths 

Some medicines may not be effective in improving your health

Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not viruses. Most colds, coughs, throat, flu, sore throat and nasal congestion are caused by viruses. Taking antibiotics for viral infections not cure viral infections, prevent others from catching the disease, or help you feel better.

Medication Safety: Young Children and Adverse Drug Events

Thu, 03 Nov 2011 07:13:00 +0000

When someone has been harmed by a medication, who have had an adverse effect. To reduce the risk of harm from adverse drug events in young children, parents should:
  • Always replace the cap and store the medicines out of reach of children
  • Carefully give medicines as directed on the label or as directed by a doctor or pharmacist
  • The use of prescription and OTC only when necessary.
Some medicines may not be effective in improving children´s health:

1. Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not viruses. Most colds, coughs, throat, flu, sore throat and nasal congestion are caused by viruses. Taking antibiotics for viral infections not cure viral infections, prevent others from catching the disease, or help your child feel better. Although antibiotics are good drugs for certain types of infections, which are also the type of drugs that cause the majority of emergency visits for adverse drug events. An estimated 40,000 children are taken to emergency rooms each year due to adverse events of antibiotics.

2. Cough and cold medicines do not cure the common cold. Although cough and cold medicines can be used to treat common cold symptoms in older children should not be used in children under 4 years of age. Coughing too much and cold medicines can cause serious injury or even death in children.

Excellence in promoting and Integrity of CDC Science

Thu, 20 Oct 2011 06:53:00 +0000

One of the strengths of the CDC, which allows the realization of this mission is the development of health promotion and prevention strategies for health based on sound science. Excellence in science is our foundation and mandates that science is practiced based on sound evidence based on peer-reviewed research to ensure a sound scientific basis for public health action.

The Office of the Associate Director for Science (OADs) leads the agency's scientific vision by improving the quality, integrity and relevance of science, and promoting scientific collaboration with success. The office maintains scientific ideals, provides a thriving environment to scientific excellence, innovation and integrity, learning and discovery, and supports the timely dissemination and translation into practice of scientific, innovation and technology.

Adolescent and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

Wed, 12 Oct 2011 09:58:00 +0000

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of risk behaviors that contribute to health the leading causes of death and disability among young people and adults, including-

Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence

* Tobacco use
* Alcohol and other drug use
* Sexual risk behaviors
* Unhealthy dietary behaviors
* Physical inactivity 

YRBSS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma among youth and young adults.

YRBSS includes a national survey based on the school conducted by the CDC and state, territorial survey, local tribal and conducted by state education, territorial and local health agencies and tribal governments.

Adolescent and Youth Health - Sexual Risk Behavior

Fri, 07 Oct 2011 13:27:00 +0000

Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention 

Many young people engage in risky sexual behaviors that can lead to unintended health outcomes. For example, among U.S. students school respondents in 2009

46% had had sex

34% had had sex during the previous 3 months, and of these

14% had had sex with four or more people during their lifetime

Risky sexual behavior of adolescents put them at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unwanted pregnancies

To reduce sexual risk behaviors and health-related problems among young people, schools and other youth organizations can help young people adopt lifelong attitudes and behaviors that support the health and welfare, including behaviors that reduce the risk of contracting HIV, other STIs and unwanted pregnancies

Adolescent and Health Disparities

Tue, 27 Sep 2011 10:37:00 +0000

Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations. Populations can be defined by factors such as race or ethnicity, gender, education or income, disability, geographic location (e.g., rural or urban), or sexual orientation. Health disparities are inequitable and are directly related to the historical and current unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources.

Health disparities the result of multiple factors, including
  • Poverty
  • Environmental threats
  • Inadequate access to health care
  • Individual and behavioral factors
  • Educational inequalities
Health disparities are also related to inequalities in education. School dropout is associated with multiple health and social problems.2-3 In general, people with less education are more likely to experience a range of health risks such as obesity, substance abuse, and intentional injuries and unintended, compared with individuals with more education.4 higher levels of education are associated with longer life and greater likelihood of obtaining or understanding basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.5 -7

At the same time, good health is associated with academic success. Health risks such as teenage pregnancy, poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, physical and emotional abuse, substance abuse, and gang involvement have a significant impact on how students perform in school.

Asthma illness among Children and Youth

Wed, 21 Sep 2011 14:08:00 +0000

Asthma is a chronic disease leading to children and young people in the United States. In 2007, 5.6 million school-age children and youth (5-17 years of age) today reported that asthma, and 2.9 million had an asthma episode or attack in the previous year. 1 On average, in a classroom of 30 children, about 3 are likely to have asthma.

Asthma is a major cause of school absenteeism. In 2003, an estimated 12.8 million days of school missed because of asthma among the more than 4 million children who reported at least one asthma attack in the previous year.

Low-income populations, minorities and children living in inner cities experience more emergency room visits, hospitalizations and deaths due to asthma than the general population.

The estimates for 2005-2007 indicate that Black and Hispanic children in Puerto Rico had higher prevalence rates compared with non-Hispanic whites.

The estimated cost of treating asthma in children under 18 years is $ 3.2 billion per year.

Asthma attacks, also known as episodes, can be caused by snuff smoke, dust mites, animal hair and feathers, certain molds, chemicals and strong smells in the school environment.

Asthma can be controlled with proper diagnosis, appropriate asthma care and management activities.

Alcohol & Drug Use Health Problem

Sat, 10 Sep 2011 10:49:00 +0000

Alcohol is one of the most widely used active ingredients in the world. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking among young people of our country is a major public health problem:

Alcohol is used by more young people in the United States that snuff or illicit drugs.

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with about 75,000 deaths per year.

Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of deaths from car accidents.

Among young people, using alcohol and other drugs has been linked to unintentional injuries, fights, academic and employment problems, and illegal behavior.

Long term alcohol abuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological damage and psychiatric problems like depression, anxiety and antisocial personality disorder.

Drug use contributes directly and indirectly to the HIV and alcohol and drugs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality.

Since 1988, all states prohibit the purchase of alcohol by young people under 21. Therefore, consumption of alcohol is defined as the consumption of alcohol before the minimum age for legal drinking age of 21. Current alcohol use among high school students remained stable from 1991 to 1999 and then decreased from 50% in 1999 to 42% in 2009. In 2009, 24% of high school students reported heavy episodic or binge drinking.

Zero tolerance laws in all states it is illegal for youth under 21 years of age to drive with any measurable amount of al cohol in your system. In 2009, 10% of high school students reported driving a car or other vehicle during the past 30 days who had been drinking alcohol. In addition, 28% of students traveling in a car or other vehicle during the last 30 days driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol.

Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Facts

Tue, 30 Aug 2011 10:21:00 +0000

ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often into adulthood. Children with ADHD have difficulty paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (can act without thinking about what will be the outcome), and in some cases, hyperactivity.

A child with ADHD might:

  • have a hard time paying attention
  • daydream a lot
  • not seem to listen


There are three different types of ADHD, depending on which symptoms are strongest in the individual:

  1. Predominantly Inattentive Type:
  2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type:
  3. Combined Type:

Causes of ADHD

Scientists are studying the cause (s) and risk factors in an effort to find better ways to control and reduce the chances of a person with ADHD. Factors cause (s) and the risk for ADHD are unknown, but current research shows that genetics plays an important role. Recent studies of twins link genes with ADHD.

ACES — Active Community Environments

Thu, 18 Aug 2011 08:44:00 +0000

CDC's Active Community Environments Initiative (ACES) promotes walking, cycling and the development of leisure facilities available. It was developed in response to data from a variety of disciplines, including public health, urban design and transportation planning.

This initiative encourages environmental and policy interventions that affect a higher level of physical activity and improve public health. The objectives are

  • encourage the development of pedestrian and bicycle friendly environments.
  • promote active forms of transport such as walking and biking.
  • disseminate information related to active community environments.
The ongoing efforts to promote the objectives of the Active Community Environments Initiative include

  • promoting physical activity through trails.
  • KidsWalk development program to the school to promote walking and biking to school.
  • collaboration with public and private organizations to promote the website and NationalExternal icon icon International External Website Walk-a-Day School.
  • Community development activities around guide for public health professionals use to work with transportation and planning organizations in the city to promote walking, biking and leisure facilities close to home.
  • a partnership with the National Park Service Rivers, Trails and Assistance Program for the Conservation of promoting the development and use of your home close to parks and recreational facilities.
  • collaboration with the Agency for Environmental Protection in a national survey to examine U.S. public attitudes toward the environment, walking and biking.

Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)

Tue, 09 Aug 2011 09:54:00 +0000

Active bacterial core surveillance (ABCs) is a component of CDC's Emerging Infections Program Network (EIP), a collaboration between CDC, state health departments and universities.


ABC is a laboratory population, surveillance of invasive bacterial pathogens of importance to public health.

For each case of invasive disease in the population under surveillance, a case with basic demographic information is completed and bacterial isolates are sent to CDC and other reference laboratories for additional laboratory evaluation.

Transmission of Acinetobacter infection

Tue, 02 Aug 2011 09:17:00 +0000


Acinetobacter is a group of bacteria commonly found in soil and water. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections typically occur in intensive care units and health facilities housing patients very sick.

Symptoms of Acinetobacter infection

cinetobacter causes a variety of diseases ranging from pneumonia to serious blood or wound infections, and symptoms vary depending on the disease.

Transmission of Acinetobacter infection

Acinetobacter has very little risk to healthy people. However, people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung disease or diabetes may be more susceptible to infection by Acinetobacter.

Hospitalized patients, especially in very ill patients on a ventilator, those with prolonged hospital stay, those who have open wounds, or any other person with invasive devices such as urinary catheters are at increased risk of infection with Acinetobacter.

Prevention of Acinetobacter infection

Acinetobacter can live on the skin and may survive in the environment for several days. Careful attention to infection control procedures, such as hand hygiene and environmental cleaning, can reduce the risk of transmission.

Treatment of Acinetobacter infection

Acinetobacter is often resistant to many commonly prescribed antibiotics. Decisions on treatment of infections with Acinetobacter should be made on a case-by-case basis by a healthcare provider.

Acanthamoeba Microscopic Free-living Amoeba

Wed, 27 Jul 2011 05:56:00 +0000

Acanthamoeba is a microscopic free-living amoeba that can cause infections rare but serious eye, skin and central nervous system.

The amoeba is found all over the world in the environment in water and soil. The amoeba can be transmitted to the eye through the use of contact lenses, cuts or sores on the skin or be inhaled into the lungs. Most people will be exposed to Acanthamoeba during their lifetime, but few become ill from this exposure.

The three diseases caused by Acanthamoeba are:

Acanthamoeba keratitis – An infection of the eye that typically occurs in healthy persons and can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness.

Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE) – A serious infection of the brain and spinal cord that typically occurs in persons with a compromised immune system.

Disseminated infection – A widespread infection that can affect the skin, sinuses, lungs, and other organs independently or in combination. It is also more common in persons with a compromised immune system.

ACE: Adverse Childhood Experiences Learning

Tue, 19 Jul 2011 04:56:00 +0000

The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study is one of the largest investigations ever guided on to assess associations between childhood maltreatment and later-life health and well-being. The study is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Kaiser Permanente's Health Estimation Clinic in San Diego.


More than 17,000 Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) members undergoing a comprehensive physical examination took to provide detailed information about their childhood experience of abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction. To date, more than 50 scientific articles have been issued and more than100 conference and workshop presentations have been made.

The ACE Study findings propose that certain experiences are major risk factors for the leading causes of illness and death as well as poor quality of life in the United States. Progress in preventing and recovering from the nation's worst health and social problems is potential to benefit from understanding that many of these problems arise as a consequence of adverse childhood experiences.

Child Maltreatment Prevention

Thu, 14 Jul 2011 05:12:00 +0000

kid maltreatment includes all types of abuse and neglect of a child under the age of 18 by a parent, caregiver, or different person in a custodial role (e.g., clergy, coach, teacher).


There are four common types of abuse:

1. Physical Abuse

2. Sexual Abuse

3. Emotional Abuse

4. Neglect

CDC’s research and programs work to understand the problem of kid maltreatment and prevent it before it begins.

Patients Aware: Syringe Never Reuse

Wed, 29 Jun 2011 06:47:00 +0000

Patients need to be aware of a very serious threat to their health - the reuse of needles or syringes, and the misuse of medication vials. Healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, and anyone providing injections) should never reuse a needle or syringe either from one patient to another or to withdraw medicine from a vial. Both needle and syringe must be discarded once they have been used. It is not safe to change the needle and reuse the syringe - this practice can transmit disease.

Injection Information for Patients

Tue, 14 Jun 2011 10:29:00 +0000

Patients need to be aware that unsafe injection practices can be serious threat to their health. Healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, and anyone providing injections) should never reuse a needle or syringe either from one patient to another or to withdraw medication from a vial. Both needle and syringe must be discarded once they have been used. It is not safe to change the needle and reuse the syringe - this practice can transmit disease.


Reusing a needle or syringe can put patients in danger of getting hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and HIV.

Patient Useful info:

Injection Safety FAQs for Patients
A Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

Infection Prevention during Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin

Tue, 31 May 2011 07:15:00 +0000

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has become increasingly concerned about the risks for transmitting hepatitis B virus (HBV) and other infectious diseases during assisted blood glucose (blood sugar) monitoring and insulin administration.

CDC is alerting all persons who assist others with blood glucose monitoring and/or insulin administration of the following infection control requirements:

  • Fingerstick devices should never be used for more than one person

  • Whenever possible, blood glucose meters should not be shared. If they must be shared, the device should be cleaned and disinfected after every use, per manufacturer’s instructions. If the manufacturer does not specify how the device should be cleaned and disinfected then it should not be shared.

  • Insulin pens and other medication cartridges and syringes are for single-patient-use only and should never be used for more than one person

Examples of settings where assisted monitoring of blood glucose and insulin administration may occur include:

  • Hospitals or clinics
  • Long term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities
  • Senior centers
  • Health fairs
  • Correctional facilities
  • Schools or camps

Spinal Injection Procedures Performed without a Facemask

Thu, 26 May 2011 05:43:00 +0000

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is referred about the occurrence of bacterial meningitis among patients having spinal injection procedures that require injection of material or insertion of a catheter into epidural or subdural spaces (e.g., myelogram, administration of spinal or epidural anesthesia, or intrathecal chemotherapy).

Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis following these spinal injection procedures continue to be named among patients whose procedures were performed by a healthcare provider who did not wear a facemask (e.g., may be labeled as surgical, medical procedure, or isolation mask), with the most recent occurrence in October 2010 (CDC unpublished data). This notice serves as a reminder that masks should always be used by health professionals to perform these spinal injection procedures.

Since masks have been shown to limit the spread of droplets resulting from the oral flora, the CDC has recommended its use by health professionals to perform spinal injection procedures.

In addition to wearing a mask, healthcare providers should ensure compliance with all CDC recommended safe injection practices including the use of a single-dose vial of medication to a patient.