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Updated: 2018-04-12T11:57:12.243+01:00


Microworkers FAQ


 What is Microworkers?Microworkers is an innovative, International online platform that connects Employers and Workers from around the world. Our unique approach guarantee Employers that a task paid is a task successfully done, while at the same time guaranteeing Workers that a job completed is a job paid.Just as its name suggest, the tasks assigned to Workers and paid for by Employers are simple and quick, mostly completed in a few minutes, thus, are called “micro jobs”. These tasks include simple sign-ups, social bookmarking tasks, forum participation, website visits, rating videos or articles, voting up contest entries, adding comments, suggesting leads, creating backlinks, writing reviews or articles, downloading applications and so much more. Joining Microworkers is free, and as an International site, anyone from any country can be a member.Who are the Employers?Anyone can be an Employer. If you own anonline business  a blog, a contest entry or simply need referrals for your favorite programs, Microworkers is definitely the place to come and have your small tasks assigned to tens of thousands of active Workers who are always ready to complete your job.Whether you need traffic for your website, comments or a fresh post for your blog, a review for your new product or put your article to the front page of popular bookmarking sites, hiring Workers from our program ensures you affordable, quick and top quality results.Who are the Workers?Anyone can also be a Worker. You can be a stay-at-home mom, a student who needs extra spending money, or if you simply love helping others while making some extra cash alongside, this is the place for you. Joining Microworkers as a Worker does not mean you are employed by the site. Instead, you will be working as a freelancer. With that, you can work as much or as little as you want. At the same time, your potential for earning is also limitless since you can accept all the jobs you believe you are capable of completing, and get paid for it.Can I be a Worker and Employer at the same time?Absolutely. Signing up to Microworkers allows you take “micro jobs”. At the same time, when you have job campaigns you wish to run, you can use the same account to do so. You simply have to click on the Start a Campaign option, and post your job. What’s more, you can use your earnings as a Worker to fund your campaign as an Employer.I am a Worker…Can I have more than one account?No. There is no need to maintain more than one account and it is against Microworkers’ Guidelines. If you’ve lost your login information, you can request to have it sent to your Email address. If you are caught having more than one account, your account(s) will be terminated, your IP address(es) will be banned, your payments will be forfeited and you can no longer participate in Microworkers’ program in the future.How do I earn money?Upon signing up for the Microworkers program, you automatically receive a $1 sign-up bonus to your account.If you wish to look for “micro jobs”, click on the Available Jobs link and browse through the hundreds of listed tasks. Each task will display a set of instructions, the time to complete it and the amount you will earn for finishing the job. If you believe you can finish the task, click on I accept this job and the page will display a form where you can enter the proof required by the Employer. Otherwise, click on Not interested in this job.What is a Success Rate and why do I need to maintain it?The Microworkers Success Rate ensures Employers that they get quality results from the campaigns they are running. The feature prevents workers from posting spam or fake proofs, and low-quality output of the tasks they perform. As a Worker, you must maintain your actual Success rate (1) above 75% at all times.Temporary Success rate (2) is real-time rate used to determine how many jobs you can accept per day.Poorly performed tasks will give you a not satisfied rating and will pull your Succ[...]



Get a clear idea about ODESK on how to earn as a freelancer A to ZThe On Demand Global Workforce – oDesk How do I find someone to hire?It's pretty easy. You start by posting a job — you fill out a well-rounded description of the kind of work, and the kind of contractor, you're looking for. You can post it publicly, or keep it private. If it's public, you'll quickly have skilled contractors from around the world sending you applications.Hiring works pretty much like the in-person process for in-house jobs: You read cover letters and resumes, and here at oDesk you also have the contractors' portfolios, test results, oDesk work histories and feedback ratings to consider before you even contact anyone. You select candidates to interview, invite them to set up a time with you, and conduct your interview via phone, IM, email, webcam — however you're comfortable. Once you find the right contractor, hiring is a simple click.If you keep a job private, you can search our contractor database to find candidates you'd like to talk to. You invite them to view your job post, and then you can set up the interview process.Some employers are initially worried about hiring someone without a face-to-face interview, but the information and tools oDesk puts in your hands can actually give you a better idea of what an oDesk applicant offers than you'd get sitting across a table from someone while you scan their one-page resume.What kind of work is done here?Pretty much anything that can be done remotely — we're often surprised by the ever-increasing variety of work performed on oDesk. You can hire talented web and software developers, writers, graphic designer, customer service representatives, marketers and much more. You can see the full list here. Drop a relevant keyword into the contractor search bar and you might be surprised how many people worldwide are offering the services you need.How good are the contractors?There are a lot of really good contractors here — we know because we hire them, too. You have a far larger talent base here than you'll find within commuting range of your office. oDesk's hundreds of thousands of professionals offer a broad range of skills and capabilities. Finding the best contractors, and the ones best-suited to the work you need done, is easy. oDesk gives employers tools including free online testing, feedback scores, portfolios, job preferences and more to evaluate contractors. These tools have helped thousands of employers and contractors form long-lasting work relationships of a year and more.Do I need to post a job to use oDesk?To hire a contractor, you must first post a job. Jobs can be posted privately if you do not wish to make your posting available to the entire oDesk network. You can also sign up with oDesk to use some of the free tools without posting a job.How do I write a good job post?It's not too much different from writing an ad for an in-house job — except that the job form and the examples oDesk provides with it make it easier to narrow down just what you're looking for, in clear language that should attract the kinds of contractors you need. Being specific about the work and communication skills you need, your timeline and other details helps attract more contractors who can work within your requirements. You might browse similar ads already posted and decide which would attract you to apply and which you'd be inclined to skip.Should I post an hourly or fixed-price job?It depends. oDesk recommends hourly jobs for most ongoing work efforts, but fixed-price jobs can be appropriate for smaller, well-defined projects.Hourly jobs are more flexible — you can add to a contractor's work, even retain her for an entirely different task after the first job is complete, without having to renegotiate or repost a job. You have full access to oDesk’s time tracking and Work Diary functions, and the "hour paid is an hour that was worked" guarantee behind it. We've found that the most talented and in-demand contractors gravi[...]

Title to tags plugin for wordpress


This plugin automatically converts keywords in a post title to tags upon saving. It includes a user-editable list of words you want the plugin to ignore, which by default includes the more obviously-useless words like “I” or “wasn’t.” You can also reset the list back to defaults by checking a box in the config page.

 * Converts keywords in post titles to tags

 * Includes user-editable list of words to be ignored

 * Ignore list can be reset to default at any time

 * Converts on save, not publish.

 * Does not convert if there are already tags assigned.

 WPMU adminstrators take note: this plugin is especially helpful if you’re building a community-based site where tagging is important and your bloggers are not always diligent about tagging.

 Download : Titles to Tags plugin for wordpress

Server role details in windows server 2003


Server role means to a computer which perform a certain role in windows server 2003 or server family. After installing Windows Server successfully it is time to configure the server to play a certain role. When you logon in Windows Server for first time a window will open name Manage Your Server. See below pictureFrom here you may configure your server for what kind of role the server should play. Before you configure about what kind  of role your server should play have a look in server role details below File Server Provides convenient, centralized access to files and directories for individual users, departments, and entire organizations. Choosing this option allows you to manage user disk space by enabling and configuring disk quota management and to provide improved file system search performance by enabling the Indexing service. Print Server Provides centralized and managed access to printing devices by serving shared printers and printer drivers to client computers. Choosing this option starts the Add Printer Wizard to install printers and their associated Windows printer drivers. It also installs Internet Information Services (IIS 6.0) and configures Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) and installs the Web-based printer administration tools.Application Server (IIS, ASP.NET) Provides infrastructure components required to support the hosting of Web applications. This role installs and configures IIS 6.0 as well as ASP.NET and COM+. Mail Server (POP3, SMTP) Installs POP3 and SMTP so that the server can act as an e-mail server for POP3 clients. Terminal Server Provides applications and server resources, such as printers and storage, to multiple users as if those applications and resources were installed on their own computers. Users connect with the Terminal Services or Remote Desktop clients. Unlike Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 provides Remote Desktop for Administration automatically. Terminal Server roles are required only when hosting applications for users on a terminal server. Remote Access/VPN Server Provides multiple-protocol routing and remote access services for dial-in, local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). Virtual private network (VPN) connections allow remote sites and users to connect securely to the network using standard Internet connections. Domain Controller (Active Directory) Provides directory services to clients in the network. This option configures a domain controller for a new or existing domain and installs DNS. Choosing this option runs the Active Directory Installation Wizard. DNS Server Provides host name resolution by translating host names to IP addresses (forward lookups) and IP addresses to host names (reverse lookups). Choosing this option installs the DNS service, and then starts the Configure A DNS Server Wizard. DHCP Server Provides automatic IP addressing services to clients configured to use dynamic IP addressing. Choosing this option installs DHCP services and then starts the New Scope Wizard to define one or more IP address scopes in the network. Streaming Media Server Provides Windows Media Services (WMS). WMS enables the server to stream multimedia content over an intranet or the Internet. Content can be stored and delivered on demand or delivered in real time. Choosing this option installs WMS. WINS Server Provides computer name resolution by translating NetBIOS names to IP addresses. It is not necessary to install Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) unless you are supporting legacy operating systems, such as Windows 95 or Windows NT. Operating systems such as Windows 2000 and Windows XP do not require WINS, although legacy applications on those platforms may very well require NetBIOS name resolution. Choosing this option installs WINS.A site for Computer and Network help[...]

Microsoft Download center A-Z


Download the microsoft a-z download in emdadblog. You can download all microsoft products such as office, security, games, windows xp, windows seven, windows server and so on.

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The advantages of Active Directory


Most computers running Windows XP Professional on large networks are clients in an Active Directory domain running Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003. Much like a phone book acts as a directory of people’s phone numbers and street addresses, Active Directory acts as a directory for resources on a network. Active Directory catalogs information about all the objects on a network, including users, computers, and printers, and makes that information available throughout a network. Active Directory provides a consistent way to name, find, manage, and secure information about these resources.

In a workgroup environment, each computer running Windows XP Professional is responsible for maintaining its own security database. Local user accounts are used to log on to the computer and to control access to resources on the computer. Security and administration in a workgroup are distributed. You must create local user accounts on each computer, and although you can often manage a computer remotely, you must manage each computer separately. The larger the network you are working with, the more overhead this distributed management creates. Active Directory simplifies the security and administration of resources throughout a network (including the computers that are part of the network) by providing a single point of administration for all objects on the network. Active Directory organizes resources hierarchically in domains, which are logical groupings of servers and other network resources. Each domain includes one or more domain controllers. A domain controller is a computer running Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 on which Active Directory is installed. The domain controller stores a complete replica of the domain directory. To simplify administration, all domain controllers in the domain are peers. You can make changes to any domain controller, and the updates are replicated to all other domain controllers in the domain.

One big advantage that Active Directory provides is a single logon point for all network resources, so a user can log on to the network with a single user name and password, and then access any resources to which the user account is granted access. An administrator can log on to one computer and administer objects on any computer in the network. Windows XP Professional provides a wide range of security settings that you can enforce. You can enforce these settings locally by configuring them on each computer (and that is the way you have to do it in a workgroup environment). In an Active Directory environment, you can use a feature named Group Policy to enforce settings on all computers on the network. This allows the network administrator to make changes faster and improve network functionality without requiring user intervention to invoke changes.

How to show blog author or writer info in every blogger post ?


The author or writer of any blog in blogger or wordpress is the main person who shares their great thought around the blogger world. So it is not a bad idea if you add a section about author or writer info in every blogger post . If you notice my blog, you noticed that little info is available in my every blog post like below picture

Now you may use this author or writer info in your every blogger post. See here how to do -

1. First login to Blogger and navigate to Design >>>>Edit HTML.

2. Download the full HTML as a backup in your computer for any unwanted accident.

3. Find out this ]]> code

4.After finding this above code add the below code before ]]>

5. After adding this above code again search this   code in your HTML Template

6. Now add the below code immediately after


7. Before copy the above code in your blogger template you may edit this above code like below

* Your Name = Provide the blog writer or author name

* Image Url = To show your blogger or author image provide the image url in src='Image Url'

* Add any link over here = link the blog author or writer with social site such as Facebook, Twitter

* Then write something about author or writer in "Write something about yourself here"

Now save the Template and enjoy.

What is a Directory Service ?


A directory service is a network service that identifies all resources on a network and makes that information available to users and applications. Directory services are important, because they provide a consistent way to name, describe, locate access, manage, and secure information about these resources.

When a user searches for shared folder on the network, it is the directory service that identifies and provides that information to the user.

Active Directory is the directory service in the Windows Server 2003 family. It extends the basic functionality of a directory service to provide the following benefits :

Domain Name System (DNS) integration 

Active directory uses DNS naming conventions to create a hierarchical structure that provides a familiar, orderly, and scalable view of network relationship. DNS also functions to map host name, such as, to numeric TCP/IP addresses, such as


Active Directory is organized into sections that can store a large number of objects. As a result, Active Directory can expand as an organization grows. An organizational that has a single server with a few hundred objects can grow to thousands of servers and millions of objects.

Centralized Management

Active Directory enables administrators to manage distributed desktops, network services, and applications from a central location, while using a consistent management interface. Active Directory also provides centralized control of access to network resources by enabling users to log on only once to gain full access to resources throughout Active directory.

Delegated administration

The hierarchical structure of Active Directory enables administrative control to be delegated for specific segments of the hierarchy. A user authorized by a higher administrative authority can perform administrative duties in their designated portion of the structure. For example, a users might have limited administrative control over their workstation settings, and a department manager might have the administrative rights to create new users in an organization unit.

Windows Server 2003 Editions


Windows Server 2003 is an incremental update to the platform and technologies introduced in Windows 2000. If you are coming to Windows Server 2003 with experience from Windows 2000 servers, you will find the transition a relatively easy one. If your experience is with Windows NT 4, welcome to the new world!

Windows Server 2003 is available in five editions. Each edition is developed to be used in a specific server role. This enables you to select the operating system edition that provides only the functions and capabilities that your server needs.

Web Edition : Windows Server 2003, Web edition, is designed to be used specifically as a Web Server. It is available only through selected partner channels and is not available for retail. Although computers running Windows Server 2003, Web Edition, can be member of an Active Directory domain, you can not run Active Directory  on Windows Server 2003, Web Edition.

Small Business Server Editions : Windows Server 2003, Small Business Server Edition, delivers a complete business server solution for small businesses with up to 75 workstations and is available in two editions : Standard and Premium. Windows Small Business Server 2003 provides technologies and tools, including e-mail, shared documents and calendars, security-enhanced Internet access and data storage, reliable printing and faxing, and remote administration on a single server.

Standard Edition : Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition, is a reliable network operating system that delivers business solutions quickly and easily. This flexible server is the ideal choice for small business and departmental use. Use Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition, when your server does not require the increased hardware support and clustering features of Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition.

Enterprise Edition : Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Editions, has all the features in Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition. It also provides features not included in Standard Edition that enhance availability, scalability, and dependability. Windows server 2003, Enterprise Edition, is designed for medium to large business. It is the recommended operating system for applications, XML web services, and infrastructure, because it offers high reliability, performance and superior business value.

Datacenter Edition : Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, is designed for business-critical and mission-critical applications that demand the highest levels of scalability and availability. The major difference between Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition and Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, is that Datacenter Edition Supports more powerful multiprocessing and greater memory. In additions, Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition is available only through the Windows Datacenter program offered to Original Equipment Manufactures (OEMs).

Make your Games and Software Password Protected


Password protected games and software  helps you to make your games and software more secure. You can easily protect your games and software with this freeware software. Without providing correct password, none can use those password protected games and software in other computers.  DOWNLOAD this software and install it in your computer.

How to use this Password Protected Software ?

After installing this password protect software open the program and you will see like below picture

Now from here click on open and locate .exe file. See below picture

After locating the .exe file give your password in Password Option twice and then click Protect. See below picture
After giving password on your games or software open the password protected games or software and windows will open asking you to give the password like below picture.

Your mission on "Make your Games and Software are password protected" is finished.

What is the OSI Model ?


The OSI model is an architectural model that represents networking communications. It was introduced in 1978 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to standardize the levels of services and types of interactions for computers communicating over a network. What does the OSI model do ? The OSI model defines the generic tasks that are performed for network communication. You can think of each layer of the OSI model as a piece of software that performs specific tasks for that layer. Each layer communicates with the layer below and the layer above. Data that is transmitted over the network must pass through all layers. How to use the OSI model ? The OSI model is used as a common reference point when comparing the function of different protocols and types of network hardware. Understanding the OSI model is important for comparing different products. The architecture of the OSI model : The OSI model divides network communication into seven layers. Each layer has a defined networking function, as described in below 1. Application =  The application layer provides the interface between the networking protocol stack and the software running on the computer. For example, this layer provides the interface for e-mail, file transfers, Telnet and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) applications. Applications use the services provided by applicationlayer protocols, which in turn use the services provided by the other layers beneath them. 2. Presentation layer =  The presentation layer (sometimes referred to as the syntax layer) is responsible for translating each computer’s native syntax into a common transfer syntax readable by the other computers on the network. In some cases, the transfer syntax can provide functions such as data compression and encryption. 3. Session Layer = The session layer provides many functions involved in the regulation of the dialog between two computers communicating over the network. For example, the session layer sets up, regulates, and terminates exchanges between the applications at each end of the communication. 4. Transport Layer = The transport layer provides functions that complement those of the network layer, including guaranteed delivery (which uses packet acknowledgments to ensure data is received), flow control (which regulates transmission speed to avoid dropped packets), and end-to-end error detection (which enables the receiving system to detect damaged packets). 5. Network Layer = The network layer defines the functions that provide end-to-end communications between computers on different networks. Chief among these functions is routing, which enables computers to relay traffic through intermediate networks to a destination on a remote network any distance away. Other functions include packet sequencing, end-to-end error detection from the sender to the recipient, congestion control, and addressing. While the data-link layer is responsible for local traffic on a single network, the network layer is responsible for directing traffic to its ultimate destination. 6. Data-Link Layer = The data-link layer defines the interface between the network medium and the software running on the computer. Among the data-link layer functions are packet addressing (which allows computers to direct traffic to specific destinations on the local network); media access control (which allows multiple computers to share a single network medium without conflicting); and formatting the frame used to encapsulate data for transmission over the network. The data-link layer divides into two sublayers. The logical link control (LLC) sublayer controls elements such as error checking from node to node on the same LAN, frame synchronization, and flow control. The media access control (MAC)[...]

How to change windows xp login screen ?


Default login screen of windows xp make you boring. If you can change your login screen off and on I think it will not a bad idea. To change your windows xp login screen you need following files1. Resource Tuner 2. logonUI.exe fileI have created a customized login screen here for your help. Download this Resource Tuner with crack and logonUI.exe  free form here. DOWNLOADAfter downloading this files unzip the Login Screen by Emdad Khan.jar--> file and copy the emdadblog folder to WINDOWS\RESOURCE location. See below pictureNow run emdadblog(setup).exe  (from emdadblog folder) to use this customized login screen for  windows xp. If you wish to restore the previous login screen in windows xp, then use the emdadblog(restore).exe file.Now log off and see that your loging screen has changed like below pictureCome to your own customized login screen. If you wish to use your own login screen rather then mine login screen you can do it. To use your own customized login screen for windows XP follow below steps1. First install the Resource Tuner in your computer which you downloaded before.2. Open logonUI.exe file with resource tuner.3. Navigate to Bitmap and click on 100. See below picture4. Now double click on 100 and choose a .bmp file of your own picture and replace with your previous .bmp picture. See below picture5. You can also change other things such as "WELCOME" "LOGGING OFF" "SHUTDOWN" text message and so on with resource tuner.6. After changing login screen according to you save it  as logonUI.exe and move to emdadblog folder. Now run the emdadblog(setup).exe file to use your own customized login screen.7. Now log off to see your customized login screen.Mission  accomplishedA site for Computer and Network help[...]

What is Malicious Software ?


Malicious software, such as viruses, worms and Trojan horses, deliberately harm a computer and is sometimes referred to as malware. Spyware is a general term used to describe software that performs certain behaviors such as advertising, collecting personal information, or changing the configuration of the computer, generally without appropriately obtaining consent first. Other kinds of spyware make changes to the computer that are annoying and cause the computer to slow down or stop responding. There are a number of ways spyware or other unwanted software appears on a computer, including software flaws and some Web browsers. A common method is to covertly install the software during the installation of other software that you want to install. Preventing the installation of malicious software requires that you understand the purpose of the software you intend to install, and you have agreed to install the software on the computer. When you install an application, read all disclosures, the license agreement, and the privacy statement. Sometimes the inclusion of unwanted software is documented, but it might appear at the end of a license agreement or privacy statement. Consider the following scenario: You are deploying Windows 7 throughout the organization. To decide upon which operating system features to implement, you need to understand security risks that might be relevant to the organization. Take part in a class discussion about this scenario.Question 1: What are common security risks that you must consider when deploying a new operating system?AnswerDuring a desktop deployment, it is important to address any security risks that affect application compatibility, data loss, and user functionality. Some of the more common security risks are categorized as follows:* Malware risks: Viruses, Trojan horses, spyware * Data risks: Stolen laptops or removable universal serial bus (USB) hard drives * Web browser risks: Malicious Web sites, phishing * Network risks: Internal worm attacks, internal workstations that do not comply with organizational security policiesQuestion 2: How can you be sure that you have addressed the appropriate security risks before and after a desktop deployment?AnswerConduct a structured security risk management process that will help you to identify and assess risk, identify and evaluate control solutions, implement the controls, and then measure the effectiveness of the mitigation. Identifying security risks before a desktop deployment helps you to be proactive in mitigating and implementing solutions. A site for Computer and Network help[...]

Intel to buy McAfee for $7.68 billion


Intel plans to buy security company McAfee for $7.68 billion--the biggest acquisition in its 42-year history.The chipmaker said Thursday it has entered into a definitive agreement to buy all of McAfee's common stock at $48 per share in cash. McAfee's stock closed Wednesday at $29.93, making Intel's offer a 60 percent premium.The boards of both companies have approved the deal.Security has become an essential element of online computing, on par with energy-efficient performance and connectivity, Intel said. But today's security isn't adequately addressing the array of new Net-connected machines on the market, such as mobile devices, TVs, cars, ATMs, and medical gadgets, according to Intel. Offering protection requires a new approach that can tie together software, hardware, and services, the company said. "With the rapid expansion of growth across a vast array of Internet-connected devices, more and more of the elements of our lives have moved online," Intel CEO Paul Otellini said in a statement. "In the past, energy-efficient performance and connectivity have defined computing requirements. Looking forward, security will join those as a third pillar of what people demand from all computing experiences."By integrating McAfee's core technology, Intel asserts that it can improve current products and offer new ones that can better secure both the cloud and devices used by consumers and businesses. Those include traditional computers and embedded products--any device where chips play a prominent role."Our view is that everywhere we sell a microprocessor, there is an opportunity to sell security software with it," Otellini said in a conference call.The chipmaker also sees the acquisition as augmenting its wireless strategy."Hardware-enhanced security will lead to breakthroughs in effectively countering the increasingly sophisticated threats of today and tomorrow," Renee James, Intel senior vice president, said in a statement. "This acquisition is consistent with our software and services strategy to deliver an outstanding computing experience in fast-growing business areas, especially around the move to wireless mobility."The number of connected devices is expected to grow from around 1 billion today to 50 billion in another 10 years, according to McAfee CEO Dave DeWalt. This growth will reshape opportunities in communications and commerce, he said in a video presentation, but cybercriminals and cyberterrorists will also take advantage of the Net's open architecture, putting users at risk and jeopardizing the future of the Internet. Tackling next-generation cybersecurity is a key reason and motivation for Intel and McAfee to join forces, DeWalt said.The merger stems in part from projects that Intel and McAfee have already been working on together. The two companies have been collaborating for the past 18 months on ways to improve security, James noted in the conference call."After working alongside each other and recognizing that we share a common vision for improving security, it made good sense that we take this step," James said.The first product resulting from the team-up will be released in early 2011, James said, though she didn't reveal any details. The deal also continues Intel's strategy of growing its business by using software to enhance its hardware, added James, citing the company's 2009 acquisition of Wind River Systems as just one example.The deal is expected to close following McAfee shareholder approval and regulatory clearances, which Intel is hoping will occur before year's end. Once the acquisition is finalized, McAfee will operate as a wholly owned subsidiary, tied to Intel's Software and S[...]

What is a GPT Disk ?


As operating systems evolve and hard disks grow larger, the inherent restrictions of an MBR partitioned disk limit the viability of this partitioning scheme as an option in many scenarios. Consequently, a new disk partitioning system has been developed: Globally unique identifier (GUID) partition table or GPT.GPT contains an array of partition entries describing the start and end LBA of each partition on disk. Each GPT partition has a unique identification GUID and a partition content type. Also, each LBA described in the partition table is 64-bits in length. The GPT format is specified by the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI), but is not exclusive to UEFI systems. Both 32-bit and 64-bit Windows operating systems support GPT for data disks on BIOS systems, but they cannot boot from them. The 64-bit Windows operating systems support GPT for boot disks on UEFI systems.GPT disks featuresGPT-based disks address the limitations of MBR-based disks. GPT disks support:* 128 partitions per disk: This is a vast improvement over MBR-based disks. * 18 Exabyte (EB) volume size: This is a theoretical maximum because hard disk hardware is not yet available that supports such vast volume sizes. * Redundancy: The GPT is duplicated and protected by Cyclic Redundancy Checks (CRC).You can implement GPT-based disks on Windows Server® 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. You cannot use the GPT partition style on removable disks.GPT architectureOn a GPT partitioned disk, the following sectors are defined:* Sector 0 contains a legacy protective MBR. The protective MBR contains one primary partition covering the entire disk.      * The protective MBR protects GPT disks from previously-released MBR disk tools such as Microsoft MS-DOS FDISK or Microsoft Windows NT Disk Administrator.These tools view a GPT disk as having a single encompassing (possibly unrecognized) partition by interpreting the protected MBR, rather than mistaking the disk for one that is unpartitioned.   * Legacy software that does not know about GPT interprets only the protected MBR when it accesses a GPT disk. * Sector 1 contains a partition table header. The partition table header contains the unique disk GUID, the number of partition entries (usually 128), and pointers to the partition table. * The partition table starts at sector 2. Each partition entry contains a unique partition GUID, the partition offset, length, type (also a GUID), attributes, and a 36 character name. * The following table describes the partitions. PartitionTypeSizeDescriptionAEFI System Partition (ESP)100 MBContains the boot manager, the files that are required for booting an operating system, the platform tools that run before operating system boot, or the files that must be accessed before operating a system boot. The ESP must be first on the disk. The primary reason for this is that it is impossible to span volumes when the ESP is logically between what you are attempting to span.BMicrosoft Reserved (MSR)128MBReserved for Windows components. This partition is hidden in Disk Management and does not receive a drive letter. Usage example: When you convert a basic GPT disk to dynamic, the system decreases the size of the MSR partition and uses that space to create the Logical Disk Manager (LDM) Metadata partition.COperating system (OS)Remaining DiskContains the OS and is the size of the remaining disk.Question: How does a GPT partitioned disk on a 64-bit Windows 7 operating system use an MBR? AnswerOn a GPT partitioned disk, Sector 0 contains a legacy protective MBR. The protective MBR contains one primary partition covering the entire disk. The[...]

What is the differences between Internet Protocol Version IPv4 and IPv6 ?


Internet Protocol Version IPv6 is a newer version of Internet Protocol Version IPv4. In IPv6 significant changes has been created to overcome the Internet  Protocol Version IPv4 limitations. In IPv4 limitations include the following :Limited address space: IPv4 uses only 32-bits to represent addresses. IANA has allocated the majority of these addresses. Difficult routing management: IANA has not provisioned allocated IPv4 addresses for efficient route management. As a result, Internet backbone routers have over 85,000 routes in their routing tables. Complex host configuration: Automatic configuration of IPv4 hosts requires that you implement DHCP. No built-in security: IPv4 does not include any method for securing network data. You must implement Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) and other protocols to secure data on IPv4 networks, but this requires significant configuration and can be complex to implement. Limited Quality of Service (QoS): The implementation of QoS in IPv4 relies on the use of TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports to identify data. This may not be appropriate in all circumstances.IPv6 improvementsIPv6 enhancements help enable secure communication on the Internet and over corporate networks. Some IPv6 features include the following:Larger address space: IPv6 uses a 128-bit address space, which provides significantly more addresses than IPv4. More efficient routing: IANA provisions global addresses for the Internet to support hierarchical routing. This reduces how many routes that Internet backbone routers must process and improves routing efficiency. Simpler host configuration: IPv6 supports dynamic client configuration by using DHCPv6. IPv6 also enables routers to configure hosts dynamically. Built-in security: IPv6 includes native IPSec support. This ensures that all hosts encrypt data in transit. Better prioritized delivery support: IPv6 includes a Flow Label in the packet header to provide prioritized delivery support. This designates the communication between computers with a priority level, rather than relying on port numbers that applications use. It also assigns a priority to the packets in which IPSec encrypts the data. Redesigned header: The design of the header for IPv6 packets is more efficient in processing and extensibility. IPv6 moves nonessential and optional fields to extension headers for more efficient processing. Extension headers are no more than the full size of the IPv6 packet, which accommodates more information than possible in the 40 bytes that the IPv4 packet header allocates. A site for Computer and Network help[...]

What Are Public and Private IPv4 Addresses?


Devices and hosts that connect directly to the Internet require a public IPv4 address. Hosts and devices that do not connect directly to the Internet do not require a public IPv4 address.

Public IPv4 addresses

Public IPv4 addresses must be unique. IANA assigns public IPv4 addresses. Usually, your ISP allocates you one or more public addresses from its address pool. The number of addresses that your ISP allocates to you depends upon how many devices and hosts that you have to connect to the Internet.

Private IPv4 addresses

The pool of IPv4 addresses is becoming smaller, so IANA is reluctant to allocate superfluous IPv4 addresses. Technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) enable administrators to use a relatively small number of public IPv4 addresses, and at the same time, enable local hosts to connect to remote hosts and services on the Internet.

IANA defines the following address ranges as private. Internet-based routers do not forward packets originating from, or destined to, these ranges.

A10.0.0.0/810.0.0.0 -
B172.16.0.0/12172.16.0.0 -
C192.168.0.0/16192.168.0.0 -

RFC3330 defines these private address ranges.

What is BitLocker ?


A default gateway is a device, usually a router, on a TCP/IP internet that forwards IP packets to other subnets. A router connects groups of subnets to create an intranet.In an intranet, any given subnet might have several routers that connect it to other subnets, both local and remote. You must configure one of the routers as the default gateway for local hosts. This enables the local hosts to transmit with hosts on remote networks.When a host delivers an IPv4 packet, it uses the subnet mask to determine whether the destination host is on the same network or on a remote network. If the destination host is on the same network, the local host delivers the packet. If the destination host is on a different network, the host transmits the packet to a router for delivery.When a host on the network uses IPv4 to transmit a packet to a destination subnet, IPv4 consults the internal routing table to determine the appropriate router for the packet to reach the destination subnet. If the routing table does not contain any routing information about the destination subnet, IPv4 forwards the packet to the default gateway. The host assumes that the default gateway contains the required routing information.In most cases, use a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server to assign the default gateway automatically to a DHCP client. This is more straightforward than manually assigning a default gateway on each host. A default gateway is a device, usually a router a TCP/IP internet that forwards IP packets to other subnetsData on a lost or stolen computer can become vulnerable to unauthorized access when a user either runs a software attack tool against it or transfers the computer’s hard disk to a different computer. BitLocker helps mitigate unauthorized data access by enhancing Windows file and system protections. BitLocker also helps render data inaccessible when BitLocker-protected computers are decommissioned or recycled.BitLocker Drive Encryption performs two functions that provide both offline data protection and system integrity verification :* Encrypts all data stored on the Windows operating system volume (and configured data volumes). This includes the Windows operating system, hibernation and paging files, applications, and data used by applications.* BitLocker also provides an umbrella protection for non-Microsoft applications, which benefits the applications automatically when they are installed on the encrypted volume.* Is configured by default to use a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) to help ensure the integrity of early startup components (components used in the earlier stages of the startup process), and “locks“ any BitLocker-protected volumes so that they remain protected even if the computer is tampered with when the operating system is not running. System integrity verificationBitLocker uses the TPM to verify the integrity of the startup process by:* Providing a method to check that early boot file integrity has been maintained, and to help ensure that there has been no adverse modification of those files, such as with boot sector viruses or root kits. * Enhancing protection to mitigate offline software-based attacks. Any alternative software that might start the system does not have access to the decryption keys for the Windows operating system volume. * Locking the system when tampered with. If any monitored files have been tampered with, the system does not start. This alerts the user to the tampering since the system fails to start as usual. In the event that system lockout occurs, BitLocker offers a simple re[...]