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Voice of America



Voice of America is an international news and broadcast organization serving Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Russia, the Middle East and Balkan countries



 



Russia: Putin Ready to Meet Trump

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:41:51 -0400

Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has said that President Vladimir Putin is willing to accept U.S. President Donald Trump’s invitation to meet in Washington. In an interview with state-operated RIA Novosti news agency, Lavrov said that Putin is “ready for such a meeting.” “We are guided by the fact that the U.S. President, in a telephone conversation – which is a known fact already, there is no secret – extended such an invitation and said he would be happy to see [Putin] in the White House.” Lavrov added that Trump returned to the subject of the invitation a couple of times during the phone call with Putin and told him he would be happy to make a reciprocal visit to Russia. Earlier Trump and Putin agreed on a possible summit in Washington. Trump telephoned Putin on March 20 to congratulate him on winning the Russian presidential election two days earlier. The White House and the Kremlin said at the time the two presidents discussed the possibility of meeting in person.


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VOA Connect 14 Full Show

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:15:03 -0400

VOA -- CONNECT Episode 14 [AIR DATE:  04 20 2018]  [FINAL TRANSCRIPT]      OPEN  ((VO/NAT)) ((Banner)) Music Therapy ((SOT)) I just want to make sure that what I am good at in this world can be used for somebody’s stress relief. ((Animation Transition)) ((Banner)) A Musician’s Life ((SOT)) I think country music has always reflected the views and the desires of working Americans. ((Animation Transition)) ((Banner)) Musical Improv ((SOT)) The last 20 years, I’ve been inventing instruments, close to a hundred instruments, some of which work a lot better than others. ((Open Animation))   BLOCK A ((Banner:  Musical Connections))   ((PKG))  SONIC BLOSSOM  ((Banner:  A Gift Between Strangers)) ((Reporter/Camera:  Gabrielle Weiss)) ((Map:  Washington D.C.)) ((Courtesy:  National Portrait Gallery, Sonic Blossom Performance)) ((Lee Mingwei, Artist and Creator of Sonic Blossom)) My mother would play (Franz) Schubert’s lieder (songs) for me when I was running around the garden to quiet me down, but she’d play it in a very soft volume. So I would say, please turn up the volume for me, I couldn’t hear Schubert singing. And she just said, “Well, honey, you just need to be very quiet and sit down and you can listen and hear Schubert singing.”  So that was a very beautiful moment of me spending with my parents and my siblings hot summer nights in Taiwan. ((Singing)) ((Lee Mingwei, Artist and Creator of Sonic Blossom)) So when I was taking care of her when she was ill, I played the same Schubert’s lieder for her, for the next three weeks we were in the hospital together, and that was the idea, using Schubert’s song as a gift between strangers, instead of between people we know.  ((Singing)) ((Lee Mingwei, Artist and Creator of Sonic Blossom)) When Sonic Blossom is on, the singer will be wearing a costume which is made by those two pieces of obi.  So, the singer walks very stately and slowly through the gallery to make his or her encounter.  But when she selected the person she might say, may I give you a gift of song and then invite this person back to the chair, turn around and just sing one of the five Schubert lied that she chooses. ((Singing)) ((Lee Mingwei, Artist and Creator of Sonic Blossom)) Before the show opens, I will come back for two or three days to work with the selected singers for this project. Although I am the originator of the idea, but I don’t have the talent to carry it out.  So, you’re all the demigods who will help me to bring the gift from Schubert to this world.  It’s really quite amazing, in a way, Schubert is collaborating with us. ((Singer)) This idea that we are this living breathing….. ((Lee Mingwei)) …..Yeah, you are. ((Singer)) …..piece of art.  It’s a new mentality for me. ((Lee Mingwei, Artist and Creator of Sonic Blossom)) …..Most of the people thought that you were miked or it’s lip- syncing or something. No, you’re not.  You’re just doing it live and it’s an incredible gift for most of us really. ((Singing)) It is my task to help them get ready for this work because it’s unusual. So, I would say to them the first time you do Sonic Blossom, it’s the most difficult.  It gets easier and easier.  So, do not give up.  You see how you yourself become a part of the work. So, the tension lies between the singer and the receiver. ((Singer)) Please come with me.  Thank you.  ((Greta Mosher, Visitor, Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery)) I was just invited to hear this song by this beautiful opera singer. ((Singing)) ((Greta Mosher, Visitor, Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery)) There was so much tension in the way she looked at me and then my responses to her.  But, what she had coming, what she, you could see by her face, what she was going to bring to the table and it was gorgeous. ((Lee Mingwei, Artist and Creator of Sonic Blossom)) Originally, I thought the singer is giving a gift to the receiver. ((Singing)) ((Lee Ming[...]



Barbara Bush Believed Literacy Could Cure Other Ills

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:52:31 -0400

On a hot summer day in 1978, as her husband mulled his first presidential run, Barbara Bush headed to Houston's leafy Memorial Park for a jog while she thought about what issues she'd like to focus on should she become first lady. Bush was concerned about stubborn societal problems like crime, the homeless, drugs and hunger. But as she ran, the then-53-year-old came to the realization that teaching more people to read could help decrease the other major problems, which can grow out of lack of literacy and educational opportunity. "After much thought, I realized everything I worried about would be better if more people could read, write and comprehend,'' Bush wrote in her 1994 autobiography, "Barbara Bush: A Memoir." It would be another decade before Bush became first lady, but, in the interval, she was active in literacy programs. In March 1989, mere weeks into her husband's presidency, she founded the Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy. "We love that story," said Lauren Sproull, the foundation's spokeswoman. "It really shows that, from the very beginning, the moment she even thought that she might become first lady one day, she immediately turned her thoughts to, `How can I do the most good?' `How can I help the most people?'" The foundation has since raised more than $110 million to create or support literacy programs for men, women and children in all 50 states. Its programs include classes to help teenage mothers who left high school earn GED diplomas in Georgia, and teaching non-English speakers in Alabama the language and how to transfer what they learn to their pre-kindergarten-age children before they start school. One in four American adults can't read above a fifth-grade level, the foundation says. A 2003 study by the National Center for Education Statistics found that nearly 15 percent of Americans lacked basic reading and comprehension skills. It took more than a decade to compile, though, and hasn't been repeated. For years, the foundation offered grants to fund new literacy programs or bolster existing ones, but since 2012 has focused on creating direct models that use technology to reach adults and children, many of whom weren't always able to attend traditional, classroom-style programs. The foundation says it has helped "easily hundreds of thousands" of people across the country over the years, but doesn't have a full count of everyone enrolled in programs it supported. Bush died Tuesday at her Houston home at the age of 92. To mark her 90th birthday in June 2015, the foundation launched the $7 million adult literacy XPRIZE, a competition in which teams are tasked with creating mobile apps that can improve adult literacy within 12 months. The foundation has announced eight semifinalists whose apps are being field-tested among about 11,000 people in Dallas, Philadelphia and Los Angeles. Bush remained active with the foundation until as recently as two months ago, participating via video chat at one of its reading events. Her daughter, Doro Bush Koch, is now the foundation's honorary chairwoman, and it is based in Tallahassee, where her son, Jeb, lived as Florida governor from 1999 until 2007. Bush also wrote two books about her dogs' lives, 1984's "C. Fred's Story" and "Millie's Book," in 1990, and donated the proceeds to family literacy programs. In 2013, her son Neil, and his wife Maria, created the Barbara Bush Houston Literacy Foundation, which promotes literacy among people of all ages in the country's fourth-largest city. Laura Bush, who was first lady while Barbara's son George W. was president, told Fox Business Network on Wednesday that her mother-in-law believed "if everyone could read and write, a lot of problems would be solved.''


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Key Findings in Analysis of Memoir of a Jew Raised Catholic

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:40:55 -0400

The case of Edgardo Mortara has roiled Catholic-Jewish relations ever since the 6-year-old Jewish boy was taken from his home in Bologna by papal police in 1858 and brought to Rome to be raised a Catholic. The move was ordered after church authorities learned he had been secretly baptized. Church law at the time required all Catholics to be raised as Catholics and educated in the faith. Recently, the case has made headlines again after a U.S. historian, David Kertzer, found discrepancies between the Spanish text of Mortara's memoirs held in the archives of his religious order, and an Italian translation published in 2005 by Italian journalist Vittorio Messori. The Associated Press this week located the Spanish text in the Historic Archives of St. Peter in Chains, a Rome church famous for its Michelangelo statue of a horned Moses, and compared it with the Italian translation. Here are the key findings of the AP analysis: * The 89-page notebook-sized autobiography, El Nino Mortara y Pio Nono (The Mortara Child and Pope Pius) isn't actually Mortara's original, hand-written text, which Kertzer says was penned in 1888. Rather, it is a typed up, spiral-bound booklet prepared nearly a century later by the Rev. Juan Oleaga, a Spanish member of Mortara's religious order who also prepared a typed-up booklet of Mortara's correspondence in 1994. * In a brief introduction to the autobiography, Oleaga wrote that he faithfully typed Mortara's text and that it was "fruit of a spirit that possesses the truth." He said Mortara died ever grateful to Pope Pius IX, who authorized his removal and took him under his wing, and remained close to his family "even though he never got to see them converted to Catholicism." * Oleaga appears to have written a long footnote in the first few pages of the text in which he justifies the taking of Mortara from his parents and recounts a tearful reunion between Mortara and the Inquisition official responsible for it. That footnote — written in the same typeface as Orteaga's introduction and set off from the Spanish text with an asterisk — is seamlessly integrated into Messori's version as if Mortara himself had written it. * Mortara's anti-Semitic comments contained in the original Spanish were removed in Messori's version, including reference to Mortara having "always professed an inexpressible horror" toward Jews. Mortara's original writings that the faith of his family was "false, contradictory, absurd, condemned by history and burdened by the 'ridiculous' which the majority of men condemn," was reduced in Messori's text to Judaism being merely "contradictory and surpassed by history." * Messori's version removes references to the "neurosis" and psychological problems Mortara suffered later in life and omits a reference to his "violent" removal from his parents and how much he missed his mother. It also said he was "miraculously" cured from the illness that prompted his baptism. The Spanish text makes no reference to a miracle. * Kertzer points out that even Mortara's original Spanish contains factual errors, including names and dates that were corrected in Messori's version. Mortara's account also includes an anecdote that Kertzer says has no basis in documentary evidence: that Pius, after learning of the baptism but before removing the child, had tried to persuade his parents to accept a compromise to send Edgardo to a Catholic boarding school in Bologna so they could visit him "whenever they wanted." Kertzer says that based on court testimony from the time, there is no evidence of any such negotiation and that when the police arrived to take Edgardo away, it came as a complete shock to the family.


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Trump Accuses Comey of Profit, Ruining Michael Flynn's Life

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:27:23 -0400

U.S. President Donald Trump accused former FBI Director James Comey Friday of ruining former national security advisor Michael Flynn's life while profiting financially at Flynn's expense with a newly published book. Trump denounced Comey on Twitter after memos he wrote following several meetings last year with President Trump were disclosed Thursday. Comey's memos were redacted and sent to Congress by the Justice Department Thursday night and later obtained by some news organizations. Included in the memos is the assertion that Trump had serious concerns about Flynn's judgment. The former national security advisor was eventually fired for deceiving Vice President Mike Pence and other officials about the details of a discussion with a Russian ambassador. Flynn has pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI about conversations he had with the Russian ambassador and is cooperating with special counsel investigators who assumed control of the Russia investigation after Comey's dismissal. Comey has said he wrote the memos shortly after his conversations with the president because he felt uncomfortable with his encounters with the U.S. leader. Comey wrote the president was concerned about the claims that he colluded with Russia to help win the presidential election and that there was a video of Trump with Russian prostitutes. In one memo written after Comey talked with Trump on March 30, 2017, Comey wrote that Trump "said he was trying to run the country and the cloud of this Russia business was making that difficult.' Trump fired Comey in May 2017 while the FBI chief was leading an investigation into allegations of Russian interference in the presidential election and possible collusion between Trump's campaign and the Russians. Russia has denied any interference with the U.S. presidential vote. Comey also wrote that the president often asked him about the claim that there was a video of him with prostitutes in a Moscow hotel. Comey wrote that the president said "this hookers thing" is "nonsense." He also wrote that Trump said "Putin had told him, 'We have some of the most beautiful hookers in the world.'" Shortly after his inauguration, Trump had dinner with Comey.The president, Comey wrote, said that he expected loyalty from Comey. In his book, "A Higher Loyalty: Truth, Lies and Leadership," published earlier this week, Comey compared the president to a mob boss focused on extracting personal loyalty from those who work for him, with little regard for morality or truth. After Comey was fired, Special Special Counsel Robert Mueller was appointed to continue the investigation into Russia's involvement with the U.S. election.


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Cosby Lawyers Want Jurors to Hear from Accuser's Confidante

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:18:48 -0400

Bill Cosby's lawyers are scrambling to make sure jurors at his sexual assault retrial hear from accuser Andrea Constand's confidante before deliberations get under way next week — but they're having trouble getting the woman to cooperate. Sheri Williams isn't responding to subpoena attempts, Cosby's lawyers said. Now they're seeking a judge's permission to read parts of her deposition into the record just as prosecutors did with Cosby's old testimony. The TV star entered the courthouse Friday for Day 10 of the retrial, which is expected to go to the jury next week. Judge Steven O'Neill was expected to rule Friday on his lawyers' request to use Williams' deposition. Constand testified at Cosby's first trial last year that she and Williams were good friends and would speak "at all hours of the day: morning, noon, and night" and were in touch as she went to police in January 2005 with allegations Cosby drugged and molested her about a year earlier. Cosby's lawyers said they expected Williams' testimony to refute Constand's claims that she was unaware he was romantically interested in her. They said she'd show that Constand "could not have been the unwitting victim" prosecutors have portrayed. Williams' deposition was part of Constand's 2005 lawsuit against Cosby, who wound up settling for nearly $3.4 million. Two weeks in, Cosby's case is rapidly winding down. O'Neill told jurors that there are only a few more days of testimony. Cosby lawyer Tom Mesereau went into the case predicting it would last about a month. Drug experts A pair of drug experts — one for the prosecution and one for the defense — spent Thursday debating one of the case's enduring mysteries: What drug did he give his chief accuser on the night she says he molested her? Cosby has insisted he handed 1 ½ tablets of the over-the-counter cold and allergy medicine Benadryl to Andrea Constand to help her relax before their sexual encounter at his mansion outside Philadelphia. Constand testified he gave her three small blue pills that left her incapacitated and unable to resist as he molested her. The experts agreed that paralysis isn't known to be a side effect of Benadryl, though its active ingredient can cause drowsiness and muscle weakness, among other side effects. Cosby's expert, Harry Milman, said he didn't know of any small blue pill that could produce the symptoms Constand described. The Cosby Show star has previously acknowledged under oath he gave quaaludes — a powerful sedative and 1970s-era party drug that's been banned in the U.S. for more than 35 years — to women he wanted to have sex with, but denied having them by the time he met Constand in the early 2000s. Dr. Timothy Rohrig, a forensic toxicologist called by prosecutors, testified Thursday that quaaludes can make people sleepy. But he and Milman said the drug came in large white pills — not small and blue. Prosecutors rested their case after Rohrig got off the witness stand. The defense immediately asked Judge Steven O'Neill to acquit Cosby and send jurors home, arguing prosecutors hadn't proved aggravated indecent assault charges. O'Neill refused. Upcoming testimony Cosby's lawyers are expected to call several people who worked for him, including an executive assistant and employees of his talent agency and publicity firm. It's likely part of a bid to challenge the prosecution's contention that the alleged assault happened within the 12-year statute of limitations. Williams' deposition testimony could have insights into what led Constand to accuse Cosby and whether the encounter was a factor in her leaving her job a few months later as the director of women's basketball operations at Temple University. A private investigator working for the defense said he attempted to serve Williams at least six times at her North Carolina home before sending her a FedEx package containing a subpoena and instructions to [...]


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Israeli Fire in New Gaza Border Protest Kills 2 Palestinians

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:15:00 -0400

Thousands of Palestinians joined the fourth weekly protest on Gaza's border with Israel on Friday, some burning tires or flying kites with flaming rags dangling from their tails. Two Palestinians were killed by Israeli troops firing from across the border fence, health officials said. Huge black plumes of smoke from the blazing tires engulfed the area, as Israeli troops fired tear gas and live bullets, witnesses said. Gaza's Health Ministry said 40 protesters were injured, but did not say how many of those were wounded by gunfire or overcome by tear gas. The protests are part of what organizers, led by Gaza's ruling Hamas group, have billed as an escalating showdown with Israel, to culminate in a mass march on May 15. Organizers have made conflicting statements about whether they plan an eventual mass border breach. In the past three weeks, 28 Palestinians were killed and hundreds wounded by Israeli troops firing from across the border fence. In addition, two Palestinian men, ages 24 and 25, were shot and killed in a border area in northern Gaza, the Health Ministry said. The Israeli military had no immediate comment. Hamas says the protests are aimed at breaking a crippling border blockade that was imposed by Israel and Egypt after the Islamic militant group overran Gaza in 2007, a year after winning Palestinian parliament elections. The marches also press for a "right of return" of Palestinian refugees and their descendants to what is now Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians fled or were forced from homes in the 1948 war over Israel's creation. Palestinians mark May 15, the anniversary of Israel's founding, as their "nakba," or catastrophe, to mourn their mass uprooting. "We will stay here until we reclaim our lands," said Ahmed Nasman, 21, speaking in a protest tent camp east of Gaza City, as activists near him prepared kites. "Every day, we will come here with a new way to resist them," he said, referring to Israel. Several thousand protesters flocked to the border area Friday, most gathering in five tent camps several hundred meters away from the border. Smaller groups advanced toward the fence, throwing stones, burning tires and flying kites with burning rags. The kites are part of a new tactic aimed at setting fields on the Israeli side on fire. Most kites were stitched together in the colors of the Palestinian flag. One white kite bore the Nazi swastika. Earlier Friday, Israeli military aircraft had dropped leaflets urging Palestinians to stay away from the fence and warning that they endanger their lives if they follow Hamas directives. The military has said it is defending Israel's border and that its troops, including snipers, only target "instigators." It has also accused Hamas of using mass protests as a cover for attacks. Israel has faced international criticism for its response to the mass marches. Rights groups have branded open-fire orders as unlawful, saying they effectively permit soldiers to use potentially lethal force against unarmed protesters. White House envoy Jason Greenblatt, a member of President Donald Trump's Mideast team, said on social media that Palestinians in Gaza have a "right to protest their dire humanitarian circumstances." Organizers "should focus on that message, not stoke the potential for more violence with firebombs and flaming kites, and must keep a safe distance from the border," said Greenblatt, adding that "the cost of these demonstrations is too high in loss of life and injuries." While Hamas and smaller Palestinian factions have taken a lead as organizers, the mass marches are also fueled by growing desperation among Gaza's 2 million residents. The border blockade has trapped nearly all of them in the tiny coastal territory, gutted the economy and deepened poverty. Gaza residents typically get fewer than five hours of electricity per day, while unemployment has soared ab[...]


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Indian Opposition Parties Seek Impeachment of Chief Justice

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:01:01 -0400

India's main opposition parties are seeking to impeach the country's top judge, accusing him of misuse of authority and acting under government pressure. Opposition leaders presented a notice to the chairman of Parliament's upper house on Friday seeking an inquiry into Chief Justice Deepak Misra's conduct, to be followed by a vote on impeachment. They also accused Misra of providing false information when he bought land before becoming chief justice. Misra did not immediately respond to the opposition accusations. It is the first time that political parties have sought to impeach a chief justice. The chairman of the upper house, Venkaiah Naidu, will determine whether there are sufficient grounds for a vote by lawmakers on Misra's removal.


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National Teacher of the Year Works with Refugee Students

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:56:50 -0400

Undeterred by immigration politics, the 2018 National Teacher of the Year leads a Washington state classroom for refugees that runs on the same promise that's bestowed upon children and fuels newcomers to the American dream. Mandy Manning plans to use her new platform to spread a message of unity, urging President Donald Trump to be a president for everyone in the United States. "I would encourage him to go out into neighborhoods and into places where he hasn't gone before, to try to experience their lives ... to continue our legacy of welcoming and being open and inviting of all peoples," Manning said. Manning's selection was announced Friday by the Council of Chief State School Officers. The national award winner embarks on a yearlong advocacy role to represent the best of the profession. Manning says she will use her new platform to encourage educators across the country to get out of their comfort zones in order to best serve the diversity of their students. For much of the past decade, Manning has taught at the Newcomer Center at Joel E. Ferris High School in Spokane, Washington. The center has a specialized English language development program for newly arrived refugee and immigrant students. For five hours a day, they work on setting up a base of academic knowledge so that the teens can ultimately join their peers in the general education classes. At the same time, Manning helps them adjust to American culture — from navigating the cafeteria and reading body language to understanding classroom etiquette, like taking turns when speaking. Her students come from all over the world, many escaping chaotic, conflict-torn homelands across the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas. Though she had a record 33 students in the fall of 2016, she's now working with just five. It's a correlation Manning can't ignore — that there has been such a drop in the number of refugees and immigrants landing in eastern Washington coinciding with the Trump administration's tightening immigration policies. Fewer refugee families mean the children just feel more isolated in their new world, she said. That's what motivates her to be even more intentional about making her students visible in the community. She takes them to work at the student store to engage with their peers, even though they may not yet have the language skills for typical teenage chatter. She does a map-building exercise so they can gain the confidence to both talk about where they came from and also ask their new neighbors for directions. Manning, who said she's also shaped by her international teaching experience and Peace Corps service, learned to embrace and cherish people who are different because she moved two dozen times in her youth while being raised by a single mother. Her job now, she says, is as much about integrating the children to their new lives, as it is about being a bridge for the local community to connect with the unfamiliar. It's an experience so profound for her that Manning, a married mother of three, cried when describing it. "What a privilege and an honor to be the student's first teacher, to be that for these kids and to help them transition into this new culture," Manning said. "I get to see and experience a lot of beauty and I'm very, very, very lucky." The national award winner is generally recognized by the president at a White House ceremony each spring.


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College Admissions: Receiving Support Through Recommendations

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:48:24 -0400

When it comes to reaching one’s goals, there is a saying English speakers often use to explain the path to success. It goes like this: “It’s not what you know, but who you know...” Those words suggest that being hard working or knowledgeable is not the only way to get what you want in life. Very often it can even be more important to have a relationship with someone who can help you reach your goals. Kenley Jones says that in a way, the same could be said of the process of applying to colleges and universities in the United States. Jones is the director of international admissions at the University of Redlands, a private, liberal arts and science university in southern California. He says most U.S. colleges and universities often base their admissions decisions on an applicant’s test results and school work. But he admits that this information does not always do the best job of explaining the strengths of each applicant. There are other parts of a college application that do more to describe personal qualities, says Jones. For example, most U.S. colleges and universities ask applicants to list their activities outside the classroom. Also, many require applicants to provide a brief written statement that describes the kind of people they are. But Jones notes that many students list activities which some admissions officials may know very little or nothing about. Some students may feel listing specific details of these activities is unimportant because they do not directly relate to their field of study, he says. And some students may be unwilling or unable to share this information about themselves in writing. “There’s many cultures out there where students taking upon themselves to stand out…about certain…things that they’re involved in, socially, would be considered sort of a negative thing,” Jones told VOA. “So sometimes it’s very hard to get students, depending on the culture or situation, to expound on some of the things they’re doing…And it takes, sometimes an active voice from someone else to…bring that to life and to our attention as well.” Jones argues that not every student has to be the strongest writer. That is especially true if students are applying to a program in which writing is not a major part of their duties. But in that case, they will need a recommendation from someone who is skilled in writing a letter in support of the applicant. Most U.S. colleges and universities require applicants to provide at least one letter of recommendation, Jones says. However, these statements should not be from just anyone who knows the applicant. After all, he notes, admissions officials expect most applicant’s friends and family to be extremely supportive of the student. Schools want to hear from people who will speak honestly and objectively about an applicant, says Jones. Admissions officials want to hear what an individual outside the applicant’s immediate circle of contacts thinks of that person. And they want to hear examples of the better qualities the student has demonstrated over the years. Jones adds that, depending on who offers it, a letter of recommendation can bring attention to a quality a student might not think about. For example, an employer might be able to describe leadership qualities that an applicant may not know he or she is demonstrating. However, recommendations do not always have to say how great an applicant is, he adds. The person writing the recommendation can explain to admissions officials how a student overcame a serious mistake. The writer could, for example, say how he or she witnessed the applicant getting caught doing something dishonest in school. But then the writer could say how the applicant learned the seriousness of the offense and demonstrated a change in behavior. “[...]


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