The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. At approximately 85 million people (as of 2004), it is the largest ethnic group on the island, and also

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Javanese Articles: Kejawen

Tue, 01 Jun 2010 04:29:00 +0000

Kejawen is cultural diversity that exists in Indonesia. Although not many have followers, but kejawen is one of the unique culture that exists in Indonesia. If you are interested to know about kejawen please read the following article.Javanese beliefs (Kebatinan or Kejawen) have principles embodying a "search for inner self" but at the core is the concept of "peace of mind".Although Kejawen is not strictly a religious affiliation, it addresses ethical and spiritual values as inspired by Javanese tradition. It is not a religion in usual sense of the word, like Islam, Judaism, or Christianity. There are no scriptures such as the Bible or the Qur'an, nor are there prophets. There is no emphasis on eschatology (i.e., life after death, heaven or hell, devils or angels).KebatinanKebatinan is a metaphysical search for harmony within one's inner self, connection with the universe, and with an Almighty God. Javanese beliefs are a combination of occultism, metaphysics, mysticism and other esoteric doctrines, exemplifying a Javanese tendency for synthesis. The Javanese system is so flexible that syncresis in all manifestations is attainable, even that which is in conflict. Javanese ideals combine human wisdom (wicaksana), psyche (waskita) and perfection (sempurna). The follower must control his/her passions, eschewing earthly riches and comforts, so that he/she may one day reach enlightened harmony and union with the spirit of the universe.Generally speaking, the Kebatinan follower believes in the existence of a superconsciousness in the cosmic world which is beyond humankind's comprehension, yet controls and guides humans' affairs and destiny. This superconsciousness is believed to be contacted via meditation. There are several meditation techniques (tapas): tapa kalong (meditation by hanging from a tree), Tapa Geni (avoiding fire or light for a day or days), Tapa Senen (fasting on Monday), Tapa Mutih (abstention from eating anything that is salted) and Tapa Ngablek (isolating oneself in dark rooms). Fasting is a common practice employed by Javanese spiritualists in order to attain discipline of mind and body to get rid of material and emotional desires. Many Kebatinan followers meditate in their own way to seek spiritual and emotional relief. These practices are not performed in churches or mosques, but at home or in caves or on mountain perches. Meditation in Javanese culture is a search for inner self wisdom and to gain physical strength. This tradition is passed down from generation to generation.EvolutionJavanese spiritualism entails a never ending search for wonder and surprise. It has some foreign influences.The Javanese tend to be flexible and pragmatic as far as one's spiritual life is concerned. The complexity is perhaps the result of Java's complicated cultural background and its myriad cultural influences. But basically, Javanese spiritualism is individualistic in approach, something typically Javanese. The approach is person-to-person or person-to-guru One on one. Kebatinan schoolsThe Sumarah School: according to this school, man and his physical and spiritual world are divided into three parts: the physical body and brain, an invisible world, and a more elusive and sublime world.In the brain, the faculty of thinking has two functions: to record memories, and to serve as a means of communion with God. One section, "Sukusma," governs the passions, while the other, the "Jiwa," provides the driving forces governing thought and reason. The invisible world, which is situated within the chest, is the Jiwa, the ineffable soul. It is here that the deeper feeling (Rasa) is located. The most elusive and sublime world is hidden somewhere near the anatomical heart.Sumarah theology maintains that humankind's soul is like the holy spirit, a spark from the Divine Essence, which means that we are in essence similar to God. In other words "One can find God within oneself," a belief similar to the "I=God" theory found in Hindu-Javanese literature.The Sapta Dharma School was the product of the Indonesian Revolution.Kebatinan Commandment[...]

Javanese Articles : Javanese Language

Sat, 29 May 2010 02:57:00 +0000

Javanese language is one of the cultural diversity that exists in Indonesia. Javanese language is not only unique by the grammar structure but is also widely used by Indonesian people in general. If you are interested to know the Javanese language more information, please read the following article.Javanese language (Javanese: basa Jawa, Indonesian: bahasa Jawa) is the language of the people in the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. In addition, there are also some pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 75,500,000 people.The Javanese language is part of the Austronesian family, and is therefore related to Indonesian and other Malay varieties. Many speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian for official and commercial purposes and to communicate with non-Javanese Indonesians.Outside Indonesia, there are large communities of Javanese-speaking people in the neighbouring countries such as East Timor, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, and also Hong Kong and Taiwan. In addition there are also Javanese-speaking people in Suriname, the Netherlands, and New Caledonia. The Javanese speakers in Malaysia are especially found in the states of Selangor and Johor. For distribution in other parts, as far as Suriname, see Demographic distribution of Javanese speakers below.IntroductionJavanese belongs to the Sundic sub-branch of the Western Malayo-Polynesian (also called Hesperonesian) branch of the Malayo-Polynesian subfamily of the Austronesian super family. It is a close linguistic relative of Malay, Sundanese, Madurese, Balinese, and to a lesser extent, of various Sumatran and Borneo languages, including Malagasy and Philippine languages.Javanese is spoken in Central Java and East Java, as well as on the north coast of West Java. In Madura, Bali, Lombok and the Sunda region of West Java, Javanese is also used as a literary language. It was the court language in Palembang, South Sumatra, until their palace was sacked by the Dutch in the late 18th century.Javanese can be regarded as one of the classical languages of the world, with a vast literature spanning more than 12 centuries. Scholars divide the development of Javanese language in four different stages:Old Javanese, from the 9th centuryMiddle Javanese, from the 13th centuryNew Javanese, from the 16th centuryModern Javanese, from 20th century (this classification is not used universally)Javanese is written with the Javanese script (a descendant of the Brahmi script of India), Arabo-Javanese script, Arabic script (modified for Javanese) and Latin script.Although not currently an official language anywhere, Javanese is the Austronesian language with the largest number of native speakers. It is spoken or understood by approximately 80 million people. At least 45% of the total population of Indonesia are of Javanese descent or live in an area where Javanese is the dominant language. Four out of five Indonesian presidents since 1945 are of Javanese descent. It is therefore not surprising that Javanese has a deep impact on the development of Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia, which is a modern dialect of Malay.There are three main dialects of Modern Javanese: Central Javanese, Eastern Javanese and Western Javanese. There is a dialect continuum from Banten in the extreme west of Java to Banyuwangi, in the foremost eastern corner of the island. All Javanese dialects are more or less mutually intelligible.PhonologyA Javanese syllable can be of the following type: CSVC. C=consonant, S= sonorant (/j/, /r/, /l/, /w/ or any nasal consonant) and V=vowel. In Modern Javanese, a bi-syllabic root is of the following type: nCsvVnCsvVC. As in other Austronesian languages, native Javanese roots consist of two syllables; words consisting of more than three syllables are broken up into groups of bi-syllabic words for pronunciation.Javanese, together with Madurese, are the only languages of Western Indonesia to possess a distinction between retroflex and dental phonemes. [...]

Javanese articles : Yogyakarta

Thu, 27 May 2010 18:39:00 +0000

Yogyakarta is one of the provinces in Indonesia which lies in the southern part of Java island. The beauty of Javanese culture that there are people in Yogyakarta province as a region made famous tourist visits. If you are interested in finding out more about Yogyakarta, please read the following article.The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding Jakarta). It is located on the island of Java. Yogyakarta is the only province in Indonesia that is still governed by that area's precolonial monarchy; The Sultan of Yogyakarta serves as the elected governor of the province. In Javanese (and Dutch) it is pronounced (jogjakarta). The city of Yogyakarta is the capital of the province.GeographyYogyakarta is located in south-central Java. It is surrounded by the province of Central Java (Jawa Tengah) and the Indian Ocean in the south.The population of DIY in 2003 was approximately 3,000,000. The province of Yogyakarta has a total area of 3,185.80 km2. Yogyakarta has the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. However it has, along with adjacent areas in Central Java, some of the highest population densities of Java.Administrative divisionsYogyakarta province is subdivided into four regencies (kabupaten) and one city (kota):- Bantul Regency (506.86 km2)- Gunung Kidul Regency (1,485.36 km2)- Kulon Progo Regency (586.27 km2)- Sleman Regency (574.82 km2)- Yogyakarta City (32.5 km2)Orientation The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 km². While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north, centering around the site of a few buildings with distinctive Dutch colonial-era architecture and the contemporary commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of sidewalk vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg a restored Dutch fort.At Yogyakarta's center is the kraton, or Sultan's palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighborhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined Taman Sari, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighborhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.AdministrationThe city is divided into 14 districts (kecamatan).- Gondokusuman- Jetis- Tegalrejo- Umbulharjo- Kotagede- Mergangsan- Ngampilan- Danurejan- Kraton- Wirobrajan- Pakualaman- Mantrijeron- Gedongtengen- GondomananArts and cultureYogyakarta is known for its silver work, leather puppets used for shadow plays (wayang kulit), and a unique style of making batik dyed fabric. It is also known for its vivid contemporary art scene. Yogyakarta is also known for its gamelan music, including the unique style Gamelan Yogyakarta, which developed in the courts.Yogyakarta is also a haven for underground art. It is home to many independent filmmaking communities, independent musicians, performance artists, and visual artists. One underground community that is internationally reputable among art collectors but barely heard of within the country is the Taring Padi community in Bantul, which produces posters using a technique called cukil. daren kidul Dono Kerto TuriDemography and language Most population is Javanese, but being a student city, there are also significant population of people from other ethnicities in Indonesia. This status makes Yogyakarta as one of the most heterogeneous city in terms of ethnicity in Indonesia. Indonesian a[...]

Javanese Articles : Central Java

Tue, 25 May 2010 16:40:00 +0000

Central Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia with cultural diversity and history that have a significant role in Indonesian history. To find out more about Central Java, please read the following article.Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of six provinces on the island of Java. The province of Central Java is 32,548.20 km2 in area; approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population is 32,864,000 (As of 2009), making it the third most-populous province in Indonesia after West Java and East Java, and constituting a bit less than one quarter of the crowded island's population.Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes the Special Area and city of Yogyakarta. However, administratively the city and surrounding region has been part of a separate special region since Indonesian independence.Geography Located in the middle of the island of Java, the Central Java province is bordered by West Java and East Java provinces. A small portion of its south region is the Yogyakarta Special Region province, fully enclosed by the Central Java province. Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, although it is currently a separate political entity. To the north and the south, the Central Java province faces the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean. Central Java also includes offshore islands such as Karimun Jawa Islands in the north, and Nusakambangan in the southwest.The average temperature in Central Java is between 18–28 degrees celsius and the relative humidity varies between 73–94 percent. While a high level of humidity exists in most low lying parts of the province, it drops significantly in the upper mountains. The highest average annual rainfall of 3,990 mm with 195 rainy days was recorded in Salatiga.The geography of Central Java is regular with small strips of lowlands near the northern and southern coast with mountain ranges in the centre of the region. To the west lies an active stratovolcano Mount Slamet, then a bit further to the east is the Dieng Volcanic Complex on the Dieng Plateau. At southeast of the Dieng plateau lies the high plateau of Kedu Plain, bordered on the east side by the twin volcanoes of Mount Merapi (the most active volcanoes in Indonesia) and Mount Merbabu. At the south of Semarang, lies Mount Ungaran, and to the north-east of the city lies Mount Muria on the most northern tip of Java. To the east near the border with East Java lies Mount Lawu, where its eastern slopes are in the East Java province.Due to active volcanics history and therefore volcanic ash, Central Java is a very fertile region for agriculture. Sight of extensive paddy fields is common, except in the southeastern — Gunung Kidul region — partly due to the high concentration of limestone and its location in a rain shadow from the prevailing weather.Two major rivers run through Central Java; Serayu in the west, which empties in the Indian Ocean, and the Solo River (Javanese: Bengawan Solo), which flows to the East Java provinceAdministrative divisionOn the eve of the World War II in 1942, Central Java was subdivided into 7 residencies (Dutch residentie or plural residenties, Javanese karésiḍènan or karésidhènan) which correspond more or less with the main regions of this area. These residencies were Banjoemas, Kedoe, Pekalongan, Semarang, and Djapara-Rembang added with the so called Gouvernement Soerakarta and Gouvernement Jogjakarta. However after the local elections in 1957 the role of these regencies were reduced until they finally disappeared.Nowadays Central Java (excluding Yogyakarta) is divided in 29 regencies (kabupaten) and 6 cities (kota, previously kotamadya and kota pradja). A regency can also be called a rural district while an autonomous city is an urban district. Below are regencies and autonomous cities of Central Java:Regencies: Banjarnegara, Banyumas, Batang, Blora, Boyolali, Brebes[...]

Javanese Articles : West Java

Tue, 25 May 2010 08:37:00 +0000

West Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia which is located near the capital city of Jakarta. With economic growth rates and high cultural diversity, West Java is an important asset especially as a tourist destination. To find out more about West Java, please read the following article.West Java (Indonesian: Jawa Barat; Sundanese: Jawa Kulon; acronym: Jabar), with a population around 41.48 million (2007), is the most populous province of Indonesia Located on the island of Java, it is slightly larger in area than densely populated Taiwan, but nearly double the population. Its capital city is Bandung. History The oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were unearthed in Anyer (the western coast of Java) with evidences of bronze and iron metallurgical culture dated back to the first millennium AD. The prehistoric Buni (the present-day Bekasi) clay pottery were later developed with evidences found from Anyer to Cirebon. Some artifacts (dated from 400 BC AD 100) such as food and drink containers were found mostly as burial gifts. There is also archeological evidence in Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from the 2nd century, and according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya, Karawang, West Java was also built around this time.Recorded history of West Java administration was started from the fourth century with the existence of Tarumanagara kingdom. Seven inscribed stones written in Wengi letters (used in the Indian Pallava period) and in Sanskrit language describe most of the kings of Tarumanagara. Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya as stated in the Kota Kapur inscription (AD 686).The Sunda kingdom then came into the ruling power of the region, the reference to which were found in the Kebon Kopi II inscription (AD 932).An Ulama known today as Sunan Gunung Jati settled in Banten Girang, with the intention of spreading the world of Islam in this still pagan town. In the meantime, the Sultanate of Demak from central Java grew into an immediate threat to Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa signed a treaty (known as the Luso Sundanese Treaty) with the Portuguese in 1512. In return, the Portuguese was granted an accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as trading agreement with the kingdom. This first international treaty of West Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the placement of the Padrao stone monument at the riverbank of the Ciliwung River in 1522.Although the treaty with Portuguese had been established, it could not come to realization. Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the alliance of the Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Cirebon (former vassal state of Sunda kingdom) in 1524 after their troops under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops under Sunan Gunung Jati also seized the port of Banten and established the Sultanate of Banten which was affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak. The war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon sultanates then continued for five years until a peace treaty were made in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, Sunda kingdom declined essentially under the pressure from the Sultanate of Banten. After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at Pakuan Pajajaran (the present-day Bogor) and gradually the Sultanate of Banten took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram Sultanate from central Java also seized the Priangan region, the southeastern part of the kingdom.In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies established their trading ships in West Java after the falldown of Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West Java fell under the Dutch East Indies' admi[...]

Javanese Articles : East Java

Tue, 25 May 2010 07:45:00 +0000

East Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia. As one of the provinces with high rates of economic growth, East Java hold an important role for the economy in Indonesia. If you want to know more about East Java, please read the following article.East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, Javanese: Jawa Wétan) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and islands to the east of it, as well as the Bawean islands. The administrative center of the province is located in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center and port. Population According to the 2000 census, East Java has 34 million inhabitants, second only to West Java among Indonesian provinces. The inhabitants consist of mostly Javanese. Native minorities include migrants from nearby Madura, and distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of other ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs. In addition to the national language, Indonesian, they also speak Javanese. Javanese spoken in the western part of East Java is a recognizably similar dialect to the one spoken in nearby Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. But in the eastern cities of Surabaya, Malang, and surrounding areas, the people speak a more egalitarian version of Javanese, with much less regard for hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity.In addition to that, Madurese is spoken by around 15 millions of Madurese, concentrated in Madura Island, Kangean Islands, Masalembu Islands, Eastern part of East Java, and East Java main cities.Religion The main religion used to be Hinduism and Buddhism. With the arrival of Islam, Hinduism was gradually pushed out in the 14th and 15th century. The last nobles and remainders of the fallen empire of Majapahit fled from this point to Bali. This comes from earlier history, when Islam spread from northern cities in Java where many traders from Gujarat, India visited, bringing Islam. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, then following various cities along the coast line, and turning back in Banyuwangi to Jember, is well known as the "horseshoe area" in context with earlier Muslim communities living there.Nevertheless, pockets of Hinduism have survived and abangan, the syncretic religion of Islam, Hinduism and Animism, remains strong. See Hinduism in Java for more information. Administrative areas East Java is administratively divided into 29 regencies (or kabupaten) and 9 cities (or kotamadya).Regencies (seat) :Java and Bawean island.- Banyuwangi- Blitar- Bojonegoro- Bondowoso- Gresik- Jember- Jombang- Kediri- Lamongan- Lumajang- Madiun- Magetan- Malang- Mojokerto- Nganjuk- Ngawi- Pacitan- Pasuruan- Ponorogo- Probolinggo- Sidoarjo- Situbondo- Trenggalek- Tuban- TulungagungMadura and Kangean Islands- Bangkalan Regency (Bangkalan)- Pamekasan- Sampang- SumenepCities:- Batu- Blitar- Kediri- Madiun- Malang- Mojokerto- Pasuruan- Probolinggo- SurabayaHistory East Java's history dates back to the famous ancient kingdoms of Kediri and Singhasari, which is now a city near Malang. The Majapahit empire, centered at Trowulan, Mojokerto East Java, is celebrated by Indonesians as the golden age of the archipelago. The Eastern Java region was part of the Mataram kingdom during its peak.Natural resources Chalk (Trenggalek & Gresik the city is also famous of its cement industries)Marble (Tulungagung)Oil (Cepu)Salt (Madura Island) Education East Java hosts some of the famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities, because they have government's universities, are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember. Among them, Airlangga University and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous, and both are located in Sura[...]

Javanese articles : Indonesia

Mon, 24 May 2010 14:13:00 +0000

Indonesia names you've probably heard, or some of you have visited Bali. For those of you who want to know more about Indonesia, please read the following article.The Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia) is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia comprises 17,508 islands. With a population of around 230 million people, it is the world's fourth most populous country, and has the world's largest population of Muslims. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the seventh century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually adopted Indian cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest—and the politically dominant—ethnic group. Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism including rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread in contemporary Indonesia. Etymology The name Indonesia derives from the Latin Indus, and the Greek nesos, meaning "island".The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and even Insulinde.From 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau in 1913. HistoryFossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern pop[...]


Mon, 24 May 2010 12:21:00 +0000

Many things can be learned about the Austronesian as a learning more about the Javanese people in Indonesia. So please read the following article to add your knowledge.The Austronesian peoples are a population in Oceania and Southeast Asia that speaks languages of the Austronesian family. Austronesian peoples include: Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the Austronesian peoples of Melanesia. They are also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China. The territories settled by Austronesian peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.Prehistory and history Archaeological evidence demonstrates a technological connection between the farming cultures of the south (Southeast Asia and Melanesia) and sites that are first known from mainland China, whereas a combination of archaeological and linguistic evidence has been interpreted as supporting a northern (southern China and Taiwan) origin for the Austronesian language family. In a recent treatment, all Austronesian languages were classified into 10 subfamilies, with all the extra-Formosan languages grouped in one subfamily and with representatives of the remaining 9 known only in Taiwan . It has been argued that these patterns are best explained by dispersal of an agricultural people from Taiwan into insular Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and, ultimately, the remote Pacific. Although this model—termed the “express train to Polynesia” is broadly consistent with available data, concerns have been raised. Alternatives to this model posit an indigenous origin for the Austronesian languages in Melanesia or Southeast Asia.Some western scholars believe Austronesian peoples originated on the island of Taiwan following the migration of pre-Austronesian speaking peoples from continental Asia approximately 10,000-6000 B.C. According to linguist Robert Blust, due to a lengthy split from the Pre-Austronesian populations, the Proto-Austronesian language, the cultures and ethnic groups of the Austronesian peoples began on Taiwan approximately 6,000 years ago.Austronesian peoples themselves have a variety of different traditions, and history of their origins. Some Indonesian scholars believe that the Austronesian peoples originated in Maritime Southeast Asia (modern day Indonesia, and the Philippines). However according to most Western scholars, Austronesian peoples originated on the island of Taiwan, and are spread as far away as Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, Easter Island, Maritime Southeast Asia, New Zealand, and to the rest of the Pacific Islands.A study by Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution, showed that mitochondrial DNA lineages have been evolving within Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) since modern humans arrived approximately 50,000 years ago. Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years.According to mainstream Western studies, a large-scale Austronesian expansion began around 5000-2500 B.C. Population growth primarily fueled this migration. These first settlers may have landed in northern Luzon in the archipelago of the Philippines, intermingling with the earlier Australo-Melanesian population who had inhabited the islands about 23,000 years earlier. Over the next thousand years, Austronesian peoples migrated southeast to the rest of the Philippines, and into the islands of the Celebes Sea, Borneo, and Indonesia. The Austronesian peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia sailed eastward, and spread to the islands of Melanes[...]

Sundanese Tribes

Sat, 15 May 2010 10:08:00 +0000

Here are related articles about Javanese culture is about the existence of Sundanese, and historical background related to this tribe.The Sundanese are an ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number approximately 31 million. The Sundanese are predominantly Muslim.The Sundanese have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of West Java, Banten and Jakarta, and the western part of Central Java. The provinces of Central Java and East Java are home to the Javanese, Indonesia's largest ethnic group.Sundanese culture has borrowed much from Javanese culture, however it differs by being more overtly Islamic, and has a much less rigid system of social hierarchyOrigins and historyThe Sundanese are of Austronesian origins who are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated though the Philippines, and reached Java between 1,500BCE and 1,000BCE.Inland Sunda is mountainous and hilly, and until the 19th century, was thickly forested and sparsely populated. The Sundanese traditionally live in small and isolated hamlets, rendering control by indigenous courts difficult. The Sundanese, in contrast to the Javanese, traditionally engage in dry-field farming. These factors resulted in the Sundanese having a less rigid social hierarchy and more independent social manners. In the 19th century, Dutch colonial exploitation opened much of the interior for coffee, tea, and quinine production, and the highland society took on a frontier aspect, further strengthening the individualistic Sundanese mindset.Court cultures flourished in ancient times, for example, the Sunda Kingdom, however, the Sundanese appear not to have had the resources to construct large religious monuments similar to those in Central and East Java.LanguageThe Sundanese language is spoken by approximately 27 million people and is the second most widely-spoken regional language in Indonesia, after Javanese. This language is spoken in the southern part of the Banten province, and most of West Java and eastwards as far as the Pamali River in Brebes, Central Java.Sundanese is more closely related to Malay and Minang than it is to Javanese, although Sundanese has borrowed the language levels denoting rank and respect.There are several dialects of Sundanese, from the Sunda-Banten dialect to the Sunda-Central Javanese dialect which mixes elements of Javanese. Some of the most distinct dialects are from Banten, Bogor, Priangan, and Cirebon. In Central Java, Sundanese is spoken in some of the Cilacap region and some of the Brebes region.ReligionThe original religious system of the Sundanese was monotheism. The best indications are found in the oldest epic poems (wawacan) and among the remote Baduy tribe. This religion is called Sunda Wiwitan ("early Sundanese").Today, most Sundanese are Muslims.Culture and artformsSundanese culture has borrowed much from Javanese culture, however it differs by being more overtly Islamic, and has a much less rigid system of social hierarchy. The Sundanese, in their mentality and behavior, their greater egalitarianism and antipathy to yawning class distinctions, their community-based material culture, of feudal hierarchy, apparent among the people of the Javanese Principality.Central Javanese court culture nurtured in atmosphere conducive to elite, stylized, impeccably-polished forms of art and literature. In a pure sense, Sundanese culture bore few traces of these traditions.The art and culture of Sundanese people reflect historical influences by various cultures that include pre-historic native animism and shamanism traditions, ancient Hindu-Buddhist heritage, and Islamic culture. The Sundanese have very vivid, orally-transmitted memories of grand era of the Sunda Kingdom. The oral tradition of Sundanese people is called Pantun Sunda, the chant of poetic verses employed for story-telling.[...]

Javanese Music Traditional

Fri, 14 May 2010 10:44:00 +0000

Gamelan is a Javanese music traditional instruments, maybe some of you have never heard of this instrument. The following article will discuss the "gamelan" a Javanese traditional musical instruments.The Music of Java embraces a wide variety of styles, both traditional and contemporary, reflecting the diversity of the island and its lengthy history. Apart from "traditional" forms which maintain connections to musical styles many centuries old, there are also many unique styles and conventions which combine elements from many other regional influences, including those of neighbouring Asian cultures and European colonial forms. Gamelan A gamelan is a musical ensemble from Indonesia, typically from the islands of Bali or Java, featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings. Vocalists may also be included.The term refers more to the set of instruments than to the players of those instruments. A gamelan is a set of instruments as a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are generally not interchangeable.The word "gamelan" comes from the Javanese word "gamels", meaning to strike or hammer, and the suffix "an", which makes the root a collective noun. Real hammers are not used to play these instruments as heavy iron hammers would break the delicate instruments. History of Gamelan MusicThe gamelan predates the Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in its earliest records and instead represents a native art form. The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire. In contrast to the heavy Indian influence in other art forms, the only obvious Indian influence in gamelan music is in the Javanese style of singing.In Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era 167 (c. AD 230), the god who ruled as king of all Java from a palace on the Maendra mountains in Medangkamulan (now Mount Lawu). He needed a signal to summon the gods and thus invented the gong. For more complex messages, he invented two other Gongs, thus forming the original gamelan set.The earliest image of a musical ensemble is found on the 8th century Borobudur temple, Central Java. Musical instruments such as the bamboo flute, bells, drums in various sizes, lute, and bowed and plucked string instruments were identified in this image. However it lacks metallophones and xylophones. Nevertheless, the image of this musical ensemble is suggested to be the ancient form of the gamelan.In the palaces of Java are the oldest known ensembles, the Munggang and Kodokngorek gamelans, apparently from the 12th century. These formed the basis of a "loud style". A different, "soft style" developed out of the kemanak tradition and is related to the traditions of singing Javanese poetry, in a manner which is often believed to be similar to performance of modern bedhaya dance. In the 17th century, these loud and soft styles mixed, and to a large extent the variety of modern gamelan styles of Bali, Java, and Sunda resulted from different ways of mixing these elements. Thus, despite the seeming diversity of styles, many of the same theoretical concepts, instruments, and techniques are shared between the styles. Varieties of gamelan ensemblesVarying forms of gamelan ensembles are distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, tunings, repertoire, style, and cultural context. In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, and those that arose in prestigious courts are often considered to have their own style. Certain styles may also be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style.The varieties are generally grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese, Javanese, and Sundanese pe[...]

Java Island

Fri, 14 May 2010 10:16:00 +0000

Maybe you've heard the name of the island of Java or Java Island, or even you ever visit there. If you want to know more about the Java island following article will discuss about java.Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. Once the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies, Java now plays a dominant role in the economic and political life of Indonesia. Home to a population of 130 million in 2006, it is the most populous island in the world, ahead of Honshū, the main island of Japan. Java is also one of the most densely populated regions on Earth.Formed mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in Indonesia. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, though Javanese is dominant and is the native language of 60 million people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Most residents are bilingual, with Indonesian as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs, ethnicities and cultures. EtymologyThe origins of the name 'Java' are not clear. One possibility is that an early travellndd from India named the island after the jáwa-wut plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization the island had different names. There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, meaning 'home'. GeographyJava lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island to the south. It is the world's 13th largest island.Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains no fewer than thirty-eight mountains forming an east-west spine which have at one time or another been active volcanoes. The highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru (3,676 m). The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi (2,968 m). See Volcanoes of Java. Further mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world. Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations.The area of Java is approximately 139,000 km2. The island's longest river is the 600 km long Bengawan Solo River. The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano, then flows north and eastwards to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya. The island is administratively divided into four provinces (Banten, West Java, Central Java, and East Java), one special region (Yogyakarta), and one special capital district (Jakarta). HistoryThe chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated. Before the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the rivers provided the main means of communication, although Java's many rivers are mostly short. Only the Brantas and Sala rivers could provide long-distance communication, and thus their valleys supported the centres of major kingdoms. A system of roads, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java by at least the mid-seventeenth century. Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on[...]

Javanese People in Indonesia

Fri, 14 May 2010 05:26:00 +0000

Some people have heard about Java or Javanese people in Indonesia, the following article will provide answers about Java in general that will provide comprehensive information about Java.The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. At approximately 85 million people (as of 2004), it is the largest ethnic group on the island, and also in Indonesia. Origin and distributionLike most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesian origins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, and migrated through the Philippines, reaching Java between 1,500BCE and 1,000BCE.The Javanese were traditionally concentrated in the provinces of East Java, Central Java and Yogyakarta, but due to migration within Indonesia (as part of government transmigration programs or otherwise) there are now high populations of Javanese people in almost all the Indonesian provinces. (The province of West Java is home to the Sundanese, Indonesia's second largest ethnic group who are ethnically distinct from the Javanese). Language Javanese people use Javanese language in everyday speech. In a public poll held circa-1990, approximately 12% of Javanese used Indonesian, around 18% used both Javanese and Indonesian, and the rest used Javanese exclusively. FamilyCulturally, Javanese people adopt a paternalistic system that traces the hierarchic lineage of the father. This system is particularly used to determine descendants' right to use royal titles before their names. However, it is not customary for Javanese to have a descended family name.ReligionMost Javanese follow Islam as their religion. Some also follow Christianity (Protestantism and Catholicism), which are rather concentrated in Central Java (particularly Surakarta, Magelang and Yogyakarta for Catholicism). In a much smaller scale, Buddhism and Hinduism also are found in the Javanese community.Many Javanese follow the ethnic religion Kejawen, which is animistic with strong influences of Hinduism and Buddhism and some rituals in Islam. The Javanese community is also known for syncretism of beliefs. All the outside cultures were absorbed and interpreted according to the Javanese traditional values, creating a new set of religious beliefs unique to local culture.Profession In Indonesia, Javanese can be found in all professions, especially in the government and the military. Traditionally, most Javanese are farmers. This was especially common because of the fertile volcanic soil in Java.Social stratification The famous American anthropologist Clifford Geertz in the 1960s divided the Javanese community into three aliran or "streams": santri, abangan and priyayi. According to him, the Santri followed an orthodox interpretation Islam, the abangan was the followed a syncretic form of Islam that mixed Hindu and animist elements (often termed Kejawen), and the priyayi was the nobility. But today the Geertz opinion is often opposed because he mixed the social groups with belief groups. It was also difficult to apply this social categorisation in classing outsiders, for example other non-indigenous Indonesians such as persons of Arab, Chinese and Indian descent.Social stratification is much less rigid in northern coast area, which is much more egalitarian.Javanese origin artforms are among the best known in Indonesia and the whole archipelago. The famous Javanese wayang puppetry culture was influenced by Hindu and Buddhist traditions. The Wayang repertoire stories, lakon, are mostly based on epics from India; Ramayana and Mahabharata. These epics and stories influenced wayang puppetry as well as Javanese classical dances. The influences from Islam and[...]