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pubmed: 0278-6915



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Concentrations of arsenic and lead in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Iran: A systematic review and carcinogenic risk assessment.
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Concentrations of arsenic and lead in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Iran: A systematic review and carcinogenic risk assessment.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan 13;:

Authors: Fakhri Y, Bjørklund G, Bandpei AM, Chirumbolo S, Keramati H, Hosseini Pouya R, Asadi A, Amanidaz N, Sarafraz M, Sheikhmohammadi A, Baninameh Z, Mohseni SM, Sarkhosh M, Ghasemi SM

Abstract
Exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in either the short or the long term can cause cancers in humans. Dietary intake and consumption of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is increasing in Iran, and several studies on the concentration of heavy metals in rice have been carried out in this country in recent years. In this perspective, the main objective of the present study was to investigate, even via a meta-analysis of the existing literature, the presence of As and Pb in rice from many geographical areas in Iran, as well as to estimate the carcinogenic risk of these heavy metals in rice consumers. The results of the present ten years-spanning systematic review indicate that 21 reports, collecting a total of 2088 samples, were performed between 2008 and October 2017. The minimum and maximum concentration of As was observed in the Golestan area (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg d.w) and the Gillan region (3 mg/kg d.w); and Pb in the Shahrekord (0.07 ± 0.02 mg/kg d.w) and Mazandaran (35 mg/kg d.w). The meta-analysis of data showed that pooled concentration of As in the rice was 0.04 (95%CI: 0.02-0.06 mg/kg d.w), which resulted lower than the National Standard (NS) limits. However, the pooled concentration of Pb in the rice was 0.38 (95%CI: 0.25-0.5 mg/kg d.w), i.e., higher than NS limits. The heterogeneity was significant between As (I2 = 63%, P value = .003) and Pb (I2 = 96%, P value < .001) studies. The carcinogenic risk assessment showed that minimum and maximum incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) of As was in the 45-54 (4.53 × 10-2) and 15-24 (5.50 × 10-2) year age groups consumers; and Pb, 45-54 (2.442 × 10-3) and 15-24 (2.96 × 10-3), respectively. The overall carcinogenesis risk of As (4.864 × 10-2) was 18.5 times higher than Pb (2.623 × 10-3). All age groups consumers of rice content of As and Pb are at considerable carcinogenesis risk (ILCR > 10-3). Therefore a decreased level of heavy metals in rice cultivation should be encouraged and performed in next planning.

PMID: 29341878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Apoptosis induction by Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer extracts on colorectal cancer cell lines.
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Apoptosis induction by Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer extracts on colorectal cancer cell lines.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan 11;:

Authors: Finimundy TC, Abreu RMV, Bonetto N, Scariot FJ, Dillon AJP, Echeverrigaray S, Barros L, Ferreira ICFR, Henriques JAP, Roesch-Ely M

Abstract
Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) is an edible mushroom used in food supplements, presenting antitumor properties through induction of cell death pathways. The PSC potential against colorectal cancer was analyzed by exposing HCT116wt cells to different PSC extracts. The PSC n-hexane extract (PSC-hex) showed the highest cytotoxicity effect (IC50 value 0.05 mg/mL). The observed cytotoxicity was then associated to apoptosis-promoting and cell cycle-arrest pathways. PSC-hex was able to induce apoptosis related to breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. The absence of cytotoxicity in HTC116-p53 and HTC116-Bax cells, alongside with an increase in p53, Bax and Caspase-3 expression, and decrease in Bcl-2 expression, supports that the pro-apoptotic effect is probably induced through a p53 associated pathway. PSC-hex induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M in HCT116wt without cytotoxicity in HTC116-p21 cells. These findings suggest that a p21/p53 cell cycle regulation pathway is probably disrupted by compounds present on PSC-hex. Identification of the major components was then performed with ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol representing 30.6% of total weight. In silico docking studies of ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β against Bcl-2 were performed and results show a credible interaction with the Bcl-2 hydrophobic cleft. The results show that PSC-hex can be used as supplementary food for adjuvant therapy in colorectal carcinoma.

PMID: 29337231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Cholesterol modulates the liposome membrane fluidity and permeability for a hydrophilic molecule.
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Cholesterol modulates the liposome membrane fluidity and permeability for a hydrophilic molecule.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan 11;:

Authors: Kaddah S, Khreich N, Kaddah F, Charcosset C, Greige-Gerges H

Abstract
The effect of cholesterol (CHOL) content on the permeability and fluidity of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposome membrane was investigated. Liposomes encapsulating sulforhodamine B (SRB), a fluorescent dye, were prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique (REV) at various DPPC:CHOL molar ratios (from 100:0 to 100:100). The release kinetics of SRB was studied during 48 h in buffer (pH 7.4) containing NaCl at 37 °C. The DPPC:CHOL formulations were also characterized for their size, polydispersity index and morphology. Increasing CHOL concentration induced an increase in the mean liposomes size accompanying with a shape transition from irregular to nanosized, regular and spherical vesicles. The release kinetics of SRB showed a biphasic pattern; the release data was then analyzed using different mathematical models. On the overall, the SRB release was governed by a non-Fickian diffusion during the first period (0-10 h) while it followed a Fickian diffusion between 10 and 48 h. Changes in DPPC liposome membrane fluidity of various batches (CHOL% 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100) were monitored by using 5- and 16 doxyl stearic acids (DSA) as spin labels. CHOL induced a decrease in the bilayer fluidity. Concisely, CHOL represents a critical component in modulating the release of hydrophilic molecules from lipid vesicles.

PMID: 29337230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Protective effect of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus leaves against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice.
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Protective effect of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus leaves against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan 11;:

Authors: Xie J, Wang W, Dong C, Huang L, Wang H, Li C, Nie S, Xie M

Abstract
Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus), known locally as 'sweet tea tree', is commonly cultivated in China. Flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (FC) is reported to exhibit multiple biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities. However, their influence on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of total flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves. Results revealed that flavonoids from C. paliurus significantly decreased CCl4-induced elevation of activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), and markedly increased the levels of SOD, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) compared with the model group. Structures of mainly compounds were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectroscopic and chemical analyses. This study clearly shows that flavonoids from C. paliurus exert a potent protective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Its hepatoprotective effect appears to be closely associated with its antioxidant activity. The results indicated that flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves could be considered as a potent food supplement in the prevention of acute liver injury.

PMID: 29337229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in Iran food products.
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Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in Iran food products.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Jan 11;:

Authors: Hosseini MS, Eslami G, Hajimohammadi B, Fallahzadeh H, Derakhshan Z, Conti GO, Ferrante M

Abstract
Maize, the second most important genetically modified (GM) crop, and an ingredient in many foodstuffs worldwide. Regulations for both the labeling and the traceability of GMOs in feed chains are coming into force worldwide. To provide consumer's information, labelling for food products containing more than 0.9% of GM material is demanded by the actual EU legislation. Analysis of foods is then essential to detect and quantify GM maize material and verify the compliance with labelling information. For this purpose, reliable and accurate detection methods are a necessity. PCR-based methods are the most common and reliable methods developed thus far. The aim of the present work was to assess the presence of GM maize in a range of processed foods commercialised in Iran from 2016-2017. For this purpose, screening of GM material was carried out by qualitative PCR. According to results, 26% of the samples tested were positive for GMOs. The present study which represents a fast and reliable methodology would provide an overview of the presence and levels of GMOs maize in Iran. While, results demonstrate for the first time the screening for GMOs in foods sold in Iran with a large time scale and wide product scope.

PMID: 29337228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]