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Injury Prevention current issue



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Injury Prevention: where to from here?

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Injury Prevention publishes the science that defines our field. It is the signature publication supporting the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of injury, for all people, from any cause. Accumulating in the pages of the Journal is a body of knowledge used across the world to improve the health of individuals and populations. The Journal’s emphasis on primary prevention addresses the point in the prevention continuum with the greatest scope for minimising harm.

More than being simply an archive of information, the Journal is the intellectual charter that supports our field’s currency and validity. Each issue contains the latest research findings judged by peers to be important contributions to knowledge. In editorials, commentaries and letters, contributors discuss approaches most likely to produce the best results. Established positions are revisited as we challenge and rejuvenate our beliefs. Injury Prevention is the voice of a constituency. The Journal is a forum we...




Correction: SAVIR 2017

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Injury Prevention 2017;23:A1-A62.

The below articles did not include the following authors and their affiliations.

FLASH

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.158

Saini Gopin, Rona Margaret Relova, Tina Lee, David Luxton

POSTER

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.111

Rebecca Cunningham

US, University of Michigan

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.132

Andrea Gielen

US, Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.123

Robert Cantu, Kevin Guskiewicz, Kristen Kucera

RC-US, Boston University KG & KK-US University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.118

Yasamin Kusunoki

US, University of Michigan

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.130

Amy Bohnert

US, University of Michigan

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.105

Rebecca Cunningham

US, University of Michigan

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.144

Chad Brummett, Jennifer Waljee

US, University of Michigan

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.120

Mary Jannausch, E. Brooke Pope, Mark Ilgen

MJ & MI-US, University of Michigan EBP-US, Battle Creek VA

DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.121

Zachary Gassoumis, Rahul Sharma, Jeffrey Hall

ZG-US, Leonard Davis School of Gertonology, University of Southern California RS-US, Weill Cornell Medical College JH-US, Centers...




Child-resistant closure: yesterday, today and tomorrow

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

This is the 50th anniversary of the first child-resistant closure (CRC), the Palm N’ Turn, which was patented in 1967.1 This gives pause for reflection upon the strengths and shortcomings of this poison prevention intervention.

The CRC is the cornerstone of the US Poison Prevention Packaging Act (PPPA) of 1970.2 Within the PPPA is a schedule of hazardous substances (drugs and consumer products) requiring a CRC. Over the years, drugs and consumer products have been added to this schedule. The criteria for certification as a CRC are precise and are defined in the PPPA. Its thrust is that opening the container within a defined period of time must be significantly difficult for children less than 5 years old but not difficult for normal adults.

The CRC is Canada’s gift to injury prevention. Henri Breault MD, the director of the poison control centre in Windsor Ontario...




Retraction: Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Henary B, Sherwood CP, Crandall JR, et al. Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection. Injury Prev 2007;13:398-402. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2006.015115

The manuscript ‘Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection’ was published in Injury Prevention in 2007, after peer review. The paper used US data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System to conclude that children 0-23 months were less likely to be severely injured when using a rear-facing car seat than a front-facing car seat. This result, along with similar data from Swedish experience and biomechanical studies, has been used as the basis for public education and policy recommendations that favor a rearfacing position for children under age two in car seats.

In 2016, the journal was contacted by a biostatistician employed as an expert witness in a court case involving a car seat manufacturer. She indicated that she was unable...




Surveillance of paediatric exposures to liquid laundry detergent pods in Italy

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Objective

To analyse paediatric exposures to pod and traditional laundry detergents in Italy and changes in exposure trends.

Methods

Analyses of a series of patients aged <5 years and exposed to laundry detergents between September 2010 and June 2015, identified by the National Poison Control in Milan.

Results

In comparison with patients exposed to traditional laundry detergents (n=1150), a higher proportion of those exposed to pods (n=1649) were managed in hospital (68% vs 42%), had clinical effects (75% vs 22%) and moderate/high severity outcomes (13% vs <1%). Exposure rates were stable over time for traditional detergents (average 0.65 cases/day), but an abrupt decline in major company pods was seen in December 2012, 4 months after the introduction of opaque outer packaging (from 1.03 to 0.36 cases/day and from 1.88 to 0.86 cases/million units sold). The odds of clinical effects was higher for exposure to pods than for traditional detergents (OR=10.8; 95% CI 9.0 to 12.9). Among patients exposed to pods, the odds of moderate/high severity outcomes was four times higher for children aged <1 years than for the other age groups (OR=3.9; 95% CI 2.2 to 7.0). Ten children exposed to laundry detergent pods had high severity outcomes while no children exposed to traditional laundry detergents developed high severity effects.

Conclusions

The study confirms that exposure to laundry detergent pods is more dangerous than exposure to traditional detergents. In Italy, 4 months after the introduction of opaque outer packaging by a major company, product-specific exposure rates decreased sharply, suggesting that reducing visibility of laundry detergent pods may be an effective preventive measure. Further efforts are needed to improve safety.




Preventing deaths and injuries from house fires: a cost-benefit analysis of a community-based smoke alarm installation programme

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

Operation Installation (OI), a community-based smoke alarm installation programme in Dallas, Texas, targets houses in high-risk urban census tracts. Residents of houses that received OI installation (or programme houses) had 68% fewer medically treated house fire injuries (non-fatal and fatal) compared with residents of non-programme houses over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up during an effectiveness evaluation conducted from 2001 to 2011.

Objective

To estimate the cost–benefit of OI.

Methods

A mathematical model incorporated programme cost and effectiveness data as directly observed in OI. The estimated cost per smoke alarm installed was based on a retrospective analysis of OI expenditures from administrative records, 2006–2011. Injury incidence assumptions for a population that had the OI programme compared with the same population without the OI programme was based on the previous OI effectiveness study, 2001–2011. Unit costs for medical care and lost productivity associated with fire injuries were from a national public database.

Results

From a combined payers' perspective limited to direct programme and medical costs, the estimated incremental cost per fire injury averted through the OI installation programme was $128,800 (2013 US$). When a conservative estimate of lost productivity among victims was included, the incremental cost per fire injury averted was negative, suggesting long-term cost savings from the programme. The OI programme from 2001 to 2011 resulted in an estimated net savings of $3.8 million, or a $3.21 return on investment for every dollar spent on the programme using a societal cost perspective.

Conclusions

Community smoke alarm installation programmes could be cost-beneficial in high-fire-risk neighbourhoods.




The benefits of data linkage for firefighter injury surveillance

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

While survey data are available for national estimates of fire events and firefighter fatalities, data on firefighter injury at the national and local levels remain incomplete and unreliable. Data linkage provides a vehicle to maximise case detection and deepen injury description for the US fire service.

Methods

By linking departmental Human Resources records, despatch data, workers' compensation and first reports of injury, researchers were able to describe reported non-fatal injuries to 3063 uniformed members of the Philadelphia Fire Department (PFD), for the period of 2005 through 2013.

Results

Among all four databases, the overall linkage rate was 56%. Among three of the four databases, the linkage rate was 88%. Because there was duplication of some variables among the datasets, we were able to deeply describe all the linked injuries in the master database. 45.5% of uniformed PFD members reported at least one injury during the study period. Strains, falls, burns and struck-by injuries were the most common causes. Burns resulted in the highest lost time claim payout, and strains accounted for the highest medical claim cost. More than 70% of injuries occurred in the first 15 years of experience.

Discussion

Data linkage provided three new benefits: (1) creation of a new variable—years of experience, (2) reduction of misclassification bias when determining cause of injury, leading to more accurate estimates of cost and (3) visualisation of injury rates when controlling for the number of fire department responses, allowing for the generation of hypotheses to investigate injury hot spots.




The effects of the lower ignition propensity cigarettes standard in Estonia: time-series analysis

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

In 2011, the lower ignition propensity (LIP) standard for cigarettes was implemented in the European Union. Evidence about the impact of that safety measure is scarce.

Objective

The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of the LIP standard on fire safety in Estonia.

Methods

The absolute level of smoking-related fire incidents and related deaths was modelled using dynamic time-series regression analysis. The data about house fire incidents for the 2007–2013 period were obtained from the Estonian Rescue Board.

Results

Implementation of the LIP standard has reduced the monthly level of smoking-related fires by 6.2 (p<0.01, SE=1.95) incidents and by 26% (p<0.01, SE=9%) when estimated on the log scale. Slightly weaker evidence was found about the fatality reduction effects of the LIP regulation. All results were confirmed through counterfactual models for non-smoking-related fire incidents and deaths.

Conclusions

This paper indicates that implementation of the LIP cigarettes standard has improved fire safety in Estonia.




Gradual escalation of use-of-force reduces police officer injury

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Objective

To examine how escalation through the force continuum predicts officer injury in the presence of citizen aggression, while controlling for extraneous factors, like citizen and officer characteristics.

Methods

Cross-sectional data were extracted from 2244 use-of-force reports from the Dallas Police Department in 2015. Multilevel, mixed logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between use of force and officer injury. Multilevel path analysis tested indirect and direct relationships between citizen aggression and officer injury.

Results

Results suggest that gradual escalation through the force continuum significantly decreases officer injury when a citizen is actively aggressive (β=–1.06, p value <0.001). Further, non-Hispanic black officers (β=–0.22, p value <0.001) and Hispanic officers (β=–0.08, p value <0.05) are less likely to gradually escalate through the force continuum, due to lower odds of verbal commands (black: OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.68; Hispanic: OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99) and hard-empty hand control (black: OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.77) compared with white officers. Finally, officers with higher tenure (β=–0.01, p value <0.001) are less likely to gradually escalate through the force continuum.

Conclusions

Escalation through the force continuum significantly reduces police officer injury. Future research should assess whether further environmental or situational factors contribute to the strong relationship between use of force and officer injury. Also, reliability and validity testing of use-of-force reports is an imperative direction for future research.




A randomised safety promotion intervention trial among low-income families with toddlers

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

Toddler-aged children are vulnerable to unintentional injuries, especially those in low-income families.

Objective

To examine the effectiveness of an intervention grounded in social cognitive theory (SCT) on the reduction of home safety problems among low-income families with toddlers.

Methods

277 low-income mother–toddler dyads were randomised into a safety promotion intervention (n=91) or an attention-control group (n=186). Mothers in the safety promotion intervention group received an eight-session, group-delivered safety intervention targeting fire prevention, fall prevention, poison control and car seat use, through health education, goal-setting and social support. Data collectors observed participants' homes and completed a nine-item checklist of home safety problems at study enrolment (baseline), 6 and 12 months after baseline. A total score was summed, with high scores indicating more problems. Linear mixed models compared the changes over time in home safety problems between intervention and control groups.

Results

The intent-to-treat analysis indicated that the safety promotion intervention group significantly reduced safety problems to a greater degree than the attention-control group at the 12-month follow-up (between-group difference in change over time β=–0.54, 95% CI –0.05 to –1.03, p=0.035), with no significant differences at the 6-month follow-up.

Conclusions

A safety promotion intervention built on principles of SCT has the potential to promote toddlers' home safety environment. Future studies should examine additional strategies to determine whether better penetration/compliance can produce more clinically important improvement in home safety practices.

Trial registration number

NCT02615158; post-results.




A statewide evaluation of seven strategies to reduce opioid overdose in North Carolina

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

In response to increasing opioid overdoses, US prevention efforts have focused on prescriber education and supply, demand and harm reduction strategies. Limited evidence informs which interventions are effective. We evaluated Project Lazarus, a centralised statewide intervention designed to prevent opioid overdose.

Methods

Observational intervention study of seven strategies. 74 of 100 North Carolina counties implemented the intervention. Dichotomous variables were constructed for each strategy by county-month. Exposure data were: process logs, surveys, addiction treatment interviews, prescription drug monitoring data. Outcomes were: unintentional and undetermined opioid overdose deaths, overdose-related emergency department (ED) visits. Interrupted time-series Poisson regression was used to estimate rates during preintervention (2009–2012) and intervention periods (2013–2014). Adjusted IRR controlled for prescriptions, county health status and time trends. Time-lagged regression models considered delayed impact (0–6 months).

Results

In adjusted immediate-impact models, provider education was associated with lower overdose mortality (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.02) but little change in overdose-related ED visits. Policies to limit ED opioid dispensing were associated with lower mortality (IRR 0.97; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.07), but higher ED visits (IRR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12). Expansions of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) were associated with increased mortality (IRR 1.22; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37) but lower ED visits in time-lagged models.

Conclusions

Provider education related to pain management and addiction treatment, and ED policies limiting opioid dispensing showed modest immediate reductions in mortality. MAT expansions showed beneficial effects in reducing ED-related overdose visits in time-lagged models, despite an unexpected adverse association with mortality.




Rear-facing versus forward-facing child restraints: an updated assessment

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Objectives

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend children be placed in rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) until at least age 2. These recommendations are based on laboratory biomechanical tests and field data analyses. Due to concerns raised by an independent researcher, we re-evaluated the field evidence in favour of RFCRS using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database.

Methods

Children aged 0 or 1 year old (0–23 months) riding in either rear-facing or forward-facing child restraint systems (FFCRS) were selected from the NASS-CDS database, and injury rates were compared by seat orientation using survey-weighted 2 tests. In order to compare with previous work, we analysed NASS-CDS years 1988–2003, and then updated the analyses to include all available data using NASS-CDS years 1988–2015.

Results

Years 1988–2015 of NASS-CDS contained 1107 children aged 0 or 1 year old meeting inclusion criteria, with 47 of these children sustaining injuries with Injury Severity Score of at least 9. Both 0-year-old and 1-year-old children in RFCRS had lower rates of injury than children in FFCRS, but the available sample size was too small for reasonable statistical power or to allow meaningful regression controlling for covariates.

Conclusions

Non-US field data and laboratory tests support the recommendation that children be kept in RFCRS for as long as possible, but the US NASS-CDS field data are too limited to serve as a strong statistical basis for these recommendations.




Establishment of a comprehensive drug overdose fatality surveillance system in Kentucky to inform drug overdose prevention policies, interventions and best practices

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, Kentucky had the third highest drug overdose fatality rate in the nation in 2015 at 29.9 drug overdose fatalities per 100 000 population.

Objective

The elevated drug overdose fatality rate necessitated the development and implementation of a comprehensive multisource drug overdose fatality surveillance system (DOFSS).

Methods

DOFSS stakeholder work group members and data sources were identified, and memorandums of understanding were established. The following data sources were used to establish DOFSS: (1) death certificates; (2) autopsy reports; (3) toxicology result reports; (4) coroner reports; and (5) Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting (KASPER) (prescription drug monitoring programme) data. Drug overdose poisonings were defined using Injury Surveillance Workgroup 7 definitions. Analyses were performed to investigate possible drug overdose-related health disparities for disabled drug overdose decedents and to characterise gabapentin in drug overdose deaths.

Results

DOFSS identified 2106 drug overdose poisoning fatalities in Kentucky for 2013–2014. Identification of specific drugs involved in drug overdose deaths increased from 75.8% using a single data source to 97.5% using multiple data sources. Disabled drug overdose decedents were significantly more likely to have an active prescription for drugs identified in their system compared with the non-disabled drug overdose decedents. Toxicology data showed increased gabapentin involvement in drug overdose deaths from 2.9% in 2013 to 17% in 2014. Alprazolam was found most often in combination with gabapentin (41%), along with various other benzodiazepines and prescription opioids.

Conclusions

A comprehensive multisource DOFSS improved drug overdose fatality surveillance by increasing completeness of data and data quality. DOFSS is a model that can be considered by other states to enhance their efforts in tracking drug overdose fatalities, identifying new and emerging trends, and informing policies and best practices, to address and reduce drug overdoses.




Firearms, alcohol and crime: convictions for driving under the influence (DUI) and other alcohol-related crimes and risk for future criminal activity among authorised purchasers of handguns

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Firearm violence frequently involves alcohol, but there are no studies of misuse of alcohol and risk for future violence among firearm owners. We examined the association between prior convictions for alcohol-related crimes, chiefly driving under the influence (DUI), and risk of subsequent arrest among 4066 individuals who purchased handguns in California in 1977. During follow-up through 1991, 32.8% of those with prior alcohol-related convictions and 5.7% of those with no prior criminal history were arrested for a violent or firearm-related crime; 15.9% and 2.7%, respectively, were arrested for murder, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Prior alcohol-related convictions were associated with a fourfold to fivefold increase in risk of incident arrest for a violent or firearm-related crime, a relative increase greater than that seen for age, sex or prior violence. Prior convictions for alcohol-related crime may be an important predictor of risk for future criminal activity among purchasers of firearms.




Patterns of homicide in North Tunisia: a 10-year study (2005-2014)

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

In Tunisia and in the Arab world, few data are available about homicide patterns. The aim of our study was to analyse the victims' profiles and the general pattern.

Methods

636 homicide victims were autopsied at the Legal Medicine Department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, over a period of 10 years (2005–2014).

Results

Victims were males in 79.7% with a male-to-female ratio of 3.93 and the average age was 37.7 years. The victim was generally from an urban area (66.7%), single (55.7%) and semiskilled (50.2%). The most common methods of homicide were sharp force (51.7%) and blunt trauma (24.8%).

Conclusions

This study suggests applying urgent preventive measures targeting essentially young males and the importance of a national ‘Violence Repository’.




Oral fluid testing for marijuana intoxication: enhancing objectivity for roadside DUI testing

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Reducing marijuana-impaired driving is an important part of any strategy to prevent motor vehicle traffic injuries. In Colorado, the first of eight US states and the District of Columbia to legalise marijuana for recreational use, drivers with positive tests for the presence of marijuana accounted for a larger proportion of fatal MVCs after marijuana commercialisation. The use of blood tests to screen for marijuana intoxication, in Colorado and elsewhere in the USA, poses a number of challenges. Many high-income countries use oral fluid drug testing (OF) to provide roadside evidence of marijuana intoxication. A 2009 Belgium policy implementing OF roadside testing increased true positives and decreased false positives of suspected marijuana-related driving under the influence (DUI) arrests. US policy-makers should consider using roadside OF to increase objectivity and reliability for tests used in marijuana-related DUI arrests.




Developing predictive models for return to work using the Military Power, Performance and Prevention (MP3) musculoskeletal injury risk algorithm: a study protocol for an injury risk assessment programme

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

Musculoskeletal injuries are a primary source of disability in the US Military, and low back pain and lower extremity injuries account for over 44% of limited work days annually. History of prior musculoskeletal injury increases the risk for future injury. This study aims to determine the risk of injury after returning to work from a previous injury. The objective is to identify criteria that can help predict likelihood for future injury or re-injury.

Methods

There will be 480 active duty soldiers recruited from across four medical centres. These will be patients who have sustained a musculoskeletal injury in the lower extremity or lumbar/thoracic spine, and have now been cleared to return back to work without any limitations. Subjects will undergo a battery of physical performance tests and fill out sociodemographic surveys. They will be followed for a year to identify any musculoskeletal injuries that occur. Prediction algorithms will be derived using regression analysis from performance and sociodemographic variables found to be significantly different between injured and non-injured subjects.

Discussion

Due to the high rates of injuries, injury prevention and prediction initiatives are growing. This is the first study looking at predicting re-injury rates after an initial musculoskeletal injury. In addition, multivariate prediction models appear to have move value than models based on only one variable. This approach aims to validate a multivariate model used in healthy non-injured individuals to help improve variables that best predict the ability to return to work with lower risk of injury, after a recent musculoskeletal injury.

Trial registration number

NCT02776930.




The effects of feedback and incentive-based insurance on driving behaviours: study approach and protocols

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

Road injury is the leading cause of death for young people, with human error a contributing factor in many crash events. This research is the first experimental study to examine the extent to which direct feedback and incentive-based insurance modifies a driver's behaviour. The study applies in-vehicle telematics and will link the information obtained from the technology directly to personalised safety messaging and personal injury and property damage insurance premiums.

Methods

The study has two stages. The first stage involves laboratory experiments using a state-of-the-art driving simulator. These experiments will test the effects of various monetary incentives on unsafe driving behaviours. The second stage builds on these experiments and involves a randomised control trial to test the effects of both direct feedback (safety messaging) and monetary incentives on driving behaviour.

Discussion

Assuming a positive finding associated with the monetary incentive-based approach, the study will dramatically influence the personal injury and property damage insurance industry. In addition, the findings will also illustrate the role that in-vehicle telematics can play in providing direct feedback to young/novice drivers in relation to their driving behaviours which has the potential to transform road safety.




The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Background

Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms.

Objective

To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime.

Methods

Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language.

Results

Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study.

Conclusion

Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling.




Trauma centre synergies can move injury science to effective injury prevention

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Since the advent of trauma systems in the USA in the 1960s, the treatment of traumatic injuries has evolved considerably. Although the magnitude of impact differs across geographies and time frames, the value of trauma centres in reducing mortality from a variety of injury mechanisms has now been well documented. A national evaluation of trauma centres found approximately 20%–25% lower mortality in both inpatients and at 1 year postdischarge for trauma centre-treated patients compared with those treated in non-trauma centres.1 Compared with these national numbers, motor vehicle crash patients had an adjusted improved survival of 9%2 with a third study that used a meta-analysis approach finding a 15% lowered mortality.3

Key features of trauma centres include teams of surgeons and specialists equipped to provide comprehensive medical care through the application of well-developed and timely infrastructure, technology and support personnel. While the criteria for the categorisation of...




Gauging the impact of gun background checks

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

Castillo-Carniglia and coauthors1 make a valuable contribution to the field of violence prevention by examining the wave of states that newly require background checks for all gun sales. Their critical examination of this policy, for which their own prior research provided essential support, attests to their commitment to developing effective measures for reducing gun violence. Still, their observation that the enacted laws were not associated with increased numbers of total recorded background checks should be interpreted carefully, given the limited data on which they rely—caution absent from press coverage of the study (‘Gun laws that cost millions had little effect because they weren’t enforced’).2

The authors set to infer whether private gun sales were increasingly subject to background checks by examining Federal Bureau of Investigation data on total gun sales subject to background checks, of which private sales represent but a fraction. As the authors noted,...




Write to the editor

2018-01-26T08:18:07-08:00

To the Editor:

It may seem odd for a former editor to be writing a letter to a new editor, but, it may help to know that it is not the editor who is the intended target. It is you, dear reader and dear authors, to whom this appeal is directed. I have just completed nearly 10 years writing the Global News column and providing fillers for each issue of this Journal. But, not once did I receive any feedback: no compliments, no criticisms. Nada.

This leaves me with two possible conclusions: first, and most likely, no one ever read any of this stuff. Second, everything I wrote was perfectno spelling mistakes, no syntactical errors, no foolish rhetoric, no trivia, no polemics. But, old as I may be (actually am), I am still wise enough to know that no one, not even me, can ever write anything that is...