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pubmed: Laivuori H[Author]



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Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy and child developmental milestones.
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Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy and child developmental milestones.

Depress Anxiety. 2018 Apr 18;:

Authors: Tuovinen S, Lahti-Pulkkinen M, Girchenko P, Lipsanen J, Lahti J, Heinonen K, Reynolds RM, Hämäläinen E, Kajantie E, Laivuori H, Pesonen AK, Villa PM, Räikkönen K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy predict poorer child neurodevelopment. The effects of timing, symptom severity, and additive influences remain unclear.
METHODS: A total of 2,231 mothers of the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly up to 14 times during pregnancy and twice up to 12 months after pregnancy. At child's age 1.9-5.7 years, the mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II on their concurrent depressive symptoms and Ages and Stages Questionnaire on child developmental milestones.
RESULTS: Higher mean maternal depressive symptoms, each biweekly score, and consistently clinically relevant symptomatology during pregnancy predicted lower total developmental milestones, fine and gross motor, communication, problem solving, and personal/social skills scores in children. Although maternal depressive symptoms up to 12 months after pregnancy and in early childhood also predicted lower developmental milestones scores, developmental milestones scores were the lowest in children whose mothers' depressive symptoms were above the clinical cutoff either only during pregnancy, both during and up to 12 months after pregnancy, or at each three time-points.
CONCLUSION: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, in the first year postpartum and in early childhood are associated with poorer child neurodevelopment. Our findings further suggest that antenatal and postpregnancy depression have additive effects on neurodevelopment. Children of mothers with the most chronic and severe depressive symptoms during pregnancy had the most neurodevelopmental disadvantages. Our findings emphasize the adverse effects of maternal depression during and after pregnancy and in early childhood on child neurodevelopment.

PMID: 29667739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]