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E-thesis / City Campus

E-thesis site contains doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. All of these full-text publications are freely accessible via the Internet. This is RSS 2.0 feed for forthcoming dissertations City Campus

Published: Fri, 15 Dec 17 03:00:02 +0200

Copyright: Copyright University of Helsinki

15.12. Manuela Tallberg-Nygård: Semiosfärerna över Helsingfors

This study explores differences between intracultural translation (into Finnish) and intercultural translation (into German) of culture- and location-bound Finland-Swedish literature. The key concepts used in this analysis are the semiosphere (Lotman) coined in cultural semiotics and the chronotope (Bakhtin). The research material consists of four novels by the Finland-Swedish author Kjell Westö: Drakarna över Helsingfors (1996), Vådan av att vara Skrake (2000), Där vi en gång gått (2006) and Gå inte ensam ut i natten (2009). All four novels have been translated into Finnish, Leijat Helsingin yllä (1996), Isän nimeen (2000), Missä kuljimme kerran (2006) and Älä käy yöhön yksin (2009), while three of them have been translated into German, Vom Risiko, ein Skrake zu sein (2005), Wo wir einst gingen (2008) and Geh nicht einsam in die Nacht (2013).

In these novels the fictive characters’ microhistory runs parallel with the authentic history of Finland. Westö is known for embedding his stories in a Finnish environment, with a special emphasis on the bilingual society, Helsinki as a location, the Finland-Swedish dimension, and the meeting of the Finland-Swedish with the Finnish. Translations are the means of spreading minority literature to a wider audience and of increasing awareness and understanding of a minority. This can be achieved both on an intracultural and an intercultural level.

This interdisciplinary study combines methodology and concepts of cultural semiotics, translation studies, linguistics, and literature studies to answer three research questions. The first question addresses the intra- and extralinguistic phenomena Westö uses to create the fictive Finland-Swedish semiosphere in the four novels about Helsinki. I call these semiosphere-specific phenomena, and they include both facts and fiction and can further be divided into four main categories: society, location, characters and culture. These are the main construction blocks of the semiosphere. The next step is to analyze how these phenomena are conveyed into the Finnish and German translations. The third phase is to identify possible differences between the intracultural and intercultural translations.

The translation analysis focuses on recognizing what has been preserved and what has been changed in the translations. On a global level the question is how to reproduce implicit and explicit references to the Finnish society, the bilingual environment, and the Finland-Swedish dimension, while the solutions on the local level focus on how the global choices are implemented. The results show that the local solutions that have been applied in the translations into Finnish without any problems, as one would expect, follow a systematic pattern that creates a similar illusion of society, location, characters, and culture as the source text. In the intercultural translation, however, the sociocultural space differs and thus the phenomena that are used to create the illusion of society cause problems in translation. The local solutions vary more in the German translations, rendering a target text that is more distant from the source text thus affecting the style.

16.12. Pilvi Heinonen: Evaluointi opettajan vuorovaikutustoimintana: osallistujuuden ulottuvuudet luokkahuoneessa

Evaluation as a teacher’s interactional practice: dimensions of classroom participation

This thesis examines evaluation as an interactional practice adopted by teachers in classroom settings at comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The main objective of this study is to analyse teacher interactional activity in terms of evaluation and appraisal from three points of view: 1) the types of linguistic resources and structures teachers use to construct evaluative actions, 2) the role the evaluative activity has in the interactional organisation of classrooms and 3) the types of pedagogical functions teachers accomplish by evaluating pupils in classroom interaction.

The theoretical and methodological framework of the study is Conversation Analysis. Teachers’ evaluative actions are analysed as situated interactional practices, which are based on the participants’ orientations and therefore constructed by the participants during classroom interaction. The data consist of 15 videotaped classroom lessons at a Finnish comprehensive school and an upper secondary school. The data were collected in 2003 and 2011 and consist of lessons on Finnish language and literature and history and civics. The analysed situations occur during teacher-led pedagogical interaction.

The main objective of the study is to analyse teachers’ evaluative activity as a response to pupil initiations and unprompted participation in classrooms. The study illustrates how teachers construct evaluative actions to respond to and to deal with pupils’ initiations. A majority of past studies have examined teacher evaluations in teacher-initiated sequences, whereas this study offers an analysis of evaluative activity from a new perspective.

The detailed analysis focuses on three evaluative types that have specific pedagogical functions: praise evaluation, agent-oriented evaluation and echoing evaluation. The analysis demonstrates how the teachers use evaluative actions as a pedagogical practice to reveal the relevance of the pupils’ actions and to negotiate the limits of appropriate actions in classroom situations. The evaluative action is co-constructed with the action by the pupils. This is evident in sequences where the teacher either relates pupil initiations to the pedagogical agenda or uses pupils’ voice as a resource for evaluation. The results of the study reveal that evaluative activity is reflexively tailored to the evaluated objects as well as to the interactional context that it occurs in, particularly the ongoing pedagogical activity and its goals. Evaluative activity is not only a resource that teachers use to guide pupils’ actions and participation, but it is also used to communicate the limits and dimensions of appropriate activity to pupils during classroom interaction.

16.12. Eija Väisänen: Laskemisen sujuvuus osana matemaattisia taitoja

The first purpose of this thesis was to investigate the development of calculation fluency, and the relationship between reading fluency and naming speed in Finnish children from second to fifth grade. The second purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effectiveness of two mathematical intervention programmes on learning of low-performing children.

The main aim of the first longitudinal study (Study III) was to follow up the development of calculation fluency from second to fourth grade in two classes. The second aim was to predict children´s later calculation fluency with previous calculation fluency, reading fluency, naming speed, gender, and parent´s level of education. In the second longitudinal study (Study IV), children were classifield as non-fluent in calculation, non-fluent in reading, and fluent in both academic skills. Calculation and reading fluency of all three groups were followed up to grade 5. The groups were also compared on naming speed. In this thesis, there were two intervention studies. The first intervention study (Study I) was conducted with children from three grades (2nd, 3rd, and 4th). The intervention programme used in Study I was designed based on previous intervention studies (Bryant, Bryant, Gersten, Scammacca & Chavez, 2008; Fuchs, Compton, Fuchs, Paulsen, Bryant & Hamlett, 2005). Study II was conducted with children from the first grade. The intervention programme used in Study II was adapted from the “I count too!” programme (Minakin lasken) (Van Luit, Aunio & Räsänen, 2010). In Studies I and IV, the results were also examined from the perspective of individual differences.

In the longitudinal studies (Study III and IV), the differences between groups in calculation fluency were stable during the research period. If a child had difficulties in calculation fluency, they most likely had problems also in reading fluency. Calculation fluency was best predicted by previous calculation fluency. The results suggest that calculation fluency in second grade predicts over 65 % of the variance in calculation fluency in fourth grade. In grade 5, the children, who had separate problems in calculation or reading fluency had closed their gap to their classmates´ fluency. Children who had co-occurring fluency problems on reading and calculation fluency had slower naming speed.

The results from the intervention studies (Study I and II) show that intensified instruction can be used successfully to support mathematical skills in elementary school. It is necessary to identify low performance early enough, because in the intervention study (Study II) conducted with first grade children, the instruction group experienced significant development, especially in counting skills. However, there were significant differences between children in the intervention group in both studies. In both intervention studies, the development was most significant in the children who had no severe learning difficulties.

Findings suggest that systematic monitoring of the developmental process in calculation is necessary in the elementary school years. There are some potentially shared components in calculation and reading fluency. The screening for at-risk development in reading and calculation should be done at the same time, and screening should be continued after the early school years. It should be noticed early enough, if the child has co-occuring problems in calculation and reading fluency.

16.12. Sini Mikkola: “In Our Body the Scripture Becomes Fulfilled”

This doctoral dissertation examines Martin Luther’s view of the human being during a decade of ecclesiastical, social, and political turmoil. The vital perspectives in scrutinizing Luther’s anthropology are gender, bodiliness, sexuality, and power. The study first asks how gendered bodiliness was treated in Luther’s discussions on femininity and masculinity, and, consequently, in what way he constructed proper feminine and masculine ways of being and developed the gender system. Under scrutiny are the ideals, norms, and expectations that he framed on the grounds of the gendered body. Thirdly, it is asked whether Luther’s views varied according to historical and textual context, and especially if there are differences between his views of female and male ways of being that are presented in theory, on the one hand, and in practical situations, on the other.

The most important contextual factors that set the background for analyzing Luther’s viewpoints are, by and large, the debate on the proper kind of Christian life—whether it should be lived in the cloister or in matrimony—and Luther’s changing personal situation from Augustinian friar to husband and father. The time frame of the study is set from 1520 to 1530—a decade that is less studied in modern research from the viewpoint of gender than, for example, the following one. The structure of the study is thematic, yet it follows a loose chronology. It is thus easier to explore a possible chronological shift in Luther’s language and thinking, and especially whether changes in his personal life or in church and society somehow affected his views concerning the body, gendered ways of being, and the gender system.

Many of the key concepts of the study—such as gender and the gender system, power, authority, and otherness—have been adopted from gender studies. Methodologically, the texts are examined through a close critical reading and content analysis of the sources to discuss both the explicit and the implicit dimensions of Luther’s discussion. Texts from the Weimarer Ausgabe (D. Martin Luther’s Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe) are used as the source material.

The study shows that Luther formulated his views on gender and the gender system firmly on the basis of human bodiliness. The penetrable theoretical idea that Luther deducted from gendered bodiliness was gender hierarchy: the woman’s subordination and otherness, and the man’s normativity and dominion. Luther participated in the reconstruction of femininity and masculinity in close interaction with the past and the present: he was in several ways affected by and bound to his medieval heritage and to the views of his contemporaries. Furthermore, the study proves that overall, Luther’s thinking concerning the gender system did not undergo major changes during the 1520s, but instead involved smaller adjustments.

The analyses of real-life situations reveal that Luther could be flexible in his viewpoints concerning the limits that one’s gender constituted—he allowed different rules especially for himself, for instance. However, in many cases regarding his fellow men and women he applied his theoretical views in practice in a very strict sense. Therefore, it is not the difference between theory and practice per se that is pervasive in Luther’s texts. The study proves that the difference between Luther’s practical views and theory is chiefly dictated by subsidiarity. The two core ideas are: (1) the closer to Luther, the more special the case, and (2) the more strategically important for Luther, the more special the case.

16.12. Maria Heiskanen: Problem gamblers and money: Unbalanced budgets and financial recovery

The purpose of this study is to discuss problem gambling as a financial issue, to study the everyday life (unbalanced) budgets and financial matters of problem gamblers, and to discover their financial recovery processes, with or without the support from state public welfare services. In practice, the results of this study aim to support the development of prevention of problem gambling and services (especially financial support) for people who have experienced problems with their gambling. Using three data sets, this research asks: what gambler consumer clusters can be identified in Finland? How do problem gamblers experience financial problems as being secondary to gambling? How do they perceive the assistance available in deteriorating financial situations, partly related to their socio-economic positions? What meanings do Finnish social services directors gice to the public (financial) support available for problem gamblers? First, the main data set comprises 17 thematic interviews with individuals who have experienced problematic gambling. The second data set includes 11 email and phone interviews with different-level social services directors in the most populous cities in Finland, while the third data set is a population survey entitled “Finnish Gambling 2011”.

First, three problematic issues connected to money during different phases of problem gambling are identified: needing money for gambling, missing money due to gambling and potential money to sort out the problems caused by gambling. The everyday life financial affairs and practices described by the gamblers revealed the episodic nature of problem gambling: disposable money means that gambling activities are organized temporally.

Second, this thesis shows that gamblers in general are heterogeneous consumers. Problem gambling is most common among gamblers who play many different games. Problem gamblers come from different socio-economic backgrounds, which results in variations in the nature of the financial problems in the everyday life of the gamblers and their households. Also, their paths to financial recovery vary, especially regarding public financial assistance and social services in general, as problem gamblers have different subjective “distances” from public services.

Third, problem gamblers themselves may conceptualize their problems as financial and feel that their concerns are left unaddressed in treatment. Also, measures to recognize problem gambling within social services seem necessary. The social service directors expressed the view that financial support is available for problem gamblers but requires resources, especially for the more controlling measures such as having a social worker manage the client’s finances. Control in general is an important element in supporting problem gamblers financially, as different money-management strategies may influence the gambler’s financial autonomy, but may provide support in managing financially.

Problem gambling is often understood as a mental health issue and treated with individual therapy. This study suggests that the prevention and treatment of problem gambling ought to be set in a broader, financial perspective. Gambling is undertaken with money, and the cycles of everyday life budgets, as well as the different social and economic positions of the gamblers, should be recognized and acknowledged.

16.12. Säde Hormio: Marginal participation, complicity, and agnotology: What climate change can teach us about individual and collective responsibility

The topic of my thesis is individual and collective responsibility for collectively caused systemic harms, with climate change as the case study. Can an individual be responsible for these harms, and if so, how? Furthermore, what does it mean to say that a collective is responsible? A related question, and the second main theme, is how ignorance and knowledge affect our responsibility. My aim is to show that despite the various complexities involved, an individual can have responsibility to address climate change.

I argue that climate change is not a problem just for states and international bodies, but also for individuals. There are three possible sources of moral responsibility for individuals in relation to climate change harms: direct responsibility (individuals qua individuals), shared responsibility as members (individuals qua members of collective agents), and shared responsibility as constituents (individuals qua constituents of unorganised collectives).

Accounts that deny individual responsibility fail to either take our interdependent reality seriously or fail to understand marginal participation (or in the case direct responsibility, fail to appreciate the nature of the climate change phenomenon). Individuals can be complicit in climate change harms, either as members of collective agents (e.g. as citizens of states or employees of a corporation) or as constituents of unorganised collectives (e.g. as consumers or polluters).

Although I focus on individual complicity, I do not deny the obligations of collective agents. However, nation-states, governments, and international bodies are not the only relevant collective agents in climate ethics: other collective agents, such as corporations, matter also and can have obligations concerning making sure that their activities are as carbon-neutral as possible. In addition, those corporations that have engaged in lobbying against climate regulation through creating and disseminating misleading information have acquired themselves additional obligations to mitigate climate change and compensate for the harm they have caused.

Even so, the ethical claims can only be understood by individual members of these collective agents because only they can feel the pull of moral claims. I suggest that we could distinguish between what one must possess in order to be capable of making moral claims (i.e. moral agency conditions), and what it means to have the ability to exhibit such claims through one’s conduct.

Individual direct responsibility is to not to increase the probable risk of serious harm to other people, at least as long as we can do so at a less than significant cost to ourselves. It is limited to relatively wealthy individuals. Offsetting is not a reliable way to meet this duty; we need to look at the emissions from our lifestyle choices (within the available infrastructure).

Shared responsibility qua members of collective agents is the key individual responsibility, and it presses especially on those occupying key positions within key collective agents. Saying that, our shared responsibility qua constituents of unorganised collectives has the potential to be decisive in whether some action is taken or not, either through a set of actions that can signal certain acceptance or support, or as a form of political support from the grass roots.


This dissertation makes methodological and empirical contributions to understanding how we represent and use values that are important in defining ‘us’, and who ‘we’ consider ourselves to be. It also contributes to our understanding of how particular values, which we might typically assume as enhancing societal wellbeing, can be formulated ideologically in the sense that they are discursive representations and tools for elevating ‘our’ identities and subjugating ‘theirs’.

The study material consists of written responses to open questions that were produced by people who are differently positioned in relation to institutionalised norms on “sociability” and/or “sex/gender”: People contacted through a national random sample, people diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome and people with transgendered experiences. I therefore also consider how being explicitly marked as psychiatrically, medically and socially ‘abnormal’ might interact with how social values are negotiated in identification and in ideological work.

The perspectives informing this dissertation are interdisciplinary. I draw upon theoretical and methodological approaches to values, identification and ideology in social semiotics and critical discourse studies, critical and societal psychologies, semiotic sociology and cultural studies.

The first of two primary methodological contributions is in developing a framework for analysing social values as constructions that are formulated in dynamic identification processes. I specify analyses of social values firstly in relation to territorialising what ‘we’ consider to be important, desirable or obligatory; secondly in relation to formulating action programmes by positioning contents into relational participant roles; and thirdly in relation to evaluative positioning of oneself and others in relation to those territorialisations and action programmes. The second methodological contribution is in developing a framework for analysing ideologies as both structures and processes, from the perspective of modalities. Modality is amongst the discursive resources that function to connect and divide viewpoints, to build value projects and to build communities of shared values.

My empirical contributions in this dissertation deal with analyses of Finnish equality discourses; how equality is given meaning and used in identification processes. I also examine the extent to which equality as a concept is ideological such that its imbued meanings and uses work to produce and update relations of domination. I interpret four discourses on equality. I suggest that a network of ideological discourses on Finnish equality works to somewhat paradoxically produce and maintain symbolic and material inequalities. Integrating an historical analysis, I argue that this ideology is being constantly updated and maintained in part because of the interrelatedness in the historical path of equality with national projects on temperance, homogeneity, non-conflict and civil unity, the nation and sameness. Particular ways of continually referencing and integrating aspects of these projects into meanings and implementations of equality have been key to maintaining its ideological status. They are also key to understanding how ideological Finnish equality formulations might be transformed.


This study explores why poor African migrants remain in Johannesburg, South Africa’s harsh migration context, to build their lives, and how, in pursuit of a better future, they engage with the various forms of socioeconomic and political constraints that they experience. Popular as a destination for African migrants, South Africa is a country with a very high percentage of asylum seekers, but also a place where they are the targets of violent xenophobia. Yet such migrants are known to live for years in this situation, one which is generally considered socio-economically and politically marginalized and constraining. Their continued presence raises the pertinent sociological query of how and why such large numbers have remained in their host society, continuing to welcome new incoming members, while others have left, been imprisoned or murdered, or died of a range of ailments.

Methodologically, resilience theory - conceptualised as a dynamic process of interaction between the individual and his or her environment – is utilised as an explanatory and descriptive framework to examine the subject of this study. Data for the study were collected through life-story interviews with African migrants who are economically active on the streets of Johannesburg, and document analysis was utilised for triangulation purposes. Data were analysed using narrative analysis.

Empirical observations called attention to the prominence of aspirations for a better life amongst the informal migrants, an observation that is accompanied by several relevant findings: firstly, that the migrants’ resilience in their constraining environment cannot be attributed to itemized factors. Rather, their resilience takes the form of a dynamic and interactive engagement with the South African context. The interactions are orchestrated by their perceptions of opportunities in their home countries and the South African society, and combined with the application of faith and tactics in dealing with identified adverse conditions. Their resilience is presented as enduring but also transient, as it is subject to individuals’ evaluations and negotiations. In that light, the migrants are shown to be active agents but also victims in their harsh context, calling attention to the duality of the informal migrants’ experience in Johannesburg, irrespective of their violent xenophobic environment. Consequently, considerable challenges are posed to the projects of classifying informal migrants as either passive victims or active agents, and listing or identifying specific factors as means to attaining resilience.

Secondly, an observed fallout from the interviewees’ notion of hope – aspiration – is the productive use of ‘waiting time’. The hegemonic control of the interviewees’ time through, for example, official delays or manipulation in the processing of asylum applications, is challenged by the tactical and creative utilization of the period of waiting in which two things stood out: micro-entrepreneurship and development of their social and personal lives but particularly micro-entrepreneurship, as the interviewees focused on achieving a better life through micro businesses. Their engagement in trade and services in a context devoid of institutional support, and under dire personal circumstances, though borne of feelings of ‘no alternatives’, suggests creativity, with potential for growth. Furthermore, my interviewees were also able to make productive social use of the ‘time of waiting’ even as asylum seekers. Living in the city, my interviewees took initiatives to learn new skills, d

20.12. Eija Pehkonen: Maahanmuuttajataustaisten naisten koulutuksen kontekstissa rakentuvat identiteetit ja oppimisprosessit

This research addresses immigration and migrant life and integration in Finland. . Immigration has been examined mainly in the Finnish context as an individual process and for women. The study is located in the research of education, educability, study and learning, but above all, as individually experienced. More precisely, the study examines the orientation training of immigrants at one university of applied sciences. The focus of the research is to examine the overall life of female students with immigrant backgrounds at the university of applied sciences. The starting point is to examine the individual stages of the life cycle, the various aspects of life and the current point of the life path in Finland.

The narrative of life flow is approached through the concepts of identity and learning. Identities are considered variable, contextual, and narrative. Learning is widely understood as a life broad, a lifelong and narrative learning. The research task is to look at constructing identities and learning processes in the context of education. The two research questions are the following. First: What kind of identities and learning processes are immigrant female students constructing in their telling? Second: What kind of learning process can be conceptualized from telling?

The philosophical bases of the research are the relativity of knowledge, contextuality, and the idea of constructing knowledge. This research aims to provide a place and a voice for female students with immigrant background in terms of their diverse experiences between different cultural frameworks. Cultural frameworks are viewed as a dialogue between the former and the current cultural framework.

Twelve students have been interviewed after the first year of study. The qualitative data is read as telling and is analysed with the help of inductive content analysis. The results of the data analysis describe themes in immigration, studying and gender.

According to this study, identities are constructed as a process between a patriarchal and individualistic cultural framework. The identity definitions range between the various subjects of life that are examined.

Identities are positioned in relation to the cultural frameworks either attaching to the former or to the new, or moving flexibly between them. Identities are constructed in a variety of ways between conflict and balance, as well as uncertainty and confidence: a constant contradiction, a cautious hesitation, a negotiating and strengthening balance. The identity transition is constructed within a holistic learning process that is described as stages, a model and type reports on the learning process. They allow looking at individual paths as a process and movement between different factors.

My research shows that challenges in the educational context of being a student, on the other hand, allows more readily for the redefinition of one's own life, identities and learning. In this process of learning, the present is edited and matched to correspond better to a changed life situation. The learner's learning identity is built between these different factors individually. The factors that influence the lives and life situations of students with immigrant background at the university of applied sciences should be examined in a variety of ways comprehensively. Their experience of studying and the needs of learning-support should also be considered a part of the development of education and pedagogical solutions.Education that is envisioned along these lines can better promote inclusion in society.

5.1. Kirsi Cheas: Broadening Views in Tabloids and Tablets

My doctoral research creates and applies a methodology to systematically measure and compare the proportions of perspectives in world news. By perspectives, I mean news frames and the voices of people affiliated with different political, cultural, and economic institutions (i.e., institutional fields), quoted or paraphrased in the news. My method also assesses the relative positivity (tone) of frames. I focus on American and Finnish world news articles concerning South Africa and Brazil, as these Southern countries prepared to host the FIFA World Cup, thereby receiving global media attention. My primary sample consists of print and online news articles published in The New York Times and Helsingin Sanomat between 2006 and 2014. In their pursuit for more global democracy, South Africa and Brazil, along with other nations in the so-called Global South, have demanded a greater voice in the international public sphere. Building on Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, I examine what the proportions of perspectives in American and Finnish news reveal about the power relations between Southern and Northern countries and the institutions involved.

The findings of this research challenge the prevailing claims that the Global South is voiceless or marginalized in Northern news: in both American and Finnish news, Southern sources received between 70–80 percent of total quoting space, on average, to express their views. However, the Southern fields were also depicted more negatively than the Northern fields. I found that American journalists try to maintain a neutral tone: negative definitions of Southern institutions in American news mostly appear in quotes from other Southern institutions and anonymous sources. Finnish journalists express critical opinions toward Southern institutions more explicitly than American journalists. My study also revealed significant differences between the American and Finnish forms of news: While the American news manages to reveal the complexity of the South African and Brazilian situations at the article level, which Finnish news does not, the views in American news articles are not developed as fully as in the Finnish news articles. My study concludes by providing concrete suggestions as to how the American and Finnish forms of news could be combined to create world news that abounds in both depth and a larger quantity of diverse perspectives.

12.1. Marjo Uutela: Operaatio Pax

The thesis examines with primary sources, how Finland nullified the military articles of the Paris Peace Treaty and the reference to Germany as a potential aggressor in the FCMA-Treaty in September 1990. This project, called later “Operation Pax”, paralleled the restoration of reunified Germany’s full sovereignty in Finland.

The study is located in the intersection of Cold War political history and international relations. It utilizes new primary source materials from Finland and Germany and theoretical tools from international relations.

The thesis describes first how the Finnish foreign policy leadership interpreted the Paris Peace Treaty during the Cold War years 1962 and 1983. The analysis focuses especially on how the international position of the two German states affected interpreting the Peace Treaty 1987–1990. The main emphasis is on the unilateral move of the Finnish government to reinterpret the military articles of the Peace Treaty in 1990.

Easing of tensions between the superpowers and the German states made it possible for President Mauno Koivisto to allow importing a German civilian plane to Finland in 1987 without consulting the Soviet Union and Great Britain, even though acquiring aircraft from Germany was prohibited in the Peace Treaty. Because the decision was made unilateral, it meant differing from usual foreign policy practices and is thus seen as a turning point in the thesis, although importing civilian aircraft was not in itself of great significance.

The study concludes that ”Operation Pax” was one of the most important Finnish cases of interpreting the Peace Treaty. Yet, nullifying military articles in 1990 did not change Finland’s international orientation or political goals. Finland’s neutrality policy remained intact. “Operation Pax” was an act of sovereignty, but the leading motive behind it was military-political. In order to acquire weaponry from Germany, the Finnish Ministry of Defence had suggested in November 1989 that the military articles could undergo changes. In June 1990 the Ministry for Foreign Affairs justified in its memorandum to Koivisto the importance of the plan with the interest that the Finnish Defence Forces had in German and Japanese weapons systems.

13.1. Giuseppe Ritella: Chronotope: an investigation of the spatial and temporal organization in technology-mediated collaborative learning

The present dissertation project investigated the organization of space-time in collaborative learning processes mediated by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The background of my argumentation is that we live in an historical moment in which the introduction of continu-ously evolving virtual spaces and the implementation of novel pedagogical approaches entail the transformation of the spatial and temporal relations of pedagogical activities. In order to examine these transforming space-time relations and the role that they may play in the learning process, I propose an adapted socio-cultural perspective based on the dialogical notion of chronotope. A chronotope depicts the emergent configuration of space-time relations during an intentional, collaborative learning activity. In sum, the perspective that I adopt considers cognition and learning as distributed in the environment, and space and time as interdependent social constructions. The dissertation report aimed to account for multiple types of physical, so-cial, virtual, real and imagined spatialities and temporalities as they are per-ceived, discursively negotiated, and bodily enacted by participants in ICT-mediated learning practices. I carried out four studies that examine various aspects of space-time re-lations. In Study I, I explored how participants in collaborative learning activities locate themselves and the others across multiple physical, social and virtual spaces; in Study II I investigated how the space-time frames detected in students’ discourse on the task affect the process of task inter-pretation; Study III was aimed at analysing if and how space-time configu-rations bodily enacted by participants affect the pace and the quality of the learning process; in Study IV I examined the significance and implications of patterns of organization of space-time during the process of instrumental genesis. All the studies adopt a qualitative ethnographic methodology that involves the triangulation of participant observation, discourse analysis, and video analysis. The results of my studies suggest that examining the organization of space and time can provide crucial insights into technology-mediated col-laborative learning activities, informing both theory and practice. Under-standing how participants locate themselves and the others in space and time might help us to design learning space-times that enhance coordination and collaborative processes. Considering the discursive framing of space-time by the students can help teachers and instructional designers to ensure that divergent assumptions concerning space-time frames will not induce students to deviate from the set task. Modelling the space-time configura-tions bodily enacted by participants may provide cues for scaffolding the learning process, helping students to orchestrate space and manage time, in line with the teachers’ pedagogical aims. Finally, detecting patterns of space-time organization may inform decisions concerning where and when to provide just-in-time information, scaffolds and tools to enhance students’ learning without interrupting their experience of flow.

13.1. Katja Kujanpää: Argumentation by Quotations

This doctoral dissertation examines the rhetorical functions of scriptural quotations in Paul’s argumentation in the Letter to the Romans. The study addresses the following questions: 1. What functions do quotations perform in Paul’s argumentation? 2. Does Paul render the quotation accurately according to a wording known to him or does he adapt the wording himself? 3. How does the function of a quotation in Romans relate to the original literary context of the quoted words? 4. What kind of scriptural knowledge is required to follow Paul’s argumentation? What information does the audience possibly need to supply to understand Paul’s use of quotations?

The study discusses only explicit quotations, not the entirety of scriptural references. The search for the origin of Paul’s wording of quotations is based on a careful text-critical comparison that takes into account the textual pluriformity of the first century CE. The wording of the quotations is compared with different readings of the textual tradition of the Septuagint and with various Hebrew readings. When analysing the rhetorical functions that quotations perform in Paul’s argumentation, the study draws upon modern research on quotations. First, it makes use of the observations and terminology that derive from the Demonstration Theory developed by psycholinguists Herbert Clark and Richard Gerrig. This theory explores various functions that quotations may perform in a discourse. Second, the study applies Meir Sternberg’s theory on recontextualizing quotations.

The dissertation shows, first, that Paul’s use of quotations is characterized by diversity. This diversity manifests itself in the argumentative functions of quotations, in various degrees of continuity between the original literary context of the quoted words and their new context in Romans, in the degree of scriptural competence needed to follow the argumentation, and in Paul’s ways of handling the wording of a quotation. In several cases, the study offers completely new solutions to the textual problems that the quotations pose. Second, the study demonstrates that Paul actively controls the “meaning” of quotations. The study highlights the diverse techniques he uses to guide the reading process of the audience: he carefully selects which words of a passage to quote and which not, frequently modifies the wording of quotations, and actively creates a new frame for the quoted words. Third, it is suggested that if one seeks to determine Paul’s intention, one should give priority to the interpretive hints he gives over what may possibly “echo through” the quoted words. Paul remains in control of the message that emerges when the scriptural voices intermingle with his own words.

17.1. Tero Alstola: Judeans in Babylonia

Judeans in Babylonia: A Study of Deportees in the Sixth and Fifth Centuries BCE

The dissertation investigates Judean deportees in Babylonia in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. These people arrived in Babylonia from Judah in the early sixth century BCE, being but one of numerous ethnic groups deported and resettled by King Nebuchadnezzar II. Naming practices among many deportee groups have been thoroughly analysed, but there has been little interest in writing a socio-historical study of Judeans or other immigrants in Babylonia on the basis of cuneiform sources. The present dissertation fills this gap by conducting a case study of Judean deportees and placing its results in the wider context of Babylonian society. The results from the study of Judeans are evaluated by using a group of Neirabian deportees as a point of comparison.

The sources of this study consist of 289 clay tablets written in Akkadian cuneiform. The texts are legal and administrative documents such as promissory notes, leases, receipts, and lists. The texts are rarely isolates and normally they can be connected to larger private and institutional archives. Analysis of the source texts as part of larger archives significantly contributes to our understanding of the socio-economic framework of these texts and the people attested in them.

Babylonian sources rarely make the ethnic or geographic origin of people explicit, and naming practices are the most important method to identify immigrants in cuneiform texts. Yahwistic theophoric names – that is, names which refer to the god Yahweh – can be used to identify Judeans in Babylonia.

The dissertation shows that most Judeans and other deportees were settled in rural communities according to their geographic origin and integrated into the land-for-service sector of Babylonian agriculture. The deportees were given plots of land to cultivate, and in exchange they were obliged to pay taxes and perform work and military service. Some Judeans were able to profit from the system by working as middlemen between the royal administration and their fellow landholders, while other Judeans worked as minor officials in local administration. Nevertheless, the majority of small farmers lived at a subsistence level.

Not all deportees were settled in the countryside, as their labour was also needed in cities. Foreign craftsmen, merchants, and soldiers worked in royal service, and a number of deportees made their way to local and regional administrations in Babylonia. Members of foreign royalty were deported to Babylon, and the Judean king Jehoiachin and his retinue were held hostage there in order to prevent rebellions in the vassal state of Judah. A relatively small number of deportees were turned into slaves or temple dependants.

The Babylonian practice of settling deportees in ethnically homogenous rural communities supported the survival of their culture in the countryside. Although the deportees were integrated into the Babylonian economy, there is less evidence of social and cultural integration. Adoption of local culture was faster among those deportees who lived in cities and were in regular contact with the native population. Very little can be said about Judean religious practices, however. The available sources hardly ever touch upon this issue, and naming practices only indicate that the worship of Yahweh probably continued in some form in the late fifth century BCE.

18.1. Maria Clavert: Academics’ transformative learning at the interfaces of pedagogical and discipline-specific communities

Developing the quality of teaching as a part of organisational transformations requires identifying effective ways to harness academics’ activities in pedagogically oriented and discipline-specific communities of practice. This dissertation examines how academics’ activities at the interfaces of these two communities can contribute to the processes of pedagogical development. Transformative learning theory is applied to examine the processes of peda-gogical development from two perspectives: developing as a teacher and acting as an informal pedagogical change agent.

The dissertation consists of four separate but interrelated sub-studies (I–IV). The participants were 23 engineering educators that lack an institutionalised developer or leadership position. At the time of data collection, the participants had completed at least 10 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, Studies I–II) or 25 ECTS (Studies III–IV) of pedagogical development studies. The data were collected with semi-structured interviews in a Finnish technical university before and during a period of organisational transformation. The data comprised of interviews with 10 participants before the transformation in 2009 and longitudinal interviews with another 13 participants during a three-year period of organisational transformation in 2011–2013. The data were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis.

The dissertation culminates in a theoretical conceptualisation and an empirical model of 1) pedagogically oriented and discipline-specific communities of practice as a network that enables transformative learning related to developing as a teacher and 2) brokering as a way of acting as an informal pedagogical change agent at the interfaces of academic communities of practice. The findings suggest that universities could harness informal change agency to create connections between academics’ transformative learning experiences in pedagogically oriented and discipline-specific communities of practice as well as the organisational objectives of developing the quality of teaching.

20.1. Jukka Saarinen: Runolaulun poetiikka

This study deals with the poetics of the Finnic tradition of oral poetry known as kalevalaic poetry, concentrating on the interplay between verse structure, syntax and parallelism. The research material consists of all recorded texts of the singer Arhippa Perttunen (1769–1841) from Viena Karelia. This material is approached from two perspectives: folkloristic research on an individual tradition bearer and linguistic analysis elucidating the poetic structures of the texts. The first perspective examines how an individual uses and moulds tradition. The second examines what traits and features in general define and characterise texts in this tradition. These perspectives overlap in the process of composition, which is treated especially by recourse to the theories of the Oral-Formulaic School.

The kalevalaic tradition is a poetic register, here addressed through two concepts frequently used in contemporary research on oral poetry: the concept of "register" developed by the systemic-functional approach in linguistics, and the concept of the poetic function of language developed by Roman Jakobson. The study on the syntax of the poems takes as a starting point the theory of enjambement in kalevalaic poetry, as expounded by Matti Kuusi. Kuusi’s theory is advanced by refining his rules for enjambement and rules for combining different syntactic units within a line. Parallelism is a very characteristic feature of kalevalaic poetry. Its most distinctive form, verse parallelism, is studied in detail as a syntactic-semantic phenomenon. It is shown how a set of parallel verses functions to create a poetic picture that is richer in meaning than the verses could convey separately.

The research presents and analyses all the information available concerning Arhippa. His narrative poems appear to be quite stable from one sung performance to another, but they usually diverge from the variants of other singers. From this it can be deduced that the shaping of each song for the most part occurred when he acquired it. With respect to lyrical and other non-narrative poems, Arhippa seems to have always been able to create new entities from poems with which he was already familiar or from other traditional materials, especially proverbs.